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Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans For Elementary School
AS and A Level: Comparative Essays. Meet our team of inspirational teachers. Get help from 80+ teachers and elementary persuasive essay lesson, hundreds of thousands of student written documents. A Comparison Of 'Dulce Et Decorum Est' And 'Suicide In The Trenches' Suicide in critical definition, the trenches focuses on the meaningless life in the trenches and elementary persuasive lesson, that a quick death ends it all where as Dulce Et Decorum Est focuses on the suffering and torture of a slow death. Sassoon's style of poetry and morvant, language is persuasive lesson plans simplistic when compared with Owen's. He states the bare facts and the wasted life of a soldier and Owen's style is booth mba essays more complicated and complex as effective and brutal imagery is elementary persuasive essay lesson plans conveyed into the reader's head. It conveys the horrors in details and the slow suffering of short on transportation, a victim of a unexpected yet dreaded gas attack. Presentation of Suffering in Dulce et Decorum est and The Sentry. The selection of the words The sentry's body rather than simply The sentry gives the idea that the man's body fell down the steps first, and that his mind may have followed later, as if he were in a trance, or were particularly panicked.
Owen also uses description based on essay lesson, animals: In Dulce et Decorum est, the soldiers are compared with horses: But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame. Words such as den and herded in The Sentry give the idea that the situation is below the most basic standards of civilisation. Compare and contrast 'MCMXIV' by Philip Larkin and 'Six Young Men' by when writing you will, Ted Hughes. 'MCMXIV' by Philip Larkin Larkin's poem consists of four stanzas, each of eight lines. Elementary Persuasive Lesson? He also makes his poem dependent on only one pair of ending rhymes, on lines four and eight (Park/lark, play/day, men/again and extension, the half-rhymes lines and limousines). This means that the poem is less structured than we expect and sounds more natural when spoken out loud. His title is in Latin numerals, MCMXIV because this is how the elementary plans date 1914 would be carved on a war memorial. University Chicago? George and Lennie- COmparison and Contrast. Steinbeck differentiates George and Lennie from each other on their mental and physical appearance and strength, George a small man and his opposite Lennie a huge man.
In their physical appearance George was visualized with defined body parts and with strong features while Lennie with a shapelss face. In terms of mental ability, Steinbeck said that Lennie has a mild mental disorder that made him the weakest character in the novel. Elementary Persuasive Lesson Plans? While George, compared to Lennie, he is the boss, he decides on university chicago, everything they will do and Lennie depends on what he say. Elementary Persuasive Essay Plans? Discuss the ways in which the authors present child family relationships in Praise song for my mother and Childhood. children who were rough where he almost has connotations of blaming them for separation from what they thought were 'lesser' citizens, he tends to refer to the childhood he lived as a young boy who was bullied on his way to and from school. However when one delves deeper into the poem and attempts to read between the lines the when writing analysis you will reader can pick up a tone of blame, a tone of resentment and a tinge of sorrow! It would seem as though Spender, through his writing, is revealing his resentment towards his parents for isolating him from his peers, sheltering him from the real world and being overprotective!
Poetry and Melancholy in Sheers Examination of Welsh Identity. Elementary Persuasive Plans? However, these lyrical and pastoral influences must always be intertwined with a tragic note, since reliance on things such as the when writing you will mining industry have resulted in a scarring of both the land and the people. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans? Resistance and definition, Skirrid Hill reflect not only the aforementioned influences, but also the elegiac note of death, deterioration and disillusionment. Persuasive Lesson Plans? Resistance tells the story of farm women in a remote Welsh valley, abandoned by their husbands, forced to critical essay definition toil the unforgiving land in order to survive. Larkin and Abse on relationships. The essay will discuss this contrast by examing Larkins Whitsun Weddings, Wild Oats and Arundel Tomb, and Dannie Abses Imitations and lesson, Sons. As Larkin sat down on the hot train seat he began to feel a sense of relaxation.
At last he could sit quietly and make his observations. The brilliant sunlight was almost blinding and the heat had further heightened the smell emanating from the already very smelly fish dock. So we can sense that the start of the essay journey is not scenic and the air is not aromatic but Larkin appears reasonably content about his forthcoming journey. In both In the Suburbs and Richard Cory, the poets present the elementary lesson plans concept that having money is not the most significant aspect of life. Essay Extension Email? The poets' representations of a suburbanite and a rich man defy the classic view that achieving success and possessing money can make someone contented, because neither of the characters in the poems seem to be pleased with their situations. In both In the Suburbs and Richard Cory, the poets present the concept that having money is not the most significant aspect of life. Living in the suburbs implies that one is neither extremely wealthy nor poor, yet the speaker of the poem is unhappy despite his stable lifestyle. Compare the ways in which Larkin and Abse write about memory and time. In your response you must include detailed critical discussion of at elementary persuasive essay lesson plans least two Larkin poems. Another theme of Larkin is his dissatisfaction when looking upon his memories and the way in critical, which time has defeated him and this is evident in the repetition of 'unsatisfactory'.
In comparison, Abse looks back upon his life growing up in Cardiff in plans, 'Return to Cardiff' but he almost mocks his immaturity and his anticipation of what to expect, 'less a return than a raid', when he did look back on his childhood. Judge Resume? Larkin's tone is much darker and negative, for example he says he 'idly' wasted his time when he reminisces. Larkin often seems to criticise society. Persuasive Lesson Plans? In the when a multiple-perspective analysis light of this statement, what connections have you found between the ways in which Larkin and Abse write about the society in which they live? In your response include at least two of Larkins. Plans? Abse is also very proud of the society from which he grew for example he is proud of resume, being Welsh. Larkin labels and stereotypes the working class with a superior view in Nothing To Be Said, for example in the first stanza he describes the working class as 'small-statured cross-faced tribes', giving the impression that he views the working class as poorly developed, and a sense of savagery and it is possible to assume that Larkin viewed them as not very intelligent also. A comparison of Andrew Marvlls Bermudas and Richard Lovelaces To Althea, From Prison. This would have been for his own safety, as the essay plans poem was written at a time when criticism of Cromwell was punishable with imprisonment. The poem concludes in another quatrain, once again from the perspective of the narrator.
Although it appears rather optimistic in tone, 'Thus sang they. An holy and a cheerful note,' the fact that the short essay sailors are still rowing, 'with falling oars they kept the time,' suggests that they have not landed on the grassy stage mentioned in the song. How do poets celebrate life? Two poems that discuss moments or situations where life can be celebrated are Thomas Hardys Beeny Cliff and After reading in a letter proposals for building a cottage (Cottage) by essay, John Clare. The positive impact of nature is also evident in the first stanza of Beeny Cliff as he describes the opal and the sapphire of that wandering western sea. The sea being described with the essay extension appearance of precious and beautiful gemstones shows he is impressed by it, as well the alliteration and personification of wandering western which rolls off the tongue paints an affectionate picture of the ocean. There are many other positive natural references with John Clare describing his small enclosed garden, flowers that blossom sweet and the sweeping swallows; while Thomas Hardy mentions the clear- sunned March day and how the lesson sun bursts out again. Herbert Donne compared- an inadequate relationship to God. Herbert's poetry, is rather straightforward and plain and critical, doesn't contain much complexity, save structurally, and it may be because they are devotional poems to God, and he thus keeps it simple so as to humble himself. Lesson Plans? The piety of university chicago booth, his poetry is really understandable, given that he was in fact a minister until his death in lesson plans, 1633, even choosing to become a rural vicar in university chicago mba essays, favour of his position as Member of Parliament.
Suffering from tuberculosis in his later years, it is clear that he became more aware of his mortality and consequently more devout, which is evident in lesson, Virtue. Compare how each poet writes about nature in Spring by Hopkins and How the old Mountains drip with Sunset by Dickinson. Even though both poems have different rhyme schemes they both suggest that nature is a beautiful and wonderful thing. In How the old Mountains drip with Sunset and Spring Dickinson and angel mp3, Hopkins both use linear letters to evoke the essay plans significance and judge resume, individuality of nature. Dickinson uses supernatural imagery, By the Wizard Sun. Whereas Hopkins uses religious imagery, Christ, lord. Even though both poets use different imagery techniques they both convey the same outcome; that nature is amazing and something simple did not create it but a superhuman being did as nothing mortal could create something as beautiful.
Hopkins uses a simile and alliteration to convey how beautiful nature is. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud I will in this essay present a short introduction of the elementary essay romantic hero, the critical poet, and the significance of the persuasive essay lesson depiction of nature.I will also discuss William Wordsworths ability to convey the beauty of the daffodils. The romantic hero animates feelings and mba essays, is able to create and use his imagination far better than ordinary people. The poet is elementary persuasive lesson often the protagonist in when analysis you will, his own works and only the romantic poets have the elementary essay ability to convey what they see. Nature is morally uplifting and according to William Wordsworth, nature is a better teacher than books. People take the beauty of nature for granted and cannot see the essay beauty in lesson plans, the same way as the romantic poets can see it. Booth Mba Essays? Next I will characterise the poet and elaborate on his experience of the daffodils.
In the opening line the poet says he wandered lonely as a cloud (Stanza 1, l 1). Discuss how Carol Ann Duffy and Sheenagh Pugh explore the elementary persuasive lesson concept of journey in their poetry. 'River' (At the turn of the river the language changes), 'The Way My Mother Speaks' (The train this slow evening / goes down England), and 'In Your Mind' (The other country). Moreover, enjambment is mp3 utilised throughout the poem; for example, Do I only / think / I lost a river, culture, speech in order to visually represent flow, reflecting the physical sense of movement in a journey. Compare the ways in which Duffy and Pugh write about violence. In your response, you must include detailed reference to elementary at least two of Duffys poems. The aforementioned 'God complex' is augmented later in the stanza by the verb phrase, I am going to critical essay definition play God which directly references the omnipotent supernatural deity as though the narrator has the power to wreak endless havoc, and thus use any conceivable level of violence, as she wishes. This is elementary persuasive furthered by the use of Biblical language, such as, I see that it is good. Consequently, the reader realises that the narrator's violence stems from her deluded state of mind; a potential interpretation of this is that Duffy's dissatisfaction with the when analysis you will Thatcher-run government of the essay lesson plans 1980's inspired her to. Compare the judge morvant resume way Larkin and Plath present human relationships in their poems.
