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Why Was the Battle of Gettysburg a Turning Point? Essay | Bartleby

Battle essay gettysburg

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College Essay History Sample on the Battle of Gettysburg

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Gettysburg Battle essays

nietzsche essay 2 On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in battle essay gettysburg part, without permission and administration proposals without charge, provided the source is battle essay gettysburg, acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from administration Nietzsche's text] Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to make promises—surely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the real problem of human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the battle essay, more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a force of inertia] , as superficial people think.

Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense. We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and exemplification essay prompts experience and then absorb (we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of what is going on as little as we are with the thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). The doors and battle essay gettysburg windows of consciousness are shut from powerpoint slider time to essay, time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and struggle with which the underworld of our functional organs keeps them working for and against one another—a small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the consciousness, so that there will again be room for powerpoint slider, something new, above all, for the nobler functions and essay officials, for ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to do (our organism is arranged as an resume town oligarchy)—that is, as I said, the use of active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. Battle Essay? From that we can see at once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in whom this repression apparatus is harmed and not working properly we can compare to a dyspeptic (and not just compare)—he is motivation, finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the help of which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to function—that is, for those cases where promises are to be made. This is in essay no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an impression once it's been etched into the mind, nor is it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time.

No, it's an active wish not to powerpoint, be free of the matter, a continuing desire for what one willed at a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about it, a world of battle, strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the resume town, will. But consider what that presupposes! In order to organize the future in this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from battle gettysburg chance events, to business administration proposals, think in terms of cause and effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to develop a capability for figures and calculations in general—and for battle essay, that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promises—who makes himself into start essay, a pledge for battle gettysburg, the future! Precisely that development is the history of the origin of responsibility. The task of breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and prerequisite, the exemplification essay prompts, more urgent prior task of battle essay, making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the morality of custom (cf. Daybreak , p. 7, 13, 16), the essential work of exemplification, a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the gettysburg, morality of custom and the social strait jacket, the human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by contrast, at the end of this immense process, in the place where the tree finally yields its fruit, where society and resume town the morality of custom finally bring to light the end for which they were simply the means. We find—as the ripest fruit on that tree—the sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of custom—the autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)—in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promises—and in him a proud consciousness, quivering in gettysburg every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and thesis proposals freedom, a feeling of completion for human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the right to make promises, this master of free will, this sovereign—how can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates (he is worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will?

The free man, the owner of an enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of value: he looks out from himself at others and confers respect or withholds it. And just as it will be necessary for him to honour those like him, the essay, strong and resume town dependable (who are entitled to make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and battle essay gettysburg slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is strong enough to nurse practitioner, remain upright when opposed by misfortune, even when opposed by fate, so it will be necessary for gettysburg, him to resume town, keep his foot ready to kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and battle essay gettysburg hold his cane ready to punish the liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the consciousness of nurse, this rare freedom, this power over oneself and destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct. What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the idea of conscience, which we are encountering here in battle essay gettysburg its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it.

To be entitled to pledge one's word, to do it with pride, and also to powerpoint slider, say yes to oneself—that right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for gettysburg, an even longer time it was impossible to exemplification, see any such fruit. It would appear that no one would have been entitled to essay gettysburg, make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for start, the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and methods. Battle? Perhaps there is nothing more fearful and more terrible in the entire pre-history of human beings than the powerpoint, technique for developing his memory.

We burn something in so that it remains in the memory. Only something which never ceases to cause pain stays in the memory—that is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on gettysburg earth nowadays where there is still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in the lives of men and people, something of that terror is still at work, the fear with which in earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on us and surfaces in us when we become solemn. When the human being considered it necessary to make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and sacrifices—the most terrible sacrifices and pledges (among them the sacrifice of the business administration thesis proposals, first born), the most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the cruellest forms of ritual in all the religious cults (and all religions are at bottom systems of cruelty)—all that originates in that instinct which discovered that pain was the most powerful means of helping to develop the memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of ideas need to battle essay gettysburg, be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in order to hypnotize the entire nervous and intellectual system through these fixed ideas—and the ascetic procedures and forms of life are the means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the other ideas, in motivation order to make them unforgettable. The worse the human's memory was, the battle essay, more terrible his customs have always appeared.

The harshness of the laws of punishment provide a special standard for measuring how much trouble people went to in order to triumph over forgetfulness and to maintain the resume town, awareness of essay gettysburg, a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of powerpoint slider, momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in gettysburg the present. Resume Town? But have a look at battle gettysburg, our old penal code in order to understand how much trouble it took on this earth to breed a People of powerpoint, Thinkers (by that I mean the peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to gettysburg, breed all sorts of European mandarins). These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Exemplification Prompts? Think of the old German punishments, for example, stoning (even the legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty person), breaking on the wheel (the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in gettysburg the area of punishment!), impaling on a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the criminal in oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the my goals essay, well-loved practice of flaying (cutting flesh off in battle essay gettysburg strips), carving flesh out of the chest, along with, of course, covering the offender with honey and leaving him to the flies in the burning sun.

With the help of such images and thesis motivation procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in order to battle essay gettysburg, live with the advantages of practitioner interview, society—and that was that! With the assistance of this sort of memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over emotions, the whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and ceremonies of human beings—how expensive they were! How much blood and horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the consciousness of guilt, the battle, whole bad conscience come into the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of nurse interview, morality. I'll say it once more—or perhaps I haven't said it at all yet—they are useless. With their own purely modern experience extending only through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspective—something so necessary at this point—they nonetheless pursue the history of morality. That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to gettysburg, the truth. Have these genealogists of morality up to this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to any assumption about the freedom or lack of thesis proposals, freedom of the will—and did so to the point where it first required a high degree of human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and battle essay gettysburg their opposites and bring them to bear when handing out punishment?

That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and apparently natural, which has really had to serve as the explanation how the feeling of justice in general came into resume town, existence on earth—The criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwise—this idea, in fact, is an extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of essay, human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into thesis, the psychology of primitive humanity. For the gettysburg, most extensive period of human history punishment was not meted out because people held the instigator of evil responsible for his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished. It was much more the case, as it still is now when parents punish their children, of anger over some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on the perpetrator. But this anger was restrained and modified through the idea that every injury had some equivalent and that compensation for it could, in fact, be paid out, even if that was through the exemplification, pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and pain?

I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the idea of battle, someone subject to powerpoint, law and which, in itself, refers back to gettysburg, the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of resume town, suspicion of and battle essay gettysburg opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. It's precisely at this point that people make promises. Here the pertinent issue is that the person who makes a promise has to slider, have a memory created for him, so that precisely at this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for what is hard, cruel, and painful. In order to inspire trust in his promise to pay back, in order to give his promise a guarantee of battle gettysburg, its seriousness and sanctity, in order to impress on his own conscience the business administration thesis proposals, idea of paying back as a duty, an obligation, the debtor, by battle gettysburg virtue of the contract, pledges to business administration thesis proposals, the creditor, in the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the essay gettysburg, debtor even in the grave found no peace from the my goals essay, creditor—and it's certain that with the Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the creditor could inflict all kinds of ignominy and torture on the body of the debtor—for instance, slicing off the body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt. And this point of view early on and everywhere gave rise to essay gettysburg, precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about powerpoint, individual limbs and essay gettysburg body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of motivation, a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less].

Let's clarify the logic of this whole method of compensation—it is weird enough. Battle Essay? The equivalency is given in slider this way: instead of an advantage making up directly for the harm (hence, instead of compensation in essay gettysburg gold, land, possessions of exemplification essay prompts, some sort or another), the creditor is given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensation—the pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on a powerless person without having to think about it, the essay, delight in de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of violation. This enjoyment is start my goals, more highly prized the battle essay, lower and baser the debtor stands in the social order, and it can easily seem to the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of a higher rank. By means of the punishment of the debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for start essay, once comes to the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is battle, entitled to mistreat—or at least, in the event that the real force of punishment, of inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to resume town, the authorities, the feeling of seeing the debtor despised and mistreated. The compensation thus consist of a permission for and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in the laws of obligation, the world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and battle gettysburg sanctity of obligations was conceived. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for practitioner interview essay, a long time with blood. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of battle essay, a certain smell of blood and torture—(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . . . ). In addition, here the weird knot linking the administration thesis proposals, ideas of guilt and suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to essay gettysburg, undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the essay, question once more: to essay, what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of pleasure, to the extent that the motivation, person hurt by the debt, in exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by battle gettysburg the injury, got an offsetting pleasure—making someone suffer—a real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the practitioner interview, more, the greater the battle, difference between him and the rank and social position of the creditor.

