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A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for 2017] This article is part of our ďBusiness Planning GuideĒ óa curated list of our articles that will help you with the planning process! Start from the very beginning understanding that your business plan ought to be specific to your business needs and objectives. Every business ought to have a plan, but not every business needs a full formal plan with carefully crafted summaries and descriptions. If you donít have a specific immediate need to show a formal business plan to a banker or investor, then you are probably better off doing just a lean business plan , for causes essay, your internal use only. To make the best impression on banks and investors, your business plan should be presented in the standard business plan format. Your business plan should present what a banker or venture capitalist expects to see, in the order they expect to expository essay, see it in. Following a standard business plan outline will keep you on track, and save you from botching your best chance at getting your business funded. Want to just skip ahead and causes essay, download our free business plan template? Just click here. I donít recommend writing the plan in the same order you present it as a finished document.
For example, although the executive summary comes as the first section of a business plan, I recommend writing it after everything else is essays about growing a small town, done, so you know exactly what appears in the rest of paper, your business plan. Likewise, although the management summary is usually presented toward the end of a finished business plan, it might be an easy place to start writing. And some people prefer to outline for an argumentative essay, start with a mission statement, or strategy summary. Causes Of Climate Change Essay Paper! Others like to focus on the numbers first, so they start with a sales forecast or spending budget. Start where you like, and get going. A healthy business planning process will always involve circling back often to check results and revise as necessary. A Grade! If you have the main components, the order doesnít matter that much, but whatís presented here is the sequence I suggest for causes change essay paper, a standard business plan. In this article, I will cover the following: You can click each of the above links to jump directly to outline argumentative, that section.
See an example of a completed business plan here, and learn even more about writing a business plan here. Of Climate Essay Paper! Write this last. Itís just a page or two that highlights the points youíve made elsewhere in your business plan. Itís also the doorway to your planóafter looking over your executive summary, your target reader is expository essay, either going to throw your business plan away or keep reading, so youíd better get it just right. Of Climate Essay! Summarize the problem you are solving for customers, your solution, the a grade order target market, the causes change essay founding team, and financial forecast highlights. Keep things as brief as possible and on my, entice your audience to learn more about your company. Describe the problem that you solve for your customers and the solution that you are selling. It is always a good idea to think in terms of customer needs and causes change, customer benefits as you define your product offerings, rather than thinking of your side of the equation (how much the product or service costs, and thesis learning, how you deliver it to the customer). Sometimes this part of the plan will include tables that provide more details, such as a bill of materials or detailed price lists, but more often than not this section just describes what you are selling and causes essay, how your products and services fill a need for your customers.
You need to know your target marketóthe types of town, customers you are looking foróand how itís changing. Use this section to discuss your customersí needs, where your customers are, how to change essay paper, reach them and how to deliver your product to them. Youíll also need to know who your competitors are and expository, how you stack up against themówhy are you sure thereís room for you in this market? Use this section to change paper, outline your marketing plan, your sales plan, and research order, the other logistics involved in actually running your business. Youíll want to cover the causes of climate change technology you plan on frame, using, your business location and other facilities, special equipment you might need, and your roadmap for causes of climate essay paper, getting your business up and running. Essay Frame! Finally, youíll want to outline the key metrics youíll be tracking to make sure your business is headed in the right direction. Causes Of Climate Change Essay! This section is an overview of who you are. It should describe the organization of your business, and the key members of the management team, but it should also ground the reader with the nuts and bolts: when your company was founded, who is/are the owner(s), what state your company is registered in and where you do business, and when/if your company was incorporated.
Be sure to include summaries of your managersí backgrounds and essay on my in god, experienceóthese should act like brief resumesóand describe their functions with the company. Full-length resumes should be appended to causes change, the plan. At the very least this section should include your projected profit and loss and cash flow tables, and a brief description of the assumptions youíre making with your projections. Finally, if you are raising money or taking out loans, you should highlight the money you need to launch the business. Listen to Tim Berry discuss lean business planning: 2.3 Validation of Problem and Solution. 3.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. Outline For An Argumentative! 3.5.1 Competitors and Alternatives. 4.3 Location and Facilities. 5.0 Company and Management Summary. 5.1 Organizational Structure. 5.5 Company History and Ownership.
6.3 Projected Profit and Loss. 6.5 Projected Balance Sheet. Causes! Cash flow is the single most important numerical analysis in a business plan, and a standard cash flow table should never be missing. Foster Essay Topics! Most standard business plans also include a sales forecast and profit and loss statements. I believe they should also have a separate projected balance sheet, projected business ratios, and market analysis tables, as well as personnel listings. I also believe that every business plan should include bar charts and pie charts to illustrate the causes of climate essay paper numbers. Size your business plan to fit your business. Remember that your business plan should be only thesis on project based, as big as what you need to run your business.
While every business owner should have an ongoing planning process to help them run their business, not every business owner needs a complete, formal business plan suitable for submitting to a potential investor, or bank, or venture capital contest. So donít include outline points just because they are on a big list somewhere, or on this list, unless youíre developing a standard business plan that youíll be showing to someone who expects to see a standard business plan. Consider lean business planningó writing a business plan doesnít have to be a long, painful process. Causes Of Climate Paper! Instead, you can use the Lean Planning method to get started easier and research paper order, finish faster. Lean Planning will help you start your business in causes essay paper, a way that improves your chances of success. This methodology is baked into LivePlan . Donít make common mistakes. Outline Essay! Iíve seen thousands of business plans, good and bad, and I can tell you that avoiding these common business planning errors will put you far ahead of the curve.
Sample business plans: Over 500 free sample business plans from of climate paper, various industries. Business plan template: This fill-in-the-blank business plan template is in the format preferred by banks and the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). How to a grade paper order, start a business: An easy-to-follow six-step process for starting a new business. Change Paper! LivePlan: Easy cloud-based business planning software for up in town, everyone.
This online software includes expert advice, built-in help and causes essay, more than 500 complete sample business plans. A Grade Research Order! Business plan consulting: Weíre here to give you the tools to write your business plan on of climate change, your own. But, sometimes itís nice to have a professional guide you through the process. Let an expert MBA create a business plan for your business in five business days. It have really helped me a lot, I `m currently busi with starting my own company that will take the world by storm and I really need someone who is based, not scared to invest on me since I don`t have cash. what is the first thing you would do to start a business. what are the highlights of making a business plan? im thinking about starting A business. The Small Business Administration has a great tool for of climate change essay paper, people who are preparing to open their own businesses. On My! The Small Business Planner can be found at: http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/index.html. It has a great step by step guide on causes change essay, how to prepare for and open a business as well as additional tips on writing your business plan. Thanks for this information.
The information and the sample plans really continue to boost my energy and excitment over starting my new business venture. That#8217;s great. We love to hear about paper order someone excited about Entrepreneurship! Good luck to you and your new business! I#8217;m going to join HSBC young entrepreneur Award and they require a outline limited to 1000 words.
If I use your outline model, it will be so long, won#8217;t it ? The outline is completely customizable in business plan pro. You can add topics, delete topics, rename topics and essay paper, move topics. You might also find some of our resources on writing a business plan for a competition to be helpful. Specifically: Read Tim Berryís white paper about business plan competitions. Essay On My Belief! Thank you for your question. Palo Alto Software. Thank God I found what I was looking for. how to do business plan for spectacles and eyeware company?
This is of climate change essay paper, a question we get quite a lot Ashwini. #8220;How do you write a plan for __specific type of about growing a small, business___#8221; We have created the bplans.com website as a resource for people to get the information they need to write their business plans or help in causes of climate, the course of their business. We don#8217;t write business plans here. We aren#8217;t a consulting company. We write business planning software that walks you through writing your business plan step by step and outline for an, helps you with the process of causes paper, planning your business. On the bplans website you can find resources that will help you in creating a business plan for an eyeware company, but most likely, you won#8217;t find a sample plan for thesis, that exactly. You#8217;ll find the tools to write that plan yourself.
I hope this was helpful, and good luck in causes of climate, your venture! Very good guide i#8217;m doing a business plan course and I found it very helpful I am useing it and its helping a lot very greatful for your site. Regards and best wishes for a grade research, the future from Malta. THE BUSINESS PLAN SAMPLES GAVE ME A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES NEEDED IN ORDER TO PREPARE MY BUSINESS PLAN FOR A HALFWAY HOUSE DRUG REHABILITATION PROGRAM THAT I PLAN TO START. THANKS! Thanks for briefing on business plans.Learned something from you.Surely i will visit again for of climate essay paper, more information. If you do a search on the bplans.com website for essay, SWOT you#8217;ll find several articles on the subject. Hope that helps! You can search on the bplans.com website for some examples of complete business plans. Hope that helps! Thank you for your assistance it has really made my work easier.I wish there were avenues for causes essay paper, people to belief in god, send in their questions on causes of climate, the subjectfor help as to how to expository frame, prepare a business plan of causes of climate essay paper, a specific nature.
There are several resources, some even here on this website. You can locate the a grade research order Expert Advice tab at of climate paper, the top of the frame page or by paper, doing another Google search for forum#8217;s designed to assist people looking for specific help. There are also consultants you could look into, like Masterplans. Essay! Thanks a great deal for your guidelines on writing business plans. This site is 100 times better and educative compared to other publications. I would be grateful if you could send me a copy or draft of any real life small/medium size business plan for any income generating business in the retail industry. Causes Change Essay! Very helpful thanks#8230; I#8217;m in preparation of a Business Plan for a small scale enterprise for a financial company catering financial products and services.
Any creative and innovative ideas are encouraged for my creation of Business Plan. I just started an LLC and my biggest hang-up in writing my business plan is my financial forecast. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated! I am looking into it along with a partner to start a company that imports stand-up comedians to a certain area. A Grade! This company will be based on causes of climate paper, only two persons putting money into the company and be working on a very low budget. I have been looking over the sample plans but none of them seem to fit to what I am looking at.
Is there anybody out there who could point me in the right direction on outline essay, how to make my business plan for such a small agency? It would be great if you knew of a good template that I could go by. Any help would be great. Thanks and good luck to you all out there. There are many free sample business plans available here at bplans.com, browse through the list and you should find something that suits you. This is more of a question than a comment. The business plan outline is very helpful, but #8230; it#8217;s usually conceived for those who want to start a new business. My question is for change, advice on what to for an essay, do with a business plan for revitalizing a dormant business in the tourist industry in Indonesia. Here are the particulars: an Indonesian firm owns two big river boats that used to take tourists (mostly from Europe and Japan) on river explorations. That has stopped because of financial mismanagement.
I now have the opportunity to causes essay paper, revive this business, but it needs investment for rehabilitating the boats, reviving the market, adjusting what is and can be offered to tourists, etc. Expository Essay! I have no own capital, but the of climate expertise to run something like this. It needs investment which can be in the form of direct investment or a loan from a bank. WHAT WOULD BE THE MAIN POINTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN that I couold show to private investors or banks? I can be reached at [email protected] Calculating the value of your business is vital if you are trying to find investors, apply for outline argumentative, a loan, or sell your business to a potential buyer. The Premier Edition of Business Plan Pro includes detailed valuation tools that can help you determine a solid business valuation and create a professional investment offering.
Showcase the of climate paper true value of your business with more advanced spreadsheets that describe the sources and uses of cash for any new or existing business. Business Plan Pro Premier Edition is recommended for an existing company. The premier edition has advanced financials and can can forecast out up to ten years and in argumentative, detail for up to two years. Make sure you maximize the full value of your business by using this option, which is only available in the Premier Edition. Hope that helps! Palo Alto Software. business plan is a guiding principal to the entrepreneur because it explains the of climate essay paper journey of the organisation from the day of a grade, start and how it will carry on with its activities. with the causes of climate change essay recent competition organisational running needs to be systematic and this can be done with help of the business plan. in order for the organisation to succeed,its like some body traveling and he needs vehcle for traveling and so applies to entrepreneur he needs the vehicle which is the business plan. Hi, excellent article about business plans, I#8217;m currently starting a new business and writing the business plan is one of the starting points for me to essays about, secure investment.
Also the of climate fact that you say that you don#8217;t necessarily need to follow the thesis structure reassures me, as I won#8217;t be needing to causes, but felt a little unsure about doing so. I am a painter and have been in the painting business for about twenty years. I was instrumental in the starting up of the first paint company I worked for. The steps were very basic and we made a lot money#8230;. Thesis On Project! The tools of the traid were purchased and we advertised our serviceses by canvesing neighborhoods and leaving our business cards. Now I would like to start this buissness for myself and I neeed to know how to write an effective business plan and/or a proposal to acquire more funds to start up. I have purchased some of my equipment and a van, however, I still have some very cost oriented obsticals to of climate paper, overcome and I need some help. Anyone who has been in this business knows that the painting business is very lucrative and can be rewarding on many levles. I am not only good at essay on my, what I do, I also like it. Is there really help out there for the minority start-up businessman?
Im starting my own buisness, but right now I dont have. the capital to fund my project. Of Climate Change Paper! it will be a beauty supply based buisness and the. area I found to run it will be perfect for this project. it has other buisnesses being built in growing up in, this area, and the customer potential is great. Here is a great resource for getting the capital you need to start your business. Another great resource can be your bank. Ask them about a small business loan. How to Get the Financing for Your New Small Business: Innovative Solutions From the of climate paper Experts Who Do It Everyday.
Author: Fullen, S. Hello John S. Brown, Sr., Busines Plan Pro does a great job of helping you write a business plan for start-up funding. Palo Alto Software. Dear Sharon Fisher, We have resources built into Business Plan Pro to help you get funding. For example, some businesses choose to a grade order, start by bringing in investors for start-up funding, while others go to a bank for a business loan. Business Plan Pro has resources built in for causes of climate essay, both approaches (the SBA loan application for bank loans, the Venture capital Database for investment sources). Palo Alto Software. i am want to establish to our own buisness in belief in god, kashmir . Causes Change Essay Paper! plese suggest what plan suit for me .when i have not such fiancial position to develop a big buisness . On My Belief! I want to set up a business of providing my clients with a door to door service of automobile Oil / Lub change while they are relaxed at causes of climate change, home or office.
Can some one help me with a Business / Marketing Plan. I need a professional Plan to convince my bankers for finance and also possible investors interest in the project. SOS [email protected] Honestly, you may not find a sample plan that will exactly match your business model. Belief In God! You may find several that are close or related. What is important is that we include sample plans as idea generators and causes essay, examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. Foster Topics! All sample plans included are real plans. Causes Of Climate Essay! You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and ellen foster topics, market research information.
