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Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body, and Primitive Accumulation. Silvia Federici , Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body, and Primitive Accumulation (Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 2004) It is hard to overstate the brilliance of this remarkable book, which contests the traditional Marxist view of the “transition” from feudalism to mercantile capitalism as a bloody but progressive revolution. Instead, Silvia Federici sees the transition as an apocalyptic counterrevolution, with the crushing of female power at its very core. Poster! A longtime activist and writing essays, Professor Emerita of International Studies and Political Philosophy at poster, Hofstra University, Federici has rethought the history of the rise of capitalism as a world system, drawing on louisiana an impressive range of scholarship in English, French, Italian, Spanish and Latin. Her goal is to show that Marx’s account of primitive accumulation is flawed by poster his failure to see that, in addition to the expropriation of European workers from their means of subsistence, the enslavement of Africans, and the near-annihilation of Native Americans in the colonial quest for gold and silver, [ t]his process required the transformation of the body into a work-machine, and the subjugation of desk women to the reproduction of the work-force. Most of all, it required the destruction of the presentation, power of women which, in Europe as in America, was achieved through the extermination of the “witches.” (63) In her analysis, Caliban, Shakespeare’s monster from The Tempest (1612), who eloquently laments the babylon research, stealing of his land by poster presentation Europeans, refers to the Native Americans and Africans enslaved and subjugated by babylon research paper the colonizing powers of Europe. The witch refers to the great witch-hunts of the early modern period; and the body refers to the ideological transformation wrought by philosophers – chiefly Descartes and Hobbes – to poster render the human body available for waged work. Federici calls this complex and ambitious work a “sketch,” and freely acknowledges the hypothetical nature of the interpretation, pointing to the need for further research.

1. This book distills her thinking over more than 25 years, from the Wages for Housework campaigns of the 1970s, through her several years of teaching in Nigeria in the 1980s during the onslaught of structural adjustment programs, to her current work as an louisiana, active member of the presentation, anti-globalization movement. The book proceeds from the global justice perspective, which sees the present-day expansion of corporate interests as a new enclosure of the commons, eliminating communal land tenure in how to Africa as it was eliminated in England. Poster Presentation! In chapter 1, Federici lays the groundwork for her analysis in a vivid rewriting of the child desk, history of medieval Europe, looking at peasant rebellions and heretical sects as contesting the feudal system virtually from its origins. She notes the important role of women in the millenarian and heretical sects of the 12th and 13th centuries, and calls the heretics (such as the Cathars) a social movement, creating “liberation theology for the medieval proletariat” (35). They assail the corruption of the Church and the impoverishment of the presentation, poorest peasants, as the revival of trade and belief essay, the growth of the cities begins to chip away at poster, the feudal order, and labor services are being commuted to rents and taxes.

She traces the struggles of peasants and essay, artisans against bishops, nobility, merchants and the powerful craft masters throughout the 14th century. With the Black Death of 1347-1352 destroying more than a third of the entire population, peasants are able to obtain their own land. By the end of the 14th century the refusal of feudal rents and services is widespread. After a series of fierce peasant wars in Spain, Germany, France and Italy, the 15th century inaugurates a period of unprecedented peasant power: high wages, the disappearance of land bondage, and a drastic reduction in the wage differential by sex. In response, the new ruling elites launch a counterrevolution. Poster! The feudal economy is no longer viable, and the new high-wage regime creates a crisis for landowners and merchants. With the attempt to restore serfdom a failure except in Eastern Europe, ruling elites begin to carry out the measures that will inaugurate the new mode of production: expropriation of the peasantry from desk their land, and the creation of a waged proletariat. Chapter 2 traces this process of what Federici, with her refreshingly present-minded writing, calls land privatization –- through enclosures, evicting the tenants, rent increases, confiscation of Church land by Reformation princes, and a massive land-grab by gentry and yeoman freeholders. In England, the open-field system with its crucial availability of common land (the commons) is replaced by hedged-in fields where, in Thomas More’s famous words, sheep “eat up and swallow the poster presentation, very men themselves” (from Utopia , 1516; cit.122). The outcome is the transformation of the landless peasants into vagabonds who provoke the creation of poorhouses and extreme punishments for vagrancy. Write! Federici contests the contemporary arguments of the “modernizers” of that time, that the enclosures boosted agricultural efficiency.

For workers they inaugurated two centuries of starvation, in the same way as today, even in the most fertile areas of African, Asia, and presentation, Latin America, malnutrition is rampant due to the destruction of communal land-tenure and how to write, the “export or perish” policy imposed by the World Bank’s structural adjustment programs. (102). The Price Revolution of 1501-1650 intensifies the poster, suffering of the peasantry. Babylon Revisited Paper! A growing percentage of the population must buy their food, with the poster, rise of a national and international market system importing and exporting agricultural products. Food costs increase eightfold, while wages increase threefold. In the on food allergies, 14th century women received half of a man’s pay; by presentation the 16th century they receive one-third.

If the research, peasant struggle of the 14th and 15th centuries was about liberty, says Federici, that of the 16th and 17th centuries is about hunger. Food riots -– often led by poster presentation women –- are common. As capitalist relations spread we see continuous popular rebellion. Child! In response, the poster, ruling elites launch an attack on all forms of collective solidarity. No more processions to belief systems essay bless the fields; no more dances around the Maypole. Especially under the Puritans following the English Civil War, a process of “social enclosure” takes place, with churches withdrawing the customary public space for harvest festivals, while supporting a new ideology exalting marriage and the private home.

Meanwhile a system of presentation public assistance is put into place, and the international debate over the “deserving” poor begins. Federici sees the rise of census-taking, charting births and deaths, and calculating the number of the poor, as a giant leap by state authorities into the management of social reproduction, and indeed as establishing the role of the state as the guarantor of write class relations. From the 1580s to the 1630s we see the onset of severe population decline. Markets shrink, trade stops: this is the first international economic crisis. The new leaders of mercantile capitalism agree that the number of citizens determine a nation’s wealth.

A fanatical desire to replenish the population –- expressed by writers like Jean Bodin #8212; is reflected in new policies. Infanticide becomes a capital offense. Pregnancies must be registered with the authorities. Marriage is encouraged, and illegitimacy is criminalized. More women are executed for infanticide in 16th- and 17th -century Europe than for any other crime except witchcraft. Midwives are enlisted as spies for the authorities, and doctors begin to replace them in the birthing room, as they are suspected of infanticide. At the same time that women are being deprived of their traditional means of contraception and abortion – in short, their reproductive autonomy –- they are losing their role as workers. The assumption is gaining ground that women should not be working outside the home. Female work is being redefined as housekeeping. Craft workers begin to exclude women from the late 15th century, and those who fail to comply are labeled shrews, whores, and poster presentation, witches. A wave of misogyny focuses on the disobedient wife, and the ground is laid for what Federici terms “the patriarchy of the wage.” Chapter 3 lays out the philosophical underpinnings of the attempt to transform the unruly peasantry into a disciplined, wage-earning workforce.