I have been speculating here, for my goals essay, it's difficult to see such subterranean things from the surface, quite apart from the fact that it's an embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the idea of revenge has merely buried and essay gettysburg dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?). It seems to me that the administration thesis proposals, delicacy and even more the hypocrisy of tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from another perspective, how nave and innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to use Spinoza's words, the sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and hence as something to which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of this most ancient and battle most basic celebratory human joy. Resume Town? In Beyond Good and Evil , p. 117 ff. (even earlier in Daybreak , p. Battle Essay? 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of powerpoint, cruelty, which runs through the gettysburg, entire history of higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). Powerpoint? In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an aristocratic wedding and folk festival in a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and no noble household lacked creatures on battle whom people could vent their malice and start cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at battle gettysburg, the court of the duchess). Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongue—it's almost an resume town ordeal. In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries. Battle Essay Gettysburg? They read it with a fully clear conscience as the most cheerful of books. They almost died laughing at it.

Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even better—that is a harsh principle, but an old, powerful, and human, all-too-human major principle, which, by nurse interview the way, even the apes might agree with. For people say that, in thinking up bizarre cruelties, the battle essay gettysburg, apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Practitioner Interview Essay? Without cruelty there is no celebration: that's what the oldest and longest era of human history teaches us—and with punishment, too, there is battle essay gettysburg, so much celebration!— With these ideas, by essay the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of life. On the contrary, I want to battle gettysburg, state very clearly that in that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on earth was happier than it is slider, now, now that we have our pessimists. The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in proportion to battle gettysburg, the growth of human beings' shame at human beings. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of life, the icy denial stemming from disgust with life—these are not the signs of the wickedest eras in the history of human beings. It's more the case that they first come to slider, light as the swamp plants they are when the swamp to which they belong is there—I mean the sickly mollycoddling and battle essay moralizing, thanks to which the animal man finally learns to feel shame about all his instincts. On his way to becoming an angel (not to use a harsher word here), man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only fight against the joy and practitioner essay innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and excrement). Now, when suffering always has to march out as the first argument against existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for us to remember the times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in it, a really tempting enticement for living.

Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. At least that could be the conclusion of a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the battle, latter as a representative of my goals essay, pre-historical man) for a bad case of battle, inner inflammation, which drives the European with the best constitution to thesis, despair but which doesn't have the same effect on the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in fact to sink down remarkably and almost immediately after the first ten thousand or ten million of the top members of the higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in comparison with one painful night of a single hysterical well-educated female, the total suffering of gettysburg, all animals which up to now have been interrogated by the knife of science is really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to concede the possibility that the pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to be sublimated and my goals essay made more subtle—in other words, it had to appear translated into the imaginative and spiritual and gettysburg embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. But neither for the Christian, who sees in suffering an entire secret machinery for salvation, nor for the nave men of older times, who understood how to interpret all suffering in relation to the spectator or to the person inflicting the suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering. In order for the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the world and for people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to invent gods and proposals intermediate beings at all levels, high and low—briefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an interesting painful spectacle to escape its attention.

Hence, with the battle essay gettysburg, help of such inventions life then understood and has always understood how to justify itself by a trick, how to justify its evil. Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of knowledge). Every evil which is uplifting in the eyes of God is justified: that's how the slider, pre-historical logic of feeling rang out—and was that really confined to pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of cruel spectacle—oh, how far this primitive idea rises up over the development of our European humanity! We might well seek advice from battle gettysburg Calvin and Luther on this point. At any rate it is certain that even the Greeks knew of no more acceptable snack to offer their gods for their happiness that the joys of cruelty. With what sort of expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on the fate of slider, men?

What final sense was there essentially in gettysburg the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about this: they were intended as celebrations for the gods—and, to the extent that the poet is in these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for the poets as well. Later the Greek moral philosophers in slider the same way imagined the eyes of god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the virtuous: the Hercules of duty was on stage, and he knew he was there. Battle Gettysburg? Without someone watching, virtue for this race of actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the free will, the absolutely spontaneous nature of human beings in matters of good and evil, was created above all to justify the exemplification, idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for the gods. That was reason enough for battle gettysburg, these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to ascribe such a deterministic world to their gods! All of ancient humanity is full of sensitive consideration for the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to imagine happiness without dramatic performances and festivals.

And, as I have already said, in start essay the great punishments there is battle, also so much celebration! To resume the path of our enquiry, the feeling of guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and has been—in the relationship between seller and essay buyer, creditor and debtor. Here for battle gettysburg, the first time one person encountered another person and powerpoint slider measured himself against him. Battle Gettysburg? We have not yet found a civilization at such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to practitioner interview, exchange things—that preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in battle essay a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred here—here, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in resume town relation to gettysburg, other animals. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the self: the motivation, human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the battle gettysburg, calculating animal as such. Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the essay, beginnings of any form of battle gettysburg, social organization and grouping. It is much rather the case that out of the most rudimentary form of personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to the crudest and business proposals earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of measuring, of calculating. The eye was now at any rate adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in the same direction, people soon reached the great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid off—the oldest and battle gettysburg most nave moral principle of justice, the exemplification essay, beginning of battle gettysburg, all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on earth. Justice at this first stage is motivation, good will among those approximately equal in power to come to battle essay gettysburg, terms with each other, to understand each other again by compensation—and in resume town relation to battle essay, those less powerful, to compel them to arrive at some settlement among themselves.

Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by the way, is present at all times or is capable of returning), the community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to business administration, his debtors. People live in a community. Battle Gettysburg? They enjoy the thesis, advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)—they live protected, cared for, in peace and trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and battle essay gettysburg enmities from which the man outside the community, the man without peace, is excluded—a German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meant—and how people pledge themselves to and enter into obligations with the community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the resume town, defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it can—on that people can rely. The issue here is least of essay gettysburg, all the immediate damage which the offender has caused.

Setting this to one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is above all a breaker [ Brecher ]—a breaker of contracts and a breaker of his word against the totality, with respect to all the motivation, good features and advantages of the battle essay, communal life in which, up to that point, he has had a share. The lawbreaker is a debtor who does not merely not pay back for the benefits and advances given to him, but who even attacks his creditor. So from this point on not only does he lose, as is motivation, reasonable, all these good things and benefits, but he is also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the gettysburg, injured creditor, the practitioner interview, community, gives him back the battle, wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. Powerpoint? It pushes him away from it, and now every form of hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of cultural behaviour punishment is simply the copy, the mimus , of the battle gettysburg, normal conduct towards the hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only all rights and protection but also all mercy—hence it is a case of the exemplification essay, rights of war and the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to the conquered ] in all its ruthlessness and battle cruelty, which accounts for the fact that war itself (including the warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the resume town, ways in battle which punishment has appeared in history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the powerpoint slider, crimes of a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and battle unsettling for the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and the common anger can no longer vent itself on him without restraint to the same extent it did before. It is powerpoint, rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by battle the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and resume town is taken into gettysburg, protective custody.

The compromise with the anger of those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and thus the prompts, effort to localize the battle essay gettysburg, case and to avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to settle the whole business (the compositio ), above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and nurse practitioner essay thus, at least to gettysburg, some extent, to separate the criminal and his crime from each other—those are the characteristics stamped more and resume town more clearly on the further development of battle essay gettysburg, criminal law. If the power and the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the community brings the harsher forms of criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of its own power which allowed itself the most privileged luxury which it can have—letting its criminals go free without punishment. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. May they live and prosper—for that I am still sufficiently strong! . Start? . . Justice, which started by stating Everything is capable of being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at that point, by covering its eyes and letting the person incapable of payment go free—it ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by doing away with itself.

This self-negation of justice—we know what a beautiful name it call itself—mercy. It goes without saying that mercy remains the privilege of the most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the battle essay gettysburg, law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to find the origin of justice in quite a different place—that is, in resentment. But first let me speak a word in the ear of the psychologists, provided that they have any desire to study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and anti-Semites—in addition, it blooms, as it always has, in powerpoint hidden places, like the violet, although it has a different fragrance. Essay Gettysburg? And since like always has to emerge from like, it is start, not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to sanctify revenge under the name of justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of gettysburg, a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to bring belated respect to exemplification prompts, emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the idea of gettysburg, revenge. With this last point I personally take the least offence. It even seems to me a service, so far as the entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the worth of motivation, these emotions has been underestimated up to essay, now). The only thing I'm calling attention to is the fact that it is the very idea of resentment itself out of which this new emphasis on scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and revenge).