What is important is that Business Plan Pro will work to develop your own plan, for your specific business. Of Climate Change! The Windows software package Business Plan Pro is an excellent tool for developing a business plan. I hope this was helpful! Palo Alto Software. I wish you could create a downloadable page in application form style. It is always worthwhile to take time assessing your business plan before you commence a new project or company: mistakes which could prove costly in a grade research paper order, practice can be eliminated painlessly on paper! Remember that a Business Plan and your Marketing Strategies Plan are quite different, and don#8217;t forget your cashflow forecasts, profit and loss projections, start-up capital, ongoing capital, buy-out plans and expansion plans, bank financing and sales training!
Setting up business on causes essay, paper is quite a venture! Wow#8230;This has helped me out ellen foster essay so much on essay, my business plan. Your guide-line helps#8230; Hi, I#8217;m writing a business plan for Business class, and it is a prety rough task. Easy for me because my plan is based on averages and similarities between businesses. In my textbook though, it is mentioning things that are needed in frame, a business plan, but I am finding it really difficult to see what is the most important information to take from the paragraphs. Another thing is, I am pretty confused on how to start writing a business plan, and how it should look. I can#8217;t find any samples of of climate essay, business plans! I can only foster essay topics, find outlines. I really like this outline the most because it goes into detail, but I#8217;m thinking that each different headline would have to be a different paragraph or page.. or is it points?
I#8217;m lost, please get back to me, thanks! it seems to be helping me. Business Plan Pro includes 500+ sample plans. Realistically you may not find a sample plan that exactly matches your business model. You may find several in your industry that are close or related. It is important to understand that we include sample plans as idea generators and examples, not as plans that you can actually print and turn in to a bank. All sample plans included are real plans. You may use them as a starting point, but even if one exactly matches your type of business, it will still have different start-up costs, location, management team and causes change paper, market research information. On My Belief! Business Plan Pro will guide you through the of climate paper process with a flexible outline of argumentative essay, about four dozen topics organized into chapters, topics, and subtopics, with links to the proper tables and causes change essay paper, charts. Each topic has a split screen option that explains what should be covered, and where to for an, find the information.
With the click of of climate essay paper, a single button, you may view an example of what that topic will look like in the finished business plan. I hope this information was helpful. Palo Alto Software. Quite helpful am going to town, have a try for of climate change paper, my very important business plan, lets see how it goes and will report back immediately. I need a business plan for a grade paper order, a ongoing patchwork shop can anyone help me thanks in advance.
Just a small question, I#8217;m 20 and want to buy a business for 200k what chance do i have with the causes of climate change paper bank? i would like to on my, start a corier business where do i start or get same help to.make business plan. i found this bussines plan is of climate change essay, helpfull for me to pepare my bussines plan. I think u should offer a sample on how to write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. A Grade Research Order! I think u should offer a wide selection on how to write a business plan, rather then just having a outline. Are there plans that can be used by the debt buying / collection industry?? I am on causes change essay paper, the works of starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about our culture and stuff. I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and where to run my business.My main goal is to essays growing up in a small town, teach children about of climate essay races and based learning, we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into my heart and made me reach out to so many different races.And to me, all races are vone. I am on the works of starting up a Wilderness Camp for youth who want ot learn about of climate essay paper our culture and stuff.
I am really enjoying it alot and it#8217;s getting me a brief description of how and research paper, where to run my business.My main goal is to causes change, teach children about races and we aren#8217;t so different so with this. It has really dug into on project my heart and change, made me reach out to so many different races.And to me, all races are one. Fantastic, CJ! Good luck!! Palo Alto Software. My daughter has started her business successfully. Anyone of foster essay topics, you who could use a great website, professionally developed should take a look at the link provided (www.imarkcomm.com) and discuss your needs with her. Her designer is awesome, her translator is great and her client#8217;s websites successfully generate the traffic necessary to succeed. My wife had 4+ experience in medical billing. she as team leader in one of the causes of climate change paper leading medical billing in chennai. Essay Belief! currently she left job. she want to doing business in medical billing. I am also support her. please give suggesion to me for start a medical billing business with less investment.
Hello Tim, I#8217;m looking for a business plan for my vision which is helping women, women from jail, battered and hurt, how would I write a business plan for this. Im impressed the summary will assist me especially because i am sourcing funding from my local bank in Nairobi Kenya. I do not have any examples but I have viewed a few different business plans that are in different industriess and vary in size. Essay! A Business plan does not have to be a huge task although the expository frame bigger the business, the causes of climate change more in depth the business plan should be. Argumentative Essay! I have heard of causes of climate essay, people that have written their bp#8217;s on cocktail napkins. If you are just starting out and want to work from home to begin with write down your plan. You aren#8217;t going to research paper, just sit on your couch and have work fall in causes of climate paper, your lap, are you? How are you going to get the work? Do you already have customers lined up?
How much money are you going to have to essays about growing town, invest? Do you need to buy equipment? Are you going to have to hire help? These are some of the basic questions that you can write down and the answers are your business plan. Maybe you could start by writing the answers to the questions above and then sit down and ask yourself some more questions and change essay paper, then answer them. After you have compiled a list of questions and answers organize them by using the based learning Outline. Of Climate Paper! The bottom line you can#8217;t use someone elses business plan. It has to be for argumentative essay, you and your business alone. Someone else may have answered all of those questions differntly. Be unique. If you find you just can#8217;t figure it out, hire someone to do it for you and if you do figure it out maybe you could open a business that writes business plans for other people.
Oooh that sounds like a good idea I gotta go! I have something I want to write:) Geek in the Woods. sir, iam vishnu doing btech in college of engg perumon,kerala,india.i have ablog named as above.iam very much interesting in business field.so u pls give me some business articles and i will post that in change, my blog,in that way i can understand others abt wat business they will look like. all in foster essay, all i have no plan for this, in fact i searchin also for plan. I have been writing business plans for a while now, for myself and causes of climate paper, others. Wondered if any one knows about Greek business plans, as I have to convert mine to the market I live in, which is Greek spaeking. If any one Knows please email [email protected] Essay! where does the SWOT anyalsis fit in? Under Market Anaysis or Strategy?
i need to start up a training fascilitie for training technical personell for two companies and a comprehensive repair and service workshop. no capital but willing and causes of climate, good technicians to venture in with me. please help i have the training college but have to sumbit businees pplans to take over the fascilitie. please help me. Ellen! with a good business plan. Of Climate Essay! We have established an IT company in India. Our focussed technology is Oracle Apps ERP. We have a good development centre in India and also offices in paper, USA. Can anybody help me in preparing a Road Map for our business for the next 3 years? Thanks. One thing I notice is that a lot of these people asking for help with business plans have trouble with their grammar and communication skills. These are VERY important for a business plan. A business owner should be able to clearly communicate what their business does, why they are a good investment opportunity, and how goals will be reached. I#8217;m not trying to destroy anyone#8217;s dreams, just inject a dose of reality.
Ive read an article on entrepreneur#8217;s website about Creating a Sales Forecast by mr Berry. It also mentions that you can find an existing product similar to your product and looking at causes change, their sales and base your sales on that. But, how and where would I find info on how much sales units a similar product in the industry has? Is their a website I could go to in order to find this info? Thanks for the info, as a rapidly growing company any help with procuring investment and customers is research paper, always welcome, your newsletters have helped me in of climate change, more ways than one and expository essay, nudged me in the right direction, and i am indebted, as you have certainly helped my business grow. Of Climate Change Paper! when experiance get in one folder in for an essay, an organized way it gives knowleges for other who do not have experiance for causes change essay paper, the situation. what i have got here is this. i have no experiance in business planning before, but know i`m with enormous knowledge about planning because of bplanning. This Site Really help my Business Reports. I want to start up my own business and need to a grade research paper, write a business plan for a medical diagnostic company but i don#8217;t have a clue as to how to go about this. pls can you help?
This is quite educative and revealing. It is quite helpful and a good guide for developing economies like ours, nigeria. i have liked the tips.please increase content or acess to your samples. I am trying to get a business/charitable project off the ground. Causes Of Climate Essay Paper! I am sophomore in on my in god, college so I have very little experience, but I know exactly what I want to do.
Any tips on starting? I can#8217;t believe this is a free site! not even a registration is required to access all of the valuable resources and information! this is by causes of climate, far the essay topics best website I#8217;ve ever visited. Thanks a lot and keep it up. i am 40 years old. i am writing a business plan on a water processing and distribution business to be located in the assin district in the central region of ghana where we shall initially supply, then the whole region, country and in the near future the west africa subregion. can anyone come to my aid with sponsorship for change essay paper, the initial capital. anyone willing to sponsor this project can kindly contact me on [email protected] I wanted to start a Family Entertainment Center.. none of the sample plans are really helping me#8230; help please! If you have any experience in this industry. Thanks.. [email protected]
thanks#8230;the info was really beneficial for me#8230; HI.I AM VERY INTERSTED ABOUT ISSUE OF SETTING UP BUSINESS PAN.DONT LET PEOPLE KNOWN WHAT YOU WANT TO ACHIEVED BUT LET PEOPLE SEE WHAT YOU HAVE ACHIEVED BECUSE THESE PEOPLE MAY BE DIFFICUTIES ON YOUR WAY. I need a business plan for expository frame, a simple laundry shop can anyone help me thanks in advance.guide me.. Causes Change Essay! mail to essays about growing a small town, me [email protected] Change Essay Paper! I really want to run a restaurant for my own. However i am afraid to run it in a bad situation of Global Crisis. Few of people are eating outside so my plan must be delay. What I want to say to based learning, everyone is of climate change essay paper, that, i have do research for some source from many websites but the best website i have met is this website.It is a very good website that i can get lots of informations for preparing myself for my business, restaurant. It is about growing, amazing the this website is free#8230; Therefore is there is someone one to give me some advide for running a restaunrant please contact me through email: [email protected] i would like to start up a business on broiler production,because i do not have sufficient funds to start it,i am required to provide a business plan in order to be assisted with finance,can you please send me a logical way to write a business plan,what comes first and what comes last? awesome im doing a competition with school and this really helped because ive been assigned with the of climate essay job of writing a business plan! im 13! I have what I think is an on my belief, encredibley great business. idea.
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Helmet Efficacy to Reduce Head Injury and Mortality in Motorcycle Crashes. MacLeod, Jana B. A. Essay. MD; DiGiacomo, J. Christopher MD; Tinkoff, Glen MD, FACS, FCCM. From the Department of Surgery (J.B.A.M.), Grady Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; The Port Authority Heroes of September 11 Trauma Center (J.C.D.), Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, New Jersey; and Department of Surgery (G.T.), Christiana Care Health System, Wilmington, Delaware. Submitted for publication March 11, 2010. Accepted for publication August 22, 2010. Presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Association for essays about, the Surgery of Trauma, January 1923, 2010, Phoenix, Arizona. Supported and commissioned by Injury Control and of climate paper Violence Prevention Committee, Eastern Association for essays about up in, the Surgery of Trauma. Address for reprints: Jana MacLeod, MD, Glenn Memorial Building, Third Floor, 69 Jesse Hill Jr.
Drive, SE, Atlanta, GA 30303; email: [email protected] According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association, in paper, 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists died and 96,000 were injured. Motorcycles make up ∼3% of all registered vehicles in the United States and account for only 0.4% of all vehicle miles traveled. However, motorcycle crashes accounted for topics, ∼10% of all motor vehicle crash fatalities, and per mile traveled, motor cycle crashes are ∼37 times more lethal than automobile crashes. Head injuries are one of the most common injuries after motorcycle crashes and were estimated to be the cause of death in 50% of of climate change essay paper these fatalities.
In close to a third of these victims, the head injury is the sole organ system that is injured. However, in growing a small, the majority of patients, estimated as high as 90% of essay some patient cohorts, a head injury is present along with other injuries. Despite these facts, it is estimated that only a grade research paper order 50% of motorcyclists routinely wear helmets. It was intuitive even to our earliest ancestors that a hard shell would protect the head from injury. However, establishing the causes change paper effectiveness of the motorcycle helmet remains a challenging effort especially in thesis on project based learning, light of the powerful opposition to universal helmet laws. Furthermore, quantifying the protective effect of helmets supports the promotion of helmet programs regardless of the controversial nature of legislative efforts. In the United States, an increasing recognition that helmet use is associated with reductions in fatalities without apparent harm increased the implementation of causes paper universal helmet laws. In response to the 1966 Federal Highway Act, which withheld federal funds from states that did not enact a helmet law, Georgia became the first state to enact a mandatory universal motorcycle helmet law in 1967.
By 1975, 47 of the 50 states had universal helmet laws. Foster Essay Topics. However, public and causes of climate change essay paper political concerns over outline essay, individual rights versus public safety opened a new debate. In the causes of climate change paper following years, political changes reversed and/or limited previous sanctions and grants that encouraged states to enact universal helmet laws, which further eroded support for helmet laws. An increasing number of states either repealed their mandatory laws altogether or significantly reduced the laws to apply only to minors. At present, only 20 states have universal helmet laws, another 26 states require only a grade partial coverage, and 4 states have no helmet laws (Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and New Hampshire). A large volume of literature has quantified the consequences of not wearing a helmet while riding a motorcycle. Although motorcycle riding and registration are increasing and more states with universal helmet laws are introducing bills to repeal their laws, the causes of climate essay paper debate continues on the personal advantages of helmet usage. Therefore, we have reviewed the foster literature and causes of climate summarize the evidence basis for the use of learning motorcycle helmets. In particular, we have sought to assess the impact of helmet use on overall mortality, head injury-related mortality, nonlethal head injury after a motorcycle crash, and the impact universal helmet laws on of climate essay, helmet use. Motorcycles are a significant cause of injury-related fatality and ellen foster essay disability. In particular, head injury is a common associated cause of death and long-term disability after a motorcycle crash.
Despite these facts, there remains an ongoing controversy as to the survival and disability advantages for riders who wear motorcycle helmets. Of Climate. In the public and essay topics legislative sectors, there remains a significant policy controversy resulting in a push to retain partial coverage helmet laws and to repeal universal helmet laws in many others. A. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders have a higher or lower overall death rate after a motorcycle crash? B. Paper. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of lethal head injury after a motorcycle crash? C. Do nonhelmeted riders in comparison with helmeted riders incur higher or lower rates of nonlethal head injury or is the nonlethal head injury more or less severe after a motorcycle crash? D. Expository Essay Frame. Do geographical areas (i.e., aggregate states) that have universal helmet laws have a higher or lower death rate or head injury rate after motorcycle crashes when compared with areas without a universal helmet law?
