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6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students. What’s the opposite leo lionni term paper, of scaffolding a lesson? Saying to students, “Read this nine-page science article, write a detailed essay on the topic it explores, and turn it in roman culture by Wednesday.” Yikes—no safety net, no parachute, no scaffolding—they’re just left blowing in the wind. Let’s start by agreeing that scaffolding a lesson and differentiating instruction are two different things. Scaffolding is breaking up the learning into chunks and leo lionni, then providing a tool, or structure, with each chunk.
When scaffolding reading, for example, you might preview the frederick jackson focused on text and discuss key vocabulary, or chunk the text and then read and discuss as you go. With differentiation, you might give a child an entirely different piece of text to read, or shorten the text or alter it, and/or modify the writing assignment that follows. Simply put, scaffolding is term paper what you do first with kids—for those students who are still struggling, you may need to differentiate by modifying an assignment and/or making accommodations (for example, by choosing more accessible text and/or assigning an alternative project). Essay For The Of Wrath! Scaffolding and differentiation do have something in common, though. In order to term, meet students where they are and appropriately scaffold a lesson, or differentiate instruction, you have to know the individual and collective zone of proximal development (ZPD) of your learners. As education researcher Eileen Raymond states, “The ZPD is the distance between what children can do by themselves and the next learning that they can be helped to achieve with competent assistance.” So let’s get to some scaffolding strategies you may or may not have tried yet. Or perhaps you’ve not used them in some time and need a gentle reminder on how awesome and in jamestown, helpful they can be when it comes to student learning. How many of us say that we learn best by seeing something rather than hearing about it? Modeling for students is a cornerstone of scaffolding, in my experience. Have you ever interrupted someone with “Just show me!” while they were in leo lionni term the middle of essay for the grapes, explaining how to leo lionni term, do something? Every chance you have, show or demonstrate to students exactly what they are expected to do. #13; #13; Try the fishbowl activity, where a small group in holiday the center is circled by the rest of the class; the paper group in roman the middle, or fishbowl, engages in an activity, modeling how it’s done for leo lionni term paper, the larger group. #13; Always show students the discrimination essay outcome or product before they do it.
If a teacher assigns a persuasive essay or inquiry-based science project, a model should be presented side-by-side with a criteria chart or rubric. You can guide students through each step of the process with the model of the finished product in hand. #13; Use think alouds, which will allow you to term paper, model your thought process as you read a text, solve a problem, or design a project. Remember that children’s cognitive abilities are still in development, so opportunities for them to paper, see developed, critical thinking are essential. #13; Ask students to share their own experiences, hunches, and ideas about the content or concept of term paper, study and have them relate and connect it to their own lives. For The Grapes! Sometimes you may have to offer hints and leo lionni, suggestions, leading them to the connections a bit, but once they get there, they will grasp the content as their own. Roman! Launching the learning in your classroom from the prior knowledge of your students and term, using this as a framework for future lessons is not only a scaffolding technique—many would agree it’s just plain good teaching. All learners need time to process new ideas and thesis essay, information.
They also need time to term, verbally make sense of and articulate their learning with the community of learners who are engaged in the same experience and journey. As we all know, structured discussions really work best with children regardless of holiday wrapping paper cheap, their level of maturation. If you aren’t weaving in think-pair-share, turn-and-talk, triad teams, or some other structured talking time throughout the lesson, you should begin including this crucial strategy on a regular basis. Sometimes referred to as front-loading vocabulary, this is a strategy that we teachers don’t use enough. Many of us, myself included, are guilty of sending students all alone down the bumpy, muddy path known as Challenging Text—a road booby-trapped with difficult vocabulary. We send them ill-prepared and then are often shocked when they: a) lose interest, b) create a ruckus, or c) fall asleep. Leo Lionni Term! Pre-teaching vocabulary doesn’t mean pulling a dozen words from the discrimination chapter and paper, having kids look up definitions and write them out—we all know how that will go. Essay! Instead, introduce the words to kids in photos or in context with things they know and are interested in. Use analogies and metaphors, and term paper, invite students to create a symbol or drawing for each word.
Give time for thesis, discussion of the words (small groups and whole class). Leo Lionni Paper! Not until they’ve done all this should the dictionaries come out. And the dictionaries will be used only to compare with those definitions they’ve already discovered on essay grapes of wrath their own. With the dozen or so words front-loaded, students are ready, with you as their guide, to tackle that challenging text. Term! Graphic organizers, pictures, and frederick jackson frontier thesis on, charts can all serve as scaffolding tools.
Graphic organizers are very specific in that they help kids visually represent their ideas, organize information, and term, grasp concepts such as sequencing and cause and effect. A graphic organizer shouldn’t be The Product but rather a scaffolding tool that helps guide and shape the wrapping cheap students’ thinking. Some students can dive right into a discussion, or writing an essay, or synthesizing several different hypotheses, without using a graphic organizer of some sort, but many of our students benefit from using one with a difficult reading or challenging new information. Think of graphic organizers as training wheels—they are temporary and meant to be removed. 6. Pause, Ask Questions, Pause, Review. Leo Lionni Term Paper! This is a wonderful way to check for understanding while students read a chunk of difficult text or learn a new concept or content. Here’s how this strategy works: a new idea from women in the essay discussion or the reading is shared, then you pause (providing think time), and then ask a strategic question, pausing again.
You need to design the questions ahead of term, time, making sure they are specific, guiding, and jackson frontier focused on, open-ended. (Even great questions fail if we don’t give think time for responses, so hold out during that Uncomfortable Silence.) Keep kids engaged as active listeners by calling on someone to give the gist of leo lionni paper, what was just discussed/discovered/questioned. Frederick Turner's! If the class seems stuck on the questions, provide an opportunity for students to leo lionni paper, discuss in pairs. With all the diverse learners in our classrooms, there is a strong need for teachers to women discrimination in the, learn and leo lionni term paper, experiment with new scaffolding strategies. I often say to women essay, teachers I support that they have slow down in order to go quickly. Scaffolding a lesson may, in leo lionni fact, take longer to of wrath, teach, but the end product is of far greater quality and the experience much more rewarding for all involved. Please share with us scaffolding strategies that work well for your students. 7.3K shares 62 comments read later Bookmark. Comments (62) Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS.
Conversations on Edutopia (62) Sign in or register to comment. Working with k-4 and over 75% of the class being English learners, besides buil their vocabulary with pictures, language, toys, I try to bring science to reinforce their learning. It's always a great challenge to accomplish together. I'm learning in the process as what skill would work better. And because they are all unique creation of God, there will always be a different way to approach the learning. Very useful article, especially for new EFL teachers who get easily lost with long texts. I have noticed that sometimes students are fearful of using background/prior knowledge. They think it might be incorrect or inappropriate to make that connection. I encourage them to write down their experiences/knowledge of a topic as part of the Prediction routine of reading new text.
One item that is difficult but important to maintain is the act of talking about leo lionni term their reflections and knowledge. Frederick Thesis Focused On! Time is always a rare commodity in a classroom but for good, accountable talk, it is necessary to take. For visual aids, I have recently started to leo lionni paper, say please annotate using tweets and emojis in the margins of the text. And Hate In Jamestown! My high school students love this and enjoy sharing their work. Additionally, wiat time between questions is becoming necessary because many students are used to the brighter students getting an answer quickly and moving on through the class. I have begun to leo lionni term paper, stop calling on the bright stars and for comparison essay, waiting for more hands to leo lionni term, be raised before calling on a different student that I usually do. Also, it seems that passive students are becoming more in-tune with what is going on frederick jackson turner's thesis focused since I am obviously patient enough to go to different students for responses. I love your approach to student engagement, Adrienne!
Thanks for sharing it with us. :) I loved when you said that scaffolding is what we do first. Now that we are all required to differentiate, I think it's important to realize that many kids can use grade level material and texts with some scaffolding, which will get them to leo lionni term, grade level quicker in many cases than differentiating will. You have great strategies here. Some of the simplest things I do include breaking tasks down or repeating directions for that child one at a time. Women Workplace Essay! I might pull a small group together to read and discuss a selection, while the rest of the class reads with partners. I might provide a visual example, checklist, or list of steps for solving math problems. I think if teachers stop to think about it, much of good instruction would qualify as scaffolding. Leo Lionni! This is a great article and for comparison, good practice for all teachers. Well put, thank you for keeping these best practices in leo lionni paper front of us.
J. Brunner's scaffolding theory always fascinated me! I think that he was the most down-to-earth among the 'great' theoreticians we learn about as teachers. Any tips on essay culture how each one sees scaffolding are always welcome. Leo Lionni Paper! As for ZPD (zone of proximal development - honestly, I had forgotten the term . ) it's something that as teachers we should be able to guess intuitively, otherwise we run the risk of discrimination in the workplace essay, losing touch with our students . These are all great strategies for students that need scaffolding. Doing this doing small group or workshop time would be a great way to focus on the different needs of students.
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Great myths of ITIL #1: You can#039;t manage what you can#039;t measure. You can't manage what you can't measure. Who on earth came up with that one? One of leo lionni term paper my big concerns about the application of ITIL is it's emphasis on KPIs. Useful but dangerous. Management is about the operation of a function or process. Essay! Even though I bet somewhere we have sanitary disposal managers these days, back in the real world manager means someone who manages people. Paper! They build processes around people and holiday cheap they make them follow those processes but at the end of the day managers manage people. And you can't measure people. Oh, we try. Leo Lionni Term Paper! But you can't.
Einstein got unimpressive grades. So many modern corporate ills stem from managers trying to manage people by numbers. First, I have seen brilliant people (read: valuable corporate resources) laid off because the thesis for comparison numbers fingered them. Bad managers applying bad numbers. Second, to leo lionni term slightly twist Mr Heisenberg's Principle: every measurement distorts that which it measures, every KPI distorts human behaviour. No KPI perfectly reflects the desired outcome - it always leads the measured subjects off the desired path. Management by wrapping paper, measurement leads to some weird results (every civil service is awash with them). Third, the KPI hasn't been invented that measures good. I used to have to rank my staff, 1 to leo lionni term 12, no equals. What a nonsense. The ranking would shift from day to day depending on the challenges the team faced.
It would change from hour to thesis hour depending on who had pissed me off last. Management by term, measurement is only a substitute for jackson turner's thesis focused inept management. Put another way, it is an organisation's compensation for leo lionni its inability to attract, create and retain good managers. Any decent manager can make correct assessment of staff based on women in the instinct and subjective observation. Numbers help, and term paper they particularly help fire someone, but you can manage what you can't measure. Good managers do it every day.
Now, governance - that's another matter. Perhaps you can't govern what you can't measure. Published in discrimination workplace The Skeptical Informer, November 2007, Volume 1, No. 10. It's close to paper Peter Drucker: You can only manage what you can measure. I'd recommend Phil Verghis' recent work on Metrics, Methods and Madness. which warns strongly about putting goals on holiday wrapping paper cheap activities. It's harder to put goals on outcomes, but that's really the better way to go, isn't it? So many measure activities (call/contact volume, for example) because they are easy. Good management is not easy. Yes it's all Drucker's fault. (Is that sacrilege?)
Verghis' book sounds interesting. driving with your face in the dashboard. Majid Iqbal on term Twitter said: Managing solely by process performance is like driving with your face in the dashboard. Isn't that what pilots do in rain, fog etc. I worked a short time in an organisation where every operation was declared a huge success. Very simple KPI's would have stopped the nonsense.
No, they don't. For Comparison Essay! Pilots who do that are the leo lionni ones who are found dead in discrimination in the workplace essay smoking holes surrounded by wreckage. The mantra is - aviate, navigate, communicate - in that order. The flight deck is designed to enable these activities and compensate for the lack of visual references. The system is built to leo lionni enable this type of activity.
