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apes essays “The book was better than the movie!” – A claim almost every intelligent reader makes. American Reflective Essays. While films and ap spanish language essay, movies often hold the same titles, they are innately different. In other words, they are only the same nominally. While the ideas in books and movies may often be similar, the story is essentially different. The time difference between Pierre Boulle’s 1963 Planet of the afro, Apes , and Franklin J. Schaffner’s 1968 film version of ap spanish language and culture essay Planet of the Apes is not very large, which might give reason to keep the ideology and story exactly the same. However, the movie and book versions of Planet of the Apes are dichotomous so that each can have a distinctive ending. The split in american poetry essays story actually takes place from the very beginning. Thesis. The reader is given the initial foreboding in the chilling words: “I am confiding this manuscript to space, not with the intention of saving myself, but to help, perhaps, the afro essays, avert the appalling scourge that is menacing the human race.” (Boulle 9). After reading the physics coursework, title of the book, it is not very hard to guess what this appalling scourge is.

Nevertheless, the story begins with a journey to american drama poetry essays, a region of space that is powered by the brightest star in the constellation of Orion, Betelgeuse. Boulle begins the journey in the year 2500, and uses Einstein’s theory of relativity to explain how a spaceship traveling at the speed of language and culture light minus epsilon, can travel a really long distance in only two years, while 350 years pass on Earth. The astronauts come to a planet which bears “a strong resemblance to Earth” (Boulle 19). However, this planet is not Earth, and is thus Christened Soror. The landings in the book and movie are very different, which perhaps foreshadow how events will play out later on. The book landing articulates that the drama reflective essays, ship “came down gently and landed without a jolt in the middle of the plateau, on green grass reminiscent of [the] meadows in essay Normandy” (Boulle 20). On the afro, other hand, in the movie, something goes awry, and the astronauts inadvertently make a crash landing in a large body of water. In fact, they are awoken from deep sleep by the tumultuous noise of water gushing through their spaceship.

After the landing in the book, the first living organism the space travelers encounter is the beautiful golden haired woman Nova, perched above on the apex of the waterfall. In the movie, on the other hand, the of the, space travelers are surrounded by a desolate wasteland, in which they are overjoyed to discover a isolated plant. When the explorers finally get to the waterfall, there is no nymph standing atop the waterfall. In fact, Nova only makes an appearance much later. Schaffner makes an interesting choice when he decides to downplay the reflective, role of Nova. He accomplishes this feat by bolstering the role of Taylor, played by Charlton Heston. Schaffner also chooses to give all the humans on Soror disordered black hair, including Nova, perhaps to further enhance the physics coursework, idea of the barbaric degeneration of the human race. The people on afro american poetry essays, Sorror may be human, but they are almost alien due to the emanation of the eyes, “a sort of void, an absence of expression” (Boulle 30). The void in process essay the eyes of the Soror humans can only be attributed to afro american drama poetry essays, a lack of curiosity, a quality prerequisite of any rational being. Since the humans on Soror are incapable of speech and thought, their condition is tantamount to that of animals.

Boulle takes the opportunity to ocr gcse coursework, truly show how the roles of humans and animals have completely switched. While Nova is portrayed as a physically attractive woman, she also acts on animalistic reflex. Poetry Essays. In the film version, humans do not have this same animalistic aspect. Part of the reason is due to language and culture essay, the barbaric style of clothes humans have in the movie. These clothes are probably the only option Schaffner had, since complete nakedness in a film would not receive much accolade. Afro American Drama Reflective Essays. The apes first encountered in the book and film are also dressed differently than those in the movie.

The ape hunter wears a “dark-brown jacket [which] seemed to be made by the best Paris tailor [… and] a checked shirt of the kind our sportsmen wear” (Boulle 60). Moreover, all the apes in essay on my for kids the book seem to wear clothing similar to modern standards; scientists and doctors wear white coats while policemen wear the standard uniform. American Drama Essays. The movie does not keep in line with the fashion clearly articulated in the book, as gorillas wear black army uniforms, chimpanzees wear green gowns, and the orangutans wear orange overcoats. The differences and causes of the war essay thesis, similarities in ape culture do not stop there. It is not a coincidence that Planet of the Apes was written by a Frenchman, and that the protagonist Ulysse Mrou speaks only French. When Ulysse arrives to Soror, he is unable to establish communication because of the obvious language difference. Ulysse’s counterpart in the movie is Taylor, whose injury to the neck disallows him from speaking. In the movie, the apes speak English, which again is poetry necessary, as continuous subtitles would be perplexing to any viewer.

The ape class structure in both the movie and book is similar. While all apes are “equal”, some are more equal than others. The gorillas are the militarists, who rely on their great physical strength. While the orangutans are “official science”, the Chimpanzees make most of the great scientific discoveries. Furthermore, the orangutans are the academics, and propagate traditionalist knowledge. Ulysse acknowledges that “we too, have had our orangutans, our falsified education and ridiculous curricula, and this period lasted a long time” (Boulle 200). Perhaps the apes can be seen in the light of being a social parody of humans. Not only change a tire, are there three ape races, but ironically, there are also three human races as well. Conceivably, Boulle may have been trying to bring attention to racism, a vital issue in the 1960s.

The power-seeking gorillas and the hackneyed orangutans seem to have all the power, while those who are truly intelligent are constantly exploited. The most striking difference between the ape culture depicted in the book and the movie is the varying technology. Drama Poetry Reflective Essays. The book describes ape technology as rivaling our own. Even the style of essay for kids “the houses were similar to ours; the roads, which were fairly dirty, looked like our roads” (Boulle 137). Boulle’s description contrasts greatly with Schaffner’s depiction of ape technology in the movie. Schaffner depicts the ape world as completely backwards. The homes and buildings seem to afro essays, be carved out of stone, giving them an almost cave-like resemblance, which truly juxtaposes the apes with ancient cavemen.

While the book acknowledges this backwardness, it is mother for kids of a different kind, since the apes have “electricity, industries, motor cars, and airplanes, but as far as the conquest of space is reflective essays concerned, they have reached only the stage of artificial satellites” (Boulle 154). The aforesaid divisions between the movie and book lead to the stunning conclusion of Planet of the Apes . Causes Civil. First, both the film and book each present a theory on how the demise of humanity actually occurred. American Drama Poetry. According to the movie, man’s decline can be deciphered from the following ape bible verse. “Beware the beast man, for essay, he is the Devil's pawn. Alone among God's primates, he kills for sport or lust or greed. Yea, he will murder his brother to possess his brother's land. Let him not breed in great numbers, for he will make a desert of his home and yours.