Federici’s premise here is write that in the early modern period, large numbers of people despised the wage and preferred to become vagabonds. This provokes a “regime of terror,” intensifying penalties for crimes against property, the so-called bloody laws, “intended to poster presentation bind workers to the jobs imposed on them” (135). But this is accompanied by a “radical transformation of the person” (137). As part of this “vast process of social engineering” (137), we see the development of a new sense of the relationship between mind and child homework, body. Poster! Here Federici interprets Hobbes, Descartes, and the other developers of louisiana Mechanical Philosophy as the creators of a “new bourgeois spirit that calculates, classifies, makes distinctions, and poster presentation, degrades the body” (139) into an inert, mechanical entity that can be devoted to the work process.

The medieval concept of the body as a “receptacle of magical powers” gives way to a view of the body as a machine. It is in chapter 4, in essay her account of the poster, witch-hunts, that Federici lays out the heart of her thesis. The persecution and terrorizing of poor women, and the consequent transformation of gender ideology, are a crucial element in the destruction of solidarity of the European peasantry. This is the most strikingly original part of her re-interpretation of primitive accumulation. Why did the persecution of witches arise, spread to all parts of Europe and louisiana, the New World, and then gradually fade away? Why did the authorities encourage and organize the torture and burning of witches? Federici argues that contrary to the interpretation of most historians, the witch-hunts were not the last flare-up of medievalism in a modernizing Europe, but rather, an integral part of the rise of mercantile capitalism. Poster! Her interpretation here is comparable to writing essays recent work on the epoch of plantation slavery in the New World, showing this not as a throwback to feudalism, but as the first moment of disciplined commodity production for the world market. Following Maria Mies, Federici shows us that witch-burning, which she compares to the 21st-century “war on terrorism,” was a politically organized campaign, seeking to crush the spirit of peasant women. Women had been leaders of peasant rebellions; their collective knowledge as midwives and healers had been part of a cohesive peasant culture based in the world of the commons, and infused with a comfortable belief in magic as part of a traditional relationship to nature. Women impoverished by poster enclosures, who had lost their economic security with the essays, end of the open field system, and who were forced into stealing and begging, were the poster presentation, targets of this campaign, as were the midwives and healers whose traditional roles included what we would now classify as obstetrics, general medicine, and essay, psychotherapy.

By mobilizing misogyny (the hatred and contempt for women), the poster presentation, authorities of the day succeeded in homework desk pitting men against women. In this transformation, men were complicit: only one documented case has been found of men defending their wives against a witch round-up. Presentation! As a result the concept of womanhood was turned upside down. The economically productive women of the late Middle Ages will now be subjected to the authority of husbands, and their economically productive role erased. Chaucer’s Wife of Bath, with her open and bawdy sexuality, who boasted of burying five husbands and babylon revisited, being ready to take a sixth in presentation her old age, will be replaced by the chastened and submissive Kate in Shakespeare’s Taming of the Shrew (1593), laying the groundwork for belief systems the Victorian ideal of the angel in the home. The definition of women as demonic beings, and the atrocious and humiliating practices to which so many of them were subjected, left indelible marks in the collective female psyche and in women’s sense of possibilities. From every viewpoint -– socially, economically, culturally, politically -– the witch-hunt was a turning point in women’s lives; it was the equivalent of the historic defeat to which Engels alludes, in The Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884), as the cause of the downfall of the matriarchal world. (102f) Finally, in chapter 5, Federici draws the links between the events in Europe and those in the New World. This is the least developed of her chapters, exploring the demonization and torture of Native Americans, and poster presentation, the links of this process of cultural destruction to the ideology that tortured witches. She concludes by pointing to the parallels with contemporary globalization, noting that witch-hunts have reappeared in contemporary Africa and Latin America. Writing Essays! [i]f we apply to the present the lessons of the past, we realize that the poster presentation, reappearance of witch-hunting in so many parts of the world in essay the 80s and 90s is a clear sign of a process of “primitive accumulation,” which means that the privatization of land and other communal resources, mass impoverishment, plunder, and the sowing of divisions in once-cohesive communities are again on the world agenda. “If things continue this way” –- the elders in a Senegalese village commented to an American anthropologist, expressing their fears for the future – “our children will eat each other.” (239)

There are many points to argue with in this book. The thematic structure requires the reader to go back and forth through the centuries more than once. The interrelations of the events in the New World and poster presentation, the Old are only sketched in, although Federici convincingly cites recent research on how the treatment of the Native Americans and that of the European peasantry, particularly women, formed a kind of feedback loop, with characterizations of witchcraft accompanying the persecution of native women, and visual imagery of cannibalism from the New World being re-imported to Europe. The striking woodcut illustrations of the text bring her arguments to life. More crucially, one might argue that the louisiana purchase essay, view presented of capitalism as a world-system is one-sided. As noted, Federici is rigorously opposed to Marx’s view that the presentation, arrival of capitalism was overall a progressive development, since it was based fundamentally on the devaluation and persecution of women, Africans, and Native Americans. She tends to idealize the paper, solidarity of collective rural life, overlooking the impact of ancient superstition and prejudice. This perspective rules out presentation any appreciation of the advances in economic productivity, science and hooks essays, technology that would lay the foundations, inter alia, for the renewed feminist movement of the 1970s. None of this, however, diminishes the enormous significance of presentation this work, which powerfully mobilizes the insights of feminist organizing and hooks, research to reveal the dangerous blindspots in patriarchal social theory. As Peter Linebaugh has written, [t]he burning of the poster presentation, witches… was essential to capitalist work-discipline.

This is what Marx called the alienation of the body, what Max Weber called the writing essays, reform of the body, what Norman O. Brown called the repression of the body, and what Foucault calls the discipline of the body. Yet, these social theorists of deep modernization overlooked the poster presentation, witch hunt! (“Chapter 39, Order 39: Torture and Neo-Liberalism with Sycorax in Iraq,” www.counterpunch.org/linebaugh1127004.html) Caliban is a model of Marxist-feminist work, demonstrating the crucial relevance of gender and race issues to purchase the class struggles of the past, present, and future. It should be required reading for Marxists of all persuasions. Review by presentation Hester Eisenstein. Sociology, Queens College and. The Graduate Center, CUNY. 1. See H. Aage, #8220;Popular Attitudes and Perestroika .” Soviet Studies 43, 1 (January 1991): 3-25.

For texts of purchase articles published within the past year, please contact us ([email protected]) about buying a copy of the journal, or else contact our publishers through their website: www.tandf.co.uk/journals. Socialism Democracy #73, March, 2017. Steve Martinot, Government vs. Constitutionality: On the Subject of Due Process. Thomas Powell, Biological Warfare in the Korean War: Allegations and Cover-up. Filip Kovacevic, NATO’s Neocolonial Discourse and Its Resisters: The Case of Montenegro. Wolfgang Fritz Haug, On the Need for a New English Translation of Marx’s Capital.

Rômulo Lima, Alienation, Value and Fetishism in Marx’s Critique of the State. Samuel Arnold, Capitalism, Class Conflict, and Domination. Irina Tsaregorodtseva, The Revolutionary Socialists in Post-“Arab Spring” Egypt. Robert Cohen , You Are Not a Marxist on Your Own. Henry Giroux, America’s Addiction to Terrorism reviewed by Leigh Denholm. Megan Erickson, Class War: The Privatization of Childhood reviewed by Sarah Grey. Cathy Bergin, “Bitter with the Past, but Sweet with the Dream”: Communism in the African American Imaginary: Representations of the Communist Party, 1940-1952 reviewed by Barbara Foley. Howard Brick, Robbie Lieberman, and Paula Rabinowitz, eds., Lineages of the Literary Left: Essays in poster Honor of Alan M. Wald reviewed by Bryan D. Purchase Essay! Palmer. Benedict Anderson, A Life Beyond Boundaries reviewed by Trevor Jackson. Heidi Hoechst, Life In and Against the Odds: Debts of Freedom and the Speculative Roots of U.S. Culture reviewed by poster Steve Martinot.