Under instrument flight rules, you can even lose the third and still have a successful outcome. For The! This is something we train and build procedures for. I think the original comment though was meant to convey the leo lionni danger of looking at dials that aren't central to the key tasks, whatever they are - and I was focusing on the aviate bit. Interesting to consider what the wrapping cheap IT ..ates should be: operate, co-operate, innovate? No, not happy with that. I think I got the intent of the original post. Being fixated on leo lionni paper only one view (when there's obviously much more going on), can have disastrous results.
I was actually elaborating on Aale's post. You do raise an interesting question about what the IT correlates to aviate, navigate, communicate would be. I would propose that communicate stay in place. Roman! We need more communication, not less. So operate, co-operate, communicate then? So operate, co-operate, communicate then? I would propose the 3 ates of IT follow the standard IT management ates lest the lesser IT resources be downtrodden further: lie-ate, kiss-ass-ate, claim-the-kudos-ate. Having slept on leo lionni it perhaps the original three with operate instead of aviate would do? Incidentally the aviating bit does not have to mean looking out the for comparison window, it can be more reliable to use the key instruments that provide situational awareness, which on leo lionni modern aircraft are located in love in jamestown essay the same T arrangment so you know where to find them. What about ISO/IEC 38500 as the top level view?
What measures would you use to measure ISO/IEC 38500 performance? There is an issue that has been worrying me about ITSM maturity assessments for sometime, essentially are we looking at the right dimensions? Reading The Halo Effect is also making me wonder what we can predict from a maturity assessment. I did some work on a risk based approach assessment a few years ago that tried to home in on key predictors of both current and term paper future performance, but I haven't re-visited it post v3. I'm no pilot but in Helsinki during winter most planes land in roman culture dark and snow fall is paper common. Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier On! Staring at the snow cannot help much. In my local market I have been studying the leo lionni phenomena that according to surveys a majority of IT-units have implemented ITIL processes but do not have any measurements at holiday wrapping paper, all. Leo Lionni Term! Usually this means that these people are aware of the process and have been discussing it but are not really doing anything. Roman! It is leo lionni quite possible that the managers who answer the holiday wrapping paper surveys think that they have a process but usually the fact is that there is no process in place. I have been trying to leo lionni term send the message that there must be some measurement that at least show that the process is jackson turner's frontier thesis focused on alive and kicking. In that sense I do not think this is term a myth.
Unfortunately it is quite possible to run a service with no measurement. Many years ago I was working for a Finnish governement IT department. Women Discrimination In The Essay! My job did not have any measurement so I did what I thought was useful. It worked ok, some users gave positive feedback to my boss and that was enough for him. After I left the job I heard that my successor complained that I had created too much work for paper him as the users were accustomed to ask for help. He wanted to concentrate on his PhD thesis and ignore the users which he did.
That was also ok by the management, actually academic credentials were a big thing in Governement salaries so he got better paid than I did. I do not think that anybody was actually managing that IT service. The clearness of in the workplace essay measures is one the best things of running a small business. You know what you are achieving. In a big corporation it is far more difficult. PS. Term Paper! The Halo Effect is essay a good book, it shows how difficult it is to measure the outcomes of leo lionni term paper things like ITIL.
Succes or failure always colors things and and hate in jamestown essay there are a lot of things going on at the same time. I have done a study which shows that those development projects that have proper goals measured in service quality fare better that those projects that only aim in implementing ITIL. The succes was measured by ISO 20000 maturity. I'm pretty sure that the goal-maturity correlation is probably just a halo effect. Paper! Setting proper goals is part of essay generally better management practices and they tend to succeed better in all things they do. Re flying by instruments, I think the truth is somewhere in the middle as usual. there's a reason pilots have all those instruments and there is term a reason they still have cockpit windows as i think James mentioned recently. They also have a LOT of instruments and computers, not just a speedo and fuel gauge. For Comparison Essay! No instuments is as bad as relying solely on instruments. Leo Lionni Term! And if we must rely on instruments then lets have enough of them that we can sanity-check them against each other. For The Grapes! i think pilots are forced to fly blind a lot mkore often than IT Operations :) We interact with other humans constantly. We form deep and meaningful data through our own instincts that we can use to check metrics - we get far more other info than Helsinki pilots do. Wholeheartedly agree with earlier point about measuring with somethign other than ITIL - it is leo lionni a favourite point of mine.
I think even ISO20000 or risk are too close to home. In my book Owning ITIL I propose measuring a service culture audit. if the purpose of doing ITIL is to women in the workplace essay change the paper culture to a service-oriented one, which it often is, then let's measure the jackson frontier thesis focused culture. And if it is to reduce costs them let's measure costs. Paper! Stand back and neasure the big picture. Essay For The Grapes! THEN drill in. When you're in paper a cloud, a window isn't of much use to you.
Flight by reference to instruments allow you to keep your orientation without having visual reference to the ground, understand where you are relative to where you want to be, and be in communication with others who are participating in the system (both ATC and other pilots/aircraft). While we may interact with people, I'd assert that IT flies blind a lot more than any pilot. Women In The Essay! If aviation had a safety record equivalent to successful IT change/process projects, no one would be willing to fly! First rule of flying, particularly when things are going wrong, is fly the plane Don't get distracted by peripheral data. Model, Measure, Manage - Definitions needed. Skeptic: W. Edwards Deming (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming) is often incorrectly quoted as saying, You can't manage what you can't measure. In fact, he stated that one of the seven deadly diseases of management is paper running a company on culture visible figures alone. I also suggest you look at the root definitions of management and administration.
I use the following definitions. Administer: To establish and enforce policy and procedure. Manage: To change disorder into leo lionni term, order. You administer the order established by managing, to reduce the and hate essay inevitable disintegration into disorder/chaos/creativity/variance/error over time. (Chaos = infinitely complex order. Leo Lionni Term Paper! Managing = finding simplified, and thus usable, patterns of roman culture order within chaos.) Managing requires one to model to some cost-worthy level the leo lionni term paper current or past disorder, model to some cost-worthy level the intended order to frontier be administered, and model to some cost-worthy level the plan to transition from the current disorder to the intended order, updating all as time passes. Meaurement tells us about the quantitative aspects/attributes of the modeled disorder, order, and transition. You can neither measure, administer, nor manage until you model. Modeling the dynamics of term carbon-based life forms. Life and existence is chaotic and infinitely complex - period, but that does not mean random. Chaos is the primary production mechanism of our self-organizing, implicate-order universe within its larger environment.
Read about David Bohm, Ilya Progogine, and Bernard Haisch, e.g., on holiday cheap Wikipedia.com, for more detail. But life can still be modeled (as a representation or architecture of the reality, not an absolute replica - the map is not the leo lionni territory) without getting into the quantification of operations research, management science, simulations, business intelligence, and and hate in jamestown essay decision support. As a physicist and management analyst I've used all of leo lionni term these methods - and they are very limited, giving a constrained, closed-world view, without more modeling at frederick turner's focused, the beginning of their use, and paper continuing during their use. Modeling starts with a life-form's language and their vocabulary's significant nouns and the verb phrases that relate them. To see a model of a life-form's viewpoint, look at their writing.
Sentences contain subjects (nouns), predicates (verbs), and predicate objects (other nouns). Writing anything is intended to record and share a viewpoint. The first level of essay modeling is to term paper create lists of words used, identifying terms of single and compound words, defining the terms from individual/local/group/organization/global contexts, grouping the terms into broader and narrower meanings (as a taxonomy), and building a concept map of the nouns and their relationships. Build a concept map of a resume, a balanced scorecard, a process, or a business case to see their power. Concept maps are used in most modeling efforts without ever getting to jackson frontier on quantitative values. More detailed variants of concept maps are entity-relationship models, object-role-models, process models, ontologies (knowledge models), knowledge-bases, value-chains, economic models, project network/CPM diagrams, etc.
The term that broadly names the leo lionni term above viewpoint is terminology, encompassing the various stages of organized semantics. Terminology is also described quite well in Wikipedia.com. My own approach to building a terminology, so that governance methods (i.e., modeled, measured, managed) like ITIL and ITSM can be their most effective, efficient, and responsive to change, is documented at http://gem-ema.one-world-is.org. Agreed we can map humans - what they are saying. We can build a picture of their ideas. Essay Grapes Of Wrath! Not the same as measuring them though. We can measure the recorded and term paper observed aspects of humans and life in general (that's social and biological science). Essay Culture! See, comment, and leo lionni term vote on my ideas for Recovery.gov at http://tinyurl.com/ctgr6d. Frontier Thesis! Deadline is end of 3 May. My theme is paper terminology.
Great thread, this response goes madly off in all directions but. Its always been about the holiday wrapping paper people; KPIs, metrics etc are about transfoming data into leo lionni term, information. Holiday Wrapping Paper! Information forms knowledge of your environment; this in turn gives management an insight into whats going on so that they can exercise sound judgement. In other words, metrics help leaders determine if their perceived task environment matches the actual task environment. They are one tool in the arsenal, and part of an leo lionni term paper overall holistic view of whats going on. An analogy, when driving a car, do you rely on your dashboard alone, or is it one part of your overall view when driving the car? The seven steps to improvement start with What should we measure. Essay Culture! But here's the tricky bit., people leave off the second part of the sentence. Its With respect to the defined goals (strategic, tactical, operational) what should we measure.
That shapes your context for the KPI's, data etc to gather. A simple exercise to leo lionni create KPI's, drawn from the Balanced Scorecard Institute. Step 1) What is the goal / mission / vision of the organization. Jackson Thesis Focused On! (you can do this for yor team, department, unit or whole organization) Step 2) What three (or four) Objectives can we do to help achieve this goal? Step 3) List three key targets per objective that we need to prove we are or are not doing our objectives? Step 4) Identify where you are going to gather the data to prove the targets are being met. Take a look at Cobit for some of the targets, metrics to use, but and here's the hard part, you need to do the heavy mental lifting yourself. It takes effort to build an appropriate measurment framework.
And in the end, the leo lionni paper best leaders I have worked for use metrics to jackson turner's frontier on validate their intuition. Side bar, take a look at Deming in the CSI book, his 14 steps are there. Ah you have clarified what i am saying with a key point here: metrics are for managing the task environment. That environment is empirical and rational and yes it can be effectively managed numerically. On the leo lionni paper other hand the term KPI is usually (not always) applied to and hate in jamestown essay measuring the leo lionni paper performance of and hate in jamestown people. This is term paper what I object to, when it becomes slavish.
Only humans can evaluate humans, and they can't do it with numbers, other than as one of many inputs to for the the assessment. Managers manage both the task environment and the people in it. The tools and techniques of one don't work for the other. Thanks for crystalising that. As buraddo said above Its a mixture of data, experience and leo lionni paper leadership (along with other things) that makes good management . then Deming is regularly misquoted by the ITSM community. I agree entirely about management as a term being more properly used for organisational change agents. however in the modern world the word is essay culture utterly debased to the point where we have front-of-office managers greet us and sanitation managers filling the dumpster. I understand what you are trying to do, to hold the line on the meaning of the word. Good luck with that. ideally yes a manager enacts change and an administrator makes it so. the other layer of paper course is the governor who defines the policy and goals of the manager. I wish management could be so clinical as to drive from thesis for comparison, models to numbers to actions. There is leo lionni term unfortunately the small matter of carbon-based life forms.
I'm enjoying reading Managing Humans by Michael Lopp, who opened the book with the chapter Don't be a prick. The message is if you want to paper build teams and lead people, you can't be an automaton. You must see and relate to and react to the people reporting to you, and you must fulfil their needs. None of that comes out of policy driven models and leo lionni the numbers don't tell us any of essay roman culture it. Leo Lionni Term! No matter how high you are on women the slippery tree you must do this, else you will be a prick. You may well deliver numbers to the company but you will never build a team. If everyone was Einstein, or even Bill Gates.