This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to exemplification essay, tones of battle essay, mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and which therefore have earned the right to practitioner essay, be scientifically assessed and given a high value—namely, the truly active emotions, like desire for mastery, acquisitiveness, and so on (E. Dhring, The Value of Life: A Course in Philosophy , the whole book really). So much against this tendency in general. But in connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the homeland of justice in the land of the reactive feeling, we must, for essay, love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out a different principle: the last territory to be conquered by the spirit of justice is the land of the reactive emotions! If it is exemplification prompts, truly the case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is always a positive attitude), if under the sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and suspicion, the gaze of the lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the just and judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and essay gettysburg the highest mastery on earth, even something that it would be wise for business administration thesis, people not to expect and certainly not to believe in too easily. It's certainly true that, on average, even among the most just people even a small dose of battle, hostility, malice, and insinuation is enough to make them see red and chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is exemplification essay, always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. For him it is not even necessary in the slightest to estimate an object falsely and battle essay gettysburg with bias, the way the resume town, reactive man does and battle gettysburg must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the aggressive human being—the stronger, braver, more noble man—has always had on his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.

And by contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of bad conscience on his conscience—the man of start my goals, resentment! Finally, let's look around in history: up to now in what area has the essay gettysburg, whole implementation of law in general as well as the essential need for law been at home? Could it be in resume town the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the case that it's been at home with the active, strong, spontaneous, and aggressive men. Historically considered, the law on earth—let me say this to the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the battle, confession The doctrine of revenge runs through all my work and efforts as the resume town, red thread of justice)—represents that very struggle against the reactive feelings, the war with them on the part of active and aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to put a halt to or restrain reactive pathos and to compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to bring an end among the latter to the senseless rage of resentment, partly by dragging the object of resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by setting in the place of revenge a battle against the enemies of peace and order, partly by coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from now on resentment has to battle essay, deal with once and for all. The most decisive factor, however, which the highest power carries out and exemplification sets in essay gettysburg place against the superior power of the feelings of hostility and animosity—something that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enough—is to practitioner, set up laws, the imperative explanation of those things which, in its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and which are considered forbidden and illegal.

In the process, after the establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and arbitrary acts of individuals or entire groups as an outrage against the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and they steer the feelings of those beneath them away from the immediate damage done by such outrages and thus, in essay the long run, achieve the reverse of what all revenge desires, which sees only the viewpoint of the injured party and considers only that valid. Start Essay? From now on, the eye becomes trained to evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the setting up of the law is gettysburg, there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the time of the injurious action). To talk of just and unjust in business administration thesis themselves has no sense whatsoever—it's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and destroys—and cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarming—the fact that from the highest biological standpoint, conditions of law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on the basic will to live, which is set on power—they are subordinate to the total purpose of battle gettysburg, this will as its individual means, that is, as means to create a larger unit of power. Start My Goals? A legal system conceived of battle, as sovereign and universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against all struggles in thesis general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in gettysburg which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to thesis motivation, life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an assassination attempt on the future of human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.

Here another word concerning the origin and purpose of punishment—two problems which are separate or should be separate. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. Battle Gettysburg? How do the essay, previous genealogists of essay gettysburg, morality deal with this problem? Naively—the way they always work. They find some purpose or other for punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of punishment and resume town then that's it—they're finished.

The purpose in law, however, is the very last idea we should use in the history of the emergence of law. It is much rather the case that for all forms of history there is no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to arise and the final utility of that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by the higher powers over it from a new perspective, appropriated in a new way, reorganized for and redirected to new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and that, in turn, all overpowering and acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in which the sense and purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in religious cults), we have not, in battle that process, grasped anything about its origin—no matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the nurse interview essay, usefulness of a thing, a form, or an essay institution they could understand the exemplification essay, reasons it came into existence—the eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to grasp. So people also imagined punishment as invented to punish. Battle? But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to power has become master over something with less power and has stamped on it its own meaning of some function, and the entire history of a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of signs of constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to each other—they rather follow and administration take over from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the development of a thing, a practice, or an organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the logical and shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of gettysburg, power and resources, but rather the sequence of more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of powerpoint slider, overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the battle gettysburg, resistance which arises against that overpowering each time, the resume town, transformations of form which have been attempted for the purpose of defence and reaction, the results of successful countermeasures.

Form is fluid—the meaning, however, is even more so . . . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in battle gettysburg the totality, the meaning of an individual organ also shifts—in certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers (for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of growing power and perfection. Let me say this: the partial loss of utility, decline, and degeneration, the loss of meaning, and start my goals purposelessness, in short, death, belong to the conditions of essay, a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and essay a way to greater power always establishing itself at the expense of a huge number of smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by a measure of everything that had to be sacrificed to it. Battle? The mass of humanity sacrificed for the benefit of a single stronger species of man—that would be a step forward . Prompts? . . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the essay, absolute contingency, even the mechanical meaninglessness of all events rather than with the theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. The democratic idiosyncrasy of being hostile to business thesis proposals, everything which rules and wants to essay, rule, the modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the most intellectual activity, to such an extent that nowadays step by resume town step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to me already to have attained mastery over all of physiology and the understanding of life, to their detriment, as is obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental concept—that of essay gettysburg, real activity. By contrast, under the thesis motivation, pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activity—in fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to power. Battle Essay Gettysburg? That overlooks the first priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and shaping powers, after whose effects the adaptation first follows. Thus, the governing role of the highest functions in an organism, ones in which the will for administration, living appear active and creative, are denied.

People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for gettysburg, his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . Interview? . Returning to the business at hand, that is, to essay gettysburg, punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the action, the drama, a certain strict sequence of procedures and, on the other hand, its fluidity, the meaning, the purpose, the expectation linked to the implementation of such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per analogium [ by analogy ], in accordance with the business administration thesis proposals, major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the procedure itself will be somewhat older and earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the hand was invented for the purpose of grasping. Now, so far as that other element in punishment is concerned, the essay, fluid element, its meaning, in a very late cultural state (for example in contemporary Europe) the idea of punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of meanings. The history of punishment up to now, in general, the history of its use for different purposes, finally crystallizes into a sort of unity, which is difficult to untangle, difficult to analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of definition. (Today it is impossible to say clearly why we really have punishment—all ideas in which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definition—only something which has no history is start essay, capable of being defined). At an earlier stage, by contrast, that synthesis of meanings appears much easier to untangle, as well as easier to adjust. We can still see how in battle gettysburg every individual case the thesis motivation, elements in the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and dominates at the expense of the rest—indeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to battle, rise above all the interview essay, other elements. In order to give at least an idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the meaning of punishment is and how one and battle the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to essay, me on the basis of battle, relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of nurse practitioner interview, rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for the damage to the person injured, in essay gettysburg some form or other (also in the form of emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of some upset to an even balance in order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to those who determine and carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of compensation for the advantages which the law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is made useful as a slave working the motivation, mines); punishment as a cutting out of a degenerate element (in some circumstances an entire branch, as in Chinese law, and thus a means to keep the race pure or to sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the violation and humiliation of some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of making a conscience, whether for the man who suffers the gettysburg, punishment—so-called reform—or whether for those who witness the punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an powerpoint slider honorarium, set as a condition by those in battle essay gettysburg power, which protects the powerpoint, wrong doer from the excesses of battle essay gettysburg, revenge; punishment as a compromise with the natural condition of revenge, insofar as the latter is still upheld and assumed as a privilege by powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and a war measure against start an enemy to battle gettysburg, peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and breaker of the peace. Of course, this list is not complete.

Obviously punishment is overloaded with all sorts of useful purposes—all the more reason why people infer from it an alleged utility, which in the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for several reasons is getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in precisely this: Punishment is supposed to be valuable in waking a feeling of guilt in the guilty party. In punishment people are looking for the actual instrument for that psychic reaction called bad conscience and pangs of conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and psychology incorrectly to present issues—and how much more incorrectly to thesis, the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and battle prisoners. Prisons and penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in which this species of motivation, gnawing worm particularly thrives—on that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.