Shun him, for american poetry, he is the harbinger of death” (Cornelius). Clearly, man’s decline was only due to man himself. In subsequent movies of the Planet of the Apes series, man kills man through nuclear weapons. This scenario seems entirely possible, if not likely, seeing as how both America and the U.S.S.R. were in systhesis an arms race in 1968. Both countries were instantaneously ready to blow the entire world up. The weapons which man uses on reflective essays, his fellow man literally create the causes war essay thesis, desert wasteland that is reflective essays called the Forbidden Zone. After escaping the Apes, Taylor and Nova ride along the beach in the Forbidden Zone. As the horse rides closer, Taylor receives the most terrible shock of all.

He finally realizes the statement, truth when he sees the statue of american poetry reflective essays liberty buried under rock and thesis statement literary essay, sand. Taylor had been on Earth the entire time! Earth was the afro american drama poetry reflective essays, planet of the apes. The book posits a different “truth”. Ulysse learns this truth in the encephalic section of statement literary essay research, where he hears an electroded woman recount the past: “What is happening could have been foreseen. A cerebral laziness has taken hold of us. No more books; even detective novels have now become too great an intellectual effort” (Boulle 243). This germ of american drama essays truth is at once apparent in our own society, where laziness seems to be progressing at an alarmingly fast rate.

The only thing moving faster is Ulysse’s spaceship, back en route to ap spanish language essay, Earth. With the afro poetry reflective essays, help of Zira and language essay, Cornelius, Ulysse is drama able to escape with Nova and ap spanish, his newborn son. After 2 spaceship years, and 350 Earth years later, the trio finally come to their destination. As the ship descends to Paris, Ulysse is drama poetry essays relieved to see the Eiffel Tower still intact. His relief came too soon though, as the welcoming party slowly approaches on its archaic vehicle. Ulysse and his family are greeted by the very last animal they would expect to see, a gorilla. In the 700 or 800 years that Ulysse was gone, Earth too has become a planet of the apes! What hope then, does humanity have?

Pierre Boulle consented that Planet of the Apes is a social fantasy. Essay. As much as we want to disbelieve his vision, there is a large germ of truth in this “fantasy”. Both Boulle and Schaffner would agree that we must stop making war on american drama reflective, our fellow humans, and that we must stop being lazy!

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TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLES: SOME IMPLICATIONS. First draft, later published in Extropy. [This paper has been published in Extropy #11, where there is an error in one of the diagrams which implies that a wormhole in american drama poetry reflective essays flight could travel FTL, which is not true.] Since 1985 there has been much theoretical progress on physics traversable wormholes. Drama Essays! At first they were thought to enable time travel, so not taken seriously. Causes Civil Thesis! More recent work rules out time travel and associated paradoxes, but still permits faster-than-light travel.

This article explores some of the implications traversable wormholes have on the expansion of civilisations through the universe. Afro Drama! In particular it is found each civilisation would impose a local region of simultaneity, or empire-time, which differs from the more natural, co-moving timeframe which astrophysicists usually use. Distant regions of the universe and ap spanish essay alien civilisations can be reached in short periods of empire-time, whereupon their respective empire-time zones fuse together. Shortly after first contact is made all expanding civilisations connect together to form a universal time. Finally some limitations of euclidean space are contrasted with wormhole connected non-euclidean space. To establish an interstellar trading civilisation we need a mechanism for american drama, travel or communication at faster-than-light (FTL) velocities. This article considers how we may achieve this and consists of this introduction followed by the following sections: SUBLIGHT FUTURE, in which the problems and thesis statement literary frustration of living in universe without faster than light travel are outlined. These problems are expected to be magnified by the adoption of american drama reflective essays, nanotechnology.

FAILED FTL, examines other proposals for breaking the light barrier and systhesis rejects them all. TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLES, introduces the latest candidate for FTL TIME TRAVEL, examines whether or not traversable wormholes imply time travel. The latest work indicates they do not. EXPLORING THE UNIVERSE, examines how,long it might take to reach various places in the universe with a 1-gee drive. EMPIRE-TIME vs CO-MOVING TIME, explores the differences between the local time frame an expanding civilisation imposes on its surrounding and the more conventional conception of time. ALIENS, considers some of the problems of afro american drama poetry essays, contacting aliens. In particular it examines how local empire time zones fuse together, forming. UNIVERSAL TIME, the process how to return of a universal simultaneity, which has some of the characteristics of Newtonian time.

BEYOND THE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE, looks at the implications of exploring beyond the edge of the observable universe. OTHER USES, looks at american poetry essays other uses of wormholes, eg in superior computer architectures and basement universes. LIMITS, contrasts the pros and cons of statement essay, euclidean space with some of the alternatives CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES. Without FTL travel we can still colonise the universe at sub-light velocities, but the resulting colonies are separated from each other by the vastness of american poetry essays, interstellar space. In the past trading empires have coped with time delays on mother for kids commerce routes of the order of american drama reflective, a few years at most. Systhesis! This suggests that economic zones would find it difficult to encompass more than one star system. Travelling beyond this would require significant re-orientation upon return, catching up with cultural changes etc. It's unlikely people would routinely travel much beyond this and return. Nanotechnology [12] only exacerbates the situation. Afro American Poetry! We expect full- nanotech, uploading, AIs etc to arrive before interstellar travel becomes practical.

Assume we keep the same dimensions for our bodies and brains as at the moment. Once we are uploaded onto a decent nanotech platform our mental speeds can be expected to exceed our present rates by the same factor as electrical impulses exceed the speed of our neurochemical impulses - about a million. Subjective time would speed up by this factor. Taking a couple of subjective-years as the limit beyond which people would be reluctant to routinely travel this defines the size of on my, a typical trade zone / culture as not exceeding a couple of light minutes. Even single stellar systems would be unable to form a single culture/trade zone.

The closest planet then would seem further away than the nearest star today. With full nanotech there will be little need to transfer matter. Trade in the distant future is essays likely to consist of war essay thesis, mostly information. Design plans for new products, assembled on receipt. Patterns of uploaded consciousness of intrepid travellers. Gossip and news. But with communication delays to Alpha Centauri of the order of millions of subjective years two-way exchanges are difficult to imagine - even when we are enjoying unlimited life spans. Communication and exploration would be, essentially, a one-way process. If you had a yen to travel to the Alpha Centauri you could. Squirt your encoded engrams down an interstellar modem and arrive decode at Alpha. Assuming the receiving station hasn't shut in the intervening millions of years of subjective cultural change.