Steve Early, Refinery Town: Big Oil, Big Money, and babylon research, the Remaking of an presentation, American City reviewed by Norman Solomon. John Ehrenreich, Third Wave Capitalism: How Money, Power and the Pursuit of Self-Interest Have Imperiled the American Dream reviewed by Paul Buhle. Michael Yates, The Great Inequality reviewed by Louis Proyect. Bryan D. Palmer, Marxism and louisiana essay, Historical Practice, Vol. I: Interpretive Essays on Class Formation and Class Struggle; Vol. II: Interventions and poster presentation, Appreciations reviewed by Kent Worcester. Chad Pearson, Reform or Repression: Organizing America’s Anti-Union Movement reviewed by babylon paper Peter Seybold. Shin Eun-jung, Verita$: Harvard’s Hidden History reviewed by Harry Targ. Wang Hui, China’s Twentieth Century: Revolution, Retreat and the Road to Equality reviewed by Fan Yang. Presentation! Hao Ren, Zhongjin Li, and Eli Friedman, eds., China on Strike: Narratives of Worker Resistance reviewed by Michael L. Zukosky.

Stephen Chambers, No God but Gain: The Untold Story of Cuban Slavery, the Monroe Doctrine the hooks, Making of the poster presentation, United States reviewed by Mark A. Lause.

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Making Bad Decisions Essays and Research Papers. aren’t going as she expected, and problems got bigger and poster presentation, bigger as time passed by. Babylon Research? After few months working there, she started doubting about her . Poster? decision of working there. Did she take the right decision ? This study will help us answer this question throughout the study. The problem started from the writing essays beginning when she was still making the decision of choosing either to work for poster, Deep Dive Pizza, where she had her internship or at Potomac Waters, a way bigger company with more potential in homework, the. Bad , Decision making , Deep diving 993 Words | 3 Pages. Decision Making Edited by poster Devi Rajnikanth IBS Case Development Centre Icfai BooksTM # 71, Nagarjuna Hills, Punjagutta, . Purchase Essay? Hyderabad – 500082 Andhra Pradesh, INDIA Phone: 91 - 40 - 23435387/91, Fax: 91 - 40 - 23435386 e-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Website: www.books.iupindia.org, www.ibscdc.org © 2009 The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India. All rights reserved. Poster Presentation? No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted. All rights reserved , Barings Bank , Copyright 1040 Words | 5 Pages. Decision making from cognitive or normative perspective can be defined as the purchase process of presentation, selecting best logical choice from . various available options and choices.

Majority of decisions in business are normative as they are based on logical decision making . Rsvp How To? Dr. Yost describes decision making as a concept on presentation, a continuum of essay allergies, conscientiousness and depth of deliberations. On one end of spectrum is conscious, well thought of, rational decision making , in between “real world” bounded rationality and at. Cognition , Decision making , Decision theory 1187 Words | 4 Pages. ? Decision making , something that so simple yet troublesome if we were too careless on doing it. We face decision . making almost every day and some of the poster presentation decision will lead to something that would affect our surroundings.

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Decision making can be easy, hard or somewhere in essay on food allergies, the middle; many times how hard the poster process is depends on how to write, the team or group of presentation, people that have to make the decision . The type of decision and the number of people the decision will. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 1432 Words | 4 Pages. Decision - Making Model Analysis Paper Decisions ! Decisions ! Decisions ! How do you . make decisions ? Have you ever asked yourself, How did I make that decision ? Whether big or small, important or not so important, decision making is a process. Some people way the pros and cons while others may just flip a coin. Are decisions based on feelings, outcomes or information? Often times if we just go with our gut feeling will be miss out on important information that should be included in writing hooks, our decision. Cognition , Decision making , Flipism 821 Words | 3 Pages. ? Introduction An appropriate decision making has played a major role in poster, the success of any business management. The . Belief? success of the business and projects is depending on the decision making of the management and leadership. Making good decisions is presentation, fundamental to obtain a good performance in organisation. There are some decision that make huge consequences that can change the role in the organisations and can changes the child process of presentation, operation of the companies, the essay choices that the organisations.

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? Decision making is intrinsic in the society no matter if it is a crucial decision or not. Many models and poster presentation, theories . have been recommended to analyze how humans make choices both individually and writing hooks, also in groups such as organizations. This literature review covers a diversity of such models and theories including types of choices and presentation, influences of decision making . In order to understand the behavior of how individuals make choices, we have to first analyze the fundamental levels of decision making. Cognition , Decision making , Decision making software 1716 Words | 9 Pages. ? Decision making across the organization Introduction Capital Intensive: A business process or an industry that . requires large amounts of money and homework, other financial resources to presentation produce a good or service. On Food Allergies? A business is considered capital intensive based on the ratio of the capital required to the amount of labor that is required. (investopedia) Labor Intensive: A process or industry that requires a large amount of labor to presentation produce its goods or services. On Food? The degree of labor intensity.

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A Good Decision Making is the advantage of linking with Xiu.com for eBay. They link with each other because they have a common . business idea and goal. However, a good decision making is very important to achieve the business goal. Decision - making are important skills for babylon research, business. Problem-solving and decision - making are linked.

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An. Business ethics , Decision making , Ethics 2469 Words | 6 Pages. The Hidden Traps In Decision Making. The Hidden Traps In Decision Making Hammond, John S., Ralph L. Allergies? Keeney, and Howard Raiffa. Harvard Business Review . January 2006, Vol. 84 Issue 1, p. Presentation? 118-126 Decision - making is babylon research, apart of our every day routine. Making the right or wrong decisions can have a significant impact on poster presentation, our careers, health, education and almost all aspects of life. Before devising a strategic course of action, wise managers evaluate the situation confronting them. Revisited Research? Making the right decisions is the most important. Business Decision Mapping , Cognition , Critical thinking 1352 Words | 4 Pages.

Managerial Decision Making and Management Organizational Change Managerial Decision Making and . Organizational Change Two very important aspects of good leadership include managerial decision - making and managing organizational change. The two are closely related, enough so that for one to be affective the other has to be just as successfully managed. A good leader possesses the quality of good managerial decision - making , learning from experience, creating change, diversity and creative decision -making. Decision making , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 1443 Words | 5 Pages. Decision - Making Case Study HCS/514 Decision - Making Case Study The current state of the presentation . economy has had a significant impact on essay, health care across the country.

Recipients of Medicaid services have especially been hit hard in the health care arena with budget cuts and poster, reduced services. Systems Essay? The Maricopa County Clinic is not different when it comes to budget cuts. The department providing outpatient services to poster presentation Medicaid clients has received a 15% budget cut. The current budget constraint. Budget constraint , Decision making , Health care 1281 Words | 4 Pages.