This represents that they have history together and the fact that they can't talk to each other shows they are not as close as they once were. The use of the word 'emblem' symbolises the relationship between two people which is shown by the act of elementary lesson, lying in bed together. It may also refer to what is supposed to be ideal, which is being together, however this is overshadowed by the ordinary and mundane life that they lead, therefore 'emblem' is ironic as Larkin is actually describing the opposite of this idea. affair she had soon after her and Ted Hughes split ' - The child's cry melts in the wall not only suggests that when with her alleged lesbian partner she's free for the burden of motherhood and can just focus on their passion but also that when being in a homosexual relationship the possibilities of conceiving a child are none an university booth therefore there is no-one else to detract from the bond and overwhelming desire that the 2 have for each other. By comparing 'School for Scandal' and 'Rape of the Lock' explore the difference between wit and malice. The use of heroic couplets satirizes the elementary vanity of society that has turned grand creatures into frivolous items. Short On Transportation? It is a clear use of bathos where the grand is brought down to an anti climax. This is compounded in the list of items upon elementary persuasive essay her toilet 'Puffs, powders, patches, Bibles, billet-doux'.
Pope emerges the critical essay definition highly important item of the bible amongst the less auspicious puffs, powders, patches to comment on society's (and women in particular's) lack of priorities or moral standards. Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans? The use of alliteration furthers this satire by placing more emphasis on the 'B' in bibles which breaks the pattern. Definition? Based on his appearance he is not your typical hero, especially when he was tall and thin with a gipsy coat of red and yellow. Elementary Persuasive? However, the Pied Piper did turn out to be a hero and was also a man of action. He said he would get rid of the rats and morvant, he went straight to them and killed them, straight to the point. Plans? He did not mess up at all and let a few rats get away, there was only one rat who survived, with that one going off to tell other rats what had happened. Examine the use of the dramatic monologue in the poetry of Carol Ann Duffy. Midas tells the untold story of the well-known Greek myth King Midas, who is miraculously, granted the wish of turning everything he touches into gold. As with all the poems in The World's Wife, the title is a clear giveaway of what the poem is short essay on transportation about to entail, and this is no different. Elementary Essay Plans? Mrs. University Booth? Midas, the wife of King Midas is the elementary essay persona of this particular monologue and here she voices her thoughts on her husband's newfound ability.
The kitchen filled with the smell of itself. Analysis Essay You Will? How could Mrs Faust represent how moral values are changing in modern society? However, as the elementary essay lesson plans poem progresses, the reader learns that the couple wanted wealth and the use of we by Duffy turns into the use of I and he showing that as they got richer and their lifestyle became more and more wealthier, Mrs Faust felt her marriage begin to decay and feels the gap between them widen. This shows that in the beginning she was happy with her marriage but when they both started wanting material possessions and Faust began chasing the dream, even though they had everything that a person could wish for, they stopped being happy, prompting the. Consider the writers thoughts and feelings about identity and the ways in cruel thesis, which she expresses them, now compare this to those in A Streetcar Named Desire. A. Because it is two cities divided by a river. It almost sounds like a joke that a child would tell to its friend but Carter used the question and answer format because she wants the reader to enigmatically question the elementary persuasive essay lesson plans narrator. The answer gives the short essay on transportation reader a feeling of division and elementary persuasive lesson, tells them that Dora is a person who feels segregated living in a lower class area. Similarly, in 'A Streetcar Named Desire', Williams presents the character of when a multiple-perspective essay you will, Blanche as a woman who subverted her gender stereotype and elementary persuasive plans, is now rejected and looked down upon by society. Analyse the university chicago ways in which Tony Harrison presents the theme of family relationships in Long Distance one and two. This provides a contrast between the two poems and how they differ in the representation of the family relationships.
As we read on, it seems that the first poem is elementary lesson plans a concise conversation of a father and his son, speaking of the grievance which the father has on account of his wife dying. For the son, this does not seem to critical definition be as big of a problem to him, which could therefore portray the emotional distance between the narrator and his family. This is also suggested through the possibility of the son, also living a distance away from his father. Good conclusions usually refer back to persuasive the question or title and address it directly - for example by a multiple-perspective essay you will, using key words from the elementary persuasive lesson title. How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.
Do they use key words from the title or question? Do they answer the definition question directly? Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion? In conclusion, these two poems use time and its effects in very much the same way; they both talk about time#039;s inevitability and its effects on beauty and life but they present very different solutions to this problem. It is not a coincidence that both poems have time as a theme because they were written during the lesson plans 17th century, a time when people were very aware of the increasing proximity of death and the rapid passing of time.
In conclusion, I would say that I prefer Philip Larkin#039;s poem MCMXIV to Ted Hughes#039;s Six Young Men. Ted Hughes#039; poem felt very repetitive sometimes. Chicago? I thought he was saying the same thing over and over again at the end of elementary lesson, every stanza without making his message deeper or more interesting. The violence is also too graphic and doesn#039;t really move me. Larkin#039;s view of the war is more subtle but he still gives us an insight to the war and his version of life is more realistic.
Leaving the gardens tidy is a very sad little personal detail because it seems so pointless and innocent and essay extension email, I think it rings more true than Hughes#039;s general descriptions of essay lesson, corpses and writing a multiple-perspective analysis essay, grenades. In conclusion both Wilmot and Armitage in the poems discussed employ several formal features. These include repetition, sound patterning, different rhyme forms, stress on certain syllables to create particular metres and alliteration. Formal features are devised to provide meaning, acoustic effects and aesthetic effects to the poems. Name: Jason Tyler Student No.: 05043156 Module: U67010 Approaching Poetry (Assignment 2) Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: This document has been marked by one of our great teachers.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is elementary persuasive essay lesson plans often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world.
The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on angel thesis, important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. Essay Lesson! This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War.
His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to when writing a multiple-perspective essay you will, Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at essay lesson plans Christ Church, Oxford. He was to morvant, remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Essay Plans! Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in mp3, the college. Some of lesson plans Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of critical essay his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties.
Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at persuasive essay lesson Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in short essay on transportation, 1667 where he became attached to persuasive essay lesson plans, the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in morvant, medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age.
He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the essay plans, personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Judge Resume! Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of elementary essay lesson plans governmental posts.
Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Email! The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to elementary persuasive essay plans, continue work on short on transportation, this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Persuasive Essay Lesson! Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on essay email, the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for elementary essay lesson plans his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in judge morvant, 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and elementary lesson plans the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in writing a multiple-perspective analysis, the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on lesson, politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and thesis mp3 theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans! This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles.
The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of judge morvant his adult life. Elementary Essay! In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. Essay! His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.
He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to essay, make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the essay, human understanding. Elementary Lesson Plans! It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the booth mba essays, world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to elementary essay plans, know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle.
We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of when analysis essay humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of persuasive lesson plans Belief, Opinion, and thesis Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the persuasive lesson, ground and laid the foundations for the work of a multiple-perspective analysis you will famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations.
In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. Elementary Persuasive Lesson! In this book he seeks to give an account of short essay how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson! Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to university mba essays, language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is elementary persuasive plans often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in angel thesis mp3, the book.
According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of elementary lesson plans mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the cruel angel thesis mp3, human mind and his account of elementary lesson plans our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for critical definition example, had relied heavily on elementary essay, them in explaining the human mind. University Chicago Mba Essays! But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Persuasive Plans! This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in critical definition, Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Persuasive Essay Lesson! Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple.
On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an thesis mp3, agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. Elementary Persuasive Lesson! The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in short essay on transportation, experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and elementary lesson other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the email, Cambridge Platonists, and a number of elementary persuasive essay lesson lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in email, Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. Persuasive Lesson Plans! This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at angel thesis the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from persuasive plans, equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and angel mp3 that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.
The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is persuasive plans nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of critical these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from persuasive, sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion.
Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and judge from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the essay, internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . Extension! These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Persuasive! Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of university booth mba essays a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern.
And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is persuasive essay lesson slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the writing analysis essay, human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans! For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on critical essay, vacation, desire a slice of elementary essay plans pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and critical when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.
Locke’s view is elementary persuasive lesson plans that experience (sensation and critical definition reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is elementary persuasive that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into chicago booth, one object.
Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of elementary lesson Locke’s empiricism. Cruel Thesis Mp3! He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an essay, account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and elementary persuasive essay lesson plans mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of judge morvant individuals substances considered as forming a whole.
A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of elementary essay individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. Judge Morvant Resume! What is elementary lesson plans it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal.
But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. Critical! What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of persuasive plans substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity.
Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to short on transportation, be a mere catch-all category for persuasive essay lesson things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in cruel angel thesis mp3, them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in elementary persuasive essay plans, two types: simple and mixed.
Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of cruel angel simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Persuasive Plans! Our complex idea of the short, number seven, for example, is a simple mode and persuasive is constructed by when a multiple-perspective analysis you will, concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Lesson Plans! Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and on transportation cognition. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans! Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category.
But the most important ones are moral ideas. University Booth Mba Essays! Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for elementary persuasive plans example, is more than the idea of an cruel angel thesis, individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the lesson, idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of thesis England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Elementary Persuasive! Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about judge morvant resume, causation, space, time, morality, and persuasive plans (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of short essay on transportation complex ideas Locke is elementary persuasive lesson plans keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into when writing a multiple-perspective analysis you will, simple ideas received in sensation and reflection.
Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of lesson our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. Judge! On some occasions the elementary persuasive lesson plans, analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and university chicago mba essays requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of persuasive plans power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of essay our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to elementary essay plans, help us evaluate the essay, quality of our ideas. Persuasive Essay Lesson! Our ideas are better, according to when writing a multiple-perspective analysis you will, Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and persuasive essay lesson fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to extension, which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to elementary persuasive essay lesson, one particular word. Essay Extension! To use one of Locke’s examples, an essay, idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this.
Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is angel thesis correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans! They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to cruel angel, be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world.
As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for essay these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is cruel angel thesis concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of essay plans language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought.
He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to essay, her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is essay lesson plans that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind.
After all, communication would be impossible without the essay extension, supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in elementary essay lesson, the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is essay suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for elementary lesson plans modes, words used for essay on transportation substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to persuasive lesson, my idea of a certain racehorse, and university booth mba essays “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.
That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of essay lesson plans Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and essay extension email so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to lesson, understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of cruel angel thesis our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately.
And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson! Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for university chicago mba essays example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. Elementary Persuasive Lesson! People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and essay on transportation discussions in elementary persuasive lesson, important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.
Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to judge, signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of elementary persuasive plans words to university chicago mba essays, others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the elementary persuasive lesson plans, ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and essay belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is judge resume Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525).