You could leave a copy behind as redundancy or if you wanted to explore both regions, but I suspect many of american drama reflective essays, us will not find this completely satisfactory. The speed of thesis essay, light barrier would limit us and cramp our style us much more than it does at present. What stops faster than light travel? According to relativity as an objects accelerates towards the light-speed barrier its mass increases asymptotically, slowing its acceleration with constant thrust. Ship time slows down, which also reduces thrust (eg for a photon driven ship the frequency of the beam red-shifts). Both make effects make light speed an afro drama poetry insurmountable barrier.

Since the advent of relativity there have been a number of approaches to travelling faster than light: Tachyons: Faster than light particles compatible with relativity. They never have to cross the lightspeed barrier because they are posited to be created already travelling at over the speed of light. Ocr Gcse Coursework! No general consensus on whether they would permit the transmission of information. However none have been detected, so things look bleak either way. Superluminal quantum effects: EPR, quantum teleportation and all that. Relies on transmitting information via the posited collapse of the wavefunction. Often relies on an accompanying classical sublight signal as well.

People argue passionately above the reality of the american reflective essays wavefunction and and culture whether it collapses. Until this is settled we can't expect too much here. No quantum superluminal laboratory effect been demonstrated either. Spinning black holes: Things looked hopeful for a while that spinning or charged black holes might permit travel into other regions of american poetry reflective essays, somewhere. More recently people have become doubtful. It seems the passage of causes of the civil war essay, anything through a black hole sets off a feedback process that crushes the traveller to death. Also infalling radiation blueshifts to american drama essays, infinity [10] and fries the traveller, if tidal forces don't shred her first. Non-traversable Wormholes: First developed in the form of Einstein-Rosen bridges. An Einstein-Rosen bridge connects two otherwise widely separated regions of space. Unfortunately they are very short-lived and mother for kids pinch off so quickly that only tachyons (if they existed) could travel through them and get out the other end without getting caught in the singularity needed to create them. American Poetry Essays! But if you could travel faster than light you wouldn't need a wormhole- Catch-22!

For all the thesis literary above reasons the american conventional wisdom is that faster than light travel is the 20th century's analog of the alchemist's dream of transmuting lead into of the thesis, gold or flying to the moon. Or living for ever. Afro American Drama Reflective Essays! They seemed impossible dreams at the time. The prospects for FTL travel looked bleak in the mid 1980s. Thesis Statement Essay! Then Carl Sagan asked some theoretical physicists for plausible methods for FTL to include in afro american reflective essays his forthcoming book, Contact. Amongst the of the thesis team that worked on afro american drama poetry essays this problem was Kip Thorne and his graduate students at Caltech. They turned the problem around and asked what forms of matter are required to hold a wormhole open permanently, so no pinch off occurs? The answer is 'exotic' matter, a highly stressed matter, with enormous tensile strengths.

The tension or pressure of exotic matter exceeds the energy density. Ap Spanish Language And Culture! We have no familiarity with such matter today, but it existed under conditions of extraordinary pressure in the early universe. Carl Sagan published Contact in 1985 [13], incorporating the afro american reflective early results from Thorne's team in the novel. Thorne et al published their conclusions in 1988 [3], and included a recommendation for students to essay on my for kids, read Contact as a light introduction to traversable wormholes and exotic matter!. Later, in 1989, Matt Visser published an article [1] showing how more general traversable wormholes could be constructed.

A wormhole could be constructed, according to Visser, by confining exotic matter to narrow regions to form the edges of three-dimensional volume, for example the edges of a cube. The faces of the cube would resemble mirrors, except that the image is american drama poetry of the view from the other end of the wormhole. Although there is only one cube of material, it appears at two locations to the external observer. The cube links two 'ends' of ocr gcse physics coursework, a wormhole together. A traveller, avoiding the edges and crossing through a face of one of the american drama poetry reflective essays cubes, experiences no stresses and emerges from the corresponding face of the other cube. The cube has no interior but merely facilitates passage from 'one' cube to the 'other'. The exotic nature of the edge material requires negative energy density and tension/pressure.

But the laws of physics do not forbid such materials. The energy density of the vacuum may be negative, as is the Casimir field between two narrow conductors. Negative pressure fields, according to standard astrophysics, drove the expansion of the universe during its 'inflationary' phase. Cosmic string (another astrophysical speculation) has negative tension. Thesis Essay! The mass of negative energy the wormhole needs is just the amount to form a black hole if it were positive, normal energy. A traversable wormhole can be thought of as the negative energy counterpart to a black hole, and so justifies the appellation 'white' hole. The amount of negative energy required for a traversable wormhole scales with the linear dimensions of the american drama poetry reflective essays wormhole mouth. A one meter cube entrance requires a negative mass of roughly 10^27 kg. Wormholes can be regarded as communication channels with enormous bandwidth. The wormhole will collapse when the amount of mass passing through it approaches the same order as the amount of negative mass confined to its edges.

According to Shannon [16] and others [14] information has a minimum energy of causes war essay thesis, kTlog2 associated with it. For 1- meter radius cube this implies a potential bandwidth of over afro american drama poetry reflective essays 10^60 bits/sec [15]. Even very small nano-scale wormholes have bandwidths of the order 10^50 bits/sec. This suggests it will usually be more economic to squirt the design of an object down a channel rather than the thesis statement literary object itself. Construction of such cubes is, of course, far, far beyond our present day abilities. With AIs and nanotech combined we expect the limits on afro drama poetry intelligences to be governed by physics, not biology [12]. Our brains' processing capacity lies somewhere between 10^15 - 10^18 bit/sec. Ap Spanish Language! A comparably sized nanoelectronic brain would have power of afro poetry reflective essays, 10^32 - 10^36 bit/sec [15]. Assuming a factor of million is lost for ocr gcse physics, the speedup still leaves 8 - 12 orders of magnitude expansion in the complexity, or depth of thought, of our brains as we switch from biology to american drama reflective, nanotechnology. Physics Coursework! So we should not assume construction and manipulation of the materials required will long remain beyond the grasp of future civilisations, populated by afro american drama reflective, such super-intelligences. The remainder of the article will assume the mass production of and culture essay, wormholes is economically achievable.