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100 Writing Practice Lessons #038; Exercises. Want to become a better writer? Perhaps you want to write novels, or maybe you just want to get better grades in poster presentation, your essay writing assignments, or maybe you#8217;d like to start a popular blog. If you want to write better, you need practice. But what does a writing practice actually look like? In this post, I#8217;m going to give you everything you need to kick off your writing practice and become a better writer faster.

This was the question I had when I first started The Write Practice in 2011. I knew how to practice a sport and how to practice playing an instrument. But for some reason, even after studying it in college, I wasn#8217;t sure how to practice writing. I set out to create the best writing practice I could. The Write Practice is the result. I found that the how to write, best writing practice has three aspects: Deliberate . Writing whatever you feel like may be cathartic, but it#8217;s not an effective way to become a better writer. Poster Presentation? You#8217;ll get better faster by instead practicing a specific technique or aspect of the writing process each time you sit down to write. This is why we have a new lesson about the how to write, writing process each day on The Write Practice, followed by a practice prompt at the end so you can put what you learned to poster use immediately.

Timed . It#8217;s no secret writers struggle with focus. There are just too many interesting distractions—Facebook, email, Kim Kardashian#8217;s Instagram feed (just kidding about that last one, sort of)—and writing is rsvp how to just too hard sometimes. Setting a timer, even for poster presentation just fifteen minutes, is an easy and effective way to stay focused on what#8217;s important. This is why in our writing practice prompt at the end of each post we have a time limit, usually with a link to writing an online egg timer, so you can focus on poster deliberate practice without getting distracted. Feedback . Getting feedback is one of the requirements to deliberately practice writing or any other craft. Feedback can look like listening to the reactions of your readers or asking for constructive criticism from editors and other writers. This is babylon revisited research why we ask you to poster presentation post your writing practice in the comments section after each lesson, so that you can get feedback from homework other writers in The Write Practice community. It#8217;s also why we set up the Becoming Writer community, to provide critique groups for writers to get feedback on their finished writing pieces. Our 100+ Best Writing Practice Exercises and Lessons. Now that you know how we practice writing at The Write Practice, here are our best writing practice exercises and lessons: All-Time, Top 10 Writing Lessons and Exercises. These ten posts are our most viewed articles to boost your writing practice: 1. How To Use Neither, Nor, Or, and Nor Correctly . Even good writers struggle figuring out when to use neither/nor and either/or.

In this, the most popular post on The Write Practice, our copy-queen Liz Bureman settles the confusion once and for all. Click to continue to presentation the writing exercise. 2. Do You Use Quotation Marks or Italics for Song and Album Titles? The wrong punctuation can make any writer look silly. If you#8217;ve ever been confused about whether to use quotes or italics for song titles and louisiana purchase, album titles, this post will clear things up. Click to continue to the writing exercise. 3. Ten Secrets To Write Better Stories . How does Pixar manage to poster presentation create such great stories, year after year? And how do you write a good story? In this post, I distill everything I#8217;ve learned about babylon revisited paper how to poster presentation write a good story into ten tips. Click to continue to the writing exercise. 4. How To Use an Ellipsis… Correctly . Essay On Food Allergies? Judging by my Facebook feed, most people are using ellipses incorrectly, or at least over using them.

Here#8217;s how to use those trio of poster periods correctly in your writing. Click to continue to the writing exercise. 5. 35 Questions To Ask Your Characters From Marcel Proust . Writing? To get to know my characters better, I use a list of questions known as the Proust Questionnaire, made famous by poster, French author, Marcel Proust. Click to continue to the writing exercise. 6. How a Scene List Can Change Your Novel-Writing Life. Creating a scene list changed my novel-writing life, and louisiana purchase essay, doing the same will change yours too. Includes examples of the poster presentation, scene lists from famous authors. Click to continue to the writing exercise. Allergies? 7. Why You Need to be Using the Oxford Comma . Poster? Most people I#8217;ve met have no idea what the Oxford comma is, but it#8217;s probably something that you have used frequently in your writing. Click to belief essay continue to the writing exercise. 8. How to Conduct an Interview Like a Journalist . The interview is the most-used tool in poster, a journalist#8217;s bag.

But that doesn#8217;t mean novelists, bloggers, and even students can#8217;t and don#8217;t interview people. Rsvp How To? Here#8217;s how to conduct a great interview. Click to continue to the writing exercise. Poster Presentation? 9. Essay On Food Allergies? Why You Should Try Writing in Second Person . Poster? You#8217;ve probably used first person and third person point-of-view already. But what about second person? This post explains three reasons why you should try writing from this point-of-view. Click to continue to the writing exercise.

10. The Secret to Show, Don#8217;t Tell. Louisiana? You#8217;ve heard the classic writing rule, #8220;Show. Poster? Don#8217;t Tell.#8221; Every writing blog ever has talked about it, and for homework desk good reason. Showing, for some reason, is really difficult. Click to continue to poster the writing exercise.

12 Exercises and revisited paper, Lessons To Become a Better Writer. Poster? How do you become a better writer? These posts share our best advice: 6 Lessons and Exercises from Great Writers. Child Homework? If you want to be a writer, learn from the great writers who have gone before you: 12 Genre and Format Specific Writing Lessons and Exercises. Here are our best writing lessons for presentation specific types of writing, including essays, screenplays, memoir, short stories, children#8217;s books, and child homework, humor writing: 14 Characterization Lessons and poster presentation, Exercises. Good characters are the paper, foundation of good fiction. Here are our best lessons to create better characters:

I talk to so many writers, some of whom are published authors, who struggle with grammar. Here are our best writing lessons on grammar: 4 Journalism Lessons and Exercises. Want to be a journalist? Or even use techniques from journalism to improve your novel, essay, or screenplay? Here are our best writing lessons on journalism: 16 Plot and Story Lessons and Exercises. Presentation? Want to write a good story?

Our top plot and essay, story lessons will help: 6 Lessons and Exercises to Beat Writer#8217;s Block. Writer#8217;s block is poster real, and revisited, it can completely derail your writing. Poster Presentation? Here are six lessons to get writing again: 7 Literary Technique Lessons and Exercises. These writing and storytelling techniques will teach you a few tricks of the trade you may not have discovered before: 3 Inspirational Writing Lessons and Exercises. Need some inspiration? Here are three of our most inspiring posts: 3 Publishing Blogging Lessons and Exercises. If you want to belief get published, these three lessons will help:

Need inspiration or just a kick in the pants to write. Poster Presentation? Try one of our top writing prompts: Is It Time To Begin Your Writing Practice? It#8217;s clear that if you want to become a writer, you need to practice writing. We#8217;ve created a proven process to practice your writing at The Write Practice, but even if you don#8217;t join our community, I hope you#8217;ll start practicing in some way today. Personally, I waited far too long to start practicing and it set my writing back years. Purchase Essay? How about you? Do you think practicing writing is important? Let me know in the comments section.

Choose one of the writing practice posts above. Then, read the poster presentation, lesson and participate in the writing exercise, posting your work in the comments section of essay that post. And if you post, please give feedback to your fellow writers who also posted their practices. Poster Presentation? Have fun and happy practicing! You have THE BEST content for writing on this blog!! Thank you, Kristen. This made my morning. #128578;

I can#8217;t remember when I started following this website. I have to look in my notebooks because that#8217;s where I did these practices. I didn#8217;t have access to a computer when I did them, so I wrote them out, setting the time limit. Babylon Research Paper? But even when I do get to poster a computer, I have my reservations about putting my practices on the page. even though it#8217;s practice, I want them to be the best, almost perfect. But I know it won#8217;t be. I#8217;ve gotten feedback before that says so. It still gets to on food allergies me that I didn#8217;t put something together that not everyone liked. I need to get over it. After all, that is presentation what these practices are about: to learn and improve on our craft.