A computerized search of the of climate essay world's literature was undertaken using , of the US National Library of Medicine, extending back to 1990 to the present (2009) using the outline for an argumentative key words: helmet + (motorcycle OR crash). There were 507 citations identified. The abstract for each was reviewed, and 197 candidate articles having possible applicability to the guideline topic were retrieved and reviewed. General reviews, letters to the editor, single case reports, and retrospective reviews of of climate change paper poor quality were excluded. Up In A Small. This left 45 articles that were felt to have sufficient merit to of climate essay paper, form the basis for the guidelines (Table 1). The articles were reviewed in learning, detail by of climate paper the authors J.M., G.H.T., and J.C.D. Over the past decades, the volume of literature supporting helmet usage prevents, and ethically so, any randomized control trials or even controlled trials of helmet usage. Therefore, the most robust studies published in outline for an argumentative essay, the past 20 years are predominantly prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies. As there are no class I studies to review, the studies we did review do not vary across the classes of evidence in a useful manner. Change. Therefore, we categorized the articles in this review by study design.
There are prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies. However, the on my in god majority of the studies are retrospective, either before and after cross-sectional studies of helmet law changes or cross-sectional studies of helmeted in change essay paper, comparison with nonhelmeted riders. Finally, we also identified case-control studies. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to reduce the incidence of head injury and severe head injury after a crash. NB: This statement was made a level recommendation despite a lack of class I data because of the volume of consistent class II data, including robust prospective data, to support this finding without any methodologically similar data to refute it. All motorcyclists should wear motorcycle helmets when riding motorcycles to improve overall survival and reduce head injury-related mortality after a crash. Mandatory universal motorcycle helmet laws should be introduced or reenacted to reduce mortality and head injury after a crash. The evidence reviewed here that assesses the effectiveness of helmets for on project learning, motorcyclists comes from the following 45 study designs: Prospective cohort study of motorcycle riders.  Prospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders for of climate essay, different outcomes.  Retrospective before and after cross-sectional studies in outline for an argumentative essay, which outcomes of motorcycle crashes are compared before and after either the repeal of or the change paper enactment of a mandatory universal helmet law.  Case-control studies of a grade research paper motorcycle riders.  Retrospective cross-sectional studies that compare helmeted riders with nonhelmeted riders across different outcomes.  Comparison of mortality between states with helmet laws and states without helmet laws.  The outcomes reported included any one or more of the following: mortality, head injury-related mortality, prevalence of head injury, and prevalence of severe head injury. Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Have a Higher or Lower Overall Death Rate After a Motorcycle Crash?
Two prospective cross-sectional studies showed a reduction in mortality for causes of climate change paper, helmeted riders in comparison with nonhelmeted riders, with an odds ratio (OR) of essay on my belief 0.40 and causes essay 0.22, respectively.  However, Kelley's sample size was not adequate to reach statistical significance, and therefore, no death reduction can be concluded from this study. Nine retrospective cross-sectional studies reported mortality as an essay in god outcome, but two showed no reduction  while seven showed reductions that varied from a maximal OR estimate of 0.29  to a minimal OR estimate of causes change paper 0.84.  Of the studies that showed a mortality reduction, only three were adjusted for rider and/or environmental factors.  There were five studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law repeal. Two of the studies showed an increase in fatality after repeal of the helmet law, 26% and 30% increases, respectively.  However, two further studies had nonsignificant increases in the ORs of death: OR of a grade research paper order 1.08  (per 10,000 motorcycle registrations) and OR of of climate change paper 1.01  (per 1,000 crashes). Interestingly, although the study of Bledsoe and Li did not show an overall reduction in mortality, there was a significant increase in riders who were blood alcohol positive at the time of the crash and who were also not wearing a helmet after the repeal when compared with before (14.2% vs.
33.6%, OR: 2.37, p 0.05). There were 12 studies that compared crashes before and after helmet law establishment or reenactment. Auman et al. showed close to a halving of the relative risk (RR) of fatality after the law was reenacted (RR: 0.51, 9.3 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations to 4.7 fatalities per 10,000 registrations). Essay On My. Another five studies showed RRs that reflected statistically significant mortality reductions from 0.57 to 0.81.  One study, by Chiu et al., showed no change in mortality during the study period (4.0%). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of Lethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash? The RR of causes change essay head injury-related mortality was reduced by more than half after the enactment of a helmet law in Texas from outline argumentative essay, 6.8 fatalities to 3.1 fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations  (RR: 2.19, p 0.05). In Pennsylvania, after the repeal of the causes of climate essay helmet law, the head injury-related death rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations increased by 36.9%  (1.6 to 2.2 fatalities per 10,000 registrations, p 0.05). Do Nonhelmeted Riders in Comparison With Helmeted Riders Incur Higher or Lower Rates of foster essay topics Nonlethal Head Injury or Severity of Nonlethal Head Injury After a Motorcycle Crash?
All 25 of the studies that had prevalence of a nonfatal head injury as an outcome had a significantly lower incidence for helmeted riders, after reenactment or before repeal of of climate change essay paper a helmet law. One of the prospective studies that observed motorcycle riders to determine the incidence of order head injury-associated crashes showed that nonhelmeted riders sustained a head injury more than twice the causes of climate essay rate of helmeted riders  (4.7% vs. 1.9%). Three studies showed an ellen foster essay ORs of a head injury after a crash to vary from 2.3 times to 4.4 times higher for nonhelmeted riders when compared with helmeted riders  ( p 0.05). Ouellet and Kasantikul showed an ORs of sustaining a serious injury to causes paper, be 3.5 times higher ( p 0.05) for nonhelmeted riders. Retrospective studies confirm the consistent findings of the a grade research prospective studies that head injury is uniformly more frequent and more severe when sustaining a crash without a helmet. Of Climate Essay. The magnitude of the increased prevalence of essay a head injury after a nonhelmeted crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is of climate paper, uniformly larger.
For three retrospective studies, the ORs of essay on my belief in god a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.525.3), 4.4 (2.587.37), and 3.7 (1.97.3), respectively.  Lin et al. Change Essay. showed a 41% increase in trauma-induced brain hemorrhage, including subarachnoid, subdural, and epidural hematomas when a rider was nonhelmeted during a crash. The case-control studies showed an adjusted OR of 0.26 (0.140.48) and 0.41 (0.210.81), which represents a significant protective effect of wearing a helmet in reducing the incidence of a head injury after a motorcycle crash.  In four retrospective studies in which universal motorcycle helmet laws were enacted, the incidence of nonlethal head injury decreased from 29% to reductions of 63%. In one study in which the motorcycle law was repealed, the incidence of hospitalizations for head injury increased by paper 42%, from 15.4 to 21.9 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations ( p 0.05).  Do Geographical Areas (i.e., Aggregate States) That Have Universal Helmet Laws Have a Higher or Lower Death Rate or Head Injury Rate After Motorcycle Crashes When Compared With Areas Without a Universal Helmet Law? Two studies compared regions with and without helmet laws. Causes Essay Paper. Houston and a grade research paper order Richardson developed a model for causes, motorcycle crash fatality as a function of the state's helmet law while controlling for minimal legal drinking age, partial versus full helmet laws, 0.08 blood alcohol concentration law, roads with maximum speed limit of 65, daily temperature, daily percent precipitation, gender, age, per capita income, per capita alcohol consumption, and population density. Their results showed 1.3 fewer fatalities per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in helmet law states that can be attributed in their model to expository frame, the presence of the helmet law. Furthermore, using hospital discharge data from 33 states, Coben et al. calculated a RR of 0.65 ( p 0.05) and 0.72 ( p 0.05), respectively, for severe head injury and fatalities in states with universal helmet laws when compared with states without universal helmet laws. The main limitation of causes change these uncontrolled and observational studies involves the collection and incorporation in the analysis of potential confounders for the outcomes studied. Essays Growing Up In. The wearing of helmets is associated with multiple factors, many of which have also been shown to be associated with the incidence and severity of crashes.
Rider factors include alcohol consumption, seat position on the motorcycle (driver vs. passenger), age, and gender. There are also environmental factors such as weather, time of day; other policy factors such as speed limits and DUI laws; and other intrinsic motorcycle factors such as the size and essay paper type of motorcycle itself (the potential kinetic energy of the crash) also contribute to motorcycle crash occurrence and severity and ultimately crash consequences for ellen foster essay topics, the rider. Unfortunately, many of these factors are not easy to reliably measure on a crash-to-crash basis, and therefore, only of climate change essay nine studies, in part, adjusted for at essay on my belief, least a portion of these factors. There were other studies that stratified the change essay study group by various factors but did not control for essay frame, them in their analysis. Change Essay Paper. The majority of the order studies did not control for any potential confounders. A second methodological concern is essay, selection bias. A Grade Research. The subjects in these studies were not selected randomly, except for the one cohort study that chose the students randomly.
There were missing data, and no studies had information on those “not chosen” to confirm that they were the same as those included in the study. A large number of the studies reported fatalities and causes of climate essay prevalence of head injuries as a rate, a function of either the number of foster motorcycle registrations or the number of of climate essay crashes. This eliminates the misinterpretation of changes in absolute fatalities that reflect changes in the number of riders or the number of riders who crash. However, changes in registrations may not be an accurate denominator to reflect the active riders who are engaging in motorcycle usage and, therefore, may obscure difference. Perhaps, vehicle miles driven are a better denominator for this purpose for the same reason it is used in motor vehicle collision fatality rates. Paper Order. A good example is in the study by Bledsoe and Li, in which registrations decreased and thereby crashes decreased, but the fatality rate increased. Of Climate Essay Paper. However, perhaps because of the decreases, the frame absolute increase seems minimal and statistically not significant. The variation in helmet usage in these studies was substantial. Internationally, Conrad et al. reported that the causes change essay helmet usage was as high as 89% in Indonesia, whereas LaTorre et al. reported only a 12% rate of helmet usage in Italy. For An Argumentative. Nationally, in America, Brandt et al. reported in causes essay paper, their study from outline argumentative, Michigan a prevalence of 80.5% of riders wearing a helmet during a crash, whereas a study conducted in change, Illinois by Kelly et al. reported a 14.6% prevalence of based helmets in riders involved in crashes. Without nonrandom selection of these studies, the variation in helmet usage can also impact the results obtained.
The studies reviewed here discuss only the use of paper helmets. Essays About Up In. However, the issue of misuse as noted by Peek-Asa et al. in causes of climate change paper, his 1999 study in Thailand can also be a major factor in postcrash injury. Outline For An Argumentative. Further study is required to better understand and to quantify this problem. Furthermore, in these studies, we did not explore in depth the impact of partial helmet laws, although the studies by Houston and Richardson and Tsai SY attempted to causes of climate change essay, address this issue. Interestingly, Houston and Richardson found that partial helmet laws showed no improvement in outcomes over states with no helmet laws. A. Ellen Topics. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the overall death rate of motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. B. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the causes change incidence of lethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. C. On My. The use of motorcycle helmets decreases the severity of nonlethal head injury in motorcycle crashes when compared with nonhelmeted riders. D. Mandatory universal helmet laws reduce mortality and head injury in geographical areas with the law when compared with areas without it. Lin MR, Hwang HF, Kuo NW.
Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders. J Trauma. 2001;50:2430. Ouellet JV, Kasantikul V. Motorcycle helmet effect on essay, a per-crash basis in Thailand and the United States. Traffic Inj Prev. 2006;7:4954. LaTorre G, Bertazzoni G, Zotta D, Van Beeck E, Ricciardi G. Epidemiology of essay on my in god accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles.
A surveillance study in two Italian cities. Change Paper. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:99103. Conrad P, Bradshaw YS, Lamsudin R, Kasniyah N, Costello C. Helmets, injuries and outline for an essay cultural definitions: motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. Accid Anal Prev. 1996;28:193200. Kelly P, Sanson T, Strange G, Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of causes of climate helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20:852856. Mertz KJ, Weiss HB.
Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:14641467. O'Keeffe T, Dearwater SR, Gentilello LM, Cohen TM, Wilkinson JD, McKenney MM. Expository. Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is it all because of lack of helmets? J Trauma. Causes Essay Paper. 2007;63:10061009. Kyrychenko SY, McCartt AT.
Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law: effects of up in town death rates in motorcycle crashes. Causes Of Climate Change. Traffic Inj Prev. On Project Based Learning. 2006;7:5560. Change. Bledsoe GH, Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal. South Med J. 2005;98:436440. A Grade Research Order. Ho EL, Haydel MJ. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. J La State Med Soc.
2004;156:151157. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the causes of climate change essay paper helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183189. Thesis. Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. Of Climate Paper. 2003;9:257260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky, 19952000. J Ky Med Assoc. On Project Learning. 2003;101:2126. Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of change paper motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Am J Public Health . Essay. 2002;92:13521355. Ferrando J, Plasència A, Orós M, Borrell C, Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in causes of climate change paper, a southern European urban area. Inj Prev. Essay In God. 2000;6:184188. Causes Of Climate Change Essay. Chiu WT, Kuo CY, Hung CC, Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.
Am J Public Health. 2000;90:793796. Tsai MC, Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan. Inj Prev. 1999;5:290291. Peek-Asa C, Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and after passage of a mandatory helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:630636.
Kraus JF, Peek C. The impact of two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 19911993. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12:873881. Panichaphongse V, Watanakajorn T, Kasantikul V. Essay On My Belief In God. Effects of law promulgation for compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:521525. Essay Paper. Mock CN, Maier RV, Boyle E, Pilcher S, Rivara FP. Essay. Injury prevention strategies to causes of climate, promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. J Trauma. 1995;39:2935.
Kraus JF, Peek C, McArthur DL, Williams A. The effect of the paper order 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. JAMA. 1994;272:15061511. Fleming NS, Becker ER. Causes Essay Paper. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and head-related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries. Med Care. 1992;30:832845. Muelleman RL, Mlinek EJ, Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and a grade research paper order costs: effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. Ann Emerg Med.
1992;21:266272. Norvell DC, Cummings P. Association of essay paper helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: a matched-pair cohort study. In God. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:483487. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the causes of climate essay effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:974981. Gabella B, Reiner KL, Hoffman RE, Cook M, Stallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in El Paso County, Colorado, 19981990. Accid Anal Prev. 1995;27:363369.
Croce MA, Zarzaur BL, Manotti LJ, Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle helmets and state laws on thesis on project based learning, society's burden: a national study. Ann Surg. 2009;250:390394. Goslar PW, Crawford NR, Petersen SR, Wilson JR, Harrington T. Helmet use and associated spinal fractures in motorcycle crash victims. J Trauma. 2008;64:190196; discussion 196. Lin JW, Tsai SH, Tsai WC, et al. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. Surg Neurol . 2006;66:S20S25. Eastridge BJ, Shafi S, Minei JP, Culica D, McConnel C, Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from of climate change paper, impact to discharge.
J Trauma. 2006;60:978984. On Project Based. Javouhey E, Guérin AC, Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: a population-based study. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:225233. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:833842. Hundley JC, Kilgo PD, Miller PR, et al.
Nonhelmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the essay paper National Trauma Data bank. J Trauma. 2004;57:944949. Argumentative. Brandt MM, Ahrns KS, Corpron CA, Franklin GA, Wahl WL. Of Climate Essay. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. Essays Up In A Small Town. 2002;53:469471. Peek-Asa C, McArthur DL, Kraus JF. Causes Of Climate Essay. The prevalence of non-standard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. Accid Anal Prev.
1999;31:229233. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Ioannou N, Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from non-use of seat belts and outline for an argumentative essay helmets in Greece: a nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. Of Climate Change Essay Paper. Accid Anal Prev. 1998;30:8791. Rowland J, Rivara F, Salzberg P, Soderberg R, Maier R, Koepsell T. Essay On My Belief. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from crashes in Washington state. Am J Public Health. Of Climate. 1996;86: 4145. Orsay E, Holden JA, Williams J, Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in the state of Illinois: analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. Ann Emerg Med.
1995;26:455460. Rutledge R, Stutts J. The association of helmet use with the outcome of motorcycle crash injury when controlling for crash/injury severity. Accid Anal Prev. 1993;25:347353. Braddock M, Schwartz R, Lapidus G, Banco L, Jacobs L. A population-based study of motorcycle injury and costs. Ann Emerg Med. 1992;21:273278.
Offner PJ, Rivara FP, Maier RV. Expository Essay Frame. The impact of motorcycle helmet use. J Trauma. 1992;32:636641; discussion 641642. Shankar BS, Ramzy AI, Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Clark CC. Helmet use, patterns of injury, medical outcome, and costs among motorcycle drivers in of climate change essay paper, Maryland. Accid Anal Prev. 1992;24:385396. Houston DJ, Richardson LE Jr. Essay. Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws. Am J Public Health.
2007;97:20632069. Coben JH, Steiner CA, Miller TR. Causes Of Climate Change Essay. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. Essays About Up In. 2007;39:190196. Table 1: References: Citation and Summary for causes essay paper, EBR Articles on the Efficacy of Motorcycle Helmets 1990-2009. Prospective Cohort Studies: Lin MR Hwang HF Kuo NW. Crash severity, injury patterns, and helmet use in adolescent motorcycle riders.
2001 Journal of Trauma 50:24-30. 4,721 randomly selected junior college students in Taipei were followed prospectively for 20 months, during which time 1,284 were involved in 1,889 motorcycle crashes. 33% of the crashes the rider was wearing a helmet. Head injuries occurred in 4.7% of injured riders without a helmet compared to 1.9% of helmeted riders. Prospective Cross-sectional Studies: Ouellet JV Kasantikul V.
Motorcycle helmet effect on a per-crash basis in on project learning, Thailand and the United States. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:49-54. 1,869 motorcycle crashes in causes, Los Angeles and Thailand were prospectively investigated in expository, detail. Approximately 6%of riders were killed at both locations and causes change paper 20-25% were hospitalized. Non-helmeted riders were 2.5 times more likely to outline for an essay, be killed and 3.5 times more likely to causes of climate paper, sustain a serious brain injury. LaTorre G Bertazzoni G Zotta D Van Beeck E Ricciardi G.
Epidemiology of accidents among users of essays about growing a small town two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in change, two Italian cities. 2002 European Journal of frame Public Health 12(2):99-103. Crashes for causes of climate change, 14-35 yr olds 2-wheeled riders presenting to essay on my in god, 2 hospitals in Italy after a crash were surveyed for a 6 month period of time. Injury and crash data was collected. 12% of the riders wore a helmet at the time of the crash. The risk of head injury is 4.35 times higher when not wearing a helmet. Conrad P Bradshaw YS Lamsudin R Kasniyah N Costello C. Helmets, injuries and cultural definitions: Motorcycle injury in urban Indonesia. 1996 Accident Analysis and Prevention . Of Climate Change Essay Paper. 28(2): 193-200. Prospective observational study of motorcycle riders in Indonesia.
Data collected from street observations, interviews and riders admitted to 4 hospital EDs.89% of drivers wore helmets but only 55% wore them correctly. Indonesia has a mandatory helmet law. The risk of a head injury was 0.41 for riders in a crash while wearing a helmet. Kelly P Sanson T Strange G Orsay E. A prospective study of the impact of helmet usage on motorcycle trauma. 1991 Annals of Emergency Medicine 20:852-856. Prospectively collected data of motorcycle crash victims presenting to emergency departments in 8 varying institutions across the foster State of Illinois, over a 7 month period.
Only 14.6% of the 398 patients were wearing helmets at causes change essay, the time of the crash. The incidence of head injuries in the helmeted group was nearly three times that of the helmeted group (12.1% vs. 32.6%). Retrospective Before-After Cross-Sectional Studies: Mertz KJ Weiss HB. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of about growing a small Pennsylvania’s Mandatory motorcycle Helmet Law. 2008 American Journal of change Public Health 98(8):1464-14667. Retrospective review of motorcycle-head related mortality and injuries comparing the pre-repeal period (2001-2) to thesis based learning, the post repeal period (2004-5). There was a 32.8% increase in head injured related mortality and a 42.2% increase in head injury-related hospitalizations per 10,000 motorcycle registrations after repeal of the helmet law. O’Keefe T Dearwater ST Gentilello LM Cohen TM Wilkinson JD McKenney MM. Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is it all Because of change essay paper lack of helmets?
2007 Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and for an essay Critical Care 63:1006-1009. Retrospective review of fatalities pre- and post-motorcycle helmet law repeal (July 1, 2000) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Police crash and medical examiners records were reviewed for fatalities per registered motorcycle riders from 1997 to causes change essay paper, 2003. Motorcycle helmet usage in fatal crashes dropped from 80% to 33%. An absolute number of deaths increased: 72 deaths pre- and 125 post-repeal. But there was no difference in the fatality rate per growing up in a small, registered rider (11.6 pre- to 12.5 deaths post-repeal per 10,000 motorcycle registrations, p=0.61). Kyrychenko SY McCartt AT. Florida’s weakened motorcycle helmet law: Effects of death rates in motorcycle crashes. 2006 Traffic Injury Prevention 7:55-60. Retrospective review of police reported crashed 1998-2002 from the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
The helmet law was changed from universal to exclude riders 21 years and of climate paper older with at essays growing up in, least $10,000 of Medical Benefit Insurance in of climate essay, mid 2000. About A Small. Death rates were compared for of climate change essay, the two years before to the two years after the law was changed. The death rate rose from 30.8 deaths per essay belief, 1000 crashes to 38.8. Bledsoe GH Li G. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.
2005 Southern Medical Journal 98:436-440. Retrospective review of data from the Arkansas Department of Finance and of climate essay paper Administration for motorcycle registrations, motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office, and motorcycle fatality data for Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). The Arkansas helmet law was repealed in 1997. The study compares the 4 years before to the 4 years after the repeal. Research Paper Order. Fatalities per crash increased non- significantly from 41.9 to 42.2 per 1000 crashes but in the same period of time, crashes and fatalities per 1000 registered motorcycles decreased. The percentage of motorcycle fatalities not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% to 78.2% after the repeal. Ho EL Haydel MJ.
Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. 2004 Journal of the causes of climate essay Louisiana State Medical Society 156:151-157. In 1999 Louisiana repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law to exempt riders 18 and older with $10,000 Health Insurance Policies. This is thesis on project based, a retrospective review of causes of climate change 8,916 motorcycle crashes and 300 fatalities for essays growing, 1994-2002, except 1999, combining data from NHTSA, Louisiana Highway Safety Commission, and a level I Trauma Registry. The fatality rate increased from 3.0% per collision to change paper, 3.7% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 71.4% to 35% after repeal. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for in god, motorcyclists in Thailand.
2003 Accident Analysis and Prevention 35:183-189. Retrospective analysis of Trauma Registry data comparing 2 years before to 2 years after enactment of a motorcycle helmet law in Thailand. 12,002 patients were reviewed, including 129 deaths. As compared to the pre-Law period, head injuries decreased 41.4% and motorcycle related deaths decreased 20.8%. Servadei F Begliomini C Gardini E Giustini M Taggi F Kraus J. Effect of causes of climate paper Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.
2003 Injury Prevention 9: 257-260. Retrospective review of learning traumatic brain injuries at a regional neurosurgery referral center for one year before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law. There was a reduction from 63 to 43 per 100,000 registrations in head injury related admissions. Causes Of Climate. There was also a 76% decrease in the diagnoses of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and a grade paper order epidural hematoma after the enactment of the law. Christian WJ Carroll M Meyer K Vitaz T.
Motorcycle helmets and head injuries in Kentucky 1995-2000. 2003 Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association. Retrospective review of of climate paper head injury and head injury severity after a motorcycle crash from a single level I trauma center from 1995-2000. Of note, Kentucky repealed their helmet law in a grade research order, 1998. A non-helmeted rider was 4.33 more likely to sustain a head injury than a helmeted rider and they were also 4.36 more likely to sustain a severe head injury than non-helmeted riders. Auman KM Kufera JA Ballesteros MF Smialek JE Dischinger PC.
Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities : The effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. 2002 American Journal of Public Health 92:1352-1355. Retrospective comparison of motorcycle fatalities in Maryland for the 33 months before and after implementation of of climate essay a universal helmet law. 61.3% of fatalities occurred before the law was enacted and ellen foster essay 38.7% after. The fatality rate per 10,000 registrations decreased from 9.3 2 to 4.7 per 10,000 motorcycle registrations in the 3 year period before and after the enactment.
Ferrando J Plasencia A Oros M Borrell C Kraus JF. Impact of a helmet law on two wheel motor vehicle crash mortality in a southern European urban area. 2000 Injury Prevention 6:184-188. Retrospective study comparing the 2 year period before and after implementation of a universal motorcycle helmet law in Spain. Essay Paper. Data was compiled from the essay on my belief Medical Examiner, police records, and the Traffic Authority of Barcelona.
Annual fatalities decreased from 60 in of climate essay paper, the first year of the review to expository frame, 32 in the last year, with the crash mortality rate decreasing from 6.9 to 5.2 per 1000 crashes. The authors estimated 35 lives were saved in Barcelona during the first 2 years of the motorcycle helmet law. Chiu WT Kuo CY Hung CC Chen M. The effect of the Taiwan Motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries. 2000 American Journal of Public Health 90:793-796. Retrospective study comparing motorcycle related head injuries seen at 56 major hospitals across Taiwan for one year before and after implementation of a universal helmet law, based on the Head Injury Registry of Taiwan. Total number of motorcycle related head injuries decreased 33%. In hospital death rates remained unchanged at causes change paper, 4.0%. Tsai MC Hemenway D. Effect of the mandatory helmet law in Taiwan.
1999 Injury Prevention 5:290-291. Retrospective review in 3 cities comparing 6 months before to 6 months after enactment of a mandatory motorcycle law in a grade order, Taiwan. Fatalities after a crash decreased by causes of climate essay paper 14% and expository essay head-related fatalities reduced by 22%. Peek-Asa C Kraus JF. Estimates of injury impairment after acute traumatic injury in motorcycle crashes before and of climate after passage of a mandatory helmet use law.
1997 Annals of outline for an Emergency Medicine 29:630-636. Retrospective review comparing 4790 non-fatally injured motorcycle riders for one year before and after enactment of the causes of climate California mandatory motorcycle law, linking medical records to police reports. Expository Essay. The risk of causes essay a head injury related impairment after a crash doubled when not wearing a helmet in both adjusted and unadjusted models. The models adjusted for alcohol, speeding, gender and being thrown from the motorcycle. Kraus JF Peek C.
The impact of two related prevention strategies on head injury reduction among nonfatally injured motorcycle riders, California, 1991-1993. 1995 Journal of Neurotrauma 12:873-881. Retrospective review of non-fatally injured motorcycle riders before and after enactment of the California mandatory motorcycle helmet law of 1992. Paper. The law resulted in 85.6% of injured riders wearing a helmet. Head injuries decreased from 38.2% of the injuries seen before the enactment to 24.1% of the change head injuries after the on project based learning law was enacted. Panichaphongse V Watanakajorn T Kasantikul V. Effects of law promulgation for causes of climate change paper, compulsory use of protective helmets on death following motorcycle accidents. 1995 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 78:521-525. Retrospective review comparing the 2 years before and after implementation of a motorcycle helmet law. Despite a 24% increase in about up in a small, motorcycle crash injuries, deaths decreased from 2% to of climate, 1.4%.
The percentage of research patients who died due to brain injury remained constant over the 4 year period, ranging from 81-86%. Mock CN Maier RV Boyle E Pilcher S Rivara FP. Injury prevention strategies to causes of climate essay paper, promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I Trauma Center. 1995 Journal of on my belief in god Trauma 39:29-35. Retrospective review of the Trauma Registry of a level I Trauma Center over 8 years comparing helmeted to non-helmeted motorcycle riders. A universal motorcycle helmet law was enacted during the review period. The mortality rate decreased from 10% before enactment of the change helmet law to 6% after, and severe head injury decreased from 20% of crash admissions to 9%. Kraus JF Peek C McArthur DL Williams A.
The effect of the 1992 California Motorcycle helmet use law on motorcycle crash fatalities and injuries. 1994 Journal of the American Medical Association 272:1506-1511. Retrospective review of thesis learning all motorcycle fatalities for the year before and after implementation of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law, based on death certificates and police reports. There was a 37.5% decrease in change essay, absolute number of fatalities statewide during the first year after enactment, and with a decrease in the fatality ratio from 70.1 to 51.5 fatalities per 100,000 registrations in California. Fleming NS Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and ellen foster essay head related fatalities, severe injuries, and overall injuries.
1992 Medical Care 30:832-845. Retrospective review of all motorcycle fatalities in Texas from 1984 through 1990, with a helmet law being enacted in 1989. Overall mortality reduced from 12.1 to 9.8 per 10,000 registrations As a percentage of the of climate essay paper total annual deaths, head related fatalities decreased from learning, 56% to 31.5%. Muelleman RL Mlinek EJ Collicott PE. Motorcycle crash injuries and causes of climate change paper costs : Effect of a reenacted comprehensive helmet use law. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:266-272. Retrospective review of one year before and after the re-enactment of the motorcycle helmet law in a grade paper order, Nebraska. Both registrations and crashes reduced in this same time period of 19871989.
The overall death rate dropped from 13 to 8 per 10,000 registrations. The frequency and causes change paper severity of brain injury were similar for the two time periods. Case Control Studies: Norvell DC Cummings P. Association of helmet use with death in motorcycle crashes: A matched-pair cohort study. 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology 156:483-487. Matched Pair Cohort Study using the NHTSA-FARS database for fatalities within 30 days of the crash that occurred from 1980-1998. 60.8% of the expository essay fatalities involved non-helmeted riders.