You can measure, and doing so improves both our ability to manage, and term paper our performance, especially when the jackson focused on people doing the work measure themseleves, manage themselves, and improve their own performance. Without proof, any argument for or against something in our profession can stand as a factoid. That's what this so called myth-buster is, just another myth. Without evidence, arguments are won by the persuasive, not necessarily those that are right. Until we can learn to use mesurement and data we will always be slaves to term paper the latest, most popular myth about how to do our work as told by the most persuasive. If this is how you want it, consider a career in polictics, the frederick jackson turner's frontier thesis fashion industry, or entertainment. Paper! If you want a career in IT or in business, science, or engineering, learn to workplace ignore those that bust myths with more myths.
You think Einstein and Heisenberg make your point? What would they have accomplished if they didn't value measurement, the scientific method, and proof? The problem with Science is it is an industry designed to disprove itself.. An atom is an atom until a sub-atomic particle exists. The data in term paper which alot of scientific proofs are based is often tainted by the data collect paradigm, or even mathematical assumptions (it doesn't quite fit, so lets fit a really interesting constant in there and see if that works)..
While I agree, that measurement is essay roman culture a valuable tool for management, it is by no means an absolute (the same way science is not). Term! It is as much a persuasive tool for justification as say qualitative experience or even leadership/instinct.. Newton's theories on gravity are powerful because of the maths and data, but even more so, because an apple hits you on the head if you sit under an essay roman apple tree. Management decision making should not be crippled by data, but management should always strive for leo lionni paper appropriate and effective measurement of business as a quality discipline. Its a mixture of data, experience and leadership (along with other things) that makes good management, disregard any of frontier these things at leo lionni term, your peril, focus on 1, to the detriment of others and failure is assured. Jim, I reckon yours is one of the best posts on this blog, even if I'm on the receiving end of it. I would dearly love to see more science around IT. I think the slowly growing understanding that IT is a superstitious art is culture one of the first signs of some real maturity. If they built buildings the way they build IT. So, touché! You are right: I'm as guilty of shovelling the same crap (I was a vendor remember).
But in the absense of objective data, the least I can do is undermine certainty and present alternate views. I don't know about term paper you, but in grapes principle I'm uncertain about Heisenberg. Sorry,couldn't resist it. Interesting read is Julian Havil's Nonplussed! I like the Anon quote in it 'This is a one line proof. if we start sufficently far to term paper the left.' Management without Measurement = Moving Target. First of culture all, managing relates to leo lionni term paper people and in jamestown budgets. In both cases, you set goals and measure progress toward those goals. The author states, “You can’t measure people.” However, you certainly can measure whether they do what is expected of them, you certainly can measure their performance against paper, standards, and you also can measure their relative performance against their co-workers.
For the last measure, in high-performance cultures the bar is essay roman culture high, and for low-performance cultures the bar is low. In either case, you benchmark (measure) performance standards to see if you need to raise the bar for you team or not. If this author’s twelve workers really are subject to his whims about who is “good” or “bad” which changes as he states, “from hour to paper hour depending on who had pissed me off last,” then I really feel sorry they have to deal with this incompetent of thesis a manager. In a anonymous survey, I am confident his people feel like their performance expectations are a moving target and they never know what he will find “good” or “bad” because he doesn’t know how to define good and bad himself. It is likely to paper be a function of the external pressures he is facing rather than any concrete objectives he has laid out for women discrimination workplace essay his team like a competent manager would. This article was obviously written by one of the masses of inept managers out there that don’t know what to do, don’t like to be held to goals themselves, and term paper don’t like their poor performance against objectives measured at all. These are the same desires of people in ghettos and trailer parks all over women in the workplace, this country; they don’t want to be held to others’ ideas about performance standards either, and with good reason – they don’t measure up.
There are ways to measure people’s performance in objective ways. Leo Lionni Term! There are ways of capturing the inherent variability in a measurement system and determining how much variability the measurement system itself contributes to the measurement and how much is the actual process performance itself. Thanks for replying Joe. Women Workplace Essay! I always welcome reasoned debate. Leo Lionni! Actually your reply is too much of an ad hominum personal attack for holiday cheap the standards of this site, but since it's me you're having a go at, I'll let it pass and we can examine your arguments. “You can’t measure people.” However, you certainly can measure whether they do what is expected of them, you certainly can measure their performance against standards, and leo lionni you also can measure their relative performance against their co-workers. You can't measure people but you can measure people? You'll need stronger reasoning than that Joe. My whole arguement is thesis for comparison that measures exist, and are used excessively by inept managers who can't deal with real live peopel without putting numbers in the way (not that I'm for a moment suggesting you're an inept manager Joe), but that in and of themselves numbers don't measure people. No metric or dozen metrics adequately reflects the performance of individuals in a role of leo lionni any complexity. That sort of holiday wrapping paper cheap time-and-motion thinking might work for unskilled workers in an old-world industrial task, but in modern service industries all but the most basic of leo lionni paper roles such as call-centre operator or data entry clerk have too many aspects and subtleties for numbers to fairly and truly reflect an thesis employee's contribution.
You can't measure any of those things you listed Joe: you can't measure whether they do what is expected of them, you can't measure their performance against standards, and you can't measure their relative performance against their co-workers. My staff worked as pre-sales technical experts in the software industry, supporting sales people. They had no regular output product of paper their own; they engaged in entirely different transactions every time; they added value in complex, subtle and often unnoticed ways; and they functioned as part of love essay a complex team with no individual accountability for the outcome. I relied on their professionalism, honesty, enthusiasm and term paper competitiveness to do a good job. How do you measure those Joe? And how do you measure them in such a way that the metric doesn't over-simplify the for the situation and therefore distort the behaviour?
All metrics do. And how do you compare staff in such a way that you can say that overall this person is leo lionni paper better than this one? How do you objectively rank staff without using those same distortive, over-simplifying metrics? Nobody is better or worse than anyone else on paper. When the call comes from above to and hate essay lay off one of paper them because it is time for the corporation to demonstrate its loyalty to its most valued resources once again, the for comparison decision ought to be made looking forward based on paper an infintely complex web of anticipated requirements from the business and discrimination workplace estimated future potentials of the staff, not on leo lionni paper some arbitrary numbers that reflect one sad little side of the past story. I feel sorry for women in the workplace essay employees who have to leo lionni term deal with inhuman functionaries who can only engage via a spreadsheet. Frederick Jackson Frontier Thesis On! I'm proud that I dealt with my staff as people not resources. Oh, I had spreadsheets and leo lionni term paper metrics, and I used them as I should have: as one more source of information to use when deciding the women discrimination in the essay fate of friends and colleagues who deserve better than being treated as cogs in the machine. And of course you can begin to question how good a manager is if their staff consistently under perform, or if their churn rate is above average.
Personally I hate the tyranny of the annual appraisal. I was talking to an enlightened CEO recently who described it as a dehumanising process designed to reward the dysfunctional. who#039;s fault is it if that potential isn#039;t realised? I have done a lot of work on professional development of staff. I firmly believe that a person underperforming is at least as much a reflection on their manager as it is on leo lionni term paper the individual.
With IT professionals, very often it is obvious the potential is essay for the there - who's fault is it if that potential isn't realised? It is the manager's job to term paper bring it out. If the metrics are bad, the boss also has some explaining to do. I agree that churn is love essay actually a good indicator of a manager. People join jobs.
They leave managers. You are quite right. If you train your staff to hit the numbers without looking at them holistically, then they'll learn to make you happy (get the annual salary increase) by ensuring the metrics are good, most likely at the cost of working as a team and retaining any interpersonal [why are they called soft?] skills. etc. To give an leo lionni term paper example; I used to have a team leader who, on night shift, would call the incoming Helpdesk number from one phone, pick it up at the adjacent desk and then immediately drop both handsets back into the cradles. Doing this ten or-so times a night ensured our dropped call and answer-time metrics remained good enough that we weren't roasted for being lazy fops, but effectively rendered the holiday wrapping paper cheap management information collected during our shift, meaningless.
I'm not convinced this made him a good leader. If a business wants to make money, shouldn't they measure how much they're making to ensure their sustainability and viability? In turn, doesn't each person in the organisation needs to demonstrate a contributory value to that end? Aren't metrics the bit that you base arguments for a new venture on, through a cost-benefit analysis? Aren't we supposed somehow to leo lionni term paper demonstrate a return on investment, not just for tin, string and vapour, but for the bodies too? I think that numbers are a valid part of the story, not just for measuring the provision of women workplace essay service; Did your parcel get to where it needed to paper be, undamaged and in time?, but also for measuring the performance of an individual; As a driver, why is it that nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged, yet for the same category of parcel, vehicle and terrain, the nearest of your colleagues rates is 7%? The answer may have many components and factors, but the metric has prompted the question what's wrong and in holiday wrapping cheap managing people that can sometimes be a very helpful way of beginning to help someone realise their potential. numbers are a valid part of the story. Agreed. As you say numbers are a valid part of the story, and the valid part they play is the one you highlight: asking why.
A good manager says why is it that nearly 25% of term your parcels are returned because they're damaged?. A bad manager says I'm laying you off because you came last on the spreadsheet, mostly because nearly 25% of your parcels are returned because they're damaged. The good one manages using numbers. The bad one manages by essay roman, numbers. Well. just as you wouldn#039;t shoot the term messenger. I always love a good controversial point of view, makes everybody think. In any case, I beg to disagree with your PoV, seems to me you are blaming the messenger. You state the KPI hasn't been invented yet that measures 'good'. Well, actually there is holiday paper no universal 'good' (or 'bad' for that matter), it depends on term paper what you produce, what your customer expects, etc. So the first question one should ask is What is good in my context? Indeed, a lot of bad managers misuse metrics and KPIs.
In my experience this is mostly the result of. (a) the manager simply not understanding what he/she is managing (it is more than just people btw) Making it hard for the manager to know what he/she needs to measure exactly (and what not). So he/she takes the easy route, buys a few books (e.g. ITIL v3) and holiday cheap just blindly copies what is in there. Term! End result: a lot of numbers are being collected and and hate crunched everyday, but there is leo lionni paper little or no effect on what actually counts: the quality of what is being produced. (b) mixing up metrics and goals. Metrics are there to help you understand what is going on. Workplace Essay! They are not 'goals' or 'objectives', and should not be confused with those either. Maybe do a google on Deming's 14 Points Good managers don#039;t manage by numbers.
I think we agree on paper all that :) Good managers don't manage by numbers, and bad managers misuse numbers. My point is discrimination in the workplace that good managers manage just as well when they can't measure. [And many things that matter - like people - can't be measured]. Therefore the statement you can't manage what you can't measure is B.S. P.S. to paraphrase a quote in an earlier comment: If you can measure it [well], you probably don't need to manage it any more - you can get someone to administer it. You seem to reduce the You can't manage what you can't measure down to a statement of Management = Measurement.
I do believe that you can not manage things well if you can not measure them. You need to get some feedback on how well you are manageing and paper not only by your peers or from and hate in jamestown essay, your employees (as both might be to good), but also from a more absolute standpoint. Leo Lionni! If you manage by targets you will have to see if you meet your targets and if your targets are valid. A good manager has a gut feeling about essay of wrath all of this as well, enabling him/her to look where trouble may be and to term improve on frederick jackson turner's thesis focused more intangable things, but really sound management is only valid if you can measure something. Your ciritique on K PI is (to my humble opinion) more valid. Any KPI that is around for too long will be a potential for cheaters and may be worked around. Leo Lionni Term! Good management will find this out and adapt. Even better manegement will lead their employees in a way that they do not even think about discrimination in the working around a measurement (binding bonuses to KPI targets is OK, but it should not be the only criteria).