I don#8217;t know either, George, but it#8217;s been several years. Perfectionism is something so many of us face, and babylon revisited research paper, it#8217;s made worse when you don#8217;t have a critique community as warm and encouraging as ours is. I hope you and presentation, everyone here are always willing to try something new, even if it comes out essay on food allergies a little messed up, because you know we#8217;ll support you and try to poster make you better. Purchase Essay? What a great share! Thanks so much! You#8217;re so welcome, Elizabeth. Thank you for commenting. when I ran writing classes I wrote. when I am #8220;a member of writing classes#8221; the teacher/leader/facilitator is NOT MY AUDIENCE and so I don#8217;t write as well/as much. I don#8217;t get the feedback I need from fellow students because most of them have never run their own writing projects/workshops. So many people expect you to write their story for them. I#8217;ve actually got quite a few stories of me own. I have finally decided I like owning them. #128521; It sounds like you need a new critique group, Patience!

Hope you can find a place where you get the feedback you need. Wow! Terrific round-up of poster presentation resources. #128578; Practice is necessary, period. It doesn#8217;t matter what you want to learn. If you want to improve, practice is vital. It#8217;s odd. I#8217;ve known and applied that principle for years on a variety of hooks essays things. Painting. Poster Presentation? Drawing. Blogging.

Gardening. Laundry. But never writing. Like you, I had the writing essays, notion that just writing every day was all it took to improve. Why not the same level of dedication to writing?

Perhaps it#8217;s time to change that! I can relate, Carrie. It#8217;s easy to confuse the craft of writing with journaling, thinking that you can just write whatever you feel like and you#8217;ll get better, write something worth reading. The truth is that writing interesting things to presentation read is a skill, but the good news is that you can get better at it with practice. Thanks for practicing with us! #128578; I love these suggestions , and have set Writing Practice as my homepage so the first 15 minutes of my day is spent writing, whether its a practice or exercise here or another that is sprinkled through out this site, Thank you for essay all you do everyone here at The Write Practice. This is great Debra. I want to write the first 15 minutes of my day too!

I agree with Joe, Do it. Could be your to do list#8230; ( that could lead to something else story wse later) I love that, Debra. Poster? Such a good way to start your day. The best! Thank you so much for hooks essays this. You#8217;re very welcome! I simply LOVE all the tips and suggestions given on this blog.

They are super helpful! THANK you. We love sharing them with you. #128578; Hi! You forgot the link to How to Write a Story a Week: A Day-by-Day Guide. Thanks a lot for poster your work! This post is amazing.

It#8217;s a great post Thiago. Definitely one of our most shared. Thanks for louisiana purchase essay mentioning it! BTW here#8217;s the link: Wow!! There are so many exercises#8230;. I just love it. I am gonna really enjoy it. Awesome!

Thank you for reading and practicing with us. Poster Presentation? #128578; I only read halfway , My tootie is jumping all over me, and systems essay, typing this is a struggle when a 3yr old wants his Toy Story movie on Youtube in this computer. Thank you for this article, will come back later to finish reading. Poster? I know the on food allergies, feeling! Good luck! Can#8217;t wait to get stuck in with this! #128578; Very helpful! Thank you! I#8217;ve just bookmarked this page. Thanks for this wonderful list.

This is awesome! So many helpful tips. I will be coming back to presentation this often. Revisited Research? Thanks for poster presentation posting this! Wow, so many goodies! Thank you for belief systems always providing such amazing content!! I have enjoyed all these articles. Thank you for the help an inspiration to get my writing on poster its way. My creativity is boosting with confidence.

Tootle loo. Amazing contents for beginners like me Joe. I am highly inspired by your commitment. Thank you. Although I have only read half of thisc article, the practice exercises are excellent. Some of them are exactly what a beginning writer like myself needs. I am committing to at least try ALL of them. very helpful! thank you..

Amazing articles! Thanks so much for babylon sharing! My god this article made me love this site . You know it#8217;s kinda hard for a beginner writer, who don#8217;t know where to start and fixing goals, even samll ones give us a direction . A place to go , an aim for our creativity so thanks you , this community and this site. Love you all . Poster Presentation? At your pens ! #128521; Wow. This is research paper great. I find all your posts informative, but this one is the poster presentation, best for me to use as a guide to get my self starting to belief write#8230;.Thank you. I#8217;m an old lady who wants to publish one more book before I die #8212; have published several, all non-fiction, and done two under contract to poster a major publisher (reference books). So help me, the writing, BIGGEST problem I have all along, is presentation keeping track of the damned paper work and research that goes into a book. Yet I never ever see articles on something as simple as #8220;How to file#8221; #8212; Oh I know, there#8217;s wonderful software these days so probably I will never find a way to get paper organized #8212; everybody will use software and do it on the computer. I#8217;m too old for that #8212; just one look at the learning curve for software, even putting the babylon research, damned stuff into computer files is even MORE frustrating than paper!! Oh well, somehow I managed in the past to get books published, I may be able to do it one more time. you enjoy writing more than anything else and you do indeed care to presentation help others write.

I love writing but translation from babylon revisited paper Arabic into English and poster presentation, English into Arabic is taking all of my time from the early hours of the morning till the evening. I will soon get all of your books in writing, order to read them as soon as possible. Poster Presentation? One thing I am sure of. You know what you are doing very well. Hamzah.

Excellent! Many useful tips. Many thanks! Liz and Joe, I have only looked at rsvp how to a few exercises. Already, I am convinced that your site is poster presentation one of the best sites out there. Thank your for sharing your wisdom. Wow, these are the best lessons and exercises for writing. Belief Systems Essay? Actually i#8217;m participating in poster, a compitition this wendsday. so, i#8217;m quite nervous and exited. this helped me a lot. Magnificent post ever I have read.

This article will help me a lot to write a right way. Thank you. i need your help to improve to become a better writer please. Babylon Revisited Research Paper? i think i usually commit moist of these errors and poster presentation, i don;t pay attention to many advices too.

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Poster presentations — University of Leicester

Effects of Dog Training Programs on Prisoners Essay Sample. Dog training/therapy programs are becoming increasingly popular because there have been widespread reports about the poster positive effects and benefits that such programs provide to prisoners. The positive effects include lower recidivism rates, and associated lower costs to the state. The purpose of this study is to review earlier researches in regard to the effects of animal training/therapy, especially dog training/therapy, to prisoners. A brief discussion on animal assisted therapy will first be given, and how to then the psychosocial effects of dog training to prisoners will be examined.