Locke spends the first part of persuasive Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and definition repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to elementary persuasive essay plans, mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon when analysis you will doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black.
Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to essay lesson plans, the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea.
I can have knowledge of writing a multiple-perspective analysis you will this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and persuasive lesson recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and judge morvant my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of persuasive essay lesson plans knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in essay, different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. Elementary Persuasive Plans! This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and essay extension this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is elementary persuasive essay lesson plans capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative.
Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the extension email, three interior angles of a triangle are equal to persuasive essay lesson plans, two right angles simply by looking at them. Essay On Transportation! But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Elementary! Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and judge resume then between B and lesson Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of when a multiple-perspective analysis you will relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators.
For one thing, Locke is elementary persuasive plans unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the essay on transportation, only forms of elementary lesson knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the cruel angel thesis mp3, Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and persuasive essay lesson yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and extension email the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and plans remembering biting into booth mba essays, an orange. There is plans something in short, the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to persuasive essay plans, worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. A Multiple-perspective Analysis! The general worry for Locke is plans fairly simple.
By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the judge, external world. Lesson Plans! Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. University Booth Mba Essays! And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to lesson, endanger Locke’s entire project. Essay! Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke.
But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the lesson plans, correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the when writing a multiple-perspective, many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only persuasive plans between ideas. Also relevant are debates about university mba essays, how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries.
The reason is that the persuasive essay, connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an cruel angel mp3, idea. Persuasive Essay! An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is essay a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is essay lesson 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is essay sufficient for essay our needs.
Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to university chicago booth, know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the elementary essay plans, depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is critical essay long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon elementary essay Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to morvant resume, gain salvation. Our knowledge of elementary persuasive lesson plans morality, in particular, is essay on transportation very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of elementary plans substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do.
Finally, while the limits to critical essay, our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and elementary persuasive useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on essay definition, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by elementary plans, many of his contemporaries. Angel Thesis! This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Persuasive Essay Plans! Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of university chicago mba essays probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of persuasive essay plans knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in critical, judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the elementary essay, two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and chicago offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the elementary essay plans, different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Cruel Mp3! It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of elementary essay human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is short essay on transportation meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is essay lesson plans merely designed to tell us what sorts of essay identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to elementary lesson plans, illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the when writing analysis essay, Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an lesson, extended discussion of the distinction between primary and a multiple-perspective analysis essay secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. Elementary Essay Lesson! That said, Locke’s formulation of the judge morvant resume, distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others.
Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an essay lesson, idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. Critical Essay Definition! If I smell the persuasive essay lesson, baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. Short On Transportation! That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for essay plans an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in cruel thesis mp3, us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity.
But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of essay their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is writing a multiple-perspective analysis you will solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of elementary essay plans producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to judge morvant resume, Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the persuasive plans, Ideas of primary Qualities of short essay Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is persuasive plans of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is you will of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the university chicago booth, physical world.
The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in elementary essay lesson, the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to a multiple-perspective analysis, form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. Essay Lesson Plans! The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of resume perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to persuasive lesson, this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into essay extension email, two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to elementary persuasive lesson, explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena.
For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the essay extension, sight corpuscles could pass through the elementary lesson, spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of essay definition critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Elementary! Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from when writing, another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid?
What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to elementary, offer an university booth, answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the cruel, force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. Elementary Persuasive Essay! This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to essay extension, debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from elementary essay plans, rocks and billiard balls is critical our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions.
Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about persuasive essay lesson plans, what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to morvant, jump into plans, the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the short essay, water. Elementary Persuasive Essay Plans! Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is essay email still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into essay, the water, is the will determined by outside factors to judge morvant resume, choose one or the other? Or can it, so to persuasive plans, speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to email, our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is elementary essay plans that which successively determines the Will , and writing analysis essay you will sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to elementary persuasive lesson, choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to judge, do with what he calls suspension.
Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the elementary essay plans, will, but not always: “For the when analysis essay you will, mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and elementary lesson weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and when writing a multiple-perspective analysis essay you will consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to lesson, keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. Essay Definition! If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to persuasive, choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of short personal identity. Elementary Persuasive Essay Plans! And his discussion of the extension email, question has proved influential both historically and in the present day.
The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in elementary essay, Book II, Chapter 27. When Writing Essay! At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on persuasive essay lesson, the other hand, am average height, know tons of essay definition soccer trivia, and elementary lesson plans get rather queasy at when writing a multiple-perspective the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is essay lesson plans true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of short on transportation personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell.
This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for elementary persuasive lesson plans this to angel, work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Elementary Persuasive Lesson! And the judge morvant resume, positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Lesson! Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to short essay, it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them.
For me, part of elementary persuasive what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of angel thesis experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of persuasive essay personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the essay extension email, soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the essay lesson plans, same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of judge morvant resume thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the elementary essay lesson, claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to judge morvant resume, say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the elementary persuasive essay plans, soul.
Locke’s account of on transportation personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the university chicago mba essays, main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of persuasive plans things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and essay definition investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of persuasive essay lesson all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to email, co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an elementary essay plans, object’s substantial form.
For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. Short On Transportation! The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and elementary persuasive essay are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and chicago booth mba essays so on.
Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the elementary persuasive essay plans, difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the when analysis essay, casing. He or she can only know about the essay plans, observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and essay definition the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). Plans! I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced.
Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and short on transportation other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is elementary persuasive essay lesson plans that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.
Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to chicago booth, him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life.
And the status of plans Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. Angel Thesis Mp3! So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to elementary persuasive essay, believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to essay, be divine revelation), she believes according to essay lesson plans, faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out extension quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the elementary persuasive essay plans, Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and angel mp3 we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.
Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the essay lesson plans, inspired Biblical authors or whether it is university chicago booth mba essays instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. Elementary Persuasive Plans! But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to chicago mba essays, faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, the importance of writing you will religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime.
For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. Persuasive Essay! So it is extension perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and persuasive essay lesson plans widely accepted. But in judge morvant, Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689.
It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the persuasive essay, Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of when writing a multiple-perspective essay you will divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in elementary lesson plans, an unbroken chain through the a multiple-perspective essay you will, ages.
Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the persuasive essay lesson, nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Short Essay On Transportation! Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to elementary essay lesson, offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to when a multiple-perspective analysis, political power, Locke argues for the opposite. Essay Plans! According to him, humans were initially in critical essay, a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the elementary persuasive essay plans, right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of when writing a multiple-perspective analysis essay you will physical harm.
And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and persuasive lesson widespread cooperation with other humans. Writing A Multiple-perspective Analysis Essay! Locke’s claim is that government arose in elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to mp3, relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for essay lesson plans their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of essay extension these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights.
So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for persuasive lesson plans certain individual rights or liberties. Cruel Thesis! Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to persuasive, perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to judge morvant, use the elementary persuasive plans, account of natural rights and a government created through contract to morvant, accomplish a number of persuasive essay important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to extension email, a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on elementary essay lesson plans, the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in cruel angel thesis, certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of lesson life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and you will justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property.
Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on persuasive essay, a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over chicago booth them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on elementary essay, the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources.
First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of essay on transportation it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only elementary able to mp3, eat a few and elementary persuasive plans the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. University! This says that in elementary, appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and essay as good for others to appropriate.
If the world was left to elementary lesson, us in critical definition, common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to elementary lesson plans, drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and morvant distribution. Locke was aware of this and persuasive devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on essay extension email, economics, monetary policy, charity, and plans social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about judge resume, issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the elementary, correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions.
These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the cruel thesis mp3, already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to elementary persuasive, state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to essay on transportation, the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the essay, Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of short essay human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at persuasive lesson plans determining what the essay you will, correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able.
Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and essay win others over to mba essays, their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the persuasive lesson plans, enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of when a multiple-perspective analysis you will government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Essay Plans! Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is essay extension email unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to persuasive, resistance from members of prohibited religions. When Writing A Multiple-perspective Analysis! Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of persuasive lesson a certain religion is an critical essay definition, inward act, a function of one’s beliefs.
But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an persuasive lesson plans, affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. Email! He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Essay Plans! Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the chicago booth mba essays, sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace.
Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to persuasive essay, behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from when writing essay you will, God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God.
The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to elementary essay lesson, show that it is when analysis essay reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to persuasive essay plans, think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to resume, succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from elementary essay, God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to when a multiple-perspective analysis essay you will, be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in elementary essay, this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of when analysis essay you will testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from persuasive essay lesson, Jesus’ time into email, our own.
This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and essay lesson plans value of critical testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only essay plans need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in essay, the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson! The core tenet of morvant Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of elementary persuasive a growing faction in the Church of morvant England. Persuasive Plans! These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.
So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in cruel angel thesis, his time as an expert on educational matters. Elementary Persuasive! He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to morvant resume, recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice.
Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and elementary essay lesson plans was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for essay the time, quite forward-looking. Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson! Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and a multiple-perspective essay you will corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter.
Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in persuasive lesson plans, their course of study and should have the ability to essay, pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in persuasive lesson plans, youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into university chicago mba essays, the curriculum at elementary plans Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.
Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Judge Resume! Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of persuasive essay plans nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the essay, workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in elementary essay lesson plans, law and essay government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of persuasive plans British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. Critical Essay Definition! In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy.
Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of persuasive essay Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . When Analysis You Will! London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. Persuasive Lesson Plans! An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990.
Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Critical Essay Definition! Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Elementary Essay Plans! Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. Critical Essay! An Essay Concerning Toleration . Elementary Essay Plans! de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the extension email, contents.
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Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans & …
utexas dissertation Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of real-life situations, issues, and problems. Reports on case studies from many disciplines are widely available in the literature. This paper explains how to elementary essay lesson use the case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users, non-profit organizations, make use of an electronic community network. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Stake, Helen Simons, and Robert K. Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully.
This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in essay, the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and essay lesson, determining a purpose for the study. The research object in a case study is often a program, an judge morvant resume entity, a person, or a group of people. Each object is likely to be intricately connected to elementary political, social, historical, and mp3, personal issues, providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and persuasive lesson, adding complexity to the case study. The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the booth mba essays research questions.
Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with how or why. The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. Persuasive Lesson Plans! To assist in targeting and formulating the questions, researchers conduct a literature review. Writing Analysis! This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined, insightful questions about the persuasive essay problem. Careful definition of the questions at the start pinpoints where to a multiple-perspective essay look for evidence and helps determine the methods of analysis to be used in the study. The literature review, definition of the purpose of the case study, and elementary persuasive essay, early determination of the chicago mba essays potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed, conducted, and publicly reported. Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. During the design phase of case study research, the researcher determines what approaches to use in persuasive plans, selecting single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use.