And for your last sentence: If you do not believe that, please provide an example of governance without empirical measurement. If you have a hammer everything is leo lionni term paper a nail. There was a white paper doing the rounds not long ago that said that a 'fool with a tool is still a fool'. Holiday Paper Cheap! I was never quite sure if this wasn't a secret comment about leo lionni men, but the sentiment makes sense. Metrics are a powerful tool and, as you say, in the wrong hands they can be dangerous.
Dangerous tools should only love and hate in jamestown essay be used by people who are well trained in their use and use care and craftsmanship in their deployment. Maybe there should be a warning question - 'Have you a license to wield that metric?'. I think that this is leo lionni term paper a possible additional value in using metrics. They do force you not only to consider what can be measured, but also to think about what exactly you intend to love discover from paper, using them and what behaviour change you hope them to produce. Careful thought about that, along with a consideration of the Law of Unintended Consequences, can help managers learn to be better managers. I remember well the for the grapes of wrath point made regarding what must be one of the worst metrics ever. 'We have found that you have a bad attitude'. How is 'attitude' measured? What factors determine if it is 'bad'? It is the perfect example of paper bad management - the manager can't be bothered, or hasn't the ability, to say exactly this, or exactly that in your behaviour is a problem. Nobody can fix a 'bad attitude' because it is an opinion, not a measure. Yes, of course, we all have met people with 'bad attitudes' and, to some people at least, all of us must, at some time, had a 'bad attitude' (turning up eagerly to work when the cultural norm was to slack off would be a 'bad attitude' to wrapping cheap some).
An honest and diligent person, as a manager, must be precise in order to effect improvement. It reminds me of the poem by Robert Frost, 'Building a wall'. To paraphrase, good metrics make good workers'. And good managers. Now that Peter was most certainly hitting the nail on the head. Very valid points indeed. Bad managers always find a way to manage badly. One of the things I enjoy about reading Deming’s books is the elaborate dance he executes in endorsing measurement and cautioning against the abuse of leo lionni paper measurement. Thesis Essay! Although I agree with everyone who says good management cannot be reduced to a single number index or a Red-Amber-Green report, I still think KPIs are valuable and even essential to good service management. Whenever I need an example KPI, I go to the impressive array of KPIs in leo lionni COBIT, not the ITIL literature. That is not surprising because COBIT is about the outside auditor's view of IT, unlike ITIL which is about doing IT.
As desirable as it may be, an outside auditor does not have the time to form a reasoned opinion. An auditor has to make a few quick observations and move on. Essay Roman! Those observations have to be well-chosen, but in the end, the leo lionni paper observations must be completed in wrapping time to sign off on the audit. IT managers face the same problem, on a different scale. They may have more time than auditors for insight, but those concise KPIs give a good manager more time for more insight.
For managers so harried that even with KPIs, they still don't have time for insight, they are better off with the KPIs than without. Of course, that still leaves the question of KPI quality. Leo Lionni Term Paper! From the viewpoint of an application vendor, (I've been developing service management applications for culture CA for quite a few years) KPIs present several problems: what are the right KPIs? How do you gather them? How do you present them? Who do you present them to? COBIT has helped with these problems. A few years ago, developers did not have much practical guidance for KPIs. We could go to our best and term paper most forward thinking customers, we could glean ideas from ITIL, a few luminaries and some of the services folks in the field could all help, but you were still pretty much on your own. COBIT is not the only place to go now, there are a number of useful publications now, and service management has become much more sophisticated.
As a result, I believe we may be seeing new and roman culture better service management metrics coming from all vendors. Regarding misinterpretation, cheaters and leo lionni term manipulation, I have to say that I don't think that is very important. Bad managers will always find a way to manage badly; but that is women discrimination in the workplace essay not a reason to deny good managers good tools. Marv http://community.ca.com/blogs/itservice. If you can measure it, you can administer it. Today I got a lovely quote from an ISACA training day: If you can measure it, you don't need to manage it: you can administer it. The idea came originally from Ross Anderson I think, developed by Alistair MacKenzie of our local ISACA chapter. Your argument confuses *what* to measure with *how* to measure.
The real obstacles to measurement are conceptual, not the methods. Leo Lionni Paper! It is better to think of thesis essay measurements as a keyhole through which some secret aspect of the world can be observed. Scientific instruments were once called philosophical engines as they were devices for answering the deep questions of the time. Measurement are simply a set of paper observations that reduce uncertainty where the women discrimination in the essay result is expressed as a quantity. Leo Lionni! The uncertainty reduction is in jamestown essay what is critical to managers. A manager asked to make decisions under a state of uncertainty and risk can improve his performance, often financially, by paper, using measurements. And Hate Essay! The bigger, riskier and more uncertain the decisions, then the greater the importance of measurements for competent managers. [Myth Buster: Einstein did not get unimpressive grades.
He was in fact a gifted student. After graduating 2nd in his class at term paper, Aarau school in Germany he was admitted to Zurich Polytechnic at age 17 where he remained at frederick frontier thesis focused, the top of his class until his research thesis. His professor, greatly annoyed by the insouciant young lad, awarded Albert's thesis the lowest possible grade stating that Einstein had not written it on proper regulation paper. Thus explaining how Einstein graduated near the bottom of his class.] Measurement are simply a set of observations that reduce uncertainty where the result is paper expressed as a quantity. I've read that book too, and it's really interesting! ;-) G2, Gobierno y Gestion de TI. I found the for the topic an leo lionni term interesting one, Especially from the skeptics perspective. I personally feel that KPI's are crucial in service delivery. Although the challenge for KPI's is the defining of them, we still need to measure against something.
How will we draw up a strong SLA if we do not have KPI's. And if KPI's do not exist then the essay roman culture whole point to paper continual service improvement is lost. CSI is based purely on metrics. Essay Roman Culture! And CSI is crucial for keeping a company versitile and adaptive to change. I think the leo lionni statement you cant manage what you cant measure is an extremely improtant statement in this context as it is making us aware that KPI's can be ambiguous.
It is up to an experienced manager to know what truly valuable KPI's are. Frederick Turner's Frontier Thesis! KPI's are only term ambiguous if you do not understand what you are measuring or you are not entirely sure how to measure it. If this is the case DONT MEASURE IT. I've spoken a lot in public about the value of KPIs. But has anyone experience of KPIs that have actually altered the way a service is delivered for the better? Spent alot of time in SixSigma projects (good ones surprisingly) which have delivered service level improvements, higher service quality, cost reduction, the essay for the grapes whole nine yards.. Bad execution of SixSigma can cause all the problems that Skep outlines regarding inappropriate application of paper KPI's..
In the last 10ish years of love and hate in jamestown being a consultant in this field I've had many discussions on metrics, measurements and KPI's. Paper! In many cases it is all a matter of semantics. What do you mean when you say KPI? And what is measurement according to you? One of the discussions was between the Markteting Manager and the Operations Manager of an Internet Service Provider. Essay! The Marketing Manager wanted the leo lionni IT department to measure the systems from essay, his customers perspective: can they access the Internet, the leo lionni Portal or their mail? While the essay roman Operations Manager wanted to measure the availability of the individual systems: is the specific mail server running and is the paper link to the Internet Exchange still active?
We've chosen to install two systems: Spike pretending to be an user following a script and testing the end-to-end services. And Track monitoring the individual systems performance. And it turned out that in some cases Spike noticed some issues that Track didn't call on. And sometimes Track was saying that something was wrong while Spike didn't encounter any issues. In most cases though they would confirm each other. Sometimes the performance of the thesis for comparison infrastructure will be less than what the users will experience. Sometimes it will be the leo lionni term other way around.
Well, in most cases it seems that users are experiencing less performance than the cheap systems will show. Measuring the performance without asking the customers and paper users their perception is therefor not a very smart thing to essay for the do. Leo Lionni Term! And that is where I think the cheap 7 step improvement process of CSI goes wrong. Yes, you'll need to measure your performance based on the KPI's you've set. These KPI's should be derived from the IT Strategy. And then you should ask your customers how they have perceived the delivered service and link this perception to the measured performance. Then, and only then, do you have sufficient information (knowledge, wisdom) to take action.
In the Microsoft Operations Framework cycle this is better understood. Leo Lionni Term Paper! There are two monthly reviews: the of wrath internal Operations Review looking at the performance of the services and the external Service Level Review looking at term paper, the perception of the customers. Thesis! The second Review together with representatives of the customers. Both Reviews lead to possible improvements. I would add that it is term paper worth finding out essay roman culture, what aspects of the service most affect the customer and user perception of service before setting up the paper metrics. A lot of the time we fail to frederick turner's frontier thesis on measure and report on term the things that cause most concern to our stakeholders. Don't think ITIL can claim #1.. Women Discrimination Workplace Essay! Its been around in the process improvement, quality assurance disciplines since the beginning of time..
About Management = People, I think you are drawing a pretty narrow conclusion. Although the management of anything includes people, it is not exclusively for that purpose. Our relatives in leo lionni term paper Project Management might have a definition that is paper cheap broader, or perhaps anything who is involved in Systems Management market. Management is about getting the term paper best out of anything, or more specifically getting the jackson focused on appropriate performance (assuming excellence is term paper not always required). Your other statements about Mis-management of people are obviously true, because management of anything is 1 part science and many parts art. KPI's try and culture apply science to appropriate performance which is leo lionni term a necessary evil.
Of course, poor application of jackson turner's frontier thesis focused on science is dangerous. To not measure is equally dangerous from a personal and corporate perspective. At some point, someone is leo lionni measuring the performance of your company, either in share price, budget, market share or whatever.. To not try and align people, process, services with the company through KPI's is negligence.. Just don't live and die by the sword.. #1 ITIL Implementation Project #2 ITIL Certification #3 IT Services Management = ITIL.
#4 ITIL V3 (you telling me its a product = as if service management best practice is evolving to a release schedule) $0.02 (and no reference to my blog this time :) A non-profit organization serving some altruistic purpose, or a cartel driving revenue for the bosses ? darn it Brad, how am I going to top those five? Management, governance and measurement. You're right that measurement is no substitute for management. Good management is not easy and, consequently, not often found. Women Discrimination In The Workplace! There are many ways in which people given the job of 'manager' try to duck out of their responsibilities and relying on measurement as substitute for judgement and understanding what is going on is just one of them. It is paper also true that metrics, rightly, alter what they measure. If they are poorly chosen they distort what is measured. A famous case being the for comparison essay UK Health Service where the measure was the length of waiting lists - the measure was achieved. Congratulations all round.
Sadly it was done by creating a second invisible waiting list from which people were added to the official waiting list only when their procedure was scheduled within the target time. In 'Metrics for leo lionni term paper IT Service Management', I argue for using balancing metrics to try to detect and minimise this distortion - if they'd measured the length of waiting lists and the user satisfaction with the time they waited, then they'd have seen a magical improvement in one stat with none in women discrimination in the workplace essay the other, giving the term paper game away. I'm a bit wary of the term KPI too. You only really know what your Key Indicators are after you've been measuring them for a while - it took some time for the car dashboard to settle down to speed, distance and fuel levels as the ubiquitous standard minimum indicators. You might know what you think you want your key results to be, but the KPI you set may not show you that. Essay Roman! Since human behavior is complex and people are not stupid, particularly when dealing with their own performance measures, setting good metrics is a subtle management task, not a suitable job for simplistic command and term control freaks! If you want to women in the essay prove that you've improved something, though, you need to show how, and metrics are good for that - to tell you whether you've succeeded; if you choose them wisely. I can agree with you, but it is very obvious, isn't it. Neither Manage, nor Govern would be successfull if the person has no clue what or why they should do that in the first place. Setting measurements already implies that you want to manage or govern something that makes sense.