In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. It concentrates. It sharpens the feeling of estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and gettysburg brings on a wretched prostration and resume town self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishment—characteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the very development of battle, a feeling of interview essay, guilt was most powerfully hindered by battle punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto powerpoint slider, whom this force of punishment was vented. For let us not underestimate just how much the criminal is gettysburg, prevented by the sight of judicial and executive processes from sensing the nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for he sees exactly the same kind of actions undertaken in the service of slider, justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the whole tricky and sly art of the police and prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishment—the robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse).

Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in themselves by battle essay his judges, but only in business administration proposals particular respects when used for certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. Battle Essay? In fact, for motivation, the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the consciousness of judges or even those doing the punishing.. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an irresponsible piece of fate. And the man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against battle gettysburg which there is no way to proposals, fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of essay, this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to great lengths to misunderstand him on this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the nurse practitioner interview, question about battle gettysburg, what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the bite of conscience ]—for he had expelled good and evil into the human imagination and had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of all contradictions). For Spinoza the world had gone back again into that state of innocence in resume town which it existed before the fabrication of the idea of essay gettysburg, a bad conscience. Powerpoint Slider? So what, then, had happened to gettysburg, the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by the image of something over and done with which happened contrary to all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. I. II).

Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of nurse practitioner interview, revolt which, for example, gives the Russians an advantage over us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from essay gettysburg prudence: without question we must seek the exemplification essay, essential effect of punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of memory, in a will to go to essay, work from now on more carefully, mistrustfully, and practitioner interview secretly, with the awareness that we are in many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and animals, is an increase in fear, a honing of prudence, control over desires. Essay? In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. People might be more justified in asserting the opposite (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to essay, the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience.

It is not easy to get people to attend to it, and it requires them to consider it at length, to guard it, and to sleep on it. Battle Essay? I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to come down with, under the pressure of the most fundamental of all the changes which they experienced—that change when they found themselves locked within the confines of society and powerpoint peace. Gettysburg? Just like the things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out essay with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventure—suddenly all its instincts were devalued and disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. Battle? A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of misery, such a leaden discomfort—while at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for nurse practitioner essay, them.

All instincts which are not discharged to the outside are turned back inside. This is what I call the internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of human instinct out into battle gettysburg, the world was obstructed. Those frightening fortifications with which the organization of the state protected itself against the old instincts for freedom—punishment belongs above all to powerpoint, these fortifications—made all those instincts of the wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against battle essay gettysburg man himself. Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in essay attack, in change, in destruction—all those turned themselves against battle the possessors of such instincts. That is the origin of bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and opposition and was forced into an oppressive narrowness and regularity of custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at himself, grew upset, and prompts did himself damage—this animal which scraped itself raw against the bars of its cage, which people want to tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to create in itself an adventure, a torture chamber, an uncertain and battle essay dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of bad conscience. With him was introduced the greatest and weirdest illness, from which human beings today have not recovered, the essay, suffering of man from his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from his animal past, a leap and, so to speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of war against the old instincts, on which, up to that point, his power, joy, and ability to inspire fear had been based. Let us at once add that, on essay gettysburg the other hand, the fact that there was now an animal soul turned against itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the picture of the earth was fundamentally changed.

In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the dramatic performance which then began and whose conclusion is exemplification essay prompts, not yet in sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to be allowed to gettysburg, play itself out exemplification essay senselessly and unobserved on essay some ridiculous star or other. Thesis? Since then man has been included among the most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance. In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is battle essay gettysburg, announcing itself in him, is thesis motivation, preparing itself, as if the human being were not the goal but only the way, an essay episode, a great promise . . . Inherent in this hypothesis about the start my goals, origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and did not manifest an organic growth into battle gettysburg, new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an irrefutable disaster, against which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the adaptation of prompts, a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by an act of violence and was carried to gettysburg, its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the resume town, very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an essay oppressive and inconsiderate machinery and continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only business administration thesis thoroughly kneaded and submissive but also given a shape. I used the word State—it is self-evident who is meant by that term—some pack of blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and masters, which, organized for battle gettysburg, war and my goals essay with the power to organize, without thinking about it, sets its terrifying paws on a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in numbers but is still without any shape, is essay gettysburg, still wandering about. That's surely the way the State begins on earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the beginning of the state in some contract. The man who can command, who is naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and gestures—what has a man like that to do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings.

They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to become hated. Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the my goals, imposition of forms. They are the gettysburg, most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is soon present, a living power structure, something in which the parts and nurse interview functions are demarcated and coordinated, in which there is, in general, no place for essay gettysburg, anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to the totality.

These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and consideration are. Essay Prompts? In them that fearsome egotism of the artist is in essay gettysburg charge, which stares out like bronze and knows how to justify itself for practitioner essay, all time in battle essay the work, just like a mother with her child. They are not the ones in my goals essay whom bad conscience grew—that point is obvious. Battle Gettysburg? But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. It would have failed if an thesis motivation immense amount of battle gettysburg, freedom had not been driven from the world under the pressure of their hammer blows—or at thesis, least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent. This powerful instinct for freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and essay finally able to discharge and direct itself only against itself—that and that alone is business administration proposals, what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to be careful not to battle, entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is from the outset hateful and painful.

Basically it is the same active force which is at work on a grander scale in those artists of power and thesis organization and which builds states. Here it is inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and essay gettysburg it builds bad conscience and thesis motivation negative ideals for battle essay gettysburg, itself, that very instinct for freedom (to use my own language, the will to power). But the material on which the shaping and violating nature of this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and not, as in practitioner that greater and more striking phenomenon, on another man or on other men. This furtive violation of the essay gettysburg, self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in giving a shape to oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to exemplification essay prompts, burn into battle essay gettysburg, it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denial—this weird and horribly pleasurable work of a soul voluntarily divided against itself, which makes itself suffer for start my goals, the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the womb of gettysburg, ideal and business administration thesis imaginative events, finally brought to light—we have already guessed—also an abundance of strange new beauty and affirmation, perhaps for essay gettysburg, the first time the idea of the beautiful. Nurse Practitioner Essay? . . . For what would be beautiful, if its opposite had not yet come to an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . . Battle Gettysburg? . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzling—how contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, can connote an ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do know—I have no doubt about essay, it—namely, the essay, nature of the pleasure which the selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to my goals essay, cruelty. So much for battle essay, the moment on the origin of the unegoistic as something of moral worth and on the demarcation of the soil out of which this value has grown: only bad conscience, only the will to resume town, abuse the self, provides the condition for the value of the unegoistic. Bad conscience is a sickness—there's no doubt about essay, that—but a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness.

Let's look for start my goals essay, the conditions in which this illness has arrived at its most terrible and most sublime peak. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into the world. But that requires a lot of endurance—and we must first go back to an earlier point. Battle Gettysburg? The relationship in civil law between the debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in an extremely remarkable and prompts dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into the relationship between those people presently alive and their ancestors. Within the original tribal cooperatives—we're talking about primeval times—the living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and especially to the earliest one which had founded the battle, tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligation—the latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for the longest period of the human race). Here the start essay, reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only gettysburg because of the resume town, sacrifices and achievements of their ancestors, and that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. Essay Gettysburg? In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the tribe new advantages and slider lending them their power. Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for these raw and spiritually destitute ages.

What can people give back to them? Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of honour, and, above all, obedience—for all customs, as work of one's ancestors, are also their statutes and battle essay gettysburg commands. Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and grows. Exemplification Prompts? From time to time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to battle gettysburg, the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for example, blood, human blood in any case). Fear of ancestors and their power, the awareness of one's debt to them, according to administration thesis, this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to battle essay, the increase in the power of the tribe itself, as the thesis motivation, tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the other way around! Every step towards the battle essay gettysburg, decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to a diminution in resume town the fear of the spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of his wisdom, providence, and battle gettysburg present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the fantasy of increasing fear, finally have grown into something immense and have been pushed into the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the powers of imagination, so the ancestor is necessarily transfigured into a god.

Here perhaps lies even the origin of the gods, thus an origin out of fear! . Slider? . . And the man to whom it seems obligatory to add But also out of piety could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for essay gettysburg, his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the more correct for the middle period in thesis which the noble tribes developed, those who in fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the battle, characteristics which in the meantime had become manifest in powerpoint themselves, the battle essay gettysburg, noble qualities. Later we will have another look at the process by resume town which the gods were ennobled and exalted (which is naturally not at all the same thing as their becoming holy). But now, for the moment, let's follow the path of this whole development of the consciousness of guilt to its conclusion. As history teaches us, the consciousness of being in essay debt to slider, the gods did not in any way come to an end after the downfall of communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Just as humanity inherited the ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the tribe and extended family, the battle essay gettysburg, pressure of as yet unpaid debts and the desire to be relieved of start, them. (The transition is gettysburg, made with those numerous slave and indentured populations which adapted themselves to the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in all directions). The feeling of business administration thesis, being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of years—always, in fact, in direct proportion to the extent to battle gettysburg, which the idea of god and the feeling for god grew and were carried to the heights. (The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergers—everything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of a people in that great racial synthesis—is mirrored in administration thesis proposals the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at the same time always also the progress toward universal divinities.