A thorough knowledge of the positive effects of dog training/therapy to prisoners will most likely provide us with a less costly, and yet very efficient prisoner rehabilitation method. Effects of Dog Training Programs on Prisoners. When we talk about prisons, the initial thought that comes to poster, mind is punishment. According to Allen “the three objectives of federal prisons include: having the prisoners recognize authority, instilling “an inmate work ethic”, and enhancing the morale of the prison staff.” Allen (1998, p. 8). In short, the goal of prisons is to teach prisoners a lesson. However, imprisonment alone is not a sufficient experience to teach prisoners a lesson. Perhaps, a more effective way to teach prisoners a lesson is through rehabilitating them. Aside from lowering costs of incarceration, rehabilitation can help in making prisoners functioning members of the essay society. Prisons use various methods of rehabilitation. “One of the most popular methods of rehabilitation used today is perhaps through animal training/therapy, where animals such as dogs and horses are used to teach inmates life-enhancing skills.” Strimple (2003). The bond between humans and animals stretches back from early history, but it wasn’t until recently that a correlation was “acknowledged between this bond and the emotional health of humans.” Blackman (2006). The most popular animals used in prison-based animal programs (PAPs) are dogs.

Studies have shown that the mere presence of poster presentation, a dog increases the sense security of people around it. Dogs have been used for guarding flocks, tracking, hunting, search and rescue, leading the blind, and in assisting the deaf and physically challenged, and now they are being used to teach prison inmates life-enhancing skills. The purpose of this study is to review earlier researches regarding the effects of animal, especially dog, training/therapy to prisoners. A brief discussion on animal assisted therapy is first given then the psychosocial effects of dog training programs to hooks essays, prisoners are examined. Vocational or professional benefits of dog training programs to prisoners are also investigated. Knowledge of the positive effects of dog training/therapy to presentation, prisoners provides us with a less costly yet effective rehabilitation method. The birth of animal-assisted therapy can be attributed to two contributors.

One of these is the Secretary of systems essay, Interior Franklin K. Lane and Dr. William Alanson White, superintendent at the Government Hospital for the Insane (now known as St. Elizabeth Hospital) in poster presentation, Washington. In his letter to Dr. White dated on August 12, 1919, Secretary Lane suggested the hospital to have some dogs so that the men confined in the hospital will have someone to play with to which the doctor replied affirmatively. Rsvp How To Write. “Ever since then, animal-assisted therapy has been widely used by most institutions ranging from medical to schools, shelters, foster cares, courtrooms and prisons.” Wirth (2005). Animal therapy has been widely used in prisons. Animal therapy programs for the Department of poster presentation, Correction are operated in at least 15 different states and in one Federal Penitentiary. Child Homework. “As with other animal-assisted therapy programs, the prisoners are taught to interact with different animal species.” Strimple (2003). However, animal-assisted programs in prisons have a profound difference. Prisoners not only interact with the presentation animals; they also train them. The first successful animal therapy program in a place where individuals are confined happened at the Lima State Hospital for the Criminally Insane (now Oakwood Forensic Centre) in Lima, Ohio. “The institution is the first formal program to use a maximum-security population.” Furst (2006). David Lee, a psychiatric social worker, initiated the program in writing, January 1975.

He was struck by poster the improvement of some men who had come across, and cared for an injured bird. How To. A patient reportedly found an injured sparrow in the prison yard. He managed to smuggle the bird into a ward, where animals are not allowed, and the patients are the institutions most depressed and unresponsive patients. For the poster first time, the patients in this ward worked like a group to heal and take care of the injured bird. The patients soon began to relate to the staff well, which the staff noted.

This experience led to the hospital conducting a study on the therapeutic benefits of animals. The study compared two identical wards, where one ward had pets and the other did not. Belief Essay. “The study found that the ward with pets needed fewer amounts of poster presentation, medications than usual and had decreased violence. Furthermore, no suicide attempts were reported. On the other hand, the ward without pets had eight suicide attempts recorded during the same period.” Lee (1983). Several animals may be used in the therapy. Birds, dogs, cats, and several semi-domesticated and trained wild animals have been used.

However, man’s best friend has always been the most popular option. Some dog breeds have been preferentially useful and are more efficient than other breeds. The dogs are bred for hooks a long time for qualities of interacting with people. Almost all dog breeds and even mongrels are known to participate. It is more effective to look to the individual dog than to poster presentation, deal with breed issues. The idea of dog training was introduced to the Washington Correction Centre for Women (WCCW) by Kathy Quinn, now Sister Pauline. Together with Dr. Leo Bustad, Sister Pauline established a dog-training program at WCCW. In this program, the women prisoners trained dogs rescued from the Tacoma-Pierce County Humane Society. The program benefited not just the women inmates, who were reported to have increased self-esteem, but the community and the animals as well.

The dogs, which were supposed to be killed, were trained to assist people with disabilities with their special needs. “Recognizing the benefits of a dog-training program, Sister Pauline has helped other correctional facilities to establish their own dog training programs. Once prisons are convinced of the benefits provided by animal training programs, these programs will certainly increase in rsvp write, number.” Strimple (2003). Thus, this paper will provide brief accounts of the positive effects of dog training programs to prisoners from earlier researches. According to Lai (1998), “a dog-training program has treatment and vocational benefits depending upon its program design.” Treatment benefits provide prisoners with a positive psychosocial experience while vocational benefits give inmates a chance to renew their life through vocational, or even professional, opportunities.” Studies have shown that holding or petting an poster, animal will cause a lowering of blood pressure in humans, relieves strain and rsvp how to tension, and poster presentation can draw out child homework desk a person from loneliness and depression. Dog adoption programs in penitentiaries have been conducted to poster presentation, help prisoners cope with depression. Essay. Inmates, with the help of dog rescue community groups and volunteers, “provide obedience training to rescued dogs, along with continuing education for foster pups being trained as therapy dogs.” Blackman (2006). Reviews of dog training programs reported significant improvements in presentation, the attitude and behaviour of inmates participating in essays, such programs. One of the first institutions to presentation, adopt the dog-training program was the Purdy Treatment Centre for essay Women, a maximum-security prison in Washington. In this program, inmates are taught to train dogs with the help of presentation, a former prison inmate. The program began in 1981 under the babylon revisited supervision of the People Partnership Program.

Inmates signed up in Tacoma Community College for poster presentation an 11-week class and then were paired with local shelter dogs. They were taught training, grooming and job-seeking skills through classroom and babylon revisited research paper hands on poster presentation, lessons. Administrators initially feared that there would be incidences of on food, animal abuse but the reverse was the case. Hines observed that; “the inmates actually became concerned with animal welfare and thus became more cooperative. Furthermore, they learned a lot of self-control.” Hines, L. M. (1983). Around the poster presentation same period, Lorton Prison, a prison chapter in allergies, Virginia, built a similar program, with some help from a veterinarian of the national People-Animals-Love group. The program director reported that “inmates, through sharing, are learning to poster, trust one another… Animals bring out belief systems essay humanity; they bring out the best in poster, all of us.” Arkow (1998, p. 13). Moneymaker and Stimple also conducted an evaluation of the desk treatment effects of animal training programs by examining disciplinary records. They reported that “inmates who participated in the program had reduced feelings of isolation and frustration”, and that they “showed considerable change in their outlook toward others and their sense of self-worth, as well as their sense of achieving a better goal in life.” Moneymaker and Strimple (1991, p. 148).

At about the same period, Harbolt and Ward conducted another review evaluating a program where incarcerated older teenagers were taught to poster, train unwanted shelter dogs for three weeks. In addition to learning canine health and medicine, participants were also responsible for essay cleaning their dog’s kennel, exercising, socializing and grooming their dogs. The researchers found that teenagers became more compassionate and dedicated to their tasks. Furthermore, they learned how it feels to give and poster receive a positive reward in return. Harbolt and Ward (1991).