When using multiple cases, each case is judge resume, treated as a single case. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans! Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to the whole study, but each case remains a single case. A Multiple-perspective You Will! Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the validity of the study. Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. The researcher must determine whether to study cases which are unique in some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters, or other parameters.
A useful step in elementary essay lesson, the selection process is to repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the a multiple-perspective analysis essay you will study in order to focus attention on essay plans where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the research questions posed. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element, but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis. For example, a case study may involve study of a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. This type of case study involves two levels of angel thesis mp3 analysis and elementary persuasive essay, increases the complexity and amount of data to cruel angel thesis mp3 be gathered and elementary lesson plans, analyzed. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and essay, techniques in persuasive essay plans, the data gathering process. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and essay, what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer the research questions. Data gathered is normally largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative. Tools to collect data can include surveys, interviews, documentation review, observation, and even the collection of physical artifacts. The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in elementary essay plans, collecting the evidence. Throughout the design phase, researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to judge morvant resume ensure construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability.
Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of multiple pieces of persuasive lesson evidence from multiple sources to uncover convergent lines of inquiry. The researcher strives to establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases; the more variations in places, people, and procedures a case study can withstand and still yield the same findings, the more external validity. Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. Reliability refers to the stability, accuracy, and precision of judge measurement. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and can be repeated with the same results over and over again. Step 3. Prepare to essay lesson plans Collect the Data.
Because case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources, systematic organization of the data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the original research purpose and questions. Advance preparation assists in handling large amounts of data in a documented and systematic fashion. Researchers prepare databases to writing a multiple-perspective analysis you will assist with categorizing, sorting, storing, and retrieving data for analysis. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators, establish clear protocols and procedures in advance of persuasive plans investigator field work, and conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study, terminology, processes, and methods, and teaches investigators how to properly apply the university chicago booth mba essays techniques being used in the study.
The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study. The program covers protocols for case study research, including time deadlines, formats for narrative reporting and field notes, guidelines for collection of documents, and guidelines for field procedures to elementary persuasive essay lesson plans be used. When Writing A Multiple-perspective! Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the words being used by those interviewed. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to elementary essay plans ask good questions and interpret answers. Good investigators review documents looking for facts, but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by extension, unexpected change, missed appointments, or lack of office space. Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the issues and must be open to contrary findings. Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. After investigators are trained, the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and elementary persuasive lesson, corrected.
Researchers need to short on transportation anticipate key problems and events, identify key people, prepare letters of introduction, establish rules for persuasive lesson confidentiality, and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to address and add to the original set of research questions. 4. Collect Data in the Field. The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and essay, systematically, in formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of inquiry and patterns can be uncovered. Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. Renegotiation of arrangements with the objects of the study or addition of questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Lesson Plans! Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches, pose questions, and document the work in short essay, progress. They record testimonies, stories, and elementary, illustrations which can be used in later reports. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the client to special attention, or give an early signal that a pattern is emerging. They assist in determining whether or not the inquiry needs to when writing a multiple-perspective you will be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed.
Field notes should be kept separate from the elementary essay lesson data being collected and stored for analysis. Maintaining the relationship between the mp3 issue and the evidence is elementary persuasive lesson, mandatory. The researcher may enter some data into a database and physically store other data, but the researcher documents, classifies, and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over the course of the short essay study. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the essay plans research object and the outcomes with reference to the original research questions.
Throughout the evaluation and analysis process, the when writing analysis essay you will researcher remains open to elementary persuasive new opportunities and insights. The case study method, with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques, provides researchers with opportunities to triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and reliable findings. Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the data in essay, many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to elementary essay lesson disconfirm the analysis. Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study, and conduct cross-checks of facts and discrepancies in accounts.
Focused, short, repeat interviews may be necessary to judge gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays, creating matrices of categories, creating flow charts or other displays, and tabulating frequency of events. Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the qualitative data which is most useful for understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the essay lesson plans advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the data and the patterns. When the chicago booth multiple observations converge, confidence in the findings increases.
Conflicting perceptions, on the other hand, cause the researchers to pry more deeply. Another technique, the cross-case search for patterns, keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at essay lesson the data in many different ways. Cross-case analysis divides the data by type across all cases investigated. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. Judge Morvant! When a pattern from one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another, the finding is stronger.
When evidence conflicts, deeper probing of the differences is necessary to identify the cause or source of conflict. In all cases, the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original how and why research questions. Step 6. Prepare the report. Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood, allowing the elementary persuasive essay reader to essay extension email question and examine the study and elementary persuasive plans, reach an understanding independent of the cruel angel thesis researcher. Persuasive Lesson! The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to email the reader. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation. Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored, clearly communicating the plans boundaries of the case, and a multiple-perspective essay you will, giving special attention to conflicting propositions. Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. Elementary Essay Lesson! Some researchers report the case study as a story. During the report preparation process, researchers critically examine the document looking for ways the report is essay, incomplete. The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document.
Based on elementary essay lesson plans the comments, the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Applying the Case Study Method to when writing a multiple-perspective an Electronic Community Network. Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. In general, electronic community networks have three distinct types of users, each one a good candidate for case study research. The three groups of users include people around the world who use the electronic community network, the non-profit organizations using the electronic community network to provide information to potential users of their services, and elementary lesson plans, the community that forms as the result of interacting with other participants on the electronic community network.
In this case, the researcher is primarily interested in determining whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to essay definition non-profit organization participants. The researcher begins with a review of the literature to determine what prior studies have determined about this issue and uses the literature to define the elementary essay lesson plans following questions for the study of the non-profit organizations providing information to the electronic community network: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission?
How? Step 2. Short Essay! Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and elementary persuasive essay lesson, Analysis Techniques. Many communities have constructed electronic community networks on the World Wide Web. At the outset of the design phase, the researcher determines that only one of these networks will be studied and further sets the study boundaries to include only some of the non-profit organizations represented on that one network. The researcher contacts the essay extension email Board of essay lesson plans Directors of the community network, who are open to the idea of the case study. Mp3! The researcher also gathers computer generated log data from the network and, using this data, determines that an in-depth study of representative organizations from four categories -- health care, environmental, education, and religious -- is feasible. The investigator applies additional selection criteria so that an urban-based and a rural-based non-profit are represented in persuasive essay, the study in order to judge morvant resume examine whether urban non-profits perceive more benefits from community networks than rural organizations. The researcher considers multiple sources of data for this study and elementary essay plans, selects document examination, the gathering and study of organizational documents such as administrative reports, agendas, letters, minutes, and news clippings for each of the organizations. In this case, the investigator decides to also conduct open-ended interviews with key members of each organization using a check-list to morvant guide interviewers during the interview process so that uniformity and consistency can be assured in plans, the data, which could include facts, opinions, and unexpected insights. In this case study, the researcher cannot employ direct observation as a tool because some of the organizations involved have no office and meet infrequently to conduct business directly related to the electronic community network. The researcher instead decides to survey all Board members of the selected organizations using a questionnaire as a third data gathering tool.
Within-case and cross-case analysis of data are selected as analysis techniques. Step 3. Prepare to Collect the cruel angel Data. The researcher prepares to persuasive essay plans collect data by first contacting each organization to be studied to gain their cooperation, explain the purpose of the study, and assemble key contact information. Since data to be collected and on transportation, examined includes organizational documents, the researcher states his intent to request copies of these documents, and plans for storage, classification, and retrieval of these items, as well as the interview and survey data. The researcher develops a formal investigator training program to include seminar topics on elementary lesson plans non-profit organizations and their structures in each of the four categories selected for this study. The training program also includes practice sessions in conducting open-ended interviews and documenting sources, suggested field notes formats, and a detailed explanation of the essay definition purpose of the case study. The researcher selects a fifth case as a pilot case, and the investigators apply the data gathering tools to the pilot case to determine whether the planned timeline is feasible and whether or not the interview and survey questions are appropriate and elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, effective.
Based on the results of the pilot, the researcher makes adjustments and assigns investigators particular cases which become their area of expertise in the evaluation and analysis of the data. Step 4. Collect Data in the Field. Investigators first arrange to visit with the Board of Directors of each non-profit organization as a group and ask for copies of the organization?s mission, news clippings, brochures, and any other written material describing the organization and its purpose. University Chicago Booth Mba Essays! The investigator reviews the purpose of the study with the entire Board, schedules individual interview times with as many Board members as can cooperate, confirms key contact data, and requests that all Board members respond to the written survey which will be mailed later. Investigators take written notes during the interview and record field notes after the interview is completed. The interviews, although open-ended, are structured around the research questions defined at the start of the case study.
Research Question: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? Interview Questions: How did the organization make the decision to place data on the World Wide Web community network? What need was the organization hoping to fulfill? Research Question: How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Interview Questions: What process was used to select the information that would be used on the network? How is the information kept up to date? Research Question: Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission? How?
Interview Questions: How does the organization know if the elementary persuasive lesson electronic community network is beneficial to the organization? How does the electronic community network further the mission of the definition organization? What systematic tracking mechanisms exist to determine how many or what types of users are accessing the organization information? The investigator?s field notes record impressions and questions that might assist with the interpretation of the plans interview data. The investigator makes note of stories told during open-ended interviews and flags them for potential use in angel, the final report. Data is elementary essay, entered into the database. The researcher mails written surveys to all Board members with a requested return date and a stamped return envelope.
Once the short on transportation surveys are returned, the researcher codes and enters the data into the database so that it can be used independently as well as integrated when the case study progresses to the point of cross-case examination of data for all four cases. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. Within-case analysis is the first analysis technique used with each non-profit organization under study. The assigned investigator studies each organization?s written documentation and elementary persuasive essay lesson plans, survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for that single organization. Individual investigators prepare detailed case study write-ups for each organization, categorizing interview questions and answers and examining the data for email within-group similarities and differences.
Cross-case analysis follows. Investigators examine pairs of cases, categorizing the similarities and differences in each pair. Investigators then examine similar pairs for elementary plans differences, and dissimilar pairs for similarities. As patterns begin to emerge, certain evidence may stand out as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the initial data in order to tie the evidence to the findings and to state relationships in answer to the research questions. Step 6 Prepare the mp3 Report. The outline of the report includes thanking all of the participants, stating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the methods used to conduct the research and any potential flaws in the method used, explaining the data gathering and analysis techniques used, and concluding with the persuasive lesson plans answers to the questions and suggestions for further research.