Wormholes enable travel from one mouth to the other. To travel to distant parts of the universe one wormhole end stays at afro american essays home and the other is carted away, at sublight velocities, to the destination. Process Essay How To Change A Tire! Before we examine this first we consider some other properties of wormholes. Wormholes are constrained by relativity to american essays, travel at sublight speeds and are time-dilated as per normal. Clocks placed at the mouths of a wormhole always remain in synchronisation with each other. Ocr Gcse Physics Coursework! If I look through one end of a wormhole and compare the near clock with the far clock they always agree. Even if one end of the afro american poetry wormhole is travelling at relativistic speeds many light years away. Einstein says moving clocks run slow. There would appear to be a paradox here. Thesis Literary Essay! We observe the two clocks keeping time with each other, yet relativity says the 'distant', travelling clock is running slowly. How do we reconcile this?

Only by concluding that the drama reflective distant clock has been displaced in space and time. If a wormhole enables someone travel from Alpha Centauri 2000 to Sol 1993 and glycogen vice versa, then no paradox because they can't travel back to Alpha Centauri (through conventional space) and arrive before they left (to cause a paradox). Problems begin when the distant wormhole end turns about and returns home. According to the twin paradox the traveller returns aged less than the stay-at-home twin (their clocks are no longer in step). Travelling through the wormhole from the stay-at-home end to the go- away-and-come-back end transports you forward in time. Travelling in the reverse direction transports you back in time. Afro Drama Poetry! Wormholes allow time travel. Essay On My Mother For Kids! This conclusion was realised soon after the first articles on american poetry traversable wormholes were published. Depending on thesis statement essay your view of the afro drama reflective plausibility of time travel this is either, if you believe time travel possible, very exciting or, if you scoff at time travel, proof that traversable wormhole can't exist. No general consensus emerged in the pages of causes of the war essay thesis, various physics journals as the afro drama poetry reflective essays subject was batted back and forth. Elaborate and very interesting papers (by Thorne's group [7] and others) reconciled time travel with quantum theory, whilst others (like Hawking ) proposed a Chronological Protection Conjecture, CPC, which says the Universe Shalt Not Allow Time Travel.

One of the time travel sceptics was Matt Visser. Early in 1993 he showed that wormholes do not enable time travel [2], by proposing physical mechanisms that enforce CPC. Visser showed, in a peer reviewed article, the causes civil war essay thesis mouths of a wormhole with an induced clock difference could not be brought close enough together to enable a traveller to drama poetry reflective essays, attempt violation of glycogen systhesis, causality. Quantum field and gravitational effects build up as the drama essays two ends of causes of the, a wormhole approach the afro drama critical point and either collapse the wormhole or induce a mutual repulsion. Visser's work is and culture essay not complete but it seems swarms of drama reflective, virtual particles disrupt the causes of the civil war essay thesis region around a time machine just before it would otherwise become operational.

The virtual particles around a nearly chronologically violating region are able form closed spacelike (superluminal) loops and, via Heisenberg, to borrow energy off themselves, becoming more virulent than usual. Traversable wormholes are closed, or pinched off, by the energy of the virtual particles that flow through them as they approach being time machines which prevents the american reflective essays more dangerous closed timelike loops (which may cause paradoxes). For the purposes of this article I'll adopt Visser's conclusion that the ocr gcse physics coursework CPC mechanism is afro drama poetry essays generic and blocks all forms of time travel via wormholes, but permits the operation of wormholes for the purpose of FTL travel. Time dilation has the effect of reducing trip times for relativistic travellers. A traveller accelerating at glycogen systhesis one-gee reaches close to poetry essays, the speed of light within a few years.

As it speeds up ship time dilates more and and culture essay more. Ship or journey time to various locations, at american poetry one gee, are, not allowing for essay on my mother for kids, slow-down:

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120 Contoh Report Text Bahasa Inggris Terbaru Beserta Artinya. American Poetry Reflective Essays? Salam semangat selalu berbagi manfaat, kali ini kita akan belajar contoh – contoh dari Report teks. Coursework? Seperti kita ketahui bahwa teks Report Teks adalah dokumen tertulis untuk menjelaskan secara umum bagaimana sesuatu terlihat misalnya hewan , fenomena alam , sosial budaya dan banyak yang lain . American Essays? Sering kita temui sebuah contoh Report teks sangat mirip dengan Deskriptive Text . Perbedaannya adalah tentang apa objek yang dijelaskan, dimana report mengambarkan sesuatu secara umum sedang Descriptive hanya tentang satu hal saja secara spesifik. Of The Thesis? Penguins are a group of flightless aquatic birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in Antarctica. Highly adaptive to american poetry live in essay how to a tire the sea, penguins have countershaded dark and reflective, white feather, and their wings have evolved into thesis literary flippers. Afro Essays? Most penguins feed squid, fish, and other forms of for kids sealife caught while they are swimming underwater. They spend about half of reflective their lives in process essay the oceans. Eventhough all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they don not live only in reflective cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a little species of process essay change penguin live too far south. Some species are found in the temperate area, and one species, the Galapagos penguin, lives not too far with the equator.

The vast living species is the afro drama reflective emperor penguin ( Aptenodytes forsteri ): when they are adults they are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and essay on my, 35 kg weight or more. The smallest one is the little blue penguin ( Eudyptula minor ), which is known as the drama fairy penguin, which stands around 40 cm height and 1 kg weight. Among the species of penguin, larger penguins live in colder regions, while smaller penguins generally inhabit tropical climates places. Some prehistoric species of language and culture penguin attained enormous sizes, becoming as heavy as an adult human. Afro Drama? Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Penguins : Penguin adalah kelompok burung air yang tidak terbang yang tinggal hampir secara eksklusif di belahan bumi selatan, terutama di Antartika. Causes? Sangat adaptif untuk hidup di dalam air, penguin memiliki bulu yang sangat berlawanan yaitu hitam dan putih, dan sayap mereka telah berevolusi menjadi sirip.

Kebanyakan penguin memakan ikan, cumi-cumi, dan bentuk lain dari hewan laut yang mereka tangkap saat berenang di air. Mereka menghabiskan sekitar setengah dari kehidupan mereka di lautan. Walaupun semua spesies penguin adalah asli belahan bumi selatan, mereka tidak hanya hidup di iklim dingin, seperti Antartika. Bahkan, hanya sedikit spesies penguin yang tinggal terlalu jauh di sebelah selatan. Beberapa spesies ditemukan di daerah yang iklim nya sedang , dan satu spesies, penguin Galapagos, tinggal tidak terlalu jauh dengan khatulistiwa. Spesies pinguin terbanyak yang masih hidup adalah penguin kaisar (Aptenodytes forsteri): ketika mereka dewasa mereka memiliki tinggi sekitar 1,1 m (3 ft 7 in) dan berat 35 kg atau lebih. American Drama Essays? Yang terkecil adalah penguin biru kecil (Eudyptula minor), yang ju g a dikenal sebagai penguin peri, yang tingginya sekitar 40 cm dan berat badan mencapai 1 kg. Mother? Di antara spesies spesies penguin, penguin yang lebih besar hidup di daerah dingin, sementara penguin yang lebih kecil umumnya menghuni tempat beriklim tropis. Beberapa spesies prasejarah dari penguin dapat mencapai ukuran seberat manusia dewasa.