Prisons outside US also reported positive treatment effects of dog training programs. In 1994, Walsh and Mertin evaluated a dog training program in a prison in Australia by measuring the reports of participants. After a six-month period, they found that “participants had significant improvements in their self-esteem and levels of depression.” Graham (2000). Another program aimed a bringing prisoners and abandoned dogs together is Project Pooch at essay, McLaren Juvenile Correctional Facility in Woordburn, Oregon. Its principal, Joan Dalton, initiated the poster program in 1993. In 1999 it became a non-profit organization and child consequently hired a project manager. Students are taught dog grooming and training, as well as attending to the health needs of the poster presentation animals. Essay. Merriam-Arduini evaluated the program in her dissertation; studying recidivism, reformation and behavioural changes made by the incarcerated youth brought about by presentation studying dog training.

She reported in revisited research, her abstract that. The findings indicate that there is poster presentation, zero recidivism of POOCH participants that the program assists to meet judicial orders and educational expectations with high percentages. Essay Allergies. Based on survey responses from the adults there appears to be a marked behaviour improvement in areas of respect for authority, social interaction and poster presentation leadership. The youth provided descriptors of louisiana essay, change and growth in areas of honesty, empathy, nurturing, social growth, understanding, confidence level and pride of accomplishment. Merriam-Arduini (2000). Several similar programs have been adopted in different penitentiaries. These programs are based on mutual respect and dignity.

An example of this is presentation, a program where inmates in belief, prisons train dogs to assist the disabled. The dogs are then placed with someone who needs a specially trained dog to presentation, assist them. Also, in other prison programs future assistance dogs and guide dogs are raised and trained for writing the blind, thus cutting back on the time that disabled persons would have had to wait for a dog that can assist them. Administrators of dog training program at Colorado’s Canon City noted that inmates who participated in the program have reduced illegal drug use. Participants also showed significant improvements in poster, self-confidence, patience and revisited respect, both for people and animals.

In another dog training program, inmates take unwanted dogs from animal shelters, then groom and train them to poster presentation, be good citizens. They are then placed back into the community as “paroled pets”. This gives the babylon research paper dogs a second chance in life, exactly what the prisoners are wishing for in their own life. An example of presentation, this is the Prison Dog Project. This is the realization of what the Prison Pet Partnership Program has provided over the years to the inmates who work with the dogs (Prison Dog Project, 2007). It helps to bring a sense of louisiana purchase, calm in the institutional setting. The dogs are also a bridge between the inmates and the guards as well as with a disabled person to people in poster, the community. The prison dog programs help the inmates learn how to become selfless, thus giving something back to child homework desk, society.

The inmates learn needed skills in order to help them get jobs when they are released. “They also learn responsibility, patience, tolerance, as well as being good trainers with kindness and love.” (Prison Dog Project, 2007). Without programs like these, inmates may succumb to solitude long enough for them to become aloof with the other prison inmates. Aside from giving them training in pet management, persistence and care may be cultivated and aid them to presentation, become better persons when they get back into the world out side the prisons. Having pets in prison may not only solve problems of essays, boredom, it is a reflection of the government’s efforts to give former law benders a second chance to enjoy life. Presentation. As a therapy, this program may lessen their longing for revisited paper the outside world. It may even make their prison life enjoyable and less tiresome. They may even forget the years that pass by. Arkow (1998) explains that “inmates feel a sense of security when they are with the dogs they trained.” As Furst (2006) stresses, “The companionship that develops is also a source of security in an adversarial environment”.

Furthermore, the prisoners “experience interaction with a living being that has no interest in their past mistakes.” Furst (2006). Inmates whose lives lack the presentation sense of touch and of belonging feel a sense of unconditional love from animals that are able to “stimulate a kind of love and caring that is not poisoned or inhibited by prisoners.” Beck and Katcher (1996). Arkow (1998) explains that “the mere presence of a dog can be therapeutic.” For others, it is the sense that the activity is in research, someway useful to someone else – for example doing physical therapy by grooming the dog is something the presentation dog enjoys so the person feels good about making the effort. Some individual attribute the benefit to the fact that the new scheme has invariably broken the routines. Several explanations have been formulated to babylon revisited research paper, go beyond the reasons of the benefits from pet therapy. For others it is deeply meaningful, they may talk about the visit for days afterward. Presentation. Some people have withdrawn from human interaction, but will talk to the pet.

The pet may bridge two different peoples to communicate, or bring up pleasant memories. In many cases the benefits offered by visiting pets are the same as those offered by Animal Assisted Therapy, the difference being that the there is writing hooks, no prescribed course of poster, treatment and no recording of the effects on the individual. Dog training programs to child, do not just provide benefits to the psychological well-being of the prisoners but to presentation, their employ-ability as well. Lai (1998) stresses that “dog training programs help inmates learn to set and achieve their goals. Inmates learn to be responsible and dedicated to the tasks assigned to them as well as respect for both people and animals.” The Prison Pet Partnership Program gives inmate trainers the essay opportunity to learn valuable pet industry-related vocational skills to presentation, use in finding employment when they resume their lives outside of prison. In addition to training, boarding and grooming dogs, inmates also gain clerical skills by working in our office. They receive monetary stipends for their work; others are in an apprenticeship program. The dogs spend a good deal of time with their trainers within the prison community. This allows other inmates to benefit from the presence of the belief essay dogs even though they are not directly involved with the poster presentation program. Pauline (2007).

The Coleman Federal Complex, a minimum-security work camp for women in rsvp write, Coleman, Florida, has built a dog training program through the help of presentation, Donna Bucella, the US attorney in Tampa, Florida, and Julie Aichroth, director of South-eastern Guide Dogs, Inc. The inmates “provide advanced training to dogs on purchase, assisting individuals with impaired vision.” Brink (2005). Through this program, the inmates learn how to be veterinary assistants providing them with a vocational benefit that they can pursue once they are released. Poster. In fact, once the inmates are released, they can attend a two-year vocational course on animal training and eventually earn a certificate as veterinary technician. Systems Essay. Strimple (2003). The Animal in the Military Helping Individuals (AIMHI) program was established in 1994. In this program, the US army inmates at poster, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and Fort Knox, Kentucky trained dogs that would assist physically challenged people. Aside from training dogs to assist the systems physically challenged, inmates were also taught animal husbandry and human and animal behaviour. “This program provides vocational training and poster presentation helps the men in their transition back to civilian life.” Strimple (2003). In fact, in child, this program, 50 men already received certificates of training. This vocational opportunity stems from the fact that prisoners are taught about animal caring and handling. They are taught not just to simply take care of the animals.

They also study their grooming, health and poster presentation diet. There are some programs that provide certification in one or more areas of animal care. Some inmates receive contacts from shelter or volunteer agency and veterinarians that hire participants and louisiana purchase essay request for poster their release, due to their participation in the program. All these programmes provide job opportunities to prisoners, which can renew their life once they are released. Effects on the Community as a Whole. Dog-training programs do not benefit the prisoners alone. Hooks. They also benefit the community as a whole.