In current business environments that might be a contradiction in terms. I am on my way to paper the HP OV Universe in Barcelona and most properly I will hear that statement once every half hour and in jamestown most probably by term paper, individuals who can not stay within the 30 or 45 minutes of for comparison their allocated time. Looking forward to a great event in Barcelona where ITILV3 will be explained in relation to the SW acquisitiions recently done. What is HP announcing in leo lionni term paper Barcelona. That they've finally figured out what they're going to to with OV Service Desk and (Peregrine) Service Center. Or that have have regained focus on for comparison their ITSM approach. or perhaps admit that all they really want to sell is tin. The impression they left with most of the people I spoke to is one of term paper uncertainty. Lets first look at what is new on the block. The Service Manager launch with new features compared to Service Center of which most were already available in Service Desk, supported by a (very necessary) migration factory that (ones finished) will be available to holiday wrapping paper partners to help their customers to migrate.
Unfortunatly no pricing on licensing or migration. Paper! The new Network Manager was not ready for a proper launch and women discrimination left some dissappointments. Best of the show was the newish Opsware launch that really looks promising. The ITILv3 had its own booths with much emphasis on the HP coverage through their BTO, BSM, SOA and other related offerings. Most uncertain was the overarching message and value proposition of their bundled groupings like the ones mentioned. I almmost had the term paper feeling that they lost the plot on their software offering spree. A lot of measurement statements for compliancy, performance and governance but no reasons why one would bother. The focus on business delivery and value seems to be copy pasted across all offerings without a clear central console or structure that could make sense out discrimination workplace essay, of the whirlpool of solutions. The sentiments of the old building blocks got a new positive impulse. The partners gave it their best shot and really showed that the current HP offerings packages need more before they can be sold as a usefull business solution that makes sense.
Maybe that is what we can expect from HP. They offer the broad message and grouping of leo lionni term solutions and the partners create the practical connections in between and to and hate essay the business side. Anyway, a lot of leo lionni paper gadgets, a great hotel and a well organised event made up for the lack of clarity. This is a personal impression, based on discussions with partners, visitors, old clients, ex-HP colleagues and the bar lady. I can expect that others might not agree with the above and appreciate their opinion. I have implemented and trained OV Service Desk up to thesis v4.5 when it was rock solid and straight forward. Sadly OVSD no longer holds the ground as my recommended ITSM tool; there are now players that have included Business Process Analysis modules to configure their software.
Basically the leo lionni latest (and better) SM tools have forked away from HP. Being a Gaudi fan, Barcelona is high on my list of dream destinations, but not this time :-D. Attending AgileNZ, in Wellington on November 6-7. Speaking at essay, DevOps Enterprise Summit USA (#DOES17) in leo lionni paper San Francisco on November 13-15. Speaking at Pink Elephant ITSM Conference (#PINK18) in Orlando, Florida on February 18-21. All Day DevOps, online conference, October 24, 2017. DevOps for Everyone with Rob England. Talking about thesis essay my presentation at DOES UK.
The IT Skeptic on leo lionni term paper DevOpsTV at holiday paper, DOES16 San Francisco with the awesome Damon Edwards. A white paper on my Standard+Case model. Recently, Gene Kim and I interviewed each other about DevOps. I have been producing lately: - Kamu: improvements to ITSM, DevOps and Agile that come from learning from each other. - The IT Renaissance , the movement that generates DevOps, BYOD, Shadow IT, and other phenomena . this year's Big Idea. I don't get paid to leo lionni term paper say nice things and essay for the I don't get paid to review anything. You may have noticed Google and leo lionni term paper Amazon ads on the site, as well as ads for my books and essay of wrath merchandise. I make money off them, but sod all.
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What the Molar Mass of Cu Is All About. Some students have difficulties with mathematics and foreign languages, while others have problems with chemistry, but it’s normal. That’s because no one is perfect, and it’s hard to know everything for any student. The good news is that there is an effective solution for any major or minor problem, so if you find your chemistry homework, such as calculating the molar mass of Cu, too hard to do, be sure to use certain tips or get professional help. It’s offered by qualified and reputable freelancers, and term paper you easily can get their contact details online. Basically, chemistry can be quite a tricky subject if you don’t know how to tackle it in the right manner. Thesis Essay? There are many things that you need to term paper learn to achieve the best results when doing your homework. Think about simplifying this task by using helpful services offered at quite competitive rates. For all students who learn chemistry, it’s necessary to know that it’s 63.546 g/mol. When completing any assignments that involve this subject, you should get the right knowledge on copper.
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There are many chemistry students who use special calculators to convert grams to leo lionni paper moles. To perform this task successfully, you need to get detailed information about the substance that you want to convert (for example, computing the molar mass of cu ). That’s because the molar mass of any substance may affect this conversion. When you use a molecular formula, the formula weight that you calculate is also the molecular one. What You Should Know about Related Quantities. As you already know, a molar mass is women discrimination in the, related to a relative molar mass of leo lionni term, compounds quite closely. The same can be said for a formula weight and essay roman culture standard atomic masses, but it must be distinguished from a molecular mass (or weight), and it’s all about the mass of term paper, 1 molecule (in any isotopic composition). Keep in mind that it’s not related to of wrath any atomic mass directly, and a molar mass has older terms, including a formula or molecular weight. What about a molecular mass? Basically, it’s the mass of any given molecule, and you always need to measure it in daltons or atomic mass units. Different molecules of the same compounds can have different molecular mass, and that’s because they may contain different isotopes.
A molar mass is the measure used for an average molecular mass of all molecules in samples. When doing your relevant courseworks, you should realize that it’s a more appropriate measure when handling the macroscopic quantities of substances. Finally, molecular masses should be calculated from relative atomic masses of every nuclide, and molar masses must be computed from the atomic mass of leo lionni paper, every element. Another important detail is that an atomic mass takes into consideration the isotopic distribution of elements in given samples. For any chemistry student, it’s necessary to know the distinction between molecular and molar masses. Are you interested in women discrimination workplace essay, the precision by which molar masses are known to depend on when it comes to the precision of atomic masses used to calculate them?
Then you should learn that almost all atomic masses have the precision of term paper, 1 part in 10-thousand, and it’s adequate for all standard uses in this discipline because it’s quite precise and exceeds the purity of many lab reagents. However, this kind of precision is turner's, limited by the knowledge of isotopic distributions in chemical elements. If you need a more accurate value of molar masses, you must define this distribution, and it can be different from the standard one used to compute standard atomic masses. If your assignment involves these terms, make sure that it’s written according to existing lab report format guidelines. Term? Remember that the isotopic distributions of chemical elements in samples are not always dependent of one another, and discrimination in the workplace this is what may complicate the calculation of standard uncertainties in molar masses. One of the most helpful conventions for your lab work is to quote this mass to 2 decimal places for each calculation you make. It will be more accurate than required, but you will succeed to avoid rounding mistakes during chemical calculations.
These important conventions are usually followed in many tabulated values of a molar mass. Atoms are quite small to allow for any meaningful measurement of specific chemical substances. When working with their meaningful amounts, they must be groups into term the units called moles. You need to for comparison essay know how to leo lionni term paper calculate a molar mass to thesis for comparison be a successful student and get high grades, so find out more about the following methods. First, you should start with learning how to leo lionni term paper calculate the molar masses of chemical elements. Understand what a molar mass is all about, and women discrimination in the it’s the mass of 1 mole of a given substance calculated in grams. Be sure to use the atomic mass of leo lionni paper, chemical elements and multiply it by g/mol to for comparison end up with their molecular mass. You should follow this simple rule in your how to write a reaction paper Find the relative atomic masses of chemical elements, and it’s all about term, their average masses of love and hate in jamestown, all isotopes in a particular sample (in atomic units). These details are easy to found in the periodic table of elements, so be sure to locate the one you need and find its number underneath a symbol (it must have decimals).
Multiply a relative atomic mass by a molar mass constant (and it’s defined in one gram per leo lionni mole). Thesis? This is how you will convert atomic units to leo lionni g/mole, but some chemical elements are found in the molecules of two atoms and more. This means that you need to find their relative atomic masses to calculate molar masses. To achieve this goal, it’s necessary to multiply them by a molar mass constant, and then multiply the essay roman culture, result you get by leo lionni term, two. What if you need to calculate the molar mass of specific chemical compounds when it comes to your writing a definition essay or any other academic homework? Follow these steps:
Find their chemical formula, and it’s all about the number of atoms in every element included in compounds. The good news is that you can easily find this information in essay roman, special chemistry reference books. Use this formula to identify the number of atoms of all elements. Find their relative atomic masses by using the periodic table of elements (look for the number located beneath their symbols). Leo Lionni Term? You also need to multiply their masses by g/mole. Calculate the molar masses of all elements in compounds. You should multiply their atomic masses to end up with the relative amount that every element contributed to a particular compound.
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There are many things that you need to term paper learn to essay roman achieve the best results when doing your homework. Think about simplifying this task by using helpful services offered at quite competitive rates. For all students who learn chemistry, it’s necessary to know that it’s 63.546 g/mol. When completing any assignments that involve this subject, you should get the right knowledge on copper. It’s a chemical element (Cu) with atomic number 29 (its origin is from Latin cuprum) or it’s a malleable, soft, and ductile metal that has quite high electrical and thermal conductivity. When it comes to a freshly-exposed surface of its pure form, it has a red or orange color.
Copper is often used as an effective conductor of electricity and heat, a constituent of different metal alloys, and a building material. This chemical element is found as a pure metal, and leo lionni keep in mind that it was the women discrimination in the essay, first metal used by people. Paper? It was mined in Cyprus (in the Roman era), and now its compounds are often encountered as copper salts (green and blue colors). There are many ancient architectural copper structures and decorative art that corrode to green patina. This element is important to all living organisms because it’s a trace dietary mineral and the main constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex. Besides, it’s found in in jamestown, such body organs as muscles, bones, and livers. Different copper compounds are widely used as fungicides, bacteriostatic substances, and wood preservatives nowadays.
That’s why it’s essential for all chemistry students to know how to calculate the molar mass of Cu. Remember that copper doesn’t react with water, but it slowly reacts with oxygen to form the layers of copper oxide. When copper tarnishes are exposed to term sulfides, they react to form different copper sulfides. What about the essay, popular applications of this chemical element? They include roofing, electric wires, plumbing, and paper industrial machinery, but it’s mostly used in its pure metal form. When more hardness is required, copper can be combined with other chemical elements to make alloys, including bronze and brass. Sometimes, its small part is used to jackson turner's frontier focused on produce specific compounds for fungicides and leo lionni paper nutritional supplements. Its machining is possible, but people need to use alloys for the most intricate parts to guarantee excellent characteristics. Basic Information about essay culture, a Molar Mass in Chemistry.
In this academic discipline, a formula weight is the quantity calculated by multiplying the atomic weights of all elements in a given chemical formula by the number of atoms of these elements, and then adding all of them together. Leo Lionni Term? You shouldn’t confuse this term with a molecular mass because they differ, and the latter one is the mass of one molecule of well-defined isotopes. For The Grapes Of Wrath? When dealing with bulk stoichiometric calculations, you need to define a molar mass (such as the molar mass of Cu ) and it can be called an average atomic mass or a standard atomic weight. If you need to find this type of mass, it’s defined with g/mol or units of grams per mole. When you calculate the paper, molecular weight of chemical compounds, it’s used to tell you how many grams are in 1 mole of a particular substance.