The relative risk of causes of climate paper death for a helmeted rider was estimated to be 0.61 compared to a non-helmeted rider, controlling for essays growing up in a small, motorcycle and crash related variables, age, gender, and seat position. Tsai YJ, Wang JD, Huang WF. Case-control study of the effectiveness of different types of helmets for the prevention of head injuries among motorcycle riders in Taipei, Taiwan. 1995 American Journal Of Epidemiology 42(9):97481. Motorcycle riders crash admissions in 15 hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan from for 3 months in causes essay, 1990. Cases were head injured motorcycle crash victims. Controls were motorcycle crash victims with injuries other than head. Street controls were non-injured motorcycle riders photographed contemporaneously to paper, injured controls. Head Injury was involved in 41.5% of the 1,351 injuries during the study period.
Gabella B Reiner KL. Hoffman RECook MStallones L. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crashvictims in El Pasocounty, Colorado, 1998-1990. 1995 Accident analysis and Prevention 27:363-369. A county based study of head injury after motorcycle crashes determined by traffic accident reports and the Injury Epidemiology Program of Colorado. Of Climate Essay Paper. A case was a motorcycle rider with a head injury after a crash in a 2 year period of time from expository essay frame, 1989-1990. A control was a controlwas a motorcycle crash in the same county and time period but without a head injury. Notwearing a helmet increased the likelihood of a head injury from a crash by an odds ratio of causes of climate change 3.34 relative to those riders wearing a helmet. Retrospective Cross-sectional Studies:
Croce MA Zarzaur BL Manotti LJ Fabian TC. Impact of motorcycle Helmets and on project State Laws on Society’s Burden: A National Study. 2009 Annals of Surgery 250:390-394. Retrospective review from 2002-2007 of National Trauma Data Bank. Helmeted trauma patients had lower odds of death as compared to non-helmeted: Adjusted odds ratio of change essay 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). Expository Frame. N=75,644 Helmeted patients had better GCS scores.
Goslar PW Crawford NR Petersen SR Wilson JR Harrington T. Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. 2008 Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 53:469-471. Retrospective review of causes paper trauma registry of one Level I trauma center from July 1st, 2002-June 30th, 2005. Non-helmeted rider was 2X more likely to sustain a brain injury and 3X more likely to die from the crash than a helmeted rider. Houston DJ Richardson LE. Motorcycle Safety and a grade the Repeal of Universal Helmet Laws. 2007 American Journal of Public Health 97(11): 2063-2069. Retrospective review of all 51 states from the of climate change essay paper NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System from 1975 -2004. Mortality was analyzed controlling for other rider and based state factors that affect motorcycle-related mortality: demographic, social, traffic safety and of climate change essay population density across states.
There was a 13.7% mortality reduction in states attributable to universal helmet law. Coben JH Steiner CA Miller TR. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: Comparing states with different helmet laws. 2007 Accident Analysis and Prevention 39:190-196. A one year retrospective review of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) registry. The HCUP State Inpatient Database (SID) contains data from 33 states and expository captures. 80% of essay paper all hospital discharges in the US.
25,794 cases were identified; 16,105 from states with universal helmet laws, 7,924 from states with partial laws and 1765 from a grade, states with no helmet laws. Cases from essay paper, states without universal helmet laws were 52% more likely to sustain the most severe forms of traumatic brain injury (RR: 1.52) and had a mortality rate 39% higher than those states with universal helmet. Lin JW Tsai SH Tsai WC Chiu WT Chu SF Lin CM Yang CM Hung CC. Survey of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in Taiwan. 2006 Surgical Neurology S2:20-25. Retrospective review of 90,250 head trauma case admitted to the hospital in Taiwan, excluding dead on arrivals and outpatients over outline argumentative essay, an 8 year period. 47% of all injuries were motorcycle related. Those not wearing a helmet had a 32.9% incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, compared to 25.2% for causes of climate essay paper, those who were. The chance of having an intracranial hemorrhage was 1.4 times higher for those not wearing a helmet compared to those who did (odds ratio of 1.40).
Eastridge BJ Shafi S Minei JP Culica D McConnel C Gentilello L. Economic impact of motorcycle helmets: from impact to discharge. 2006 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 60:978-984. Motorcyclists who crashed and essay on my in god found in of climate, NHTSA GES database for pre-hospital data and NTDB for hospital data from a grade order, 1994 to 2002. There was less than half the risk of death or admission with a head injury for helmeted riders in comparison to non-helmeted riders. Javouhey E Guerin AC Chiron M. Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from causes essay, road accidents: A population-based study. 2006 Accident Analysis and Prevention 38:225-33. Motorcycle crashes were identified in a population based road trauma registry in France from 1996-2001 to determine risks for severe head injury. A non-helmeted rider had an 18 fold higher risk of for an argumentative having a severe head injury as defined by AIS of 2 or higher as compared to helmeted riders.
Nakahara S Chadbunchachai W Ichikawa M Tipsuntornsak N Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. 2005 Accident Analysis and of climate essay Prevention 37:833-842. Retrospective review of about town 9,552 patients injured in causes paper, motorcycle crashes in Thailand and transferred to thesis on project based, the regional Medical Center over 5 years. The case fatality rate was 0.25 for change essay, helmeted riders and essay frame 0.94 for non-helmeted riders. The fatality was also stratified by alcohol intoxication and change paper time of expository frame day of crash. Hundley JK Kilgo PD Miller P R Chang MC Hensberry RA Meredith JW Hoth JJ. Non-helmeted motorcyclists: a burden to society? A study using the change National Trauma Data bank. 2004 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 57:944-9. Retrospective review of motorcyclist crashes identified in the NTDB from ellen essay topics, 1994-2002.
The risk of death was 44% lower for helmeted riders than non-helmeted riders. 69.2% of all riders were listed as wearing a helmet. Brandt MM Ahrns KS Corpron CA Franklin GA Wahl Wl. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. 2002 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 53(3):469-71. Retrospective review of motorcycle crashes in causes of climate change essay, the trauma registry at a Level I trauma centre from 1996 to a grade research paper order, 2000. The risk of death was 16% lower in helmeted riders as compared to non-helmeted riders. Peek-Asa C McArthur DL Kraus JF. The prevalence of nonstandard helmet use and causes of climate change head injuries among motorcycle riders. 1999 Accident Analysis and Prevention 31:229-233. Retrospective review comparing helmets which met the 1992 California Mandatory Helmet Use Law requirements to those which did not.
One third of essays up in riders whose crash report indicated a non-standard helmet were killed, compared to 15.5% on non-helmeted riders and causes essay 13.6% of helmeted riders. Among all riders wearing non-standard helmets, 75% sustained a head injury of any severity and 62.5% sustained a head injury ³ 3. This was also significantly higher than those riders not wearing a helmet (51.9% and 37.4%) and those wearing a standard helmet (30.7% and 21.8%). The authors conclude that non-standard helmets do not provide protection. Petridou E Skalkidou A Ioannou N Trichopoulos D. Fatalities from essay frame, non-use of seat belts and helmets in Greece: A nationwide appraisal. Hellenic Road Traffic Police. 1998 Accident Analysis and Prevention 30:87-91.
Retrospective analysis of all motorcycle crashes in Greece for 1985 and 1994. No motorcycle laws were in effect during either period, and helmet use rates were similar for two periods. In 1985, 3.5% of of climate essay paper helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 4.3% of unhelmeted riders. About A Small. In 1994, 2.9% of helmeted riders died in motorcycle crashes compared to 5.1% for unhelmeted riders. The authors estimate that 38% of all motorcycle deaths could potentially be avoided if all motorcycle riders wore helmets. Rivara F Salzberg P Soderberg R Maier R Koepsell T. Motorcycle helmet use and injury outcome and hospitalization costs from causes of climate paper, crashes in Washington State. 1996 American Journal of Public Health 86:41-45.
Retrospective review combining State crash information, hospital records, and death records for 1989 in Washington State. There were 2,090 crashes with 59 fatalities (2.8%). Motorcycle riders who were hospitalized after a crash were 2.9 times more likely to essays up in town, be hospitalized with a head injury and 3.7 times more likely to have suffered a severe of critical head injury if they were not wearing a helmet. Non-helmeted riders had 1.62 times the risk of a fatal crash compared to helmeted riders. Orsay E Holden JA Williams J Lumpkin JR. Motorcycle trauma in causes of climate essay, the State of Illinois: Analysis of the Illinois Department of Public Health Trauma Registry. 1995 Annals of Emergency Medicine 28:455-460. Retrospective review of the Illinois Trauma Registry for 18 months comparing helmeted to unhelmeted motorcycle riders. Of the 1231, 18% were helmeted and 56% were not. 30% of the helmeted riders sustained head injuries compared to 51% for thesis on project, unhelmeted riders.
The unhelmeted riders also had more severe head injuries. Rutledge RStutts J. The association of causes of climate change essay helmet use with the a grade research paper order outcome of motorcycle crash injury when controlling for causes, crash/injury severity. 1993 Accident Analysis and Prevention 25:347-353. Retrospective analysis of the North Carolina State Trauma Registry over 3.5 years, comparing 892 patients.
Helmet information was available for 460 (51.6%). Head injuries with AIS 2-5 occurred in 53% of unhelmeted riders, compared to 28% of helmeted riders. Braddock M Schwartz R Lapidus G Banco L Jacobs L. A population-based study of a grade paper order motorcycle injury and costs. 1992 Annals of Emergency Medicine 21:273-278.
Retrospective review of 112 motorcycle deaths in Connecticut over a two year period. The fatality rate for unhelmeted riders was 26.7 per 1000 crashes, compared to 7.9 for helmeted riders. Offner PF Rivara FP Maier RV. The Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Use. 1992 Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 32(5):636-42. Retrospective review of admitted riders after motorcycle crash at one Level I trauma center. The trauma registry identified the cases from 1985 to 1990. Head injury was reduced by 68% when wearing a helmet while there was no impact on death. Ramzy AI Soderstrom CA Dischinger PC Clark CC. Helmet Use, Patterns of Injury, Medical Outcome and Costs among Motorcycle Drivers in Maryland. 1992 Accident, Analysis and Prevention 24(4): 385-96.
Retrospective review of all motorcycle crashes in the State of Maryland for one year, 1987 to of climate change, 1988. Riders wore a helmet in outline for an argumentative essay, 35% of the crashes.
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A FREE Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template. Causes Change Essay Paper. Are you about starting a Law firm? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample Law firm business plan template feasibility report you can use for for an argumentative essay, FREE to get started . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a law firm. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample law firm marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for law firms. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Lawyers would always be in need by people, companies, schools, and what have you. This isnít unique to any part of the world, because it is the same phenomenon all over the world. For as long as there are people still living on the face of the earth, there would be rancor and disputes, and of climate change essay paper, the need to have lawyers trash out research paper, cases would always arise. It is for of climate, this reason that some lawyers have positioned themselves to take advantage of this trend, and have continued to make huge amount of money from the industry. Without mincing words, starting a law firm is thesis based, a very profitable venture.
The Importance of Writing a Business Plan. It is okay to want to of climate essay paper, own a law firm, however, it is also very expedient that you sit down and draw up a business plan for your business. If you have thought about all that and outline for an argumentative essay, have it figured out, then you may as well know that a business plan is one very essential aspect of business, because once you have one in place, then can always refer to the type of model spelt out in the plan. Business plans on the other hand might not be an easy thing to carry out. This is as a result of the causes of climate change, expertise that is needed to thesis on project based learning, write a detailed and professional one. Good news is causes change essay paper, that you can save some hard earned bucks, instead of research paper order, having to pay a huge amount of money to a business consultant to of climate change paper, draw up one. Truth is that with a business plan template, you are able to use the model to write yours.
So, this means that you have got to be dealing with a sample law firm business plan in the first place. A Grade. This is so that you do not leave any area out when you do start to write yours. Here is change, a sample law firm business plan which can serve your pretty well as you look to draw up yours. A FREE Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template. The services of lawyers are needed in every part of the United States of America. Statistics has it that the United States of America has about 165,000 law offices and they generate about $180 billion in annual revenue.
These goes to show that starting a law firm is indeed a prosperous business in the U.S, because there is a large market for such business and research, the industry provides loads of job opportunities for lawyers and other professionals. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that job opportunities for legal practitioners will grow at the same rate as the paper, average for essay belief, all other occupations in coming years; the causes of climate paper, growth will be fastest in areas such as intellectual property, health care, antitrust, and environmental law et al. No doubt, the on project learning, growth of the U.S. population and the expansion of corporate America will definitely lead to change paper, the growth in essay on my in god, the demand for legal services. All over the globe, before anyone can be allowed to practice law, they are expected to pass the bar exams in the country or state in which they want to practice. In other words, the journey of starting your own private law firm starts when you eventual pass through a law school.
Although a large percentage of lawyers work for big, corporate law firms, but there are still many lawyers who are employed at mid-sized regional firms and even in one- man and two-person law firms. Just like most other industries in the U.S. and in other parts of the causes, world, the legal services industry is globalizing at a swift pace. Progressively more, bigger law firms are establishing offices in other countries, some are restructuring and repositioning their existing foreign offices, and others are merging or partnering with local law firms in order to position their organization to handle legal aspects of international trade and paper order, other related issues. This recent trend is responsible for creating job opportunities for lawyers with expertise in international relations and cross-border transactions et al. In the U.S. and also in other parts of the causes of climate essay, world, lawyer firms who know how to position their organization will always be busy handling legal businesses for essay, their clients. Some law firms may decide to operate a general law business that cuts across various law practices, whilst others may choose to specialize in change essay paper, any of the two major areas of private sector law. They can choose to operate as a transactional (corporate) law firm or specialize in litigation. Beyond every reasonable doubt, being a lawyer can be extremely challenging and demanding, but at the same time, it can also be quite rewarding. On Project. Lawyers have the privilege of providing a vital service to the business world and to individuals as well. Lawyers serve as protectors, advisers, and causes of climate paper, advocates, which is about growing town, why they are considered experts in communication, analysis, and persuasion, giving them prestige and leverage in society.
Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template Executive Summary. Jefferson MacArthur Law Firm LLP is a law firm that will be located in Inc. 268 13th Street, Suite 1110 Oakland, California 94612. The company will operate as a litigation law firm and also handle other related aspect of of climate change paper, law as requested by our clients. Our services will cover areas such as; breaches of contract, securities-law breaches, class-action lawsuits, antitrust actions, employment-related problems, white-collar crime, and any other related cases.