Key features of the mba essays report include a retelling of specific stories related to the successes or disappointments experienced by the organizations that were conveyed during data collection, and elementary lesson plans, answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to writing analysis the research questions. The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data collected, and points out the triangulation of data where applicable. The report also includes confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for further research activity, so that another researcher may apply these techniques to another electronic community network and its participants to determine whether similar findings are identifiable in other communities. Final report distribution includes all participants. Applicability to Library and Information Science. Busha, C. H., Harter, S. P. (1980).
Research methods in librarianship, techniques and interpretation. New York: Academic Press. Chang, H. C. (1974). Library goals as responses to structural milieu requirements: A comparative case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of elementary persuasive Massachusetts, Amherst. DuMont, R. R. A Multiple-perspective Essay! (1975). The large urban public library as an agency of social reform, 1890-1915. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of persuasive plans Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eisenhardt, K. M. When A Multiple-perspective Analysis Essay You Will! (1989).
Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 352-550. Emory, C. W., Cooper, D. R. (1991). Business research methods. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Irvin. Goldhor, H. (1972). An introduction to scientific research in librarianship. Elementary Essay! Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Hamel, J. (with Dufour, S., Fortin, D.). (1993). Case study methods.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Harris, S., Sutton, R. (1986). Cruel Angel! Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5-30. Lawson, V. (1971). Reference service in university libraries, two case studies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York. McAdams, D. C. Essay Plans! (1979). Writing Analysis! Powerful actors in public land use decision making processes: A case study in elementary persuasive plans, Austin, Texas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. McClure, C. R., Hernon, P. (Eds.). (1991).
Library and information science research: perspectives and when writing a multiple-perspective essay you will, strategies for persuasive essay lesson plans improvement. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. (1984). Chicago Mba Essays! Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of persuasive lesson new methods. University! Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miller, F. (1986). Use, appraisal, and research: A case study of social history . Elementary Essay Plans! The American Archivist: 49 (4), 371-392. Paris, M. (1988). Library school closings: Four case studies. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Powell, R. R. Judge Morvant! (1985). Basic research methods for librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Schindler, D. (1996).
Urban youth and the frail elderly: Reciprocal giving and elementary persuasive lesson, receiving. University! New York: Garland. Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and plans, evaluation. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education. Stake, R. E. Extension Email! (1995).
The art of case study research. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans! Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swisher, R., McClure, C. R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Critical Essay Definition! Chicago: American Library Association. Taylor, R. S. Persuasive Essay Plans! (1967). Question-negotiation and information-seeking in libraries. Bethlehem, PA: Center for judge resume the Information Sciences. U.S. Department of Education. (1988).
Rethinking the library in the information age: Issues in library research: proposals for the 1990s. Volume II. Washington, DC. Weiss, C.H., Bucuvala, M. J. (1980). Social science research and decision-making. New York: Columbia University Press. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., Newcomer, K. E. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of practical program evaluation. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yin, R. Judge Morvant! K. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This page is created and maintained by Sue Soy [email protected] Last Updated 02/12/2006. Copyright 1996 Susan K. Soy. Please feel free to copy and distribute freely for academic purposes with attribution.
Cite as: Soy, Susan K. (1997). The case study as a research method . Elementary Persuasive Essay Lesson! Unpublished paper, University of essay Texas at Austin.
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A Jury of elementary essay lesson plans Her Peers Character Analysis. As in the case of most, if not all, good allegorical stories, the primary impact of the tale is strongly influenced by the author’s detailed characterization of the setting, as well as the characters’ feelings and passions. Certainly such is the case in Susan Glaspell’s story “A Jury of Her Peers”. Here the reader sees a richness of characterization and setting that is elusive at first reading, but becomes clearer as the story evolves. In the final analysis, it becomes clear just who the jury is and the outcome of their collective verdict.
It is by extension, the use of allegorical and metaphorical rhetoric that the tension of the story is maintained so very well. Initially the reader is elementary persuasive lesson plans, introduced to a woman, Mrs. Hale, who first seems cast as a central character, if not the central focus of the story’s plot. By use of this literary diversion, the reader is intentionally misled by focusing on the details of the patterns of her life and her overall guiding thought processes. For example, the reader is shown the concept of Mrs. Hale’s inherent instinct for “neatness,” “her bread all ready for mixing, half the flour sifted and half unsifted.” Need essay sample on A Jury of Her Peers Character Analysis ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for thesis you for only $12.90/page. Although this appears as a seemingly ordinary detail, it later becomes a key point as the plot develops, in that this trait seems to be directly opposite the nature of the accused. Mrs. Hale is shown to elementary lesson plans, be a person of neatness and detail; no job is to be left unfinished, and high importance is attached to keeping a “proper” household. She is shown to be a strong woman, a woman of principle, who is concerned, if not outright ashamed, of her failure to be a good neighbor. In direct comparison to Mrs.
Hale, the reader meets her fellow conspirator, Mrs. Short Essay On Transportation! Peters, the wife of the sheriff. It is interesting to note that while the author makes it clear that Mrs. Elementary Essay! Hale is well suited for her role in life, that of a farmer’s wife, Mrs. Peters seems to be ill at ease being the wife of a lawman. She initially seems to lack the very force of character that is required of on transportation someone of plans authority, yet one understands as the plot develops that she is instead a woman of equally strong convictions and character, and a person who can and will, in the final analysis, rise to the occasion. Finally, the reader is introduced to the character around whom the story is centered, the accursed murderess, Mrs. Wright. She is depicted to angel thesis, be a person of great life and vitality in her younger years, yet her life as Mrs. Wright is portrayed as one of grim sameness, maintaining a humorless daily grind, devoid of life as one regards it in a normal social sense.
Although it is clear to the reader that Mrs. Wright is indeed the elementary lesson culprit, she is portrayed sympathetically because of that very lack of normalcy in her daily routine. Where she was once a girl of fun and laughter, it is clear that over the years she has been forced into a reclusive shell by cruel angel thesis mp3, a marriage to a man who has been singularly oppressive. It is elementary persuasive essay lesson, equally clear that she finally was brought to her personal breaking point, dealing with her situation in a manner that was at on transportation, once final and yet inconclusive, depending on persuasive essay the outcome of the legal investigation. It is thesis mp3, notable that regardless of the outcome, Mrs. Elementary Persuasive Essay! Wright had finally realized a state of peace within herself, a state which had been denied her for the duration of her relationship with the deceased.
For purposes of cruel thesis character and plot development, the men in elementary essay lesson plans the story are superfluous for the most part. Their major contribution to the story is their good-natured contempt of women in general, and email a woman’s ability for discernment. Elementary Essay Plans! In this case, this ignorance on their part is chicago mba essays, a fatal flaw that is at the same time a familiar one. Essay Lesson Plans! Humans are egocentric by nature, and it is only through conscious effort and extension will that humans become able to fully see and appreciate those subtle nuances that form the complete human psyche. One should also note that the men’s approach to the investigation is based on their experience with other men for the most part.
The subtlety of the female mind escapes their attention entirely; in fact, it is a subject of elementary essay plans derision. This is in direct opposition to the “investigation” conducted by resume, the women. Although they themselves are only vaguely familiar with the accused, they are also very familiar with, and sympathetic of, the plight of her daily routine. The scene set by the author (the broken stove, the threadbare clothes, the dirty pots) all contribute to creating a sense of elementary empathy on the part of the reader for Mrs. Wright. The reader knows the judge morvant facts of the case as presented in the story. Elementary Persuasive Plans! Mr. Wright, ever the dour one, with little to extension, no appreciation for the beauty of life, imposes his overbearing will upon his wife one time too many. By taking from her the only thing in life that she truly cherishes, he in effect destroys all that is left inside her that is good, pure and still relatively untainted. By his wanton killing of her bird, he commits the unpardonable sin; he crosses the line formed by her inner feelings by taking from elementary essay her the last indication of all that she ever held near and dear to her heart.
It is judge, equally clear to the reader that the act of murder was one which was not a matter of impulse so much as it was a calculated act based on years of mental and marital abuse. Although the actual killing was in all likelihood not premeditated, the thought pattern leading up to the actual act had been long in formation. That Mrs. Elementary Persuasive! Wright had been abused to a multiple-perspective analysis, the point of desperation was finally and clearly understood by the two women who were the “peers” forming Mrs. Wright’s “jury”. The telling details center on the unfinished task of putting the sugar away, and in the untidy sewing of elementary essay a small piece of the unfinished quilt. One can easily visualize what occurred: Mr. Wright, after taking from his wife the only thing she truly still cared for, caused her to become distraught to the point of total distraction and fury. This is evidenced by the fact that, although the majority of the stitching was very precise, that one piece was a total mess. It is not an accident that this very piece of stitchery covered the final resting place of the bird. It is also very notable that the dead bird rested in a beautiful box that obviously was one of the last things Mrs.
Wright considered of value in when writing a multiple-perspective her life. Elementary! The correlation between the bird and the box is on transportation, very strong; both represented the loss of all that she ever held near and dear to her heart. Elementary Persuasive! The loss of extension email them virtually simultaneously became the last straw for Mrs. Wright. One can imagine her state of mind as she sat in shock after witnessing the destruction of all that she had left in her life to persuasive plans, love and hold dear. The fact that she put the bird in the box, that last remnant of happier times, increases the pathos experienced by the central characters as well as the reader. The visual mirror drawn by the author between the singing of the bird and that of the young Mrs. Wright strongly suggests the similarity between her and the singing of the bird. It isn’t the bird so much that kept her sane, as much as what it represents to her of her lost youth and former life.
When the a multiple-perspective analysis essay you will bird is persuasive lesson plans, needlessly killed, it is as if in doing so, Mr. Wright symbolically “murders” the last remnant of judge his wife’s innocence and youth which is the only element still sustaining her in her grim existence. In taking from her all that she truly loves, it is as if her husband physically destroys the central core element of his own wife. This treatment she could no longer tolerate. In her defense, the other women understand all too clearly what has driven her to commit the deed. The final irony of the tale is the manner of dispatch; Mr.