In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the essay, way to some variety of monotheism). The arrival of the Christian god, as the essay, greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in the human consciousness of guilt. Indeed, we cannot dismiss the idea that the battle essay, complete and final victory of atheism could release humanity from this entire feeling of being indebted to exemplification prompts, its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Battle Essay? Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for resume town, a brief and rough preface concerning the connection between the ideas guilt and obligation with religious assumptions. Up to this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of these ideas (the repression of battle essay gettysburg, them into the conscience, or more precisely, the complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to an end after the thesis, collapse of their presuppositions, the faith in our creditor, in essay God.

But to a terrible extent the facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the ideas of debt and duty, with their repression into bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to reverse the direction of the development I have just described, or at least to bring its motion to a halt. Now, in a fit of pessimism, the prospect of a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to thesis motivation, bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an battle essay gettysburg iron impossibility, now those ideas of debt and duty are supposed to turn back. But against whom? There can be no doubt: first of all against the debtor, in whom from this point on bad conscience, firmly set in proposals him, eating into essay gettysburg, him and spreading out exemplification essay like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the impossibility of discharging the debt, people think up the idea of the impossibility of removing the penance, the idea that the debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Finally however, those ideas of debt and duty turn back even against gettysburg the creditor. People should, in this matter, now think about the causa prima [first cause] of humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for exemplification essay prompts, the will,) or about nature from whose womb human beings arose and into whom from now on the principle of evil is inserted (the demonizing of gettysburg, nature) or about existence in general, which remains something without value in itself (nihilistic turning away from essay existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of essay gettysburg, being, Buddhism and things like that)—until all of a sudden we confront the paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of start, genius of Christianity—God's sacrifice of himself for the guilt of human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the battle essay, only one who can redeem man from what for human beings has become impossible to redeem—the creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of nurse practitioner essay, love (can people believe that?), out of love for his debtor! . . . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in gettysburg order to lacerate himself, after the nurse practitioner interview, more natural discharge of this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into battle, something most horrifying—hard and sharp. Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of torture.

He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is my goals essay, capable of discovering to essay, his real and indissoluble animal instincts. Thesis? He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against the master, the father, the original ancestor and beginning of the world). He grows tense with the contradiction of God and devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the reality of his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the Judge, as God the Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the human will finding him so guilty and battle gettysburg reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and poison the most fundamental basis of things with the problem of punishment and start guilt in essay gettysburg order to cut himself off once and for all from powerpoint slider any exit out of this labyrinth of fixed ideas, his will to erect an ideal (that of the holy God) in order to be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only battle gettysburg a little, from being a beast in deed! . . . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from my goals gazing too long into these abysses. Here we have an battle gettysburg illness—no doubt about that—the most terrifying illness that has raged in human beings up to now. And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in this night of torment and insanity the practitioner interview, cry of love has resounded, the cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by an invincible horror. . . In human beings there is so much that is terrible! . . . For too long the world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the holy God.

The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in essay itself, lead to a degraded imagination—that's something we have to consider for nurse practitioner interview, a moment, the battle essay, point that there are more uplifting ways to resume town, use the invention of the gods than for essay gettysburg, this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in which Europe in the last millennia has become an expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of themselves, in whom the animal in man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at a distance, in order to be able to thesis motivation, continue to essay, enjoy their psychic freedom. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And no lesser authority than that of Homer's Zeus himself now and then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves.

It's strange, he says at one point in relation to thesis motivation, the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case— It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the battle essay, gods! Evil comes only from us, they claim, but they themselves. Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to fate. But at the same time we hear and see that even this Olympian spectator and judge is far from thesis proposals being irritated or thinking of them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to the bad deeds of mortal men. And the Greeks of the strongest and bravest times conceded that much about themselves—the foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in the head were as far as the basis for many bad and battle essay fateful things are concerned—foolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . . But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is this even possible? Where could this have really come from in heads like the ones we have, we men of essay, noble descent, happy, successful, from the best society, noble, and essay virtuous? For hundreds of years the noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of his peers.

Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . . . This solution is thesis motivation, typical of the Greeks . . . In this way, the gods then served to justify men to a certain extent, even in bad things. They served as the origin of evil—at that time the gods took upon themselves, not punishment, but, what is battle essay gettysburg, nobler, the guilt. I'll conclude with three question marks—that's clear enough. You may perhaps ask me, Is an ideal being built up here or shattered? . . Start? . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and misunderstood, how many lies had to battle essay, be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to my goals essay, be sacrificed every time? That is the law—show me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . . . We modern men, we are the inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. Essay? That's what we have had the most practice doing, that is perhaps our artistry—in any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at his natural inclinations with an evil eye, so that finally in resume town him they have become twinned with bad conscience. Battle Gettysburg? An attempt to thesis motivation, reverse this might be possible, but who is battle essay gettysburg, strong enough for that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for what lies beyond us, which goes against practitioner our senses, our instincts, nature, animals—in short, the earlier ideals, all the ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the world. To whom can we turn to today with such hopes and demands? . . . We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of course, as the comfortable, the complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . . . But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from battle gettysburg these others, than letting them take some note of the severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the world is in relation to us, as soon as we act as all the start my goals, world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . . . To attain the goal I'm talking about requires a different sort of spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and victory, for battle gettysburg, whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need.

That would require getting acclimatized to exemplification essay, keen, high air, winter wanderings, to essay, ice and mountains in every sense. That would require even a kind of sublime maliciousness, an ultimate self-conscious willfulness of knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . . . Is this even possible today? . . . But at some time or other, in a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the redeeming man of great love and contempt, the creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the sidelines or from the beyond by business administration his own driving power, whose isolation is misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from battle essay gettysburg reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of it into the light again, he brings back the redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the prompts, previous ideal had laid upon it. This man of the future, who will release us from that earlier ideal and, in so doing, from those things which had to battle gettysburg, grow from it, from the business proposals, great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from nihilism—that stroke of noon and of the great decision which makes the will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to gettysburg, human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and powerpoint slider Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingness—at some point he must come . . . But what am I talking about here? Enough, enough!

At this stage there's only one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Battle Essay? Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of resume town, arrogating to myself something which only someone younger is free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than I—something which only essay Zarathustra is free to do, Zarathustra the Godless. . .

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Five Reasons to battle essay gettysburg, Stop Saying #8220;Good Job!#8221; (**) Share this article. Slider? Five Reasons to Stop Saying #8220;Good Job!#8221; NOTE: An abridged version of this article was published in Parents magazine in May 2000 with the title #8220;Hooked on Praise.#8221; For a more detailed look at essay the issues discussed here #8212; as well as a comprehensive list of citations to relevant research #8212; please see the books Punished by Rewards and Unconditional Parenting. Para leer este articulo en Espanol, haga clic aqui. Hang out at practitioner interview a playground, visit a school, or show up at a child’s birthday party, and there’s one phrase you can count on hearing repeatedly: #8220;Good job!#8221; Even tiny infants are praised for smacking their hands together (#8220;Good clapping!#8221;). Battle? Many of us blurt out powerpoint slider these judgments of our children to the point that it has become almost a verbal tic. Plenty of battle books and articles advise us against relying on punishment, from spanking to forcible isolation (#8220;time out#8221;). Occasionally someone will even ask us to rethink the powerpoint slider, practice of battle essay gettysburg bribing children with stickers or food.

But you’ll have to look awfully hard to find a discouraging word about resume town, what is euphemistically called positive reinforcement. Lest there be any misunderstanding, the point here is not to battle, call into question the essay prompts, importance of gettysburg supporting and encouraging children, the need to love them and hug them and help them feel good about themselves. Praise, however, is a different story entirely. Here#8217;s why. 1. Manipulating children. Suppose you offer a verbal reward to reinforce the behavior of a two-year-old who eats without spilling, or a five-year-old who cleans up her art supplies. Who benefits from this? Is it possible that telling kids they’ve done a good job may have less to practitioner, do with their emotional needs than with our convenience?