We are aware that businesses these days require diverse and sophisticated legal services. Ellen Foster Essay Topics. This is why we will position our law firm to offer a wide range of legal services as requested by our clients. We handle offer legal services ranging from causes of climate change, mergers and acquisitions to research paper, product liability, from intellectual property to real estate. Causes Of Climate Change. Jefferson MacArthur Law Firm LLP is a client-focused business law firm that provides broad-based experience at thesis learning, an affordable fee that wonít in any way put a hole in the pocket of our clients. We will offer a complete range of legal services to our local, state, national, and multi-national clients and we will ensure that we work hard to provide the essay, legal services and a grade, counsel needed by causes change essay, our clients to accomplish their business goals and objectives. At Jefferson MacArthur Law Firm, our clientís best interests come first, and research order, everything we do is guided by our values and professional ethics.
We will ensure that we hire attorneys who are well experienced in a wide variety of essay paper, transactional and litigation matters. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our clientís needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to foster, earning a living, and causes, living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. Jefferson MacArthur Law Firm will at all times demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by essay, actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. Jefferson MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is founded by Jefferson Carson and his son MacArthur Carson. The organization will be managed by MacArthur Carson; he graduated from of climate change essay, Cumberland School of Law and Brock School of Business at ellen foster, Stamford University. He has extensive experience in a diverse range of transactional matters, and his legal practice is concentrated in causes essay paper, the areas of expository frame, commercial real estate, commercial finance, construction, and causes of climate paper, general business contracts.
Our Product and based, services. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP proposes to offer a variety of services within the scope of the law industry in the United States of America. Of Climate. Our intention of expository essay frame, starting our law firm is to make profits from the industry and we will do all that is permitted by the law in the US to achieve our aim and ambition. Our business offering are listed below; Arbitration Mediation Business Formation Business and Commercial Transaction Collections and Credit Matters Commercial Real Estate Construction Corporate Governance and Compliance Creditorís Rights Employment General Counsel Services Immigration Insurance Real Estate Consultancy and Advisory Services. Our vision is to provide our clients with skilled legal advice in a timely and efficient manner. We strive to handle each matter with accountability and responsiveness, as if we were representing ourselves. We focus our attention on the legal aspects of our clientís business so that our clients can focus their attention on the success of their business. Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and causes essay paper, teamwork. Our mission is to provide professional and a grade, trusted legal services that assist businesses and of climate, non-profit organizations in operating sustainably. We provide expert legal counsel in combination with our own business backgrounds, and deliver valuable services in a timely and cost-effective way.
Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will build a solid business structure that can support the growth of our business. We will ensure that we hire competent hands to help us build the business of our dream. Below is the business structure that we will build Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP on; Founder and essay, President Attorney Patent Attorney Legal Secretary Paralegal Legal Assistant Admin and HR Manager Business Developer Accountant Front Desk Officer. Causes Of Climate Essay Paper. Roles and on my belief in god, Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for the firm Creates, communicates, and implements the causes of climate, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Argumentative Essay. Responsible for handling high profile clients and deals Responsible for fixing prices and change, signing business deals Responsible for a grade order, signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Reports to the board. Represents clients in criminal and civil litigation and causes essay, other legal proceedings Draws up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions. Attends court hearings (and doing the preparation beforehand) Responsible for negotiating (not all cases will end up in foster essay, court) Explains the law and gives general legal advice Responsible for settling disputes and supervising any agreements Researching and gathering evidence Responsible for analyzing legal documents Supervises legal assistants. Discusses inventions and processes with inventors or manufacturers and ascertaining whether they are likely to succeed in being granted patents Studies and analyzes scientific or technical documents, including previously granted patents, to of climate change essay paper, assess whether an invention is new and innovative Writes detailed descriptions of essay belief in god, inventions in precise legal terms (patent drafts) Suggests modifications or extensions to causes, the definition of the invention Applies for essays about growing up in, patents from the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) , often presenting complicated technical arguments Prepares responses to reports from patent examiners Ensures application and renewal deadlines are met Works with solicitors and causes of climate essay, barristers to defend or enforce UK patents Conducts litigation in proceedings at the EPO or in the Intellectual Property Enterprise Court (IPEC), formerly the Patents County Court Advises overseas agents on applications for foreign patent applications Instructs on whether business activities will infringe someone else#8217;s patent rights Deals with assignments of on project based learning, patent when a patent is of climate paper, sold or transferred Keeps up-to-date with legal developments in argumentative essay, the intellectual property field Advises on other intellectual property rights, e.g. designs or trademarks Tutors and mentors trainee patent agents. Responsible for drawing up contracts and other legal documents for of climate change essay, the company Welcomes guests and clients by for an, greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries.
Produces information by transcribing, formatting, inputting, editing, retrieving, copying, and transmitting text, data, and graphics; coordinating case preparation. Conserves attorneys time by reading, researching, reviewing, verifying, and routing correspondence, reports and legal documents; drafting letters and documents; collecting and analyzing information; initiating telecommunications; organizing client conferences, and attorney meetings; scheduling couriers, court reporters, expert witnesses, and other special functions; coordinating preparation of charts, graphs, and other courtroom visuals; preparing expense reports. Maintains attorney calendar by planning and scheduling conferences, teleconferences, dispositions, and travel; recording and causes of climate essay, monitoring court appearance dates, pleadings, and filing requirements; monitoring evidence-gathering; anticipating changes in litigation or transaction preparation requirements. Represents attorney by communicating and obtaining information; following-up on delegated assignments; knowing when to thesis based learning, act and when to refer matters to attorney. Generates revenues by documenting and inputting attorney billable time and reimbursable expenses; preparing invoices; tracking payments. Maintains client confidence by keeping client/attorney information confidential. Provides historical reference by causes, developing and utilizing filing and retrieval systems; recording meeting discussions; maintaining transcripts; documenting and a grade research paper, maintaining evidence.
Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments. Assists attorneys in preparing for change paper, trials and court proceedings. Supports attorneys in a legal office. Investigates the foster essay topics, facts of cases and causes change essay paper, ensure that all relevant information is considered.
Identify appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials for foster essay topics, assigned cases. Change Essay Paper. Compiles, analyzes, and organizes information. Outline For An Essay. Gathers exhibits. Prepares written reports. Prepares legal arguments for lawsuits. Drafts pleadings and motions filed in court. Of Climate Paper. Secures affidavits. Assists attorneys during trials. Organizes and essay on my in god, tracks files from case documents and make them available and easily accessible to attorneys.
Drafts contracts, mortgages, and separation agreements. Prepares tax returns. Establishes trust funds. Plans estates. Supervises other law office employees. Delegates responsibilities. Of Climate Change. Maintains financial records. Searches legal literature stored in computer databases and on CD-ROM. Tracks hours and bill to thesis on project based learning, clients. Works under the direction of change essay paper, lawyers and town, help them prepare for meetings, hearings and trials.
Undertake research projects for multiple cases to determine precedent, drafts or completes legal documents and ensure the correct paperwork is filed with the courts within a specific time period. Works directly with clients in a non-advising capacity, such as answering questions, scheduling appointments and causes of climate change paper, making sure all court requirements are met. Handles other routine tasks, such as processing and transcribing documents, entering data, scheduling and taking dictation are common duties of thesis based, a legal office assistant. Of Climate Change. Responsible for handling typical office duties, such as answering phones, managing inventory or performing accounting tasks. Responsible for overseeing the belief in god, smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Defines job positions for causes of climate change paper, recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects. Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customerís needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and on my in god, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to change essay, forecast trends and business conditions.
Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Receives Visitors / clients on outline behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and phone calls for causes paper, the organization Distributes mails in a grade research paper order, the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the of climate change essay, line manager. Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template SWOT Analysis.
Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP hired the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to assist the firm in building a solid law firm that can favorably compete in the highly competitive law industry. Part of argumentative, what the business consultant did was to work with the management of the of climate essay, firm in conducting a SWOT analysis and preparing a law firm marketing plan for Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP. Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of a grade research paper order, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP; Our core strength lies in change, the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for business. As a new law firm, it might take some time for ellen topics, our firm to break into the market; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in causes of climate change, the law industry is massive and we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that comes our way.
Some of the threats that we are likely going to outline for an essay, face as a law firm operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, and global economic downturn. Of Climate Change Paper. There are hardly anything we could do as regards these threats other than to be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. Quite a number of essays about growing town, distinct trends have emerged in paper, recent times in the legal industry, which is why law firms are positioning their organizations to survive the peaks and troughs of an ailing economy. As a matter of a grade, fact, most of these trends aid law firms and organizations to become more creative, competitive, efficient, and productive in a global market. Some other trends in the legal industry could be attributed to changing demographics, attitudes and work styles. Another trend that is gaining momentum in the legal industry is causes of climate essay, that clients have the options of seeking legal assistance from a growing number of non-lawyer professionals such as; paralegal technicians, legal document preparers, legal self-help sites, virtual assistants and essay topics, offshore legal vendors.
As a result of this trend, the decisions about how legal services are delivered which include staffing, scheduling, strategies and most importantly how firms charge for their services Ė are increasingly being influenced by the clients, and not by the law firms as it used to of climate, be in time past. No doubt, as the cost of legal services continues to increase and as corporate spending falls, new legal delivery methods will continue to emerge and gain momentum going forward. In addition, the market for legal services has shifted from a sellers#8217; market to a buyers#8217; market. Lastly, it is now becoming trendy in the legal industry for smaller law firms to merge with bigger law firms and for bigger law firms to acquire smaller law firms; mergers and acquisitions. Many law firms all over ellen foster topics the United States are coming to the conclusion that the bigger the better for causes of climate essay paper, them.
Although Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will initially serve small to medium sized businesses, from new ventures to on project, well established businesses, but that does not in of climate change essay, any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading law firms in the United States. We hope to someday merge or acquire other law firms and expand our legal services beyond the shores of the United States of America. As a full service business law firm, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP have a variety of practice areas to help startups grow. While we works with a variety of ellen foster, organizations and causes essay, industries, Jefferson and on my belief, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will also specialize in working with startups, real estate investors, and contractors, manufacturers and distributors, banks, lending and financial institutions. Our target market cuts across people of different classes and people from all walks of life, local and international organizations as well.
We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and companies in the country and at the same with the lowly placed people and smaller businesses. In other words, our target market is the whole of the United States of America and subsequently other parts of the world. Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically design our products and services for; Banks Businesses and Entrepreneurs Blue Chips Companies Corporate Counsel Manufacturers and Distributors Real Estate Owners, Developers, and Contractors Research and Development Companies Employees Migrants. Causes Change Essay Paper. A close study of the legal industry reveals that the for an argumentative, law firm market has become much more intensely competitive over change the past seven years. As a matter of a grade research paper, fact, the supply of legal services has significantly exceeded demand. In other to position to take on the market, most law firms have begun to merger or acquire other law firms. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP might be a new entrant into the law industry in the United States of America, but the management staffs and board members are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed legal practitioners in the US. Causes Of Climate Change Essay. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and essay on my, their welfare package will be amongst the causes essay paper, best within our category (startups law firm) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our objectives. Law Firm Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY.
We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition in on project based learning, the legal market in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to causes, handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on on my belief their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speaks for us in the market place; we want to build a legal business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and organizations). Our goal is to grow our firm to change essay paper, become one of the top 20 law firms in California, which is frame, why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force in the. Jefferson and of climate essay, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to outline for an argumentative, attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations and key individuals in California and other parts of the U.S. Promptness in bidding for change paper, legal contracts List our business on yellow pages Attend expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and based learning, still deliver quality services to them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Encourage word of mouth marketing. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is established with the aim of maximizing the profits in the law industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis.
Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP we generate income by offering the following legal services for individuals and for organizations; Arbitration Mediation Business Formation Business and Commercial Transaction Collections and Credit Matters Commercial Real Estate Construction Corporate Governance and Compliance Creditorís Rights Employment General Counsel Services Immigration Insurance Real Estate Consultancy and causes of climate essay, Advisory Services. As long as there are people living in the United States of America and growing a small, business starting and causes change essay, growing in for an argumentative essay, the U.S., the services of law firms will always be needed. We are well positioned to take on causes of climate change essay paper the available market in the U.S, and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first month or operations and grow the business and clientele beyond Oakland, CA to essays a small town, other states in the U.S. and even the global market. We have been able to critically examine the law market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry. We have been able to come up with the essay paper, following sales forecast. The sales projection are based on information gathered on the field and about a small, some assumptions that are peculiar to causes paper, startups in essay belief, California. Below is the sales projection for Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP, it is of climate change essay paper, based on the location of our law firm and essay frame, the wide range of legal services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is causes paper, obtainable in the industry, Hourly billing for legal services is outline essay, long Ė time tradition in the industry.
However, for some types of causes essay, work, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict legal costs. As a result of this, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will charge our clients a flat fee for many basic services such as; business formation and essay belief, document drafting and review. At Jefferson and causes essay, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP we will keep our fees below market rate for all of our clients by thesis on project, keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to causes change essay paper, disadvantaged individuals, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to thesis on project learning, legal advice and assistance; we will offer flat rate general counsel services that will be tailored to take care of such clientsí needs. At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them.
Here are the causes change essay paper, payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans without any itches. Law Firm Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to paper order, work with our consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. We are set to take the law industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our firm. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise our property development business; Place adverts our law firm on both print and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant TV shows Maximize our firmís website to promote our business Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (real estate online forums) to promote our business.
Offer Pro Bono services as part of our community social responsibility Brand all our official cars. Law Firm Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. The Total Fee for incorporating the of climate change essay paper, Business in California: $750. The budget for Liability insurance, permits and license: $5,000 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable Office facility with enough space in Oakland, California for 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive): $50,000. The Cost for equipping the office (computers, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al): $15,000 Cost of accounting software, CRM software and essays up in, Payroll Software $3,000 Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Phone and Utilities (gas, sewer, water and electric) deposits ($3,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $40,000 The Cost of Launching our official Website: $600 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al): $5,000. Causes. Going by the report from our research and feasibility studies, we will need about $200,000 to set up a law firm in Oakland, California.
Generating Funding / Startup Capital for At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP. At Jefferson and essay frame, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is going to start as a private business that will be solely owned by Bar Jefferson Carson and family. He will be the sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners pretty much which is causes of climate change paper, why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of his start Ė up capital to 3 major sources. In God. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the change, start Ė up capital from personal savings Source for essay, soft loans from change, family members and friends Apply for loan from research order, my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $60,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and causes of climate paper, soft loan from family members $20,000) and for an essay, we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of causes of climate change paper, $100,000 from our bank. All the papers and paper order, document has been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from of climate paper, now our account will be credited. LAW FIRM BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services.
We are aware of this which is why we have decided to offer a wide range of legal services. We know that if we continue to deliver excellent legal services, there will be steady from up in town, of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only paper, hire competent employees, create a conducive working environment and employee benefits for argumentative, our staff members. In the nearest future, we will explore the options of either merging with other law firms or acquire law firms in order for us to increase our market share. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will grow our law business beyond Oakland, California to other states in causes, the U.S in research order, record time.
Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payerís ID: In Progress Application for business license and causes of climate paper, permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start Ė up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for Loan from essay topics, our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employeeís Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of of climate change paper, The Companyís Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of essays up in a small, Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with key players in the industry: In Progress.
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Cause and Effect Essay on Climate Change - Essay Wow!
Essay: The relationship between the change EU and US. The European Union (EU) is a political and economic partnership represents a unique form of cooperation between sovereign countries. The Union is the last step in a process of integration began after World War II, first by six Western European countries, to promote interdependence and make another war in ellen essay topics Europe unthinkable. Today, the EU is composed of 28 member states, including most countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and of climate paper, helped to promote peace, stability and economic prosperity in the European continent. The EU was built by based learning, a series of binding treaties, and over the years, EU Member States have sought to harmonize laws and adopt common policies on a growing number of economic, social, and political. EU Member States share a customs union; a single market where goods, people and capital is ensured; EU Member States work together through common institutions to formulate policies and promote their collective interests. The main EU institutions include the European Council, composed of the heads of state and government, which acts as a strategic guide and driving force of the EU policy; the European Commission, which defends the common interests of the Union as a whole and the functions of the EU executive; The Council of the European Union (also known as the Council of Ministers) represents 28 national governments. The Council adopts legislation, usually based on the proposals made by the Commission and decided in most cases, by causes paper, the European Parliament. Essay On My. Various ministers from each country to participate in Board meetings depending on the subject being studied (e.g. Of Climate Essay Paper. foreign ministers would meet to discuss the Middle East, the agriculture ministers to ellen essay topics, discuss agricultural subsidies). Most decisions are subject to a system of majority voting in of climate paper the complex, but some areas such as foreign and defense policy, taxation, or accept new members require unanimity. The Presidency of the Council rotates among member states, changing every six months; the essays about growing a small country holding the Presidency helps set priorities for the agenda and organizes most of the Boardís work.
Other institutions also play a key role. The Court of Justice interprets the laws of the EU and its decisions are binding; a Court of change paper Auditors monitors the financial management; the European Central Bank manages the euro and EU monetary policy; and advisory committees represent economic, social and regional interests. Why and about growing up in town, how the enlargement of the of climate essay paper EU? The EU considers that the enlargement process as an ellen foster essay topics, extraordinary opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in causes essay Europe. Since 2004, the essays up in EU has increased from 15 to 28 countries, bringing in most of Central and Eastern Europe. The EU began as the European Coal and of climate change essay, Steel Community in 1952 with six members (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom have joined this then became known as the European Community. Greece joined in frame 1981, followed by Spain and causes of climate change, Portugal in essays growing up in town 1986.
In 1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the current European Union. In 2004, the EU welcomed eight former communist countries of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Cyprus and Malta as a new member. Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007. Causes Of Climate Essay. Croatia became the 28th member of the EU on about growing up in a small town July 1, 2013. To be eligible for membership in the EU, countries must first meet a set of established criteria including having a democracy and a market economy that works. Once a country becomes an official candidate, accession negotiations are long and complex process in essay which the applicant must adopt and expository essay frame, implement a massive body of EU laws and regulations. Analysts say the process of of climate carefully managed enlargement is one of the most powerful EU policy tools, and that, over essay on my belief, the years, he has helped transform many European countries in functioning democracies and societies richer. Six countries are currently recognized by the EU as official candidates for membership: Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey and Iceland. All are at different stages of the accession process. For example, when Albania was simply designated as official candidate in June 2014, the accession negotiations are underway with Turkey since 2005.
It will probably be many years before most of the current candidates are ready to join to the EU. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are also recognized as potential future EU applicants. The EU argues that the door remains open to any European country expansion that meets the of climate change political and economic criteria for EU membership. However, some European leaders and many EU citizens are cautious about the further expansion of the EU, in ellen foster particular Turkey and countries further east, like Georgia or Ukraine, longer term. Is concerned still exists. EU enlargement range from fears of unwanted migrants to the implications of an expanding Union institutions, finance, and the EUís global identity. Observers note that such scruples are particularly evident in relation to a possible EU membership of Turkey, given the large size of Turkey, culture predominantly Muslim and relatively less prosperous economy. How are the US-EU political relations? The United States has long supported European integration as a means of fostering democratic allies and strong trading partners in Europe. During the Cold War, the EU project was considered the center of deterring the causes of climate change Soviet threat.
Since then, the US has supported EU efforts to expand political and thesis on project learning, economic benefits of membership to Central and Eastern Europe, and continues to causes of climate change essay paper, support the European aspirations of Turkey and the Western Balkans. The United States often looks to the EU for a partnership on a wide range of concerns common foreign policy. Paper Order. During the last decade, the United States and the EU encouraged peace and stability in the Balkans and Afghanistan, strengthened cooperation in law enforcement and the fight against terrorism, and worked together to causes essay paper, contain the nuclear ambitions of Iran. In recent years, both sides have expanded cooperation on new challenges, such as cyber security, energy security and international development. As the United States, the EU has sought to support the political transition of Ukraine condemned Russiaís annexation of Crimea, called for the end of Russian support for essay frame separatists in the east and southern Ukraine, and imposed a series of sanctions against Russia (including two tours targeting key sectors of the Russian economy in late July and early September 2014). The EU has also been increasingly concerned about the deteriorating security situation in Syria and change essay, Iraq, the threat posed by outline for an argumentative essay, the extremist movement Islamic state, and the growing number of citizens or European residents who struggle with Islamist groups. In light of the EU-US visa waiver agreements, the US and paper, European authorities have worked together to better combat radicalization stem the flow of foreign fighters in the conflict zone, and follow those who return. The EU also provides substantial humanitarian assistance to Iraq and a grade research paper order, Syria, and several EU Member States militarily involved in the air campaign by the US against the Islamic state (even if they are currently limit their actions air strikes and causes of climate change essay, air support of Iraq).
Sometimes, however, the ellen essay topics US-EU political relationship has faced serious challenges. US-EU relations have reached a historic low in 2003 compared to the US invasion of Iraq, some members of the EU and others supported strongly opposed. Although the US-EU relations have largely rebounded since then, tensions exist on issues ranging from climate change to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. And despite the causes change paper close cooperation of the United States-EU-Ukraine crisis, differences remain over how best to manage relations with the longer term Russia. Data protection continues to be a sticking point in US-EU key. Some European leaders, including many members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have long feared that many. Sharing agreements to combat information terrorism against the United States, the EU and do not adequately protect the privacy rights of European citizensí data. European concerns were increased from unauthorized in June 2013 of the National Security Agency US surveillance programs disclosures, press reports suggest that US intelligence agencies monitored the diplomatic offices of the EU, and subsequent allegations of other US intelligence operations in Europe.
In response, members now require stronger safeguards for personal data transferred outside the EU, and many experts argue that the alleged US surveillance activities are likely to conclude future agreements sharing of information United States-EU more difficult. Analysts are also concerned that such alleged US operations could adversely affect the broader relationship of the US-EU, including the prospects for transatlantic trade and investment partnership. Meanwhile, in thesis learning recent years, European leaders also expressed concerns about the ďpivotĒ US or rebalancing towards Asia. US officials emphasize that this rebalancing will not come at the expense of the causes of climate transatlantic relationship and that the United States hopes to engage more closely with Europe in the future on issues of economic and strategic importance in Asia. At the same time, some US analysts say the about growing a small EU remains concerned about its own economic and political problems, and therefore, is less able to be a strong partner for the United States in the fight against common international challenges. Who are the equivalent of the official United States in the EU?
EU-US summits usually occur at least once a year; in the context of the Lisbon Treaty, the change paper US president meets with the frame President of the European Commission and change, the European Council President. Contact the foster topics most common of the Secretary of State in the EU context is the High Representative for Foreign Affairs of the Union and Security Policy. Contact key US Trade Representative is the European Trade Commissioner, who heads the EUís common external trade policy. Other US ministerial-level officials interact with their counterparts from the Commission or the Member State Ministers in of climate the formation of the Cabinet when problems arise. Many relationships at thesis learning work between US officials and the EU also exist. A delegation to Washington, DC, represents the European Union in its relations with the United States government, while the US Mission to the European Union represents Washingtonís interests in Brussels. How are the US-EU economic relations? The US and the EU share the largest trade and investment relationship in the world. Despite the global economic slowdown in 2008-2009, the American and European economies combined account for over 50% of global GDP, about 25% of world exports and causes of climate essay, 30% of outline essay world imports. According to a recent study, the transatlantic economy generates $ 5 trillion commercial sales a year and essay paper, employs up to 15 million workers on both sides of the Atlantic. Of particular importance is the fact that the US and European companies are the biggest investors in argumentative essay the economies of the other total stock of causes of climate change paper direct bilateral investments was $ 3.8 trillion at the end of 2012 and the United States and Europe remains the most profitable markets in the other.
Although the vast majority of the economic relationship of US-EU States is outline for an, harmonious, tensions exist. Trade disputes in the United States-EU persist poultry, food bio-engineering, the protection of geographical indications and subsidies to Boeing and Airbus. Causes Of Climate. Many analysts note that the order resolution of commercial disputes in the United States, the EU and has become increasingly difficult, in part because both parties are economic strength almost equal and neither has the ability to impose concessions another. Another factor may be that many disputes involve differences in home values, policy priorities and regulatory frameworks. The US and the EU have made a number of attempts to reduce non-tariff and remaining regulatory barriers to trade and investment.
The Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) was established at the US-EU summit in 2007 and to take forward the causes of climate essay paper process of regulatory cooperation and reducing barriers to trade. In recent years, the global economic recession and the crisis in the euro area have also challenged the US-EU relationship. Given the thesis on project based vast transatlantic economic ties, US officials fear that the crisis of the EU debt could affect US exports to and sales of American companies in Europe, or the ripple effects could weaken US financial institutions and push the paper US into recession should any member of the euro area default. In response, the Obama administration has urged the EU to take strong action to resolve the debt crisis and called for more financial assistance to struggling economies in the euro zone. Outline For An. While US concerns about the crisis in the euro area declined amid US economic growth and increased market stability in Europe, some American policymakers continue to of climate change essay, question what they see as the focus the EU on the austerity measures, saying that more efforts are needed to promote growth. In light of the expository essay frame budgetary and economic difficulties on both sides of the Atlantic, in November 2011, the US and European leaders directed the TEC to establish a High Level Task Force (HLTF) on jobs and growth. The HLTF was to causes of climate change, examine ways to increase trade and investment in the United States, the EU and further stimulate job creation and economic growth on both sides of the Atlantic.
Based on the recommendations of the thesis on project based final report of the HLTF, the United States and the EU began negotiations in July 2013 on an ambitious, high free-trade standard, known under the trade name and Partnership transatlantic investment (TTIP). Both parties hope that the negotiations will TTIP reach an agreement that opens more markets and US and EU exports increase; strengthens investment rules-based; plated costly non-tariff barriers; reducing regulatory barriers; and strengthens cooperation on trade issues of global concern. Causes Of Climate Change Paper. Historically, the belief in god cooperation of the United States, the EU and has been a driving force behind efforts to liberalize world trade and to ensure the of climate paper stability of international financial markets. U.S. and EU leaders sought to pursue a coordinated response to the global financial crisis, which brings together industrialized and developing countries. And many consider the US-European cooperation is essential to expository essay, the management of emerging economies such as China, India and Brazil in the coming years. At the of climate change essay paper same time, divisions exist both between EU countries and between the EU and the United States in certain policy areas. US-EU disagreement over based learning, agricultural subsidies, for example, has contributed to the impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations. European-American differences also persist on how to reduce the large trade imbalances considered to pose serious risks to economic growth and an open international trading system.
EU decision-making process and the role played by the EU institutions vary depending on of climate essay the subject being studied. For most economic and social issues, EU member states have largely pooled their national sovereignty, and the EUís decision-making has a supranational quality. The decisions in other areas, such as foreign policy, require the unanimous consensus of all 28 member states. The Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force in December 2009, is the latest attempt by the EU to reform its institutions of governance and decision-making process to enable the enlarged Union to function more efficiently. The Lisbon Treaty also aims to give the EU a stronger voice in the area of foreign policy and to increase democratic transparency in on project the EU. Causes Of Climate Paper. Other key measures, the Lisbon Treaty simplifies voting system by a qualified majority of the ellen foster essay topics EU and extending its use to areas previously subject to unanimity the Member State to the Council of Ministers of the policy; This change was intended in part to speed up the EU decision-making and improve efficiency. However, in practice, the of climate essay paper Member States will probably still reach a consensus on sensitive political issues such as police cooperation, immigration and the fight against about growing terrorism, which are generally regarded as central to the sovereignty of a nation-state.
At the same time, the mere possibility of causes of climate a vote may make the governments of member states more willing to compromise and reach a common political decision. In addition, the Lisbon Treaty increases the relative power of the European Parliament in research paper order an effort to improve democratic accountability. It strengthens the role of Parliament in paper the budget process of the EU and extends the essay on my belief use of the decision procedure cooperated in several areas, including issues of causes of climate paper agriculture and home affairs. As such, the Treaty gives Parliament an frame, equal voice with the Member States in causes of climate essay paper the Council of Ministers in the vast majority of EU legislation with a few exceptions, like most aspects of political foreign and outline, defense. In addition, the Lisbon Treaty provides national parliaments with a degree of greater authority to essay, challenge EU legislation project and allows the possibility of further legislative proposals on the basis of citizensí initiatives. The United States strongly supported the project of European integration since its creation as a means of fostering democratic states and strong trading partners in Europe. The US and the EU have a dynamic political partnership and order, share a business relationship and of climate change, huge investment. To expand and strengthen the thesis learning transatlantic economy even further, the of climate essay paper US and the EU are pursuing a comprehensive and ambitious transatlantic trade and investment partnership. However, some tensions remain, ranging from long trade dispute United States-EU climate change. Despite the close cooperation of the thesis on project based learning United States-EU-Ukraine crisis, differences also exist on how best to manage relations with Russia in the longer term.
And confidentiality of data continues to of climate, be a sticking point key US-EU, especially after unauthorized disclosure since June 2013 US alleged surveillance activities in Europe. The European Commission negotiates trade agreements with third countries and trading unions on behalf of the Union as a whole. As a result of the on project based learning Lisbon Treaty, both the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament must approve these trade agreements before they can take effect. The process of negotiation and conclusion of a new international agreement on trade begins with discussions between the three institutions of the EU and an impact assessment of the Commission, including a public consultation on of climate change the content and options for any future trade agreement. Provided there is ellen topics, a general agreement to proceed, the Commission launches an causes of climate paper, informal scoping exercise with the potential partner country or trading bloc in the range and scope of topics to be considered in negotiations.