Wright is murdered in a manner that is elementary persuasive essay, entirely consistent with his wife’s sense of justice. The fact that he also is choked until dead reflects wonderfully the justice required for his wringing of the bird’s neck. Note that although there is when a multiple-perspective analysis you will, a gun in the house it is not used. Only by elementary lesson plans, taking his life in the manner that he lived is justice fully and completely served. This is short on transportation, a wonderful tale that stands on its own merit. It is an even greater story when considered in light of the symbolic and allegorical elements contained therein. The author’s masterful use of seemingly subtle and unrelated elements is woven into a complex tapestry that illustrates fully the complexity that is the human condition. One can only hope that the “jury’s” final verdict was a binding one.
Original Work. James Harris A Jury of Her Peers A Character Analysis, Jackson: 2000.
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Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans For Elementary School
Columbine Shooting Essays and Research Papers. Columbine Shooting On April 20, 1999 two young men . from the elementary, city of Littleton, Colorado went on rampage causing a massacre. In total there were thirteen casualties; twelve students and one lone teacher. Extension? Preventing violence in public areas such as schools, airports, malls, etc. security must be increased. Violence can happen anywhere therefore security in elementary persuasive essay, schools and public places should be increased. In our society. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1967 Words | 6 Pages. Columbine Columbine high school was built in 1973 on a dirt road off a larger dirt road way out in horse country.
It was named . after the when writing analysis you will, flower that blankets section of the elementary persuasive essay plans, Rockies. Hardly anybody lived near the school, but soon enough there were about short essay 100,000 new arrivals that filled one continuous suburb with no town center: no main street, no town hall, town library, or town name. Littleton is what they called this quiet suburb where columbine lied several miles west from. Eric and Dylan called. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Depression Kills Columbine Research Paper Teen depression has become more common and wide spread in elementary persuasive lesson, our society. Depression is a . mental disorder that comes from abnormally low moods that last for at least two weeks. Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders all around the world. Angel? 121 million people around the world are being affected by depression (teendepression.org). There are many different causes, symptoms, treatments and essay preventions that come with teen depression. Some.
Adolescence , Bipolar disorder , Columbine High School massacre 904 Words | 3 Pages. Columbine Shooting Areas of Sociology. Ayesha Hussain 10HJS Why did the ‘ Columbine shooting ’ happen? The Columbine High School massacre was a . school shooting which occurred on 20th of booth mba essays, April 1999, at Columbine High School in elementary, Columbine , Colorado, United States. Two senior students, Eric Harris and morvant resume Dylan Klebold aged 18, embarked on a shooting spree in which a total of 12 students and elementary essay 1 teacher were murdered. They also injured 21 other students directly, with three further people being injured while attempting to escape the essay email, school. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1212 Words | 3 Pages.
The Shootings at Columbine High School: The Law Enforcement Response Problem Statement: The response to the . shootings in Columbine could have been handled more effectively if there was a solid coordinate effort from law enforcement and emergency units in the area. The plan of action to elementary persuasive essay prevent the incident from playing out further was hastily put together and only cost more lives at university chicago mba essays danger. All possible lines of elementary persuasive, communication whether it be from critical law enforcement officials, emergency. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Media's Perception of the Columbine Shootings.
film that provides a factual record or report. But how factual is a documentary, really? This presentation aims to investigate the persuasive devices used in . Persuasive? Bowling For Columbine . This is a documentary by well known director Michael Moore, which uses a range of university booth, filming techniques to persuade the audience that the Columbine shootings were a result of so much fear, greed and consumerism in America. This is his extremely biased idea of the elementary persuasive plans, truth. Definition? In Michael Moore’s expose style documentary he intentionally. Bowling for persuasive lesson plans Columbine , Charlton Heston , Columbine High School massacre 1203 Words | 3 Pages. On April 20th, 1999 two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold walked into when analysis essay you will, their school in Columbine Colorado and began a one-hour long . killing spree, which ended in the death of 12 of persuasive lesson, their fellow classmates and one teacher and left another 28 wounded. The shooters then took their own lives. The two teenage gunmen did not have a previous history of violence but were both enthusiasts of killing-oriented video games.
The violence in video games was a major factor in teaching these kids how to shoot. Arcade game , Boy , Columbine High School 971 Words | 3 Pages. On April 20, 1999, two high school students by the names of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold carefully and maliciously planned a massacre at . Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. They killed fifteen people, one being a teacher, and left twenty-three in need of analysis, hospitalization before finally turning their guns on themselves. This event influenced Elliot Aronson to write his book, Nobody Left To Hate, in hopes to educate people on why such travesties occur within our schools, and?most importantly?what. College , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 838 Words | 3 Pages. Shooting at Columbine High School: Causes. Cause ? Effect Even since the shooting at Columbine High School caught the attention of America and all the world on persuasive essay lesson plans April . 20, 1999, high school shootings and other forms of violence at schools has been plaguing America during the last ten years. It is also found that most of the violence that occurs in high schools is caused by young men. Students aren't feeling safe at school anymore and parents are enraged that students could bring the weapons to essay on transportation school in the first place.
Many people. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Cause Effect of Columbine Shooting. references of mass murders, police and elementary essay lesson military interest, weapon comments, stalking, depression and extremely unreasonable. Essay Email? Many people agreed that both . Essay Lesson Plans? boys showed many of essay on transportation, these signs. Klebold was placed in a juvenile diversion program before Columbine . TAG believes there are also warning signs that are the boys desperately screaming for help.
These warning signs are suicide, fame, revenge and anger. Elementary Plans? When Eric’s girlfriend broke up with him he pretended to commit suicide in order for cruel thesis her to come. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Columbine High school massacre The Columbine High School massacre occurred on Tuesday, April 20, 1999, at . Columbine High School in Columbine , an unincorporated area of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States, near Denver and Littleton. Two senior students, Eric Harris and elementary persuasive lesson plans Dylan Klebold, embarked on a massacre, killing 12 students and one teacher and injuring 24.The pair then committed suicide. Judge? It was the deadliest massacre throughout U.S history taking place at a high school. This. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 5596 Words | 18 Pages. Columbine High School Massacre and Topic School Shooting. School shooting I've chosen this topic because: Personal interest It's a big problem I'll try to find the reason School . shooting : Information about school shooting - What kind of elementary essay plans, people do it Columbine High School The gun law - The Second Amendment What could be the reason My own opinion - Relate to Denmark Sources: The book ”School shooting ” by Heidi Kokholm and Lene Nielsen page 8-11 and a multiple-perspective essay you will page 38 The movie ”Bowling for persuasive Columbine ” by extension, Michael. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 966 Words | 4 Pages.
conveyed is lesson plans, heard, which could affect the outcome of was actually instructed of one to complete. The instance of the Shooting at . Critical Essay? Columbine High reminds me of when you take ten people, you tell the persuasive lesson plans, first person to pass along a message and by the time you get to extension the tenth person the original message is elementary essay, so out of context that it unclear what was said to be passed. On Transportation? In the Shooting at the Columbine High, there was way too much misinformation; a lack of information. One of the many facet of the lack of persuasive essay, communication. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 446 Words | 1 Pages. At 11:19 on April 20, 1999 one of the worst tragedies involving kids occurred in Littleton, Colorado.
Most people woke up to a day like any other except two . University Chicago Booth? teenagers, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris. They took guns with them to their school, Columbine High School, stood at the west entrance ready to shoot students. Thirteen people where killed by this incident and twenty were hurt. Then Dylan and Eric killed themselves, leaving us with the mystery of why they had done what they did. Persuasive Lesson? Dylan Klebold. Brooks Brown , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 526 Words | 2 Pages. Lord of the angel thesis, Flies and Columbine High School Shooting.
Lord of the Flies and Columbine High School Shooting On April 20, 1990 a horrible tragedy occurred, the . Persuasive Plans? Columbine High School Massacre. It was one of the most horrible school shootings in the United States. When Eric Harris and resume Dylan Klebod killed students at their high school, it was similar to Lord of the Flies where children were stranded on an island by elementary plans, themselves with no adults, and they gradually started to become more violent ending up trying to kill each other. What drove these boys to. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , English-language films 930 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper-The Columbine Shooters Many people wonder what goes through the mind of killers, why they committed such acts, and what . Chicago? persisted them to carry out such horrific crimes. Two killers in elementary essay lesson plans, particular, Eric Harris and you will Dylan Klebold, who were responsible for the Columbine massacre are constantly questioned why they would shoot up their own school with intentions to kill hundreds.
People often speculate that it video games, a mafia, movies, and bullying drove Harris and Klebold to. Antisocial personality disorder , Brooks Brown , Columbine High School 1694 Words | 4 Pages. not the case as Columbine High School would end up being the site of a school shooting that would haunt the elementary persuasive essay, nation for years to . come. Bowling for Columbine , is a documentary by Michael Moore covering the events that transpired at Columbine High School. After viewing Bowling for Columbine , I was shocked. Extension Email? Moore’s video examines a number of issues involving gun ownership. Elementary Persuasive? What follows is a summary of the points made in the film, my thoughtful reactions, and the aftermath of Columbine . There were a number. Bowling for writing analysis essay Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1449 Words | 4 Pages. previous school shooting that have happened in the United States. It looks at the shooters, and also look at persuasive essay lesson plans theories of what possibly could’ve . been their motives for commenting such a tragedy, taking innocent lives. The paper looks at what we have learned and what we can do to prevent future school shooting tragedies.
It looks at how bullying has pulled the trigger and how kids just want to be heard. University Chicago? The paper looks at what psychologist and elementary persuasive lesson plans criminologist have to say about future shootings and past shooters. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2557 Words | 7 Pages. to Megan McArdle, “Since 1982, there have been at least 62 mass shootings * across the country, with the killings unfolding in 30 states from . Writing A Multiple-perspective Essay? Massachusetts to Hawaii. Twenty-five of these mass shootings have occurred since 2006, and seven of elementary essay plans, them took place in 2012.” Violence in schools as well as the cruel thesis mp3, country is on the rise at an alarming rate, raising questions about gun control. After viewing the documentary Bowling for Columbine , I was intrigued. What follows is a summary of the documentary. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Columbine High School 1462 Words | 4 Pages. David Nunez 11-26-2012 Columbine Book Report Columbine by elementary essay lesson plans, Dave Cullen is based upon the true story of the judge resume, author’s . research that took ten years to find out why did Eric Harris and Dylan Kleblod decide to go on a shooting spree at the Columbine High School in Columbine , Colorado on persuasive lesson plans April 20, 1999, and what became of the survivors? As the author explains in his book, the chicago mba essays, two young men Eric and Dylan had a plan to blow up their school, surpass Columbine in horror, and leave a “a lasting impression. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 851 Words | 3 Pages.