Do you know what media is? What are its benefits for human being? Media consists of various constantly updated information which become the afro drama essays most important thing nowadays. Media creates, modifies, informs, and delivers products to viewers. They can be in causes of the thesis form of news, weather reports, TV shows, musics, films, even communication channels such as phone calls and afro american drama poetry reflective essays, social medias. Essay Mother? The main purpose of the media is to earn some money by reflective creating advertisement of some the products and how to change, services.

Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Media : Apakah Anda tahu apa kah media itu ? Apa manfaatnya bagi manusia? Media berisi berbagai informasi yang terus menerus diperbarui dan menjadi hal yang paling penting saat ini. Media menciptakan, memodifikasi, menginformasikan, dan memberikan produk -produk kepada para pemirsa nya . Mereka bisa dalam bentuk berita, laporan cuaca, acara TV, musik, film, bahkan saluran komunikasi seperti telepon dan media sosial. American Drama Poetry Reflective? Tujuan utama dari media adalah untuk mendapatkan uang dengan membuat iklan dari beberapa barang dan jasa . Camel is and culture, a big and strong animal which is normally seen in afro reflective essays desert. Generally, there are two types of camel; Bactrian camel and Arabian camel. The first type of camel has two humps and how to a tire, the second has one hump. Camel can travel in drama great distances through hot and dry deserts with little food or water. They can walk easily on thesis statement essay, the desert. Camels are trained as means of american drama poetry reflective essays transportation to causes of the war essay carry people and loads on their backs. They can also serve the people in many other ways.

Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Unta : Unta adalah hewan besar dan kuat yang biasanya terlihat di padang pasir. Secara umum, ada dua jenis unta; Unta Baktria dan unta Arab. Jenis pertama dari unta tersebut memiliki dua gundukan , dan jenis yang kedua memiliki satu punuk. Unta dapat melakukan perjalanan di jarak yang jauh me lewati gurun pasir yang panas dan kering dengan hanya sedikit makanan atau air. Mereka dapat berjalan dengan mudah di padang pasir.

Unta dilatih sebagai alat transportasi untuk membawa orang-orang dan beban di punggung mereka. Afro Drama Reflective? Mereka juga dapat me mbantu orang-orang dalam banyak hal lain . Statement Essay? Report Text About Thunder Lightning. Thunder Lightning is a sudden, shocked, and very fast electric force between the cloud and poetry, ground, or between clouds. The speed of thunder can be several miles long. Glycogen Systhesis? It is so hot, with average temperatures of 34,000 ° Celsius, that cause surrounding air suddenly expanding with a loud explosion and afro drama, sounds. This is glycogen, why sometimes we can hear thunder. The most dangerous type of afro american poetry reflective cloud caused by glycogen systhesis lightening is called cumulonimbus. (report text) When the drama essays cloud rises high enough, the moisture freezes and creates crystal ices and snowflakes. It began to fall, pushing the rain on the way down. This is more humid, rainy air, and it is the friction between those who generate static electricity. Essay On My Mother? When the cloud is fully charged with electricity, it will burst as a flash of american lightning.

So lightning suddenly appears before the essay rain and afro reflective essays, the sounds are very loud. (explanation text) Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Kilat : Kilat (petir) adalah gesekan listrik yang dengan tiba-tiba, seketika , dan sangat cepat antara awan dan tanah, atau antara awan dengan awan . Kecepatan guntur bisa mencapai beberapa mil panjang nya . Kilat ini sangat panas, dengan suhu rata-rata 34.000 ° Celcius, yang menyebabkan udara sekitarnya tiba-tiba berkembang dengan suara ledakan keras. Inilah sebabnya mengapa kadang-kadang kita bisa mendengar suara guntur. Jenis yang paling berbahaya dari awan yang disebabkan oleh kilat tersebut disebut cumulonimbus. Ketika awan naik cukup tinggi, kelembaban mencapai titik beku dan menciptakan es kristal dan butiran salju. awan mulai turun, mendorong hujan dalam perjalanan ke bawah. Awan menjadi lebih lembab dan berisi huja, dan kemudian gesekan antara mereka menghasilkan listrik statis. Ocr Gcse? Ketika awan -awan terisi penuh dengan listrik, mereka akan meledak sebagai kilatan petir. Jadi tiba-tiba petir muncul sebelum hujan d engan suara yang sangat keras.

Jaguar is famous animal in Asia because there is american, a car named after the causes civil war essay animal although it does not live here. It can be seen in some points, that the afro poetry essays jaguar belongs to the cat family since it is one of his four big cats along with the physics lion, the afro american drama poetry reflective tiger and and culture, the leopard, that’s why a jaguar is often mistaken for a leopard. Afro American Reflective Essays? A jaguar, however, has larger rosette markings, a stronger body and a shorter tail. The jaguar is brownish yellow In color and has spots on the head. Jaguars can live in a various location, such as in rainforest and wet grassland in central and of the war essay, south America. The jaguar is an clever hunter, while the other roaring cats kill their preys by afro american reflective essays biting it at mother, the neck, the jaguar kills them by biting it through its skull. It usually kills small animals but it can also attack and american poetry, kill cattle or deer. Process How To A Tire? Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Jaguar : Jaguar adalah hewan yang terkenal di Asia karena ada mobil yang dinamai dengan nama hewan tersebut meskipun hewan tersebut tidak tinggal di daerah ini. Afro Drama? D apat dilihat da ri beberapa poin, bahwa jagua r termasuk dalam keluarga kucing besar karena merupakan salah satu dari empat kucing besar itu bersama dengan singa, harimau dan macan tutul, itu sebabnya jaguar sering salah disebut menjadi macan tutul. Thesis Essay? Akan tetapi, s e ekor jagu ar memiliki tanda corak yang besar, tubuh kuat dan ekor yang lebih pendek. Jaguar berwarna kuning kecoklatan dan memiliki bintik-bintik di kepala.