Rheta DeVries, a professor of education at the University of Northern Iowa, refers to this as #8220;sugar-coated control.#8221; Very much like tangible rewards – or, for essay, that matter, punishments – it’s a way of doing something to children to get them to comply with our wishes. It may be effective at administration thesis proposals producing this result (at least for a while), but it’s very different from essay gettysburg, working with kids – for example, by engaging them in conversation about what makes a classroom (or family) function smoothly, or how other people are affected by what we have done #8212; or failed to do. The latter approach is thesis motivation, not only more respectful but more likely to battle gettysburg, help kids become thoughtful people. The reason praise can work in the short run is that young children are hungry for our approval. But we have a responsibility not to exploit that dependence for our own convenience. Resume Town? A #8220;Good job!#8221; to reinforce something that makes our lives a little easier can be an example of taking advantage of children’s dependence. Kids may also come to battle essay gettysburg, feel manipulated by essay, this, even if they can’t quite explain why. 2. Creating praise junkies.

To be sure, not every use of praise is gettysburg, a calculated tactic to control children’s behavior. Sometimes we compliment kids just because we’re genuinely pleased by what they’ve done. Even then, however, it’s worth looking more closely. Rather than bolstering a child’s self-esteem, praise may increase kids’ dependence on us. The more we say, #8220;I like the way you….#8221; or #8220;Good ______ing,#8221; the my goals essay, more kids come to rely on battle essay our evaluations, our decisions about what’s good and bad, rather than learning to start, form their own judgments. Battle? It leads them to measure their worth in nurse interview essay, terms of what will lead us to smile and dole out some more approval. Mary Budd Rowe, a researcher at the University of Florida, discovered that students who were praised lavishly by gettysburg, their teachers were more tentative in their responses, more apt to answer in a questioning tone of voice (#8220;Um, seven?#8221;).

They tended to back off from an resume town, idea they had proposed as soon as an adult disagreed with them. And they were less likely to persist with difficult tasks or share their ideas with other students. In short, #8220;Good job!#8221; doesn’t reassure children; ultimately, it makes them feel less secure. Battle Essay Gettysburg? It may even create a vicious circle such that the more we slather on the praise, the more kids seem to need it, so we praise them some more. Sadly, some of these kids will grow into adults who continue to need someone else to pat them on the head and slider tell them whether what they did was OK. Surely this is not what we want for our daughters and battle essay gettysburg sons. 3. Stealing a child’s pleasure. Apart from the issue of dependence, a child deserves to take delight in start essay, her accomplishments, to battle essay gettysburg, feel pride in what she’s learned how to essay, do. She also deserves to decide when to feel that way. Every time we say, #8220;Good job!#8221;, though, we’re telling a child how to feel. Battle Essay? To be sure, there are times when our evaluations are appropriate and our guidance is necessary #8212; especially with toddlers and preschoolers.

But a constant stream of value judgments is neither necessary nor useful for business administration thesis, children’s development. Unfortunately, we may not have realized that #8220;Good job!#8221; is battle essay gettysburg, just as much an exemplification essay prompts, evaluation as #8220;Bad job!#8221; The most notable feature of a positive judgment isn’t that it’s positive, but that it’s a judgment. And people, including kids, don’t like being judged. I cherish the occasions when my daughter manages to do something for the first time, or does something better than she’s ever done it before. But I try to resist the knee-jerk tendency to say, #8220;Good job!#8221; because I don’t want to dilute her joy. I want her to share her pleasure with me, not look to me for a verdict.

I want her to exclaim, #8220;I did it!#8221; (which she often does) instead of battle gettysburg asking me uncertainly, #8220;Was that good?#8221; 4. My Goals Essay? Losing interest. #8220;Good painting!#8221; may get children to essay gettysburg, keep painting for nurse, as long as we keep watching and praising. But, warns Lilian Katz, one of the country’s leading authorities on early childhood education, #8220;once attention is withdrawn, many kids won’t touch the activity again.#8221; Indeed, an impressive body of scientific research has shown that the more we reward people for doing something, the more they tend to lose interest in whatever they had to do to get the reward. Battle Essay Gettysburg? Now the point isn’t to draw, to read, to think, to create – the point is to get the goody, whether it’s an ice cream, a sticker, or a #8220;Good job!#8221; In a troubling study conducted by Joan Grusec at the University of Toronto, young children who were frequently praised for displays of generosity tended to be slightly less generous on an everyday basis than other children were. Every time they had heard #8220;Good sharing!#8221; or #8220;I’m so proud of you for helping,#8221; they became a little less interested in sharing or helping. Start My Goals? Those actions came to be seen not as something valuable in battle essay gettysburg, their own right but as something they had to powerpoint, do to get that reaction again from an adult. Generosity became a means to an end. Does praise motivate kids? Sure. It motivates kids to get praise. Alas, that’s often at the expense of commitment to whatever they were doing that prompted the battle essay gettysburg, praise. Thesis? 5. Gettysburg? Reducing achievement . As if it weren’t bad enough that #8220;Good job!#8221; can undermine independence, pleasure, and interest, it can also interfere with how good a job children actually do.

Researchers keep finding that kids who are praised for resume town, doing well at battle gettysburg a creative task tend to stumble at the next task – and they don’t do as well as children who weren’t praised to begin with. Why does this happen? Partly because the praise creates pressure to #8220;keep up the good work#8221; that gets in the way of doing so. Partly because their interest in what they’re doing may have declined. Partly because they become less likely to take risks – a prerequisite for creativity – once they start thinking about how to keep those positive comments coming. More generally, #8220;Good job!#8221; is a remnant of an approach to nurse interview essay, psychology that reduces all of essay human life to behaviors that can be seen and nurse interview measured. Unfortunately, this ignores the thoughts, feelings, and gettysburg values that lie behind behaviors. For example, a child may share a snack with a friend as a way of attracting praise, or as a way of nurse practitioner interview essay making sure the other child has enough to essay, eat.

Praise for slider, sharing ignores these different motives. Worse, it actually promotes the less desirable motive by making children more likely to fish for essay, praise in the future. * Once you start to powerpoint slider, see praise for what it is – and what it does – these constant little evaluative eruptions from adults start to produce the same effect as fingernails being dragged down a blackboard. Battle Essay? You begin to powerpoint slider, root for a child to give his teachers or parents a taste of their own treacle by turning around to them and essay saying (in the same saccharine tone of nurse practitioner voice), #8220;Good praising!#8221; Still, it’s not an battle, easy habit to break. It can seem strange, at least at first, to stop praising; it can feel as though you’re being chilly or withholding something. But that, it soon becomes clear, suggests that we praise more because we need to say it than because children need to hear it . Whenever that’s true, it’s time to rethink what we’re doing. What kids do need is unconditional support, love with no strings attached. That’s not just different from praise – it’s the opposite of praise. Start My Goals Essay? #8220;Good job!#8221; is conditional. It means we’re offering attention and acknowledgement and battle essay approval for jumping through our hoops, for doing things that please us. This point, you’ll notice, is very different from a criticism that some people offer to the effect that we give kids too much approval, or give it too easily. They recommend that we become more miserly with our praise and demand that kids #8220;earn#8221; it.

But the real problem isn’t that children expect to be praised for everything they do these days. Proposals? It’s that we’re tempted to take shortcuts, to manipulate kids with rewards instead of essay explaining and start essay helping them to develop needed skills and good values. So what’s the alternative? That depends on the situation, but whatever we decide to say instead has to be offered in battle essay gettysburg, the context of genuine affection and love for motivation, who kids are rather than for what they’ve done. When unconditional support is present, #8220;Good job!#8221; isn’t necessary; when it’s absent, #8220;Good job!#8221; won’t help. If we’re praising positive actions as a way of discouraging misbehavior, this is unlikely to be effective for long. Even when it works, we can’t really say the child is now #8220;behaving himself#8221;; it would be more accurate to say the praise is behaving him. The alternative is to work with the child, to figure out the reasons he’s acting that way. We may have to essay gettysburg, reconsider our own requests rather than just looking for a way to get kids to obey. (Instead of using #8220;Good job!#8221; to get a four-year-old to sit quietly through a long class meeting or family dinner, perhaps we should ask whether it’s reasonable to expect a child to do so.) We also need to bring kids in on the process of making decisions. Start My Goals Essay? If a child is doing something that disturbs others, then sitting down with her later and asking, #8220;What do you think we can do to solve this problem?#8221; will likely be more effective than bribes or threats.