Dogs that would have otherwise been euthanized were trained to do tasks that are beneficial to people. Moreover, most dog training programs are designed such that inmates train dogs to assist people with disabilities. The dog training program established by Sister Pauline at WCCW not just benefited the inmates who participated in the program. The dogs were trained as helpers to people with special needs thus benefiting the community of disabled as well. One particular example is Sue Miller, a woman convicted of murder.

Sue successfully trained two dogs Glory and Sheba. Glory was assigned to poster presentation, help a young man with birth defects confined to a wheelchair named Burt. Glory was able to help Burt carry books, negotiate sidewalk curbs and writing essays elevators and pick up dropped objects (Strimple, 2003). Sheba, on the other hand, was assigned to a 14-year old girl named Angie who suffered from severe epileptic seizures. Through Sue’s training, Sheba was able to presentation, recognize an impending attack.

Consequently, the mere presence of Sheba brought a sense of louisiana essay, security to Angie, which eventually led to a decrease in the number of poster, seizures Angie experienced. Dog training programs also appear to be a cost-effective way of essay, rehabilitating inmates. Robert Kent, superintendent of the Sanger B. Powers Correctional Centre in poster, Oneida, Wisconsin reported that since they started their dog training program in 1997, 68 inmates who participated in the program were already released and none has returned to prison. This results to reduced incarceration costs. Susan Bass, director of the AIMHI program, also relates the lower costs of babylon revisited research paper, dog training programs. Aside from the benefit of poster presentation, providing vocational training to hooks essays, men, the program provides a lower cost for the state. Bass relates that costs are low because “their only poster, expenses are the professional staff salaries, dog food, and supplies.” Strimple (2003). In the civilian world, the expense of training may cost from $10,000 to homework, $12,000 but in the military, the expenses averaged $4,000 only. Although there is little research regarding the cost-saving benefits of poster presentation, dog training programs, testimonials from different programs assert that dog training programs is an effective cost-saving way to rehabilitate prisoners. Current Prison-based Dog-training Programs.

Dog training programs are becoming increasingly popular in prisons. Rsvp Write. Despite the poster opposition from some who believe that prisons are only for punishment, others overcame this belief and helped establish several prison-based dog-training programs. Aside from the ones previously mentioned, there are many other facilities that have already adopted this program. Pilot Dogs, Inc., of rsvp write, Ohio (PDIO) in poster, Columbus, Ohio, is louisiana purchase essay, one of the significant dog training programs developed (Strimple, 2003). PDIO had its first dog-training program in 1992 at the Ohio Reformatory for Women in Marysville, Ohio. Now, PDIO has established its program in 7 prisons in Ohio and 1 in West Virginia.

The Downeast Correctional Facility, a medium-security prison in Maine, has already established its own successful dog-training program. In this program, after one year of training, the dogs receive initial tests. Presentation. The dogs that pass then move on to training as service dogs with the National Education for Assistance Dog Services (NEADS). Belief Systems Essay. It is reported that “more than half of the 53 dogs in poster, the graduating class of NEADS were trained by inmates.” Gold (2006). The Puppies Behind Bars program runs another program of this type. Gloria Gilbert Stoga founded it in New York in how to, 1997. Stoga took five rejected puppies from and gave them to inmates to be trained. The success of the dog training of inmates gave birth to poster, the Puppies Behind Bars program.

The program has already trained dogs, 87 percent of which moved on to a more rigorous training. Today, after recognizing the benefits provided by dog training programs, many have already followed suit. It is essay, predicted that dog training programs will become more popular once its effects to the prisoners and poster presentation community as a whole has been established. Dog training programs are becoming increasingly popular, due to reports regarding its positive effects. Dog-training programs prove to be helpful especially to babylon paper, prisoners. Presentation. Inmates who participated in dog training programs feel that they live better lives because they sense that they are now of service to the society from belief systems, which they once took.

They feel a sense of poster presentation, unconditional love from the animals they train who have no interest with their past mistakes. Studies have also shown that dog training, and animal training in general, brings about significant improvements in the behaviour of the participants. Aside from these psychosocial effects, these programs also provide job opportunities to participants because of the knowledge they gain. The human and animal community benefit as well. The animals that would have been otherwise killed served a better purpose. These animals were helpful to child desk, people especially those who are physically challenged. This helpfulness to the community as a whole provides inmates with a feeling that they can now serve their community and thus atone for their past mistakes. Since there is little research regarding this study, it is highly recommended that such a research should be undertaken in order to convince the public that dog training programs is beneficial. Arkow, P. (1998). Poster Presentation. Pet therapy: A study and resource guide for the use of companion animals. in selected therapies (8th ed.).

Stratford, NJ: Author. Beck, A., Katcher, A. (1996). Babylon Research. Between pets and people: The importance of animal. companionship. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. Blackman, D. (2006). Visiting Pets and Animal Assisted Therapy [Electronic Version]. Brink, G. (2005). Time to presentation, train.

Bustad, L. Desk. K. (1990). Prison programs involving animals. In L. K. Bustad (Ed.), Compassion, our last great hope. Renton, WA: Delta Society. Furst, G. (2006).

Prison-based animal programs: A national survey. Poster Presentation. The Prison. Journal, 86(4), 407-430. from revisited research, http://tpj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/86/4/407. Gold, D. Presentation. (2006). Wagging tails cool prison tempers: Maine inmates find calm in training. dogs. Boston Globe. Graham, B. Belief Essay. (2000).

Creature comfort: Animals that heal. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from presentation, http://www.uswardogs.org/index.html. Harbolt, T. Ward, T. (1991). Taming incarcerated youth with shelter dogs for a second. chance. Society and Animals, 9(2), p. 177-182. Harkrader, T., Burke, T. Essays. W., Owen, S. (2004).

Pound puppies: The rehabilitative uses. of dogs in correctional facilities. Presentation. Corrections Today Magazine, 66(2), 74-60. Hines, L. (n.d.). Child Desk. Overview of animals in correctional facilities.

In Delta Society (Ed.), Animals in institutions (p. 111-112). Renton, WA: Delta Society. Hines, L. M. (1983). Pets in poster, prison: A new partnership. California Veterinarian, 5, 7-11. Lai, J. (1998, April). Belief Essay. Pet facilitated therapy in correctional institutions.

Paper prepared for. Correctional Services of Canada by poster presentation Office of the Deputy Commissioner for Women. from at http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca. Lee, D. On Food. R. (1983). Pet therapy: Helping patients through troubled times. California. Veterinarian, 5, 24-25. Lee, D. (1987).

Companion animals in institutions. Presentation. In P. Arkow (Ed.), The loving bond: Companion animals in the helping professions (pp. 223-246). Saratoga, CA: R E. Merriam-Arduini, S. (2000). Evaluation of an experimental program designed to have a. positive effect on adjudicated violent, incarcerated male juveniles age 12-25 in the. state of Oregon. Pepperdine University.

Moneymaker, J., Strimple, E. (1991). Animals and inmates: A sharing companionship. behind bars. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 16, p. 133-152. Pauline, S. (2007). Washington State Correctional Center For Women Prison Pet. Retrieved March 15, 2007 from http://members.tripod.com/

Prison Dog Project. (2007). Pathways to essays, Hope. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from. Strimple, E. O. (2003). A history of prison inmate-animal interaction programs. The.

American Behavioural Scientist, 47(1), 70-78. Wirth, C. (2005). Animal-Assisted Therapy. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Effects of Dog Training Programs on poster, Prisoners.

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