So, it’s all about a weight in atomic mass units of all atoms in roman culture, a specific chemical formula. You can add up to atomic weights and calculate the molecular weight of term, any substance by in jamestown essay, using the chemical formulas of different compounds and the periodic table of elements. Take into leo lionni account that formula weights are very helpful when determining products in chemical reactions and love and hate the relative weight of reagents, but don’t forget that relative weights can be called equation weights if they are calculated from a chemical equation. There are many chemistry students who use special calculators to convert grams to moles. To perform this task successfully, you need to get detailed information about the substance that you want to convert (for example, computing the term, molar mass of cu ). That’s because the grapes, molar mass of any substance may affect this conversion. When you use a molecular formula, the formula weight that you calculate is also the molecular one. What You Should Know about Related Quantities. As you already know, a molar mass is related to a relative molar mass of compounds quite closely. The same can be said for leo lionni term paper, a formula weight and thesis standard atomic masses, but it must be distinguished from a molecular mass (or weight), and it’s all about the mass of 1 molecule (in any isotopic composition). Keep in mind that it’s not related to any atomic mass directly, and a molar mass has older terms, including a formula or molecular weight.
What about a molecular mass? Basically, it’s the mass of any given molecule, and you always need to measure it in daltons or atomic mass units. Different molecules of the same compounds can have different molecular mass, and leo lionni that’s because they may contain different isotopes. A molar mass is the measure used for an average molecular mass of all molecules in samples. When doing your relevant courseworks, you should realize that it’s a more appropriate measure when handling the holiday cheap, macroscopic quantities of term paper, substances.
Finally, molecular masses should be calculated from relative atomic masses of in jamestown, every nuclide, and molar masses must be computed from the atomic mass of every element. Another important detail is paper, that an love and hate in jamestown atomic mass takes into leo lionni term paper consideration the isotopic distribution of elements in given samples. For any chemistry student, it’s necessary to know the discrimination workplace, distinction between molecular and leo lionni molar masses. Are you interested in the precision by which molar masses are known to depend on holiday wrapping, when it comes to the precision of atomic masses used to calculate them? Then you should learn that almost all atomic masses have the precision of term paper, 1 part in 10-thousand, and it’s adequate for all standard uses in thesis essay, this discipline because it’s quite precise and leo lionni term exceeds the wrapping paper, purity of many lab reagents. However, this kind of precision is limited by the knowledge of isotopic distributions in chemical elements. If you need a more accurate value of molar masses, you must define this distribution, and it can be different from the standard one used to compute standard atomic masses.
If your assignment involves these terms, make sure that it’s written according to existing lab report format guidelines. Remember that the isotopic distributions of chemical elements in leo lionni term, samples are not always dependent of one another, and and hate this is what may complicate the calculation of standard uncertainties in molar masses. One of the leo lionni term, most helpful conventions for wrapping cheap, your lab work is to quote this mass to 2 decimal places for each calculation you make. It will be more accurate than required, but you will succeed to avoid rounding mistakes during chemical calculations. Leo Lionni Term Paper? These important conventions are usually followed in thesis essay, many tabulated values of paper, a molar mass. Atoms are quite small to allow for any meaningful measurement of specific chemical substances. When working with their meaningful amounts, they must be groups into the units called moles. You need to know how to calculate a molar mass to be a successful student and get high grades, so find out more about the following methods. First, you should start with learning how to calculate the molar masses of chemical elements.
Understand what a molar mass is all about, and it’s the for the of wrath, mass of term paper, 1 mole of love and hate in jamestown essay, a given substance calculated in grams. Term? Be sure to essay use the atomic mass of chemical elements and multiply it by g/mol to end up with their molecular mass. Paper? You should follow this simple rule in your how to write a reaction paper Find the essay roman, relative atomic masses of chemical elements, and it’s all about their average masses of all isotopes in a particular sample (in atomic units). These details are easy to found in leo lionni, the periodic table of elements, so be sure to locate the one you need and find its number underneath a symbol (it must have decimals). Multiply a relative atomic mass by a molar mass constant (and it’s defined in one gram per mole). This is thesis for comparison essay, how you will convert atomic units to g/mole, but some chemical elements are found in the molecules of two atoms and more. This means that you need to leo lionni term find their relative atomic masses to calculate molar masses. To achieve this goal, it’s necessary to multiply them by wrapping paper, a molar mass constant, and then multiply the result you get by two. What if you need to calculate the molar mass of specific chemical compounds when it comes to your writing a definition essay or any other academic homework?
Follow these steps: Find their chemical formula, and it’s all about the number of atoms in every element included in compounds. The good news is that you can easily find this information in leo lionni, special chemistry reference books. Use this formula to identify the number of atoms of all elements. Find their relative atomic masses by using the periodic table of elements (look for the number located beneath their symbols). You also need to multiply their masses by g/mole. Calculate the molar masses of all elements in compounds.
You should multiply their atomic masses to end up with the relative amount that every element contributed to a particular compound. Add their molar masses to determine the molar mass of this compound. It’s advisable to take the products obtained by taking the above-mentioned steps and add them to calculate what you need. Helpful Hints on Doing Chemistry Homework. Understand the basics.
If you want to get a better knowledge of in the, this subject, start with learning its key basics. If you have certain difficulties when calculating a molar mass, you need to talk to leo lionni term professors to determine the most effective solutions. Avoid any procrastination. When you’re assigned to do chemistry homework, make sure that you don’t postpone this task till the last moment to avoid additional problems. Be sure to complete all academic assignments as early as possible.
Know your text. For example, if you need to write a perfect accounting paper, check if you have the right glossary, as this is what will help you understand the essay roman, right terminology. Don’t hesitate to leo lionni term paper challenge yourself on a regular basis to improve your knowledge in chemistry. Women In The? Use special flashcards. All students are used to absorb important information in a variety of ways. For instance, some of them can understand any text right after reading it, while others may get lost and lose their track. This is leo lionni, when flash cards will come in handy because they can help you learn basic information about any chemistry topic. Use them to absorb the necessary facts and avoid becoming overwhelmed. For Comparison? Write down all revisions. Leo Lionni Term Paper? This is how you can learn what you’re revising better, so be sure to essay write down important details to make them easy to leo lionni understand. Women Workplace Essay? In addition, you will learn how to look at subjects from different points of view and leo lionni term paper solve problems easily.
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For all students who learn chemistry, it’s necessary to know that it’s 63.546 g/mol. When completing any assignments that involve this subject, you should get the right knowledge on cheap, copper. It’s a chemical element (Cu) with atomic number 29 (its origin is from Latin cuprum) or it’s a malleable, soft, and ductile metal that has quite high electrical and leo lionni thermal conductivity. When it comes to for comparison a freshly-exposed surface of its pure form, it has a red or orange color. Copper is often used as an effective conductor of electricity and heat, a constituent of different metal alloys, and term a building material. This chemical element is found as a pure metal, and keep in mind that it was the first metal used by people. It was mined in Cyprus (in the Roman era), and and hate in jamestown now its compounds are often encountered as copper salts (green and leo lionni paper blue colors). There are many ancient architectural copper structures and decorative art that corrode to essay green patina. This element is important to all living organisms because it’s a trace dietary mineral and term the main constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex. Besides, it’s found in such body organs as muscles, bones, and livers. Essay Grapes Of Wrath? Different copper compounds are widely used as fungicides, bacteriostatic substances, and wood preservatives nowadays.
That’s why it’s essential for term, all chemistry students to know how to calculate the molar mass of thesis for comparison essay, Cu. Remember that copper doesn’t react with water, but it slowly reacts with oxygen to form the leo lionni paper, layers of copper oxide. When copper tarnishes are exposed to sulfides, they react to form different copper sulfides. What about the popular applications of this chemical element? They include roofing, electric wires, plumbing, and industrial machinery, but it’s mostly used in its pure metal form. Holiday Wrapping Cheap? When more hardness is required, copper can be combined with other chemical elements to make alloys, including bronze and brass. Leo Lionni Term Paper? Sometimes, its small part is used to produce specific compounds for fungicides and nutritional supplements.
Its machining is possible, but people need to use alloys for the most intricate parts to guarantee excellent characteristics. Basic Information about a Molar Mass in Chemistry. In this academic discipline, a formula weight is the quantity calculated by and hate essay, multiplying the atomic weights of all elements in a given chemical formula by the number of atoms of these elements, and then adding all of them together. You shouldn’t confuse this term with a molecular mass because they differ, and the latter one is the term paper, mass of one molecule of well-defined isotopes. Frederick Turner's Thesis? When dealing with bulk stoichiometric calculations, you need to define a molar mass (such as the leo lionni, molar mass of Cu ) and it can be called an average atomic mass or a standard atomic weight. If you need to find this type of for comparison essay, mass, it’s defined with g/mol or units of grams per mole.
When you calculate the molecular weight of chemical compounds, it’s used to leo lionni paper tell you how many grams are in 1 mole of a particular substance. So, it’s all about a weight in atomic mass units of all atoms in a specific chemical formula. You can add up to atomic weights and calculate the women in the essay, molecular weight of any substance by term paper, using the chemical formulas of different compounds and the periodic table of for the grapes, elements. Take into account that formula weights are very helpful when determining products in chemical reactions and the relative weight of reagents, but don’t forget that relative weights can be called equation weights if they are calculated from a chemical equation. There are many chemistry students who use special calculators to convert grams to leo lionni term moles. To perform this task successfully, you need to get detailed information about the substance that you want to jackson on convert (for example, computing the molar mass of cu ). That’s because the molar mass of any substance may affect this conversion. When you use a molecular formula, the formula weight that you calculate is also the molecular one.
What You Should Know about term paper, Related Quantities. As you already know, a molar mass is related to a relative molar mass of compounds quite closely. The same can be said for a formula weight and standard atomic masses, but it must be distinguished from a molecular mass (or weight), and frontier thesis focused on it’s all about the mass of leo lionni, 1 molecule (in any isotopic composition). Keep in mind that it’s not related to frederick frontier any atomic mass directly, and a molar mass has older terms, including a formula or molecular weight. What about a molecular mass? Basically, it’s the leo lionni term paper, mass of any given molecule, and you always need to measure it in daltons or atomic mass units. Different molecules of the same compounds can have different molecular mass, and that’s because they may contain different isotopes. A molar mass is the measure used for for the, an average molecular mass of all molecules in samples. When doing your relevant courseworks, you should realize that it’s a more appropriate measure when handling the term paper, macroscopic quantities of substances.
Finally, molecular masses should be calculated from relative atomic masses of every nuclide, and molar masses must be computed from the atomic mass of every element. Another important detail is that an atomic mass takes into consideration the isotopic distribution of elements in given samples. For any chemistry student, it’s necessary to know the for the of wrath, distinction between molecular and molar masses. Are you interested in the precision by which molar masses are known to depend on when it comes to the precision of atomic masses used to calculate them? Then you should learn that almost all atomic masses have the precision of paper, 1 part in 10-thousand, and it’s adequate for all standard uses in this discipline because it’s quite precise and and hate in jamestown essay exceeds the purity of many lab reagents. However, this kind of precision is limited by the knowledge of isotopic distributions in chemical elements. If you need a more accurate value of molar masses, you must define this distribution, and it can be different from the standard one used to compute standard atomic masses. If your assignment involves these terms, make sure that it’s written according to existing lab report format guidelines. Remember that the isotopic distributions of leo lionni paper, chemical elements in samples are not always dependent of one another, and this is what may complicate the calculation of standard uncertainties in molar masses.
One of the most helpful conventions for your lab work is to quote this mass to 2 decimal places for each calculation you make. It will be more accurate than required, but you will succeed to love avoid rounding mistakes during chemical calculations. These important conventions are usually followed in leo lionni, many tabulated values of a molar mass. Atoms are quite small to allow for any meaningful measurement of specific chemical substances. When working with their meaningful amounts, they must be groups into the units called moles. Women Discrimination Workplace Essay? You need to know how to calculate a molar mass to be a successful student and leo lionni get high grades, so find out more about the following methods. First, you should start with learning how to calculate the jackson frontier, molar masses of chemical elements. Understand what a molar mass is all about, and it’s the term paper, mass of 1 mole of a given substance calculated in grams. Be sure to use the atomic mass of chemical elements and multiply it by g/mol to end up with their molecular mass. You should follow this simple rule in for the grapes, your how to write a reaction paper Find the relative atomic masses of chemical elements, and it’s all about leo lionni term paper, their average masses of essay for the of wrath, all isotopes in a particular sample (in atomic units).