It also helps a child learn how to solve problems and teaches that her ideas and battle feelings are important. Powerpoint? Of course, this process takes time and talent, care and courage. Tossing off a #8220;Good job!#8221; when the child acts in the way we deem appropriate takes none of those things, which helps to explain why #8220;doing to#8221; strategies are a lot more popular than #8220;working with#8221; strategies. And what can we say when kids just do something impressive? Consider three possible responses: * Say nothing. Some people insist a helpful act must be #8220;reinforced#8221; because, secretly or unconsciously, they believe it was a fluke.

If children are basically evil, then they have to be given an artificial reason for being nice (namely, to get a verbal reward). Battle Gettysburg? But if that cynicism is unfounded – and a lot of research suggests that it is – then praise may not be necessary. * Say what you saw. A simple, evaluation-free statement (#8220;You put your shoes on by yourself#8221; or even just #8220;You did it#8221;) tells your child that you noticed. It also lets her take pride in motivation, what she did. In other cases, a more elaborate description may make sense. If your child draws a picture, you might provide feedback – not judgment – about battle, what you noticed: #8220;This mountain is huge!#8221; #8220;Boy, you sure used a lot of purple today!#8221; If a child does something caring or generous, you might gently draw his attention to the effect of his action on the other person : #8220;Look at Abigail’s face! She seems pretty happy now that you gave her some of your snack.#8221; This is completely different from praise, where the emphasis is on how you feel about her sharing. * Talk less, ask more. Even better than descriptions are questions. Why tell him what part of his drawing impressed you when you can ask him what he likes best about it?

Asking #8220;What was the thesis proposals, hardest part to draw?#8221; or #8220;How did you figure out how to gettysburg, make the feet the start my goals essay, right size?#8221; is likely to essay, nourish his interest in drawing. Saying #8220;Good job!#8221;, as we’ve seen, may have exactly the opposite effect. This doesn’t mean that all compliments, all thank-you’s, all expressions of delight are harmful. We need to consider our motives for what we say (a genuine expression of enthusiasm is better than a desire to manipulate the child’s future behavior) as well as the actual effects of doing so. Are our reactions helping the child to nurse essay, feel a sense of battle control over my goals her life #8212; or to constantly look to us for approval? Are they helping her to essay, become more excited about what she’s doing in thesis, its own right – or turning it into something she just wants to get through in order to receive a pat on the head.

It’s not a matter of memorizing a new script, but of keeping in mind our long-term goals for our children and essay gettysburg watching for the effects of resume town what we say. The bad news is that the use of positive reinforcement really isn’t so positive. The good news is that you don’t have to evaluate in order to encourage.

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Current State Of Us Economy Essays and Research Papers. ? Current state of essay, US economy and effect of business in Ohio. The American economy has . suffered the deepest and resume town most protracted recession since the Great Depression. The financial crisis that began in the fall of 2008 had enduring effects on economic performance. In the first quarter of gettysburg, 2009, real gross domestic product (real GDP) fell by 6.4 percent. Real GDP fell for four straight quarters, from third quarter 2008 through second quarter 2009. The good news is that we have enjoyed more than three. Business cycle , Economics , Great Depression 1516 Words | 14 Pages. The Current State of the Economy Brandy Latham FP/120 February 05, 2013 University of Phoenix The . Current State of the Economy Knowing the state of the economy is beneficial to people in general. Powerpoint? People tend to battle gettysburg, make financial decisions based on current rates and financial income.

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Development economics , Economic development , Economics 1571 Words | 4 Pages. internet research, (sources must be documented using MLA format), and write a brief analysis of the battle gettysburg, current status of the powerpoint, U.S. . economy . Include current values and trends for at essay gettysburg least three of the following indicators: GDP Productivity Inflation Unemployment rate CPI Balance of Payments and/or Trade The United States is still managing to continue on its downward spiral as far as the economy goes. Actually, it is more like a rollercoaster with small hills. We will appear to be getting better. Consumer price index , Economics , Economy of the United States 564 Words | 2 Pages. employment are rising and the economy is reaching toward full employment. (Brue, Flynn, McConnell, 2009, pp.

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Recovery. The recession from gettysburg, 2007-2009 had many lingering effects we didn’t really start to get out of until 2010. Taking a look at our GDP, unemployment rate, and CPI, surely you will agree. First let’s take a look at GDP. Starting in 2009, the GDP was down 2.5 percent based on slider, current dollars. Consumer price index , Economics , Economy 675 Words | 2 Pages. International Trade and Us Economy. IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND US ECONOMIC GROWTH INTRODUCTION: The assignment is about the case where the organizations in essay gettysburg the . US were responsible for the development and advancement of resume town, information technology which also included the invention of Mainframe and Midrange computers in the era of 1960s and 1970s.

Companies such as IBM and Dell were one of the first companies which led to advancement of information technology. However, with the high cost of production in battle gettysburg US regarding the practitioner interview, production of. Cyprus , Developed country , Developing country 1667 Words | 5 Pages. The Impact the Economy Has on Zoos in the Us. The Impact the Economy has on Zoos in the US Throughout the gettysburg, course of this semester, I have learned much about macroeconomics. I . Exemplification Essay Prompts? came into this class knowing and understanding very little about this topic and found it very hard to grasp at battle essay first. Proposals? As the weeks passed, I found myself starting to battle, understand it a little better than previously once I started to apply it to a topic that interested me. Thesis? Being able to choose a topic to write this paper on was a very good way to get students, like myself. Affect , Bronx Zoo , Economics 1463 Words | 4 Pages. of Illegal Immigrants and battle the US Economy The Economic Impact of Illegal Immigrants and the US . Economy According to exemplification essay prompts, most American people the view of illegal immigration is often a negative one.

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The current state of the economy is one that is concerning for almost all Americans.Though we are in business administration thesis proposals the recovery . phase businesses are still hurting, people are out of work, we are barely getting out of a depression etc. People are pointing fingers at what is the cause and who is to blame. Essay? What was once a strong healthy economy has now drastically changed. There are many economic indicators that are used to evaluate and practitioner provide an image of battle essay, what is currently happening and my goals essay what an outlook may be on. Economics , Economy , Great Depression 665 Words | 2 Pages. current situation of indian economy. CURRENT SITUATION OF INDIAN’S ECONOMY DUE TO INFLATION India's inflation could accelerate in the current fiscal . year due to the rupee's sharp depreciation, said the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Gettysburg? The Indian rupee touched record low of 65.52/dollar on exemplification essay, Thursday and battle essay is down 16 percent so far this year despite efforts by policymakers to prop it up.

The pass-through of the depreciation of the rupee exchange rate by about 11 percent in the four months of 2013-14 is incomplete and will put upward. Central bank , Consumer price index , Economics 1485 Words | 5 Pages. How is the current Global Economy ? Introduction of Global Economy The global economy has been . Start? formulated to many definitions. As a basic one that has been defined as the increasing integration of fragmented national markets for goods and services into battle essay, a single global market. For instance, in essay a national market, the gettysburg, materials, labors, whole process of production, selling service and resume town so on that are all within a country. Battle Essay Gettysburg? By contraries, in such a global market, companies may from country A, conduct. Dollar , Economic growth , Economy of the United States 2315 Words | 7 Pages.

Evaluate the Current State of the Economy. Option 1, Part 1 – Evaluate the Current State of the Economy To analyze the current . Motivation? state of the battle essay gettysburg, economy the group will assess the following areas. Unemployment, expectations, and consumer income, and interest rates will be the focus in relations to the affects indicated on the aggregate supply (AS) and demand (AD) curve. Unemployment Labor market conditions are important especially for the following categories, businesses, individuals, and powerpoint governments. The nation’s labor market conditions. Aggregate demand , Economics , Inflation 2838 Words | 9 Pages. The United States of essay gettysburg, America (USA) has been a debtor nation for years, causing a great deal of decrease in nurse essay the economy . The . effects of being a debtor nation have cause USA economy to be weak, dropping the dollar value well below the market. As of 2006, USA has been the world biggest debtor nation in the world.

The USA has been a country that depends on foreign investments for many years, leading to them becoming a debtor nation. With that USA has a trade deficit of more than sixty-one billion, and. Cold War , Economy of the United States , Government debt 2035 Words | 5 Pages. ?Toooroolloooo AP ECONS October 2, 2013 US Economy Assignment Even with some temporary effects of extreme weather . related events; America is recovering very well from the recession experienced in essay gettysburg 2009. In the beginning of 2013, from the essay prompts, first to the second quarter, America’s GDP growth rate has increased to 2.5%.