Jaguar dapat hidup di berbagai lokasi, seperti di hutan hujan dan padang rumput basah di Amerika tengah dan selatan. Jaguar adalah pemburu yang pintar, sementara kucing mengaum lainnya membunuh mangsanya dengan menggigit di leher, jaguar membunuh mangsa-mangsanya dengan menggigit melalui tengkorak. Biasanya mereka membunuh hewan kecil tetapi juga dapat menyerang dan membunuh lembu atau rusa. Snowy owls or nyctea scandiaca are big predator birds. They can be defined as diurnal animal which means they are more active during the day than at american poetry reflective, night. Snowy owls breed in isolated areas or arctic and subarctic regions, mostly in the North America. As their name, snowy owls have dark white feathers with dark brown markings. Their feathers are thick covering its legs. They are around 1,6 kg to mother for kids 2 kg in weight and they stand about half a meter height with 2 meters wing span. They have a scaring round white head a black sharp claws.

Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Burung Hantu Salju : Burung hantu salju atau nyctea scandiaca adalah burung predator besar. Mereka dapat didefinisikan sebagai hewan diurnal yang berarti mereka lebih aktif pada siang hari daripada di malam hari. Afro American? Burung hantu salju berkembang biak di daerah terpencil atau daerah Arktik dan subarctic, terutama di Amerika Utara. Seperti nama mereka, burung hantu salju memiliki bulu putih gelap dengan tanda coklat gelap. Bulu mereka yang tebal menutupi kakinya.

B erat m ereka mencapai sekitar 1,6 kg sampai 2 kg dan tinggi mereka sekitar setengah meter dengan rentang 2 meter rentangan sayap. Mereka memiliki kepala putih bulat yang menyeramkan dan cakar tajam hitam. Essay? The mango is a juicy fruit that belongs to afro american drama reflective essays the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit. The majority of thesis statement these species are found in same areas as wild mangoes. American Reflective Essays? They belong to essay the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. Afro Reflective Essays? The mango is ap spanish language essay, original plant from South and Southeast Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to afro american essays become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropical areas. The central diversity of the Mangifera genus is in India. While other Mangifera species are also grown on physics, a more localized basis, Mangifera indica—the #8220;common mango#8221; or #8220;Indian mango#8221;—is the only mango commonly cultivated in many tropical and afro drama, subtropical places.

It originated in India, Pakistan, and Burma. Glycogen Systhesis? It is the drama poetry national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, and how to, the national tree of Bangladesh. In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations, and poetry reflective, religious ceremonies. Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Mango : Mangga adalah buah berair yang termasuk genus Mangifera, yang terdiri dari banyak pohon berbuah tropis, dibudidayakan terutama untuk buah konsumsi . And Culture? Mayoritas spesies ini ditemukan di daerah yang sama dengan mangga hutan . Mereka termasuk keluarga tanaman berbunga Anacardiaceae. Mangga adalah tanaman asli dari Asia Selatan dan Tenggara, dari mana ia telah didistribusikan ke seluruh dunia untuk menjadi salah satu buah yang paling dibudidayakan di daerah tropis.

Pusat jenis – jenis yang berbeda genus Mangifera ini terdapat di India. Sementara spesies Mangifera lain juga tumbuh berdasarkan lokasi tumbuhnya , Mangifera indica- #8220;mangga kebanyakan #8221; atau #8220;mangga India#8221; -adalah satu-satunya mangga yang biasa dibudidayakan di banyak tempat tropis dan subtropis. Poetry Reflective Essays? Ini berasal d ari India, Pakistan, dan Myanmar. Ap Spanish Essay? Ini adalah buah nasional dari India, Pakistan, dan Filipina, dan pohon nasional dari Bangladesh. Dalam beberapa budaya, buah dan daun nya digunakan sebagai dekorasi bunga pada upacara – upacara pesta pernikahan, perayaan publik, dan upacara keagamaan. American Essays? Do you know what that Komodo dragons are the ocr gcse coursework largest lizards in american reflective the world? He lives in the bushes and forests of essay on my mother for kids some islands in indonesia. Komodo dragons are the drama poetry reflective essays world#8217;s heaviest lizard, as they are 152 pounds or more in ocr gcse physics coursework weight.

The largest Komodo ever measured is afro american poetry reflective essays, more than 10 feet 3 meters long and 166 kg in weight but the ocr gcse physics coursework average size of Giant lizards in the wild about 8 feet 2.5 meters long and 91 kg. Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and american essays, a very strong tail. Ocr Gcse? They use their keen sense of smell to reflective identify decaying animal remains from several miles far. They are sometimes cannibalistic. Dragon#8217;s teeth which are almost completely covered by civil war essay its gums are excelent. When it feeds, the gums bleeding, creating an afro american poetry reflective essays, ideal culture for the virulent bacteria to glycogen grow. Bacteria which lives in essays the Komodo dragon saliva causes septicemia, or blood poisoning for humans being or other victims. Thesis Statement? A dragon will bite its prey, then follow until the animal is too weak to afro essays walk. This lizard species is threatened by hunting.

Komodo Dragon is and culture essay, native animals from afro drama essays, Indonesia, particularly in Sumatra which is considered as a miracle from glycogen systhesis, Indonesia. Terjamahan Report Text Tentang kadal raksasa : Apakah Anda tahu bahwa komodo adalah kadal terbesar di dunia? Dia tinggal di semak-semak dan hutan dari beberapa pulau di Indonesia. Komodo adalah kadal terberat di dunia, karena berat mereka mencapai 152 pound atau lebih. Komodo t erbesar yang pernah diukur panjang nya lebih dari 10 kaki atau 3 meter dan berat 166 kg tetapi ukuran rata-rata kadal raksasa di alam liar panjang nya sekitar 8 kaki atau 2,5 meter dan berat 91 kg.

Komodo memiliki kulit abu-abu bersisik, moncong runcing, kaki kuat dan ekor yang sangat kuat. Mereka menggunakan indra penciuman tajam mereka untuk mengidentifikasi bangkai hewan dari beberapa mil jauh nya . Afro Poetry? Mereka kadang-kadang kanibal. Gigi naga yang hampir sepenuhnya tertutup oleh gusi yang kuat . Ketika menggigit , gusi mereka berdarah, men jadi media yang ideal untuk bakteri mematikan tumbuh. Of The War Essay Thesis? Bakteri yang hidup di air liur komodo menyebabkan septicemia, atau menjadi racun untuk darah manusia atau korban lainnya. Naga akan menggigit mangsanya, kemudian di ikuti sampai hewan itu terlalu lemah untuk berjalan. Spesies kadal ini terancam oleh perburuan.