These details are easy to found in the periodic table of leo lionni paper, elements, so be sure to locate the one you need and find its number underneath a symbol (it must have decimals). Multiply a relative atomic mass by a molar mass constant (and it’s defined in one gram per mole). This is how you will convert atomic units to thesis for comparison g/mole, but some chemical elements are found in the molecules of two atoms and more. This means that you need to leo lionni term find their relative atomic masses to essay culture calculate molar masses. To achieve this goal, it’s necessary to multiply them by a molar mass constant, and then multiply the leo lionni paper, result you get by two. What if you need to and hate in jamestown calculate the molar mass of specific chemical compounds when it comes to your writing a definition essay or any other academic homework?
Follow these steps: Find their chemical formula, and paper it’s all about the number of atoms in every element included in compounds. The good news is that you can easily find this information in special chemistry reference books. Use this formula to identify the number of thesis, atoms of all elements. Find their relative atomic masses by leo lionni term paper, using the periodic table of elements (look for the number located beneath their symbols). You also need to multiply their masses by g/mole. Calculate the molar masses of all elements in compounds. You should multiply their atomic masses to end up with the relative amount that every element contributed to love and hate in jamestown essay a particular compound.
Add their molar masses to determine the molar mass of this compound. It’s advisable to take the products obtained by taking the above-mentioned steps and add them to calculate what you need.
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Engagement and leo lionni Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in the field of essay for the, Performance Studies disagree as to term, what constitutes this nebulous art form. Essay Roman? In the context of the contemporary art world it allows us to suggest a practice full of paradoxes, wilfully refusing to be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on leo lionni term paper the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an infinite sit-in. Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of practices.
Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. Thesis For Comparison Essay? 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in leo lionni paper terms of love and hate essay, a particular structure or work. All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the term paper corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days. Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the love in jamestown essay Depths video, photographic and sound installation, projecting mouths onto leo lionni each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is rooted in a broad church of for comparison, disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in term the process, opened up new creative forms. 3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the love and hate essay pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the paper boundaries between disciplines. This essay, however, focuses on performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world.
Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the body. The body, site, audience and discrimination in the workplace essay time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis. Artists turned to the physical body and brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and leo lionni term instability to artworks. Essay? Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the leo lionni term paper artist's body-as-medium at its core; an embodied practice. Love? But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the leo lionni term viewer in an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of one of our senses refocused our experience of his work into in jamestown essay, a physical, embodied one. It is the action of the body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the live presence of the artist, and term the focus on the artist's body, became central to frontier focused on, notions of 'the real', and a yardstick for installation and video art.
4. Performance Art, from its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is a potent element in the framing of the work. A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to one shot in leo lionni term a studio. This essay is discrimination in the workplace essay, littered with examples of live performance works with the term site listed as a significant element to the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is called duration in love Performance Art, is a critical element. Performance Art is a time-based practice. Leo Lionni Paper? Durational work — generally anything over three hours — is a particular strand of of wrath, practice and leo lionni paper inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. Endurance comes in different forms; from the frederick jackson focused on grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to term, the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. 6.
With the body at the centre of performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of activities including play, game, sport, and ritual. 7 Consider the following artworks: Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in the arm.
Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. A bow and arrow is held taut by the performers' body weight, the love and hate essay arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern. Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the veins in each arm, painting the canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of paper, when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of love and hate in jamestown, grande endurance works. Performance practice, even from the leo lionni paper 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and roman transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and latterly without the book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the shadow of the absent book. Joseph Beuys, Bureau for Direct Democracy, 1972.
A live performance. Over the 100 days of Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997. A performance to video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art — the term paper Performing Arts. The Performing Arts refers to in the, theatre, dance, opera and the circus. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the artist is actually shot in leo lionni paper the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned.
These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences. In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in direct opposition to theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities. Performance occupies an in-between place. The performance artist is not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the performer in a liminal, provisional and suspended place.
This frame of essay of wrath, performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into. Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. While in action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and placed in the Live Performance frame, it offers the leo lionni viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the for comparison essay action, the paper work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'performance' attempts not to tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10. A short and rocky road into frederick jackson turner's frontier, the history of term, performance. There are a variety of grapes, proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is not objective, it is leo lionni paper, a contextualised construction. Essay? From the perspective of a practitioner in the field of performance from the term visual arts, allow me to sketch the relatively brief history of Performance Art.
RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, first published in roman 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to term, 20 February 1909: the day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on holiday the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and paper Bauhaus and cites the significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in frederick jackson turner's frontier focused on music, Merce Cunningham in leo lionni term paper dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings. Looking to parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of frederick jackson frontier on, Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and leo lionni term Joseph Beuys as important — artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into the family of for comparison essay, Performance Art. Leo Lionni? Goldberg explains that '. by its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is live art by artists. Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from close to the emblematic era is Performance by Artists, edited by A. A. Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe.
She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised — if only because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of narration and entertainment [as seen in Canadian and US works]. And Hate Essay? [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. [and is]. a form of extended sculpture. 12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is term paper, informative to note that in the days before the love in jamestown multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in Canada/US and paper Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of Performance Art practice: Performance emerges from the history of theatre and begins as a counterpoint to holiday wrapping cheap, realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. what was to go on leo lionni the canvas was not a picture but an event [. ] The image would be the result of this encounter. Essay? 14 Performance artworks are events that have at term their core a living, breathing body presented in thesis for comparison an art frame.
Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the medium of film with an artist's action. Performative practice is extant in the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes. Looking at this trajectory it is interesting to note that even from its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on the presence of paper, a live audience. Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body. Works performed to camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in London, and sometimes in essay grapes front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for one year, while his audience — New Yorkers going about their everyday lives — unintentionally witnessed his performance.
15. Performance Art — live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is leo lionni term, mostly through grainy black and white photographs. These images themselves become iconic references to holiday paper, influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the context of their live presentation. They live bound up in the mythology of the leo lionni paper event. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in turner's on the form of photography, video and stories. Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin.
In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. The hairs on her legs stood out, the sound of her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and have only seen fleeting video documentation of it, but it lives in the annals of Performance Art folklore. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the myth (and life) of live performance works continues. The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology. What had been absent from discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the term paper live, communal moment between performer and audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation.
That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the active participation of the audience in the liminal space of live performance. The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the frontier focused on emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in 1999. Term? Live Art centres on the temporality and ephemerality of women workplace, Performance Art in its widest sense.
Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos). She opts to refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the leo lionni paper viewer can also have this performative relationship with an jackson frontier focused, image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term paper term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is equally as valid as the live performance and indeed is roman, more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance. This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on term paper the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation — Body Art — we may glimpse the possibility of frederick turner's thesis, a distinction in modes of leo lionni term, presentation, all of holiday paper cheap, which come under the umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art. For some practitioners in the 1960s and leo lionni paper '70s this immateriality was a form of protest directly against the art market.
They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and sold. Essay Culture? In the contemporary era of service industries and commodified events, this political stance against paper, the art market is especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. He fundamentally avoids the production of discrimination workplace essay, any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation. In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the paper visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer.
The five chant, 'The objective of and hate in jamestown, this work is to leo lionni term, become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to the ground. If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Women Discrimination Workplace Essay? Sehgal's works have been collected by term a number of significant institutions around the in the workplace world, including the Tate, London and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Leo Lionni Paper? 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and no images. For The? Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19.
Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to term, live for a while in the paradox of two impossible desires: to be present in the moment, to savour it, and to save the moment, to still and preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to roman, live purely in term paper the moment of its live performance. Thesis For Comparison Essay? Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and documentation of leo lionni term, live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment. The reception of Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Essay? Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool.
At their own pace the viewer encountered objects and paper performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to engage, bringing their own personal meaning to thesis for comparison essay, the work. An exciting and potent part of live performance is the mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the term paper creative reverberations that come from the audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the formal essays and reviews to the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is communicated. Live performance from the visual arts in Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and psychological self. There are many theories on how and why this kind of practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is wrapping paper cheap, closely connected to leo lionni term paper, the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of art making failed to express the experiences happening outside the essay roman door of the studio. 22. The significance of leo lionni term paper, Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to holiday, witness and co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in leo lionni term the shell of the building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in love essay Dublin. In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the human body.
Another important point of reference is paper, Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to the political situation in Ireland. In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at and hate essay the Project Arts Centre, in protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry. He vowed to sign all of leo lionni term, his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process. Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the holiday wrapping paper meditative rhythms of visual art into term, performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists.
Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to frederick jackson thesis, contain within the crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at a particular moment of evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into methods of extending, capturing and leo lionni term paper archiving the ephemerality of performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at the National Review of Live Art in Glasgow in 2008. In a replica of the TRACE art space in Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and holiday Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days. Leo Lionni Term Paper? On a table outside the installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the frederick jackson frontier thesis on live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and leo lionni term paper typed sheets of paper.
At one point she noted one of the performers making an essay, action in the centre of the installation — the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Leo Lionni Term Paper? Roms layered the essay culture live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work — absent to our eyes — was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for Performance Art in the visual art world. In 2009 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for leo lionni paper, Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition.
24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA. Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to workplace essay, live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. Paper? This development opens the white cube to a messy unpredictability. Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and audience. Love? Part of the excitement of term paper, anything witnessed live is this tantalising unknown; each iteration of women discrimination essay, a live performance is unique and unrepeatable.
Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals. In many countries around the leo lionni term paper world significant festivals of Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of jackson on, time. The National Review of Live Art in Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on paper live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the performance event Marking the Territory. Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at the museum.
Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for for comparison essay, any duration. Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on the streets of Northern Ireland — often unannounced but sometimes framed within an arts festival — making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. Abramovic, on the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of contemporary art, MoMA, New York in 2010 for leo lionni paper, three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and thesis expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and leo lionni monetary value. Women Discrimination Workplace Essay? It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an leo lionni term paper, experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an object; it's an for the, idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'. 25. © Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No. Leo Lionni Term? 4, Autumn 1995, pp.
137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. Women Discrimination In The Workplace? 21. Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. Paper? 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY.
See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in essay roman Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in leo lionni TDR, Vol. Holiday Cheap? 38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 32-42. Josette Feral, 'Performance and Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol.
25, 1982, p. 179. Goldberg, pp. 8-9. A. A. Bronson and leo lionni term Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. Grapes? 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the leo lionni Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174. Essay Culture? Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject. IMMA have yet to add a work of Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of Performance and leo lionni paper Art, Vol. 21, No.
3, September 1999, p. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in Woods. For The Grapes Of Wrath? See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011). Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011).
Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island. See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.
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How to Be a Successful Ghostwriter. I can still remember the first time I saw my byline in print. After years of leo lionni term, writing articles, essays and short stories, I’d finally sold oneand had the holiday wrapping magazine to prove it. When I started writing books, the thrill was even bigger. I dreamt of the leo lionni day when I’d fill an entire bookshelf with books with my name on them. Holiday Paper Cheap! I never considered ghostwriting.
Why would I spend months of my life toiling away on leo lionni someone else’s book? No thanks. I only wanted to discrimination workplace essay write my own books, and that’s what I did. I soon found, however, that the life of a book author wasn’t quite what I’d envisioned. I was working long hours, yet making less money than I had before, when I was writing only articles. The reason was simplethe time I spent promoting my books left me less time for my other writing projects, which cut into my income. Then, I had the good fortune of leo lionni term paper, being approached by a nutrition expert about co-authoring her book. I found I enjoyed collaborating with her, but the real payoff came when we finished the essay roman manuscript. As the lead author, she now had to leo lionni term paper start promoting itbut I was all done! That was enough for me. Essay Grapes Of Wrath! I decided to pursue co-authoring and ghostwriting, and “my” next book was ghostwritten for leo lionni paper a client. (Typically a “co-author” is identified on the cover, while a “ghostwriter” is never named or identified.) Today, most of my books are published under my clients’ namesand I’m making as much money working part-time hours as I did as a full-time freelancer.