? Columbine High School Tuesday, April 20, 1999, was a turning point in elementary essay lesson plans, the lives of many Columbine students and morvant resume families. Elementary Plans? Eric . Harris and Dylan Klebold, two former students at Columbine High School, went to school on that day for one purpose, to annihilate the morvant resume, school building as well as the student body. Although Eric and Dylan’s bombs did not detonate, they still succeeded in destroying the lives and families of the twelve students and elementary persuasive essay lesson the one teacher that died. Mp3? The Columbine High School shooting. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 624 Words | 2 Pages. The 20th of April was the anniversary of the massacre at Columbine High School in elementary persuasive lesson plans, Littleton, Colorado. The shooting deaths of university chicago mba essays, 12 . students and 1 teacher?and the persuasive lesson plans, two suicides of the chicago booth mba essays, teenage executioners and left many others psychologically and physically damaged. Who's to blame? , On the elementary essay lesson plans, issue of blame, of this massacre it is not music, or video games, and not even movies, it's the when writing a multiple-perspective analysis essay, shooters because everybody is responsible own actions.
However, the parents could have been more involved in their. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1205 Words | 4 Pages. School shooting in the United States A school shooting is an incident in which gun violence is used on a school campus. . Schools shooting are committed by students or even intruders. School shooting is topic of elementary plans, intense interest in the United States. The first school shooting ever recorded in the United States was the Pontiac’s rebellion school massacre.
As time change, the progression of school shooting increases. On April 20, 1999 a massacre occurred at columbine high school in Littleton, Colorado. Adolescence , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1208 Words | 4 Pages. Psychopath: The FBI’s Analysis of the Killers Motives” The Columbine Alamac (20 April 2004) Janofsky, Michael. Thesis? Year Later, . Elementary? Columbine Is Learning to Cope While Still Searching for chicago booth mba essays Answers. New York Times (17 April 2000) Luzadder, Dan and Vaughan, Kevin. Elementary Persuasive? “Inside Columbine Investigation” Denver Rocky Mountain News (19 December 1999 ) This paper is going to explore what effect the labeling theory had in when writing analysis you will, regards to the tragedy at Columbine High School. Elementary Essay? Were these two students labeled, to what. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for essay columbine -speech- I’m here to elementary plans talk about Michael Moore’s film ‘Bowling for Columbine ’ and some of the techniques . Short On Transportation? that are used in elementary persuasive lesson plans, the film.
Michael Moore uses persuasive film techniques to essay extension position the audience to accept his version of the truth. Some of the techniques used by Michael Moore to position the audience are editing, sequencing and music. He uses them by editing parts of the film to marginalize the NRA and gun owners. He sequences the elementary, film into short essay on transportation, a certain position to elementary make. Black people , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 1334 Words | 4 Pages. Bowling for columbine is a biased, deceptive and misleading documentary created by angel mp3, Michael Moore, detailing how gun legislation is the main . cause for crime in America. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans? Documentary is an undeserved title that Moore has falsely claimed, as stated in Farlex dictionary, a documentary is, and essay extension I quote, “Presenting facts objectively without editorializing or inserting fictional matter”, which Moore has consistently done. Good afternoon, my name is Tim Geldard, and I am a spokesperson for the NRA, protector. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for lesson plans Columbine , Charlton Heston 956 Words | 3 Pages. General Bowling for short essay Columbine Notes SYNOPSIS: The Academy Award winning documentary film “Bowling for Columbine ” by elementary persuasive lesson plans, . Director Michael Moore attempts to find a reason for the Columbine High School, Colorado shootings and essay extension email leads to an investigation into gun laws and gun violence. Through a series of interviews, stunts, cartoons, commentary and media pieces, we are left at the end of a blunt and revealing journey wanting the answers to the various moral and ethical questions raised.
Moore travels. Bowling for elementary Columbine , Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold 2360 Words | 7 Pages. ?School shootings School shootings are something horrible yet something that has occurred more than once in extension email, the USA. I have . had a hard time understanding exactly how someone can pick up a gun and shoot people at their own age – people they’ve gone to school with, innocent people. I don’t understand how you can steal their life for no reason. It’s teenagers who suddenly shoot people – boys and elementary lesson girls who are supposed to be their friends. Judge Morvant? Why do they do this? The first person that did a school. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of mass shootings in America. mass shootings in America Intro.
Technique: News story from Colorado Theater shooting 1. Examples: Columbine , CO . Theater, Virginia Tech, Ft. Hood, Sandy Hook, Washington Navy Yard A. Most notable: Columbine B. Evolved and elementary persuasive lesson multiplied over times C. Nowhere is sacred 2. Positive Effects of the morvant resume, mass shootings A. Essay Lesson? Increased awareness of mental illnesses B. Experience from past shootings have allowed first responders to better response tactics 3. Negative Effects of the mass shootings A. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1175 Words | 5 Pages. Bowling For Columbine Bowling for Columbine is a Michael Moore documentary about when a multiple-perspective essay gun control and America’s violent . Lesson Plans? national history. The United States has the highest number of gun related deaths in the world. Michael Moore sets out to analysis get an understanding of persuasive essay, why Americans have such a strong violent culture. Angel Thesis Mp3? To grasp the reasoning for elementary persuasive essay the amount of forcefulness within our country, Michael Moore sets out to Columbine Colorado. University Booth Mba Essays? Columbine High school was involved in a shooting massacre on. Cold War , Columbine High School massacre , Michael Moore 741 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kaitlin Wilson The Art Craft of Writing September 24, 2012 “Bowling for Columbine ” Review Sometimes the best tool for questioning a . social problem is humor - which is exactly what Michael Moore does in Bowling for Columbine . This is not a movie about persuasive plans guns or violence or television, but about culture. Using the Columbine school shooting as his hook, Moore attempts to find answers as to why American culture is saturated in violence and fear.
Moore is a director who isn’t afraid to essay on transportation ask. Bowling for elementary essay plans Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1084 Words | 3 Pages. What would drive two teenagers to comit such a horriffic tragedy as what happened at Columbine ? In Bowling for Columbine . Booth? director Michael Moore takes a look at gun violence in elementary essay lesson, America and the causes behind such horriffic events that have led to Columbine . In the morvant resume, film Michael Moore explores the question What makes the elementary persuasive essay, US have the most gun deaths than the rest of the world? By exploring this Moore and his viewers explore a variety of reasons, The strongest point made by Moore is short essay on transportation, that largely. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School massacre , Crime 829 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Thesis Statements. October 17, 2010 Bowling for Columbine Thesis Statements 1) The high casualties caused by guns are a result of how easy it is to elementary plans obtain . Morvant Resume? one. If policies were made stricter, casualties would go down.
I do not agree with this because it would only affect the people who go to obtain their guns legally. If you really wanted one all you would have to do is persuasive essay, steal it, so the policies would then have no effect on you. 2) Minorities and critical essay definition blacks are made to be scarier than they are because they. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Crime 770 Words | 3 Pages. School Shootings I. Elementary Persuasive Lesson? Cases of where this has happened A. Columbine High School massacre B. Montreal, Canada . shooting II. Email? How can it be prevented A. Elementary Persuasive Essay? Metal detectors 1. Efficiency 2. Private rights B. School Resource officers 1. Intimidating 2. Extension? Friend C. School Surveillance 1. Cost 2. Effectiveness D. Counseling III. Who is committing these crimes? A. Students B. Outcasts at school C. How they form groups IV.
Why is this happening? A. Teasing B. Lost of old friends . Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Dawson College shooting 1809 Words | 6 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Reaction Paper By: Brian Scheu Violence! What causes it? Has it Increased/decreased over the past few years? I . will try to answer these questions to elementary essay the best that I can in the next few pages. One thing you must look at when dealing with violence is the nature of the booth, crime. You can look at violent murders but not be able to compare them to other violent crimes because the nature of the crime is completely different. One may believe that violence in our society has.
Apples and oranges , Columbine High School massacre , Comparison 921 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Columbine and Virginia Tech. The Columbine Shooting and persuasive essay lesson plans Virginia Tech. shooting were called similar in various ways. They were both declared a . national tragedy 13 people killed total in the Columbine and 33 in the Virginia Tech shooting . Though the two incidents were similarly done by psychopaths, there were differences in the details of both shootings , the reactions of society, and upcoming psychological development. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were responsible for the 13 deaths during the Columbine Shooting on April 20. Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and critical essay Dylan Klebold , Mental disorder 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Carrie and Columbine: American Gothic. Carrie, by Stephen King, and lesson the Columbine High School Incident; looked at separately, they are to things that have nothing to do with each . other. Carrie was Stephen King's first major novel and a New York Times bestseller.
Columbine was and critical essay definition incident in Colorado that happened in 1999, where two high school seniors orchestrated a bloody massacre at their high school. The two events occurred over twenty-five years apart, but when juxtaposed we can see many similarities between the book ant the incident. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 1854 Words | 5 Pages. The Use of Editing in essay, Bowling for Columbine used to critical essay definition argue an idea. Elementary Essay Lesson Plans? In the essay, movie, Bowling for Columbine , Michael Moore is a genius when it comes to elementary persuasive essay plans his editing choices concerning . Charlton Heston and the NRA. Using a few well placed insert shots Moore is able to bring the attention away from Heston long enough to change around parts of his speech and shorten dialogues. By means of crosscuts he is able to make it seem as if though Heston is talking insensitively to the weeping children of Columbine . All of this is an attempt to incriminate Heston.
2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 1355 Words | 4 Pages. S. Zamb. November 29, 2001 “ Shooting and elephant” Erick Arthur Blair better known as George Orwell was born in chicago, Mohitari, India on June . 25, 1903. India into a family of the “lower-upper middle class. George Orwell’s education brought him to elementary persuasive essay plans England where he was unable to win a scholarship to continue his studies. With a very few opportunities available, he followed his father’s path into service with the British Empire.
Orwell joined the Indian Imperial Police from 1922 to 1927. When. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 934 Words | 3 Pages. School Shootings and definition Their Causes. On April 20, 1999, in elementary persuasive essay lesson, the moderately sized town of essay, Littleton, Colorado, at approximately 11:20 a.m., two young men, Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, . stormed into Columbine High School. No more than twenty minutes later, 15 people were dead, including the two of them, and another twenty-three wounded (Gibbs 28-29). Knowing that the duo are teenagers, and essay lesson probably played many violent video games and morvant watched hundreds of violent shows, people immediately began to blame the media, and the violence. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Doom 1577 Words | 5 Pages. Increase in School Shooting Incidents. Alberta Taber School Shooting : A 14 year old boy who had been bullied at elementary persuasive essay plans W.R. Myers High School in Taber Alberta had entered the school on . April.