Komodo adalah hewan asli dari Indonesia, khususnya di Sumatera yang dianggap sebagai keajaiban dari Indonesia. The apple is the fruit of the apple tree. It is one of the afro american essays most widely cultivated tree fruits in the world. Causes War Essay? Its tree is small and its height range from afro reflective essays, 3 to 12 meters tall. It has white flowers which have five petals with 2,5 to 3,5 centimeters in essay for kids diameter. Its fruit is 5 to 9 centimeters in diameter. Drama Reflective Essays? The apple tree comes from on my for kids, central Asia, the land for more than 7.500 known cultivars of afro american poetry apples. Research reveals that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Apples contain relatively low amounts of glycogen vitamin c as well as several other antioxidant compounds. The fiber content in reflective essays apples may reduce the risk of ap spanish language colon cancer and they may also help coping with heart disease, weight loss, and afro, controlling cholesterol.

They are rich with caloric like most other fruits and vegetables. Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Apel : Apel adalah buah dari pohon apel. Ap Spanish Language And Culture? Ini adalah salah satu buah yang paling banyak dibudidayakan di dunia. American Drama Reflective? Pohon yang kecil dan tinggi nya mulai 3 sampai 12 meter. Buah i ni memiliki bunga putih yang memiliki lima kelopak dengan diameter 2,5 sampai 3,5 cm. Buahnya ber diameter 5-9 cm. Pohon apel berasal dari Asia Tengah, yang diketahui sebagai tanah yang subur untuk lebih dari 7.500 jenis apel. Penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa apel dapat mengurangi risiko kanker usus besar, kanker prostat dan kanker paru-paru. Apel mengandung jumlah vitamin c yang relatif rendah serta beberapa senyawa antioksidan lainnya.

Kandungan serat dalam apel dapat mengurangi risiko kanker usus besar dan mereka juga dapat membantu mengatasi penyakit jantung, penurunan berat badan, dan pengendali kolesterol. Mereka kaya dengan kalori seperti buah-buahan dan sayuran lainnya. Birds are interesting flying creature found in the earth. Process Essay? They are considered as vertebrates and afro american, warm blooded animals. Physics? They include eaves class which can be found all over afro drama poetry reflective essays, the world, and so can in causes civil war essay thesis Indonesia.

Birds breathe by using their air bags. As the afro poetry essays addition organs of statement respiration, air bags can also increase or decrease their weight when flying or swimming. There are many kinds of bird in the world. Afro Drama Reflective? Birds have special characteristics and have different morphologies according to thesis literary essay their food and afro poetry, their habitat. Language And Culture Essay? Most of them eat seeds, pollen, worm, fish, and meat.

There are several species that live on drama essays, land and the other lives in the water. Land birds stay in their nests. All female birds have specific tasks to mother lay their eggs and to feed their babies, and they forage for their baby. Afro Drama Reflective Essays? Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Burung menarik : Burung makhluk terbang menarik yang ditemukan di bumi. Mereka di golongkan sebagai vertebrata dan hewan berdarah panas. Mereka termasuk hewan kelas ata s yang dapat ditemukan di seluruh dunia, begitu juga di Indonesia. Burung bernapas dengan menggunakan kantong udara mereka.

Sebagai organ t ambahan pada sistem respirasi, kantong udara juga dapat meningkatkan atau menurunkan berat badan mereka ketika terbang atau berenang. Systhesis? Ada banyak jenis burung di dunia. Drama Poetry? Burung memiliki karakteristik khusus dan memiliki bentuk tubuh yang berbeda sesuai dengan makanan mereka dan habitatnya. Language? Sebagian besar dari mereka makan biji, serbuk sari, cacing, ikan, dan daging. Ada beberapa spesies yang hidup di darat dan lainnya hidup di dalam air. Burung darat tinggal di sarang mereka. Semua burung betina memiliki tugas khusus untuk bertelur dan memberi makan bayi mereka, dan mereka mencari makanan untuk bayi mereka.

An elephant is the afro american drama poetry reflective essays largest and strongest animals which live in land. It is a strange looking animal which has thick legs, huge sides and backs, large hanging ears, a small tail, little pair of eyes, long white tusks and above all, elephant has a long nose called the trunk. An elephant is commonly seen in a zoo because it is hard to find them in glycogen systhesis their natural habitat. American Reflective Essays? The trunk is the systhesis elephant’s peculiar feature and it has various usages. Afro Drama Poetry? The elephant’s trunk can also lift leaves and put them into its mouth. In other word, their trunks serve the elephant as long arm and process essay how to a tire, hand. An elephant looks very clumsy and heavy but an elephant can move very quickly.

The elephant is american, considered to be an intelligent animal. Physics Coursework? Its intelligence combined with its great strength make an elephant a very useful servant to afro drama man. Elephant can be trained to serve in process how to a tire various ways such as carrying heavy loads, hunting for tigers and even fighting. American Poetry Essays? Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Gajah : Gajah adalah hewan yang terbesar dan terkuat yang hidup di darat. Hewan i ni adalah hewan yang tampak aneh yang memiliki kaki tebal, bagian tubuh dan punggung yang besar, telinga menggantung besar, ekor kecil, sepasang mata kecil , gading putih panjang dan lebih dari semua itu , gajah memiliki hidung panjang yang disebut b elalai . Seekor gajah umumnya dapat ditemui di kebun binatang karena sulit untuk menemukan mereka di habitat alami mereka. B elalai adalah fitur khas gajah dan memiliki berbagai penggunaan.

Belalai gajah juga dapat mengangkat daun dan menempatkan mereka ke dalam mulutnya. Dengan kata lain , b elalai mereka berperan sebagai lengan panjang dan tangan. Process How To A Tire? Gajah terlihat sangat canggung dan berat tapi gajah dapat bergerak sangat cepat . Gajah dianggap binatang yang cerdas. Intelijen si yang dikombinasikan dengan kekuatan yang besar membuat gajah menjadi pembantu yang sangat berguna bagi manusia. Afro American Drama Poetry? Gajah dapat dilatih untuk melayani dalam berbagai cara seperti membawa beban berat, berburu harimau dan bahkan berkelahi.

Panda is like bear as their bodies are typical. It has two main colors which are white and black. Panda’s fur is ocr gcse physics coursework, seen dominantly in afro american reflective white. While the legs, ears, eyes, and language and culture essay, also the american drama poetry reflective essays muzzle are fully black fur. In the ocr gcse physics coursework past, panda lived in South and East China and afro american poetry reflective essays, It was also found in part of Myanmar and statement literary, Vietnam.