The ďguidelinesĒ are subject to a grade research paper order, the Board for approval, and shared with the causes of climate change European Parliament. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on ellen hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to change essay paper, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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Essay, Research Paper: Rocket Engines. One of the most amazing endeavors man has ever undertaken is the exploration of. space. A big part of the amazement is the complexity. Space exploration is. complicated because there are so many interesting problems to solve and. obstacles to overcome. Change Paper! You have things like: The vacuum of space Heat management.
problems The difficulty of re-entry Orbital mechanics Micrometeorites and space. debris Cosmic and solar radiation Restroom facilities in a weightless. environment And so on. For An Argumentative! But the biggest problem of all is change essay paper, harnessing enough. energy simply to get a spaceship off the ground. That is thesis on project based learning, where rocket engines. come in. Causes Of Climate Change Essay! Rocket engines are on a grade research order, the one hand so simple that you can build and fly. your own model rockets very inexpensively (see the of climate paper, links at frame, the bottom of causes of climate change essay, the. page for details).
On the based, other hand, rocket engines (and their fuel systems) are so complicated that only two countries have actually ever put people in. orbit. In this edition of causes of climate change essay paper, How Stuff Works we will look at argumentative, rocket engines to. understand how they work, as well as to understand some of the complexity. The. Basics When most people think about motors or engines, they think about. rotation. For example, a reciprocating gasoline engine in a car produces. rotational energy to drive the wheels. An electric motor produces rotational.
energy to drive a fan or spin a disk. A steam engine is used to do the same. thing, as is a steam turbine and most gas turbines. Rocket engines are. fundamentally different. Rocket engines are reaction engines. The basic. principle driving a rocket engine is the famous Newtonian principle that. to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Change Paper! A rocket. engine is throwing mass in one direction and benefiting from the growing a small, reaction that.
occurs in the other direction as a result. This concept of throwing mass. and benefiting from the reaction can be hard to of climate paper, grasp at first, because. that does not seem to be what is happening. Rocket engines seem to be about.
flames and noise and pressure, not throwing things. So let's look at. a few examples to essay, get a better picture of reality: If you have ever shot a. shotgun, especially a big 12 guage shot gun, then you know that it has a lot of. kick.
That is, when you shoot the gun it kicks your. shoulder back with a great deal of force. That kick is a reaction. Paper! A shotgun is. shooting about an ounce of metal in one direction at about 700 miles per essays growing hour. Therefore your shoulder gets hit with the reaction. If you were wearing roller. skates or standing on causes paper, a skate board when you shot the gun, then the belief, gun would be. acting like a rocket engine and you would react by rolling in the opposite.
direction. Causes Change Paper! If you have ever seen a big fire hose spraying water, you may have. noticed that it takes a lot of strength to hold the hose (sometimes you will see. two or three firemen holding the hose). Argumentative Essay! The hose is acting like a rocket engine. The hose is change essay, throwing water in one direction, and the firemen are using their.
strength and weight to counteract the reaction. If they were to let go of the. hose, it would thrash around with tremendous force. If the firemen were all. standing on essay on my in god, skateboards, the hose would propel them backwards at of climate change paper, great speed! When you blow up a balloon and let it go so it flies all over the room before. running out of air, you have created a rocket engine. In this case, what is.
being thrown is the order, air molecules inside the balloon. Many people believe that. air molecules don't weigh anything, but they do (see the page on helium to get a. better picture of the weight of air). When you throw them out the nozzle of a. balloon the rest of the balloon reacts in of climate change paper, the opposite essay, direction.
Imagine the. following situation. Let's say that you are wearing a space suit and you are. floating in space beside the space shuttle. Causes! You happen to have in your hand a. baseball. If you throw the baseball, your body will react by moving away in the.
opposite direction. The thing that controls the on project learning, speed at which your body moves. away is the weight of the baseball that you throw and the amount of acceleration. that you apply to it. Mass multiplied by acceleration is force (f = m * a). Whatever force you apply to the baseball will be equalized by an identical.
reaction force applied to change essay, your body (m * a = m * a). So let's say that the. baseball weighs 1 pound and your body plus the space suit weighs 100 pounds. You. throw the baseball away at a speed of expository essay, 32 feet per second (21 MPH). That is to. say, you accelerate the baseball with your arm so that it obtains a velocity of. 21 MPH. What you had to do is accelerate the one pound baseball to 21 MPH.
Your. body reacts, but it weights 100 times more than the paper, baseball. Essay Frame! Therefore it moves. away at 1/100th the velocity, or 0.32 feet per second (0.21 MPH). Of Climate Essay Paper! If you want to.
generate more thrust from your baseball, you have two options. You can either. throw a heavier baseball (increase the mass), or you can throw the baseball. faster (increasing the acceleration on it), or you can throw a number of. baseballs one after another (which is just another way of increasing the mass). But that is essays up in a small, all that you can do.
A rocket engine is generally throwing mass in. the form of a high-pressure gas. The engine throws the mass of gas out in of climate paper, one. direction in order to get a reaction in the opposite direction. The mass comes. from the essay, weight of the fuel that the rocket engine burns. The burning process.
accelerates the mass of fuel so that it comes out of the causes change paper, rocket nozzle at high. speed. The fact that the fuel turns from a solid or liquid into a gas when it. burns does not change its mass. Essays About Growing A Small! If you burn a pound of rocket fuel, a pound of. exhaust comes out the nozzle in the form of a high-temperature, high-velocity. gas. The form changes, but the change essay paper, mass does not. For An Argumentative! The burning process accelerates. the mass. The strength of a rocket engine is called its thrust.
Thrust is measured in pounds of of climate essay paper, thrust in the U.S. Research Paper! and in newtons. under the metric system (4.45 newtons of thrust equals 1 pound of thrust). A. pound of thrust is the amount of thrust it would take to keep a one pound object. stationary against the force of gravity on earth. So on earth the acceleration. of gravity is 32 feet per second per second (21 MPH per change second). So if you were. floating in space with a bag of baseballs and essay, you threw 1 baseball per second. away from you at 21 MPH, your baseballs would be generating the equivalent of 1. pound of thrust.
If you were to throw the baseballs instead at 42 MPH, then you. would be generating 2 pounds of thrust. If you throw them at causes, 2,100 MPH (perhaps. by shooting them out of research, some sort of baseball gun), then you are generating 100. pounds of thrust, and causes change paper, so on. Essay Topics! One of the causes of climate paper, funny problems rockets have is that the. objects that the engine wants to essay on my in god, throw actually weigh something, and the rocket. has to carry that weight around.
So let's say that you want to generate 100. pounds of thrust for an hour by throwing 1 baseball every second at a speed of. 2,100 MPH. That means that you have to start with 3,600 one pound baseballs. (there are 3,600 seconds in an hour), or 3,600 pounds of baseballs. Since you.
only weigh 100 pounds in causes of climate essay, your spacesuit, you can see that the weight of your. fuel dwarfs the weight of the payload (you). Foster Essay! In fact, the fuel. weights 36 times more than the payload. Causes Change Essay! And that is very common. That is why you. have to have a huge rocket to for an argumentative essay, get a tiny person into space right now - you have. to carry a lot of causes paper, fuel. Foster Topics! You can see this weight equation very clearly on the. Space Shuttle.
If you have ever seen the Space Shuttle launch, you know that. there are three parts: the shuttle itself the big external tank the two solid. rocket boosters (SRBs). The shuttle weighs 165,000 pounds empty. The external. tank weighs 78,100 pounds empty. Causes Of Climate Essay! The two solid rocket boosters weigh 185,000. pounds empty each. But then you have to load in the fuel.
Each SRB holds 1.1. million pounds of fuel. The external tank holds 143,000 gallons of liquid oxygen. (1,359,000 pounds) and essay topics, 383,000 gallons of of climate change essay, liquid hydrogen (226,000 pounds). The. whole vehicle - shuttle, external tank, solid rocket booster casings and all the. fuel - has a total weight of 4.4 million pounds at launch. 4.4 million pounds to.
get 165,000 pounds in orbit is a pretty big difference! To be fair, the foster essay topics, shuttle. can also carry a 65,000 pound payload (up to causes change paper, 15 x 60 feet in size), but it is. still a big difference. The fuel weighs almost 20 times more than the Shuttle. [Reference: The Space Shuttle Operator's Manual] All of that fuel is being. thrown out the back of the Space Shuttle at a speed of perhaps 6,000 MPH. (typical rocket exhaust velocities for chemical rockets range between 5,000 and. 10,000 MPH).
The SRBs burn for about 2 minutes and generate about 3.3 million. pounds of thrust each at for an, launch (2.65 million pounds average over the burn). The. 3 main engines (which use the fuel in causes essay paper, the external tank) burn for about 8. minutes, generating 375,000 pounds of thrust each during the burn. Solid-fuel.
Rocket Engines Solid-fuel rocket engines were the first engines created by man. They were invented hundreds of years ago in China and have been used widely. since then. The line about the rocket's red glare in the National. Anthem (written in the early 1800's) is talking about research paper order, small military solid-fuel. rockets used to deliver bombs or incendiary devices.
So you can see that rockets. have been in use quite awhile. The idea behind a simple solid-fuel rocket is. straightforward. Of Climate Change! What you want to do is create something that burns very quickly. but does not explode. As you are probably aware, gunpowder explodes.
Gunpowder. is made up 75% nitrate, 15% carbon and 10% sulfur. In a rocket engine you don't. want an explosion - you would like the power released more evenly over expository essay a period. of time. Therefore you might change the mix to 72% nitrate, 24% carbon and 4% sulfur. In this case, instead of gunpowder, you get a simple rocket fuel. This. sort of mix will burn very rapidly, but it does not explode if loaded properly.
Here's a typical cross section: A solid-fuel rocket immediately before and after. ignition On the left you see the rocket before ignition. The solid fuel is shown. in green. It is cylindrical, with a tube drilled down the middle. When you light. the fuel, it burns along the wall of the tube.
As it burns, it burns outward. toward the causes change essay paper, casing until all the fuel has burned. In a small model rocket engine. or in a tiny bottle rocket the burn might last a second or less. In a Space. Shuttle SRB containing over a million pounds of fuel, the burn lasts about 2.
minutes. When you read about advanced solid-fuel rockets like the Shuttle's. Solid Rocket Boosters, you often read things like: The propellant mixture in. each SRB motor consists of an outline argumentative ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer, 69.6 percent by. weight), aluminum (fuel, 16 percent), iron oxide (a catalyst, 0.4 percent), a. polymer (a binder that holds the mixture together, 12.04 percent), and an epoxy. curing agent (1.96 percent). The propellant is an 11-point star-shaped. perforation in the forward motor segment and change paper, a double- truncated- cone.
perforation in topics, each of the aft segments and aft closure. This configuration. provides high thrust at ignition and then reduces the thrust by approximately a. third 50 seconds after lift-off to prevent overstressing the vehicle during. maximum dynamic pressure. This paragraph discusses not only the fuel mixture but. also the configuration of the causes change paper, channel drilled in the center of the fuel. An. 11-point star-shaped perforation might look like this: The idea is.
to increase the a grade research paper order, surface area of the channel, thereby increasing the burn area. and therefore the thrust. Essay Paper! As the fuel burns the shape evens out into a circle. In the case of the SRBs, it gives the engine high initial thrust and lower. thrust in the middle of the flight. Solid-fuel rocket engines have three. important advantages: Simplicity Low cost Safety They also have two. disadvantages: Thrust cannot be controlled Once ignited, the engine cannot be. stopped or restarted The disadvantages mean that solid-fuel rockets are useful. for short-lifetime tasks (like missiles), or for booster systems.
When you need. to be able to control the engine, you must use a liquid propellant system. Liquid Propellant Rockets In 1926, Robert Goddard tested the first liquid. propellant rocket engine. His engine used gasoline and liquid oxygen. He also. worked on and solved a number of fundamental problems in rocket engine design,
including pumping mechanisms, cooling strategies and steering arrangements. These problems are what make liquid propellant rockets so complicated. The basic. idea is simple. On Project! In most liquid propellant rocket engines, a fuel and an oxidizer.
(for example, gasoline and causes of climate essay paper, liquid oxygen) are pumped into a combustion chamber. There they burn to create a high-pressure and high-velocity stream of hot gases. These gases flow through a nozzle which accelerates them further (5,000 to. 10,000 MPH exit velocities being typical), and then leave the engine. The. following highly simplified diagram shows you the basic components. This diagram. does not show the actual complexities of a typical engine (see some of the links. at the bottom of the page for good images and for an argumentative, descriptions of essay, real engines). Based Learning! For. example, it is normal for either the fuel of the causes of climate, oxidizer to be a cold liquefied.
gas like liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen. Foster Topics! One of the big problems in a liquid. propellant rocket engine is cooling the combustion chamber and nozzle, so the. cryogenic liquids are first circulated around the super-heated parts to cool. them. The pumps have to generate extremely high pressures in causes change essay paper, order to overcome. the pressure that the essay on my belief, burning fuel creates in the combustion chamber. The main. engines in the Space Shuttle actually use two pumping stages and burn fuel to.
drive the second stage pumps. All of this pumping and cooling makes a typical. liquid propellant engine look more like a plumbing project gone haywire than. anything else - look at the engines on this page to see what I mean. Causes Of Climate! All kinds. of fuel combinations get used in liquid propellant rocket engines. For example:
Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen - used in the Space Shuttle main engines. Gasoline and liquid oxygen - used in essay belief, Goddard's early rockets Kerosene and liquid. oxygen - used on the first stage of the large Saturn V boosters in the Apollo. program Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen - used in the German V2 rockets Nitrogen. tetroxide (NTO)/monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) - used in the Cassini engines Other. Possibilities We are accustomed to seeing chemical rocket engines that burn. their fuel to generate thrust.
There are many other ways to generate thrust. however. Any system that throws mass would do. Causes Of Climate Paper! If you could figure out a way to. accelerate baseballs to extremely high speeds, you would have a viable rocket. engine. Essay On My! The only problem with such an approach would be the baseball.
exhaust (high-speed baseballs at of climate change, that. ) left streaming through. space. This small problem causes rocket engine designers to for an essay, favor gases for the. exhaust product. Many rocket engines are very small. For example, attitude. thrusters on satellites don't need to produce much thrust. One common engine. design found on satellites uses no fuel at all - pressurized.
nitrogen thrusters simply blow nitrogen gas from a tank through a nozzle. Thrusters like these kept Skylab in orbit, and are also used on causes of climate change essay, the shuttle's. manned maneuvering system. New engine designs are trying to find ways to. accelerate ions or atomic particles to extremely high speeds to essays about growing up in a small, create thrust. more efficiently. NASA's Deep Space-1 spacecraft will be the first to use ion. engines for propulsion. Change Paper! See this page for essay frame additional discussion of plasma and. ion engines.
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