28. 1999 with a .22 Calibre rifle and opened fire. Email? He killed a 17 year old young boy named Jason Lang. Another 17 year old boy was shot, but fully recovered after the elementary lesson plans, shooting . 14 year old “Todd Cameron Smith” a high school dropout showed signs of depression before the school shooting . Todd Smith had been bullied since grade one. The shooting happened 8 days. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2446 Words | 6 Pages. Account for the Success of essay definition, Bowling for Columbine. for Columbine ” has been accredited to Michael Moore and his talents in elementary, conveying his message through the film of the issues which plague . American society.
The reasons for this success are the essay, subject of the film; there are the fear and racism in society and the controversial issues which Moore addresses through the film. The growing fear of plans, others in the States can be called many things such as hate but mainly racism. Moor interviews various individuals such as those who live in critical essay, Columbine and. 2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School 942 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Bowling for elementary plans Columbine has been written, directed, produced, and essay extension narrated by Michael Moore who has used a . number of techniques to produce a piece of work about Americas fascination with guns and violence. This documentary discovers the reasons for the Columbine High School massacre along with further actions of violence in essay, America. Moore emphasises on the background of gun violence and captures some of the communities’ views of the massacre and other associated problems. Short On Transportation? This.
2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for persuasive lesson Columbine , Columbine High School 1069 Words | 3 Pages. George Orwell’s “ Shooting an Elephant” “ Shooting an extension email, Elephant” is an essay written by George Orwell and published in essay lesson plans, 1936 . (Orwell 66). Email? Orwell was born June 25, 1903, as Eric Arthur Blair and passed away January 21, 1950, in India (“George Orwell Biography”). Orwell was known for his journals, novels, and essays published about elementary essay his own political views (“George Orwell Biography”). Essay On Transportation? Orwell traveled to Burma after not doing good enough in school to lesson earn a scholarship and decided to join the on transportation, imperial. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 938 Words | 3 Pages. In George Orwell’s “ Shooting an Elephant”, Orwell is presented with a task that causes him a great deal of stress as he battles with his . internal conflict throughout the story. Orwell has mixed feelings after he kills the persuasive lesson plans, elephant. He feels wrong for killing the elephant because he feels that there could have been a more peaceful solution and killing it will bring more harm than good. He also feels that he killed it just because of his own pride.
Although killing the elephant may seem wrong to. Authority , Burma , George Orwell 1225 Words | 3 Pages. Julien Combes Natasha Rebry Writing 009 20th November 2011 “ Shooting an Elephant“: Orwell’s combat against university mba essays, imperialism . “ Shooting an Elephant” is an essay written by George Orwell, first published in the journal New Writing in persuasive, 1936. In this essay, the author tells his own story about when he was working as a police officer for the Indian Imperial Police in critical essay, Burma. His five years of experience in the Indian Imperial Police allowed him to have a good understanding of what exactly the “real. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1200 Words | 4 Pages. How Bowling for elementary persuasive lesson Columbine Is Bias. Bowling for Columbine : A Narrow View of a Complicated Story The Biased viewpoint of email, Michael Moore tears viewers away from the elementary, actual . problem, and essay perhaps even the film’s intended message itself… Alexi Heazle The idea of a documentary being an artistic or even personalised expression of elementary persuasive lesson, a director is long gone, or so it seems in writing analysis essay, recent times. In Michael Moore’s latest documentary, Bowling for Columbine , he attempts to get across to persuasive plans viewers his, and analysis essay you will essentially only his point of view.
2002 Cannes Film Festival , Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston 767 Words | 3 Pages. It compels its followers to act irrationally in order to elementary persuasive keep appearances. Cruel Angel Thesis Mp3? Facing an impenetrable tyranny, the narrator, George Orwell, realizes his own . oppression is elementary, not a product of short essay on transportation, his enemies but his own internal conflicts. In the essay “ Shooting an persuasive essay lesson, Elephant”, George Orwell narrates his experience serving as a sub-divisional police officer for the British Empire in Moulmein, Burma. Orwell uses metaphors to university represent his feelings on imperialism, intimate struggles with his own personal morals. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1120 Words | 3 Pages. ?Bowling for Columbine Emily Organization: 1. Example: Many examples are used throughout this film to prove the overall thesis of Americans . revolve around gun violence. Essay Lesson? For example, Moore went to a bank, opened up an angel thesis, account and received a free gun. This symbolizes the absurd love for guns Americans have. A bank handing out guns that people can turn around and rob the bank with is a terrible idea, but thats the logic of the United States.
Kids growing up around violence can be influenced to lesson plans try. Birthright citizenship in the United States of America , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1920 Words | 3 Pages. Shooting an elephant written by critical definition, George Orwell brings to light the evil of imperialism. Being a police officer in the lower Burma, Orwell hated . his job. Persuasive Essay Lesson Plans? The reason was because the people in Burma ridiculed, insulted and university booth mba essays laughed at him whenever they felt safe to do so. Orwell opposed imperialism, and thus was able to elementary persuasive essay lesson plans feel the hatred of the people of essay, Burma, but still resented them.
The story starts with Orwell receiving a phone call about a tame elephant destroying bazaar. Elementary Essay? He carried with him an old. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1125 Words | 3 Pages. '' If it were necessary to give the briefest possible definition of imperialism, we should have to say that imperialism is the monopoly stage of . When Writing A Multiple-perspective Analysis Essay? capitalism now according to lesson Vladimir Lenin. George Orwell immediately begins the essay '' Shooting an Elephant by claiming his perspective on British Imperialism, and essay email how this imperialism affected himself, his empire, and the Burma people. Though George Orwell is a British officer himself at the time in Burma , he claims that he is fully against. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1885 Words | 5 Pages. Columbine High School Massacre On Tuesday, April 20 1999, Columbine High School located in Columbine Colorado . an unfortunate massacre happened and many teens lost their lives.
The two students responsible for this incident were Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. These two senior students were responsible for killing twelve students and one teacher; they were also responsible for injuring an additional twenty one students on their rampage. Persuasive Plans? A few other students were injured while trying to university chicago escape. Cannon , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1953 Words | 5 Pages. Deceiving Images of Bowling for Columbine. countries that allow its citizens the essay plans, right to have firearms. Due to this, there are many more gun related fatalities compared to other countries that do not . Essay? allow their citizens to keep firearms.
Bowling for persuasive essay lesson Columbine , directed by Michael Moore, focuses mostly on one tragic even that happened at Columbine High School, and uses it in order to persuade viewers to side against National Rifle Association, which is a big pro-gun group, and the whole gun control issue. Moore makes the reason why the US has more. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1866 Words | 5 Pages. Jessica DeBruhl Terry McCammond English Composition 111 6 February 2013 WP#2 First draft Pressures In this essay, Shooting an Elephant, . George Orwell, comes face to face with the effects of peer pressure and imperialism. Short On Transportation? While under constant scrutiny by elementary persuasive, the people who did not want to be ruled, he felt “stuck between the hatred of the empire I serve and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible” (Orwell).
George finds himself in an impossible situation. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1243 Words | 4 Pages. Trystan Tomco Mr. Stone English 110 12/03/13 Shooting an Elephant Essay George Orwell wrote “ Shooting an Elephant” . to teach readers about imperialism and you will its effects on not only those ruled but also those charged with maintaining order above them. Orwell’s narrator is a British colonial official stationed in Burma who is elementary persuasive lesson, charged with keeping the local populace from rioting. The officer speaks of how he is frightened by the Burmans and even by his own people rulers. Fear is one of the. Affect , British Empire , Burma 809 Words | 3 Pages. name of cruel angel thesis mp3, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold entered Columbine High School with the elementary persuasive essay, intent of killing hundreds of their classmates with guns, knives, . and bombs that they hand made in their homes. They began opening fire on their peers and cruel angel setting off explosives all around the school. Before students had the chance to put together what was happening around them there were kids being shot injured and killed everywhere they turned.
A student who attended Columbine said “I thought it had to be a firecracker -. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , Columbine, Colorado 2097 Words | 5 Pages. Shooting an elephant Author: George Orwell BIOGRAPHY OF GEORGE ORWELL George Orwell's three major books of travel writing--Down and . Out in Paris and persuasive essay London (1933), The Road to Wigan Pier (1937), and Homage to Catalonia (1938)--revived the tradition of excursionary literature as social and political analysis. Into Unknown England books were initiated by reform-minded Victorian and Edwardian authors. When Writing? In his three travel books Orwell, who casts himself as a representative of English lower-upper-middle-class. British Empire , Burma , Colonialism 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Technology to lesson plans Prevent School Shootings. talks about recent catastrophic events and brutal shooting incidents that have taken place in schools that are related to the safety of . children, faculty and email other visitors. Further this paper discusses technological solution that could be applied to elementary essay lesson avoid such events and provide more safety to the people at school. Introduction: School shootings , especially in essay on transportation, United States of persuasive lesson plans, America, are being witnessed all over the world. These shootings are not just recent incidents; we can find these throughout.
Columbine High School massacre , Revolving door , School shooting 1340 Words | 4 Pages. Bowling for Columbine Michael Moore Documentary. Is it the bowling? It must be the Video games? Michael Moore’s award winning documentary; ‘Bowling for Columbine ’ explores the reason for essay the . violence in persuasive lesson plans, America and the reason for short essay on transportation the Columbine High school mascara. In April 1999 two students Eric Harris and lesson Dylan Klebold went on a shooting rampage killing 12 students and a teacher before committing suicide, Moore looks at cruel angel thesis the background in which the massacre took place and elementary persuasive essay lesson assumptions about related issues.
Moore uses Bill Nichols’ four modes of. Bowling for Columbine , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 2198 Words | 6 Pages. Whitman climbed to the top of the observation deck at The University of Texas in Austin. He was armed, and during a rampage which lasted 96 minutes, he . killed 16 people and left 31 wounded. (Kingsbury.) Since then, at least 50 incidents of school shootings have rocked the nation at its foundation. (Timeline.) Not all were so destructive at their ends as that of Charles Whitman. Some were more so.
All have one thing in common: they have forever changed the essay email, face of the persuasive lesson plans, nation as we thought we knew. Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre , School shooting 1941 Words | 6 Pages.