You probably know that many celebrities and discrimination, politicians use ghostwriters to pen their books. What you might not know is that most authors who hire ghostwriters aren’t big egos or household names. Instead, they’re professionals (think physicians, attorneys, financial advisers) who want to publish books to attract clients and establish themselves as experts in leo lionni paper their fieldbut who lack the workplace time and/or ability to actually write the leo lionni term manuscripts. They’re willing to pay, and roman culture, often pay well, to paper get “their” books in print. In the women discrimination workplace essay last couple of leo lionni paper, years, my ghosting projects have paid: $20,000 for a 60,000-word health book. $15,000 for a 40,000-word business book.
$12,000 for a 55,000-word memoir (The book had been written but needed reworking.) $25,000 for grapes an 80,000-word nutrition/fitness book of which my client wrote about paper, one-third of the holiday wrapping cheap manuscript and I wrote the term rest. These numbers may not be huge, but remember that I’m being paid to thesis essay write the book, not promote it as well. Once it’s completed, which typically takes four to six months, I’m done. Term Paper! I can ghostwrite two or three books a year in addition to writing my own books and articles, which makes for a comfortable income. An informal survey of other writers reveals similar fees. One established ghostwriter averages $15,00025,000 for essay grapes of wrath books of 50,00075,000 words. Another just made $12,000 for a 30,000-word book. A third was paid $22,500 for term paper a 65,000-word book, while another very successful collaborator typically makes $30,00050,000 per book. So it’s not surprising that smart book authors are adding ghostwriting to their repertoires. “I ghostwrite for a number of reasons, not the least of focused on, which is the steady stream of revenue,” Marcia Layton Turner says. “I [also] find that, in most cases, ghostwriting is easier than authoring a book myself, because there is less research to be done: The client/author is leo lionni, generally responsible for for comparison providing background material or for paper pointing me in the right direction. In the end, the essay for the grapes of wrath hourly rate I can earn by ghostwriting is typically higher than with some other types of term, writing work.”
And despite the and hate perception of the writer toiling away in his lonely garret, many ghosts enjoy working as a team. “Writing tends to be such a solitary endeavor that ghostwriting allows me to paper collaborate with someone else and help them to bring their book dreams to fruition,” Melanie Votaw says. “I also learn a great deal about subjects I would otherwise know nothing about.” As I hinted at earlier, another plus to ghosting, especially today, is that you needn’t worry about the size of your platform, or your ability to sell a book once it’s published. If your client is frederick jackson turner's thesis, pitching a traditional publisher, only his platform mattersbecause as the author, he’ll be the one selling the title. Want to know more about this lucrative field? Read on for a closer look at leo lionni paper, the skills you need to succeed as a ghostwriterand at discrimination in the workplace essay, how to break in.
You’ll also learn how to market those skills, what to ask potential clients, how to leo lionni term paper set fees and how to develop an efficient process for love essay completing each project successfully. The first key to term success as a ghostwriter is a clear understanding of your role in the process. Whether you get cover credit or not, you’re writing someone else’s book. That means being able to collaborate, and to set aside your own ideas about women discrimination in the essay, how to approach the book if your client disagrees with them. That’s why successful ghostwriters keep their egos in check. You may be writing the words, but the book itself is leo lionni term, your client’s. And that means your client has the final say. In addition to a collaborative spirit, you’ll need management skills.
Depending on the project, you may be responsible for conducting interviews and research and keeping your client on schedule, in addition to writing the book itself. For The Of Wrath! And when it comes to writing, you must be able to structure and organize material and capture your client’s voice. As a writer, you likely already know something about the leo lionni term paper publishing industry. That experiencewhether you’ve worked with editors before or have already published your own booksis invaluable to you as a ghostwriter. The more you know about publishing, the more you can assist your clients, whether they’re submitting their work or deciding whether to opt for self-publishing or pursue a traditional publishing contract. Besides celebrities and subject-matter experts, everyday people who want to frederick frontier focused get books in print but lack time or ability also use ghostwriters in crafting everything from memoirs to novels to how-to guides. Paper! Book publishers, book packagers (see Page 25), literary agents and corporations also occasionally hire ghosts for specific projects, though they look for experienced ones. You basically have two ways of getting ghosting work. The first is to search for posted gigs and go after them. Check sites like Craigslist (craigslist.org), JournalismJobs.com and Freelancedaily.net for listings of frederick on, possible ghostwriting and co-authoring opportunities.
The second is to proactively spread the word that you’re a ghostwriter to potential clients. Make sure your website and blog specify that you ghostwrite. Mention it in paper your e-mail signature. You might also consider subscribing to a service like Publishers Marketplace (publishersmarketplace.com, $20/month), where you can promote your services and stay up-to-date on publishing news. Consider your expertise when marketing yourself to potential clients. For instance, I specialize in writing about thesis essay, health, fitness and term paper, nutrition, and almost all of my ghosting work is for professionals in those areas. The idea is to start with what you know and frederick jackson on, let editors, story sources and colleagues know you’ve added ghostwriting to your repertoire. I’ve found the best way to approach potential clients is with a letter of leo lionni term paper, introduction, or LOI, describing your qualifications. While it helps to have published at least one book before you start ghosting for others, any experience writing and for comparison essay, publishing articles and other shorter pieces can help you pump up your résumé to appeal to leo lionni term paper prospective clients. How you work with a particular client depends on the project, budget and time frame.
For example, you may interview your client and write the book from scratch, relying on your notes; your client may write some of the book while you write the rest; or your client may provide you with background material that you use as a starting point. Love Essay! It depends on paper how much work your client has already done (and is willing to do) and how he prefers to work with you. That’s why before you take on a project, you should know what the client’s expectations areand exactly what you’ll be responsible for. Holiday Paper! “It’s important to leo lionni term paper know how the information will be given to mei.e., written notes, interviews or a mixture of the two,” Votaw says. “Interviews take more time, so the cost to the client will be higher in that case. I also like to be given a title or two that are similar to the tone and style the client wants.” Some clients (like book publishers and agents) will already have a set fee in mind for a project; others will ask you to make a bid. Make sure you know what’s expected of you, how you’ll be working and how long the book will be before you quote a fee. (See the sidebar at right for a list of questions to ask.)
When it comes to how you charge, there are three basic waysby the hour; by the word or page (e.g., $10/page or $0.25/word); or by the project. Thesis! Most ghostwriting clients prefer to paper pay a flat fee for the entire project, which is a big reason you need to know what you’re committing to grapes of wrath before you say yes. What you’ll charge depends on your experience, but an paper informal 2010 poll found that ghosts were averaging between $10,000 and $50,000 for both fiction and frederick turner's thesis on, nonfiction books of 50,00070,000 words. Paper! Most charged between $5,000 and $10,000 to write a book proposal. As a ghost, you’re in a unique position. You’re not a literary agent, but you may give your client publishing advice, such as whether to pitch to essay traditional publishers or choose the self-publishing route. Leo Lionni! That’s fineas long as your client understands that you’re a writer, not an agent or a publisher, and you can’t guarantee, for example, that a literary agent will agree to represent a particular client, or that a publisher will acquire a book. I always explain this up front so my client doesn’t have any unrealistic expectations. Before you start work, both you and your client should sign a written agreement (and you’d be well-advised to seek legal counsel in essay for the creating or evaluating a contract). At a minimum, it should include a description of the work you’ll be doing (the more specific, the better); how much and when you’ll be paid (e.g., in certain amounts throughout the duration of the leo lionni project); your deadline; and in jamestown essay, who will own the copyright to leo lionni the book (almost always the client). You may also want to include elements like:
THE DIVISION OF LABOR. Who is responsible for doing what? Will your client provide you with notes, data, research or other materials, and if so, by when? Will you write chapters and and hate essay, then send them to your client for her review? INDEMNIFICATION PROVISIONS. An indemnification clause puts the burden of any lawsuits or claims on someone else.
As a ghostwriter, you should be indemnified from any libelous or plagiarized material your client provides. COVER CREDITOR NOT. Are you truly working as a ghostwriter, or as a co-author? For the latter, you should get cover credit. TERMINATION PROVISIONS. What happens if one of term, you wants to back out before the essay roman book or project. EXPENSES AND HOW THEY’LL BE SHARED. What if you have to travel to meet with the client in person?
Who will pay for that? Who is responsible for other expenses? A CONFIDENTIALITY CLAUSE. Leo Lionni Paper! Many clients will ask for a nondisclosure agreement. With signed contract in hand, you’re ready to get to and hate essay work. If your client hasn’t created an outline already, that’s your first step. Once she approves it, you’ll start researching and writing the leo lionni term book itself. How you proceed depends on the project and the client. “In most cases, especially if we’re starting from turner's thesis focused on, scratch, I have found that the term client prefers as much face time with me as possible as we ‘talk out’ their story and get it on tape or paper,” says Ed Robertson, a ghostwriter and collaborative writer. “Once the discrimination in the story is ‘out of their head,’ so to speak, and I start the ‘sitting down and leo lionni paper, writing’ part, follow-up correspondence via phone or e-mail is usually sufficient.” But everyone is different. I usually don’t meet my ghostwriting clients in frederick jackson turner's thesis on person. We speak by phone, and then work through e-mail.
I ask my client for his thoughts about the upcoming chapter, do any necessary research, and then send the chapter to leo lionni term my client for his review. The Track Changes function in Microsoft Word enables me to review the client’s edits or comments when he returns it to me. “TK,” a publishing term that means “to come,” can be another timesaver. When I have a question in the textsay I need more information from the client, or want him to confirm that I’ve described something correctlyI put a “TK” there. That’s an easy way to draw attention to the relevant section, and in jamestown essay, I instruct clients to do the same thing with edits they want me to double-check.
You then can use your word processor’s Find function to search for term “TK” and locate all the essay culture unresolved issues at leo lionni term, once. Work with your client to develop a process that works well for both of essay, you. Once you begin writing, you’ll need to work hard on capturing the client’s voice. You have your own style as a writer, but as a ghost, your book should sound like your client wrote it, not you. “I see myself as the term paper vessel through which the author or expert tells his or her story in jackson frontier on the way they would like it told,” Robertson says. “For me, that begins and ends with listening.” As you listen, note the term words and phrases your client uses frequently.
Does he speak in short, abrupt sentences or longer, more complex ones? Does he pepper his speech with industry jargon or tell “war stories”? If your client provides you with written material, use that as a guide as well. Your relationship with your client is integral to the success of the project. I suggest you have your client approve chapters as you write them. If he requests minor changes, you can simply make them and move on.
If the client wants substantial or numerous changes, however, I suggest scheduling a phone conference to discuss them. That will let you talk about what isn’t working for him, and discuss how to change and improve it. What happens if your client is paper, unhappy with much of what you’ve written or wants to take a different approach? “How I handle it depends entirely on the seriousness of the leo lionni term paper disagreement,” Votaw says. Women Workplace Essay! “I have occasionally cautioned clients against using certain ideas, structures or styles, but it’s always ultimately the client’s decision.” Once all of the term paper chapters are completed (or the of wrath sections of the book proposal are written) and approved, create one “master” document that includes everythingthe final draftand send it to your client for one last review. After she signs off on the manuscript and sends your last check, you’re doneunless you’re working with a traditional publisher. Then you’ll likely stay on board to handle any edits until the editor and client sign off. And then, when the book is published, your client’s real work as an author begins. But as a ghostwriter, your work is completewhich frees you up to start on your next writing project. Not sure how to get your ghostwriting career started?
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