This is battle essay, due to the increase of personal consumption, goods and services, and resume town investments (United States GDP Growth Rate. TRADING ECONOMICS. Joana Taborda, 26 Sept. 2013. Essay? Web. Economics , Economy of the thesis, United States , Energy crisis 898 Words | 3 Pages. Small Business and United States Economy. businesses from expanding.

Thus causing loss of upcoming jobs and maybe even shutting down some of the small businesses in our country. One of the next . bubbles in the United States economy waiting to burst is healthcare in general. Essay Gettysburg? Due to the high cost of healthcare growing faster than the current state of the United States economy . A concern for the rising cost of essay, healthcare is that it will affect larger corporations, our government and the consumers themselves who will all be forced to pick up the. Affordable Health Care for battle, America Act , Barack Obama , Business 1742 Words | 6 Pages. to adapt to meet the my goals, needs of all cultures.”(Webb et al., 2010) pp Current Trends in U.S. Battle Essay? pp slide 5 2. Increased choice and privatization of . education. Parents have the power to decide what education best fits their child. Rather than the single option of powerpoint, public schools, parents now have numerous other educational choices. These include: Virtual schools Charter schools Public vouchers to private schools Homeschooling Current U.S. Battle Essay Gettysburg? Trends power point slide 6 Virtual Schools are online programs. College , Computer , Education 1404 Words | 3 Pages.

CURRENT ECONOMIC SITUATION 1 The Current Macroeconomic Situation . Crystal Loveday Devry University ECON 312: Principles of Economics Summer B, 2011 CURRENT ECONOMIC SITUATION 2 Introduction The current macroeconomic situation in the United States of America according to resume town, the article Economy in the United States that it is the world’s largest national economy , but has been going. Economics , Economy of the United States , Great Depression 1948 Words | 6 Pages. Research Paper Current State Of Indian Economy |Contents . | Title Page 1 Overall economy and essay gettysburg Industrial Growth 2 2 Core Infrastructure Industries 2 3 Telecom 3 4 Trends in inflation 4 5 Monetary indicators. Central bank , Currency , Economic growth 3181 Words | 15 Pages. Current Housing Market in Todays Economy. there are many things that affect the economy and vice versa there are many things that the economy affects. The major things . that the economy affects are jobs in the airline, automotive, home building, and technological industries. The main reason is because when the motivation, economy is doing bad, these fields do not do so good either. Essay Gettysburg? They all depend on the economy staying in a good state , in interview essay order for them to stay healthy. In this paper I will show how the economy affects the home building industry. I.

Elasticity , Externality , Hal Varian 1376 Words | 4 Pages. concept behind a capitalistic economy is that the government does not have any control over the free markets. For this to exist, the economic . markets should not be allowed to receive (nor should they be allowed to give) monetary support from the government. In 2007 the banking, financial, and insurance industry corporate giants claimed to battle, be “to big to fail” and pled for a bailout from the business proposals, U.S. Battle Essay? government. Adam Smith, a moral philosopher and a pioneer of my goals, political economy once stated, “as soon as government. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Economic liberalism 1504 Words | 5 Pages. US Power reflected on the global political economy. global political economy has evolved through a series of historical periods. For this paper, I will be comparing the overall structure and . organization of the global political economy during the Bretton Woods period (1945-1975) and the Contemporary period (1975-2010). The main objective will be the United States ’ projection of political power throughout these two historical periods.

By comparing, the Bretton Woods period and the Contemporary period, it can be determined that the US projects its political. Economics , International Monetary Fund , International relations 1173 Words | 4 Pages. Indian Economy : India is the seventh largest country by area, the second-most populous country with a population of over 1,241,491,960 people. . India is surrounded by three-water bodies namely Indian Ocean on the south, the battle, Arabian Sea on the west, and start the Bay of essay gettysburg, Bengal on the east. India shares its border with 7 countries namely Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan Afghanistan, Burma and Bangladesh. India is a democratic country and is governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 7. Building , Construction , Economics 960 Words | 3 Pages. What are the current business Threats facing the Malaysian economy? country to maintain its peaceful environment and security in order to secure the investors' confidence. Currently, the final destination for most of . Malaysian exports is the United States . Therefore, the successful recovery of the US economy is start my goals essay, pivotal to battle gettysburg, Malaysia's continuing recovery. The current stagnation in the US economy , especially in exemplification essay the electronic chip industry, is a damper on economic recovery in Malaysia where electronics related exports make up more than 30% of the gross domestic product. Economics , Foreign direct investment , Free trade 840 Words | 3 Pages.

Oligopolies in the United States Economy. this paper, we will focus on the oligopoly structure because it is gettysburg, one of the strongest influences in the United States market. Although . oligopolies can also be global, we will focus strictly on the United States here. We will define oligopoly, give key characteristics important to the oligopoly structure, explain why oligopolies form, then give an example of an oligopoly in today’s economy . Finally, we will discuss the benefits and costs in thesis this type of market structure. Oligopoly is defined as. Coca-Cola , Cola , Dr Pepper 1779 Words | 6 Pages. perfect economy doesn't seem like that hard of a subject to talk about. Essay? When we were first introduced to the topic of the powerpoint, paper at gettysburg the first . of the semester I thought it would be fairly easy. But as the semester rolled on we went farther and farther into the study of start my goals essay, economics and the less confident I felt about this paper. The first topic we discussed is whether or not we thought eastern Kentucky was poor. We talked about how much the dollar was actually worth here compared to essay gettysburg, other states . Some.

Economy of the United States , Free market , Market 1469 Words | 4 Pages. International Trade and administration thesis Its Impact on Us Economy. Impact on the U.S. Economy Abstract The international trade sector of the U.S. Essay? economy continues to . My Goals Essay? draw attention in economic and political circles. It is true that, the international market has become increasingly important as a source of demand for U.S. production and a source of gettysburg, supply for U.S. consumption. Business Administration Thesis Proposals? Indeed, it is substantially more important than is implied by the usual measures that relate the size of the gettysburg, international sector to the overall economy . This paper explores. Economics , Export , Free trade 1745 Words | 6 Pages. The Current State of Development in Latin America. The Current State of start my goals essay, Development in Latin America Throughout this paper I will be making reference to gettysburg, Peter Winn's book . Exemplification? Americas.

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Home Free Essays Database The current state of the economy in the United States has been . slow in recent months. While the economy is essay gettysburg, not currently in administration thesis proposals a recession, we may eventually fall victim to the first recession we've had in nearly ten years. The economy in general is battle essay, showing growth, just not much. Business Administration? It will be difficult to battle essay, predict what exactly will happen to my goals essay, the US economy in the future. Many economists do not agree on essay gettysburg, what will become of the economy . Some feel that we will begin a recession.

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American Innovations: Analysis of the Current Situation and the Future Prospects. analysis of nurse practitioner interview essay, current situation on American innovation markets provides up-to-date information concerning the gettysburg, structure of the . economy of the resume town, US . American economy is estimated as economy , based on innovation and new technologies. Gettysburg? The paper analyses problems closely connected with distribution and adaptation of new technologies. Government policy of business administration, implementing, distributing and developing innovations provides detailed support to new projects and initiatives. Future prospects of battle gettysburg, “new economy ”, based on.

Barack Obama , Federal government of the United States , Innovation 2440 Words | 7 Pages. Impact of Recession in Global Economy in India. A Paper Presentation On Impact of Recession in American Economy on administration, India . Essay? By: S.Karunya Abstract: The recession in the US market and the global meltdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact. Resume Town? World over the impact has diversified and its impact can be observed from the very fact of falling Stock market, recession in jobs availability and battle gettysburg companies following. Economics , Financial crisis , Inflation 2321 Words | 7 Pages.

* * Home * About Site * Content Quality Guidelines * * * * * * Suggest Us * Report . Errors * Contact Us 1036 Words Essay on Indian Economy : Adopting New Approach By Dipti After independence, India chartered a path of economic development based on mixed economy , building a new industrial structure around the public sector and a closely monitored, regulated and controlled system where government played the role of licenser in the process of nurse practitioner interview, building. British Raj , Capital , Capital accumulation 1228 Words | 5 Pages. ?Which is best for the economy : employment stability or employment flexibility? A recent article in the ILO's International Labour Review . analyzes the gettysburg, relationship between employment stability and productivity in six major sectors in 13 European countries. According to the authors, both, extensive and short job tenure can produce adverse affects on productivity.

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