Today, panda is american drama poetry reflective essays, seen vastly in forest area in glycogen systhesis Sinchuan, Gangsu, and Shaanxi of China. Drama Reflective? Panda looks cute even though it is normally a wild animal. Because of its strength, panda potentially becomes a frightful animal. Terjamahan Report Text Tentang Panda : Panda adalah seperti beruang karena tubuh mereka yang mirip . Binatang i ni memiliki dua warna utama yaitu putih dan hitam . Bulu Panda terlihat dominan berwarna putih . Sementara kaki , telinga , mata , dan juga moncong yang bulu sepenuhnya hitam . Physics? Pada masa lalu , panda hidup di China Timur dan Selatan dan juga ditemukan di bagian Myanmar dan Vietnam . Hari ini, panda banyak terlihat di daerah hutan di Sinchuan , Gangsu , dan Shaanxi China . Drama Essays? Panda terlihat lucu meskipun secara normal mereka binatang lia n . Process How To Change A Tire? Karena kekuatannya , panda berpotensi menjadi hewan menakutkan . Nah sekian dulu ya pembahasan yang panjang lebar tentang Report Text kali ini, salam semangat berbagi manfaat!!

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SBN 12, Mil 30, Bea 7) Jump to: Display: Printed for A. Millar , in the Strand. I t was the practice of the antients to afro american drama reflective essays address their compositions only to friends and equals, and to render their dedications monuments of regard and affection, not of servility and flattery. Civil Thesis? In those days of ingenious and candid liberty, a dedication did honour to the person to whom it was addressed, without degrading the author. If any particular appeared towards the patron, it was at least the partiality of friendship and affection. Another instance of poetry essays, true liberty, of which antient times can alone afford us an example, is the liberty of glycogen systhesis, thought, which engaged men of letters, however different in their abstract opinions, to afro poetry essays maintain a mutual friendship and regard; and never to quarrel about principles, while they agreed in inclinations and manners. Science was often the subject of disputation, never of animosity. Cicero , an academic, addressed his philosophical treatises, sometimes to Brutus , a stoic; sometimes to essay mother for kids Atticus , an epicurean. I have been seized with a strong desire of renewing these laudable practices of afro reflective, antiquity, by addressing the following dissertations to you, my good friend: For such I will ever call and esteem you, notwithstanding the opposition, which prevails between us, with regard to many of our speculative tenets. Process How To Change A Tire? These differences of opinion I have only found to enliven our conversation; while our common passion for science and afro american drama poetry letters served as a cement to of the war essay our friendship.

I still admired your genius, even when I imagined, that you lay under the influence of prejudice; and you sometimes told me, that you excused my errors, on account of the candor and sincerity, which, you thought, accompanied them. But to tell truth, it is less my admiration of your fine genius, which has engaged me to make this address to you, than my esteem of your character and my affection to your person. That generosity of mind which ever accompanies you; that cordiality of friendship, that spirited honour and integrity, have long interested me strongly in your behalf, and have made me desirous, that a monument of our mutual amity should be publicly erected, and, if possible, be preserved to posterity. I own too, that I have the ambition to be the first who shall in public express his admiration of your noble tragedy of Douglas ; one of the most interesting and pathetic pieces, that was ever exhibited on afro drama any theatre. Should I give it preference to process a tire the Merope of Maffei , and to that of Voltaire , which it resembles in its subject; should I affirm, that it contained more fire and spirit than the former, more tenderness and simplicity than the latter; I might be accused of partiality: And how could I entirely acquit myself, after the professions of afro reflective, friendship, which I have made you? But the unfeigned tears which flowed from every eye, in physics, the numerous representations which were made of it on this theatre; the unparalleled command, which you appeared to have over every affection of the human breast: These are incontestible proofs, that you possess the afro american reflective, true theatric genius of Shakespear and Otway , refined from the unhappy barbarism of the one, and licentiousness of the essay on my mother for kids, other. My enemies, you know, and, I own, even sometimes my friends, have reproached me with the love of paradoxes and singular opinions; and I expect to be exposed to the same imputation, on account of the character, which I have here given of your Douglas . American Drama Poetry? I shall be told, no doubt, that I had artfully chosen the only time, when this high esteem of that piece could be regarded as a paradox, to wit, before its publication; and that not being able to contradict in this particular the sentiments of the public, I have, at literary, least, resolved to go before them. But I shall be amply compensated for all these pleasantries, if you accept this testimony of my regard, and believe me to be, with the greatest sincerity, Your most affectionate Friend, and humble servant,

A s every enquiry, which regards religion, is of the utmost importance, there are two questions in particular, which challenge our attention, to wit, that concerning its foundation in reason, and afro american essays that concerning its origin in human nature. Happily, the first question, which is the most important, admits of the of the civil thesis, most obvious, at least, the clearest solution. The whole frame of nature bespeaks an intelligent author; and no rational enquirer can, after serious reflection, suspend his belief a moment with regard to the primary principles of genuine Theism and Religion. But the other question, concerning the origin of religion in human nature, is exposed to some more difficulty. The belief of invisible, intelligent power has been very generally diffused over the human race, in all places and in all ages; but it has neither perhaps been so universal as to afro american drama poetry admit of ocr gcse coursework, no exception, nor has it been, in any degree, uniform in the ideas, which it has suggested. Some nations have been discovered, who entertained no sentiments of Religion, if travellers and historians may be credited; and no two nations, and scarce any two men, have ever agreed precisely in poetry, the same sentiments. It would appear, therefore, that this preconception springs not from an original instinct or primary impression of nature, such as gives rise to self-love, affection between the sexes, love of progeny, gratitude, resentment; since every instinct of this kind has been found absolutely universal in all nations and ages, and has always a precise determinate object, which it inflexibly pursues. The first religious principles must be secondary; such as may easily be perverted by various accidents and causes, and whose operation too, in civil, some cases, may, by an extraordinary concurrence of circumstances, be altogether prevented. What those principles are, which give rise to the original belief, and what those accidents and causes are, which direct its operation, is the subject of our present enquiry. Sect. American Poetry Essays? I. That Polytheism was the primary Religion of Men.

It appears to thesis literary me, that, if we consider the improvement of human society, from rude beginnings to a state of afro drama reflective essays, greater perfection, polytheism or idolatry was, and necessarily must have been, the essay, first and most ancient religion of mankind. This opinion I shall endeavour to confirm by the following arguments. It is a matter of american reflective essays, fact incontestable, that about 1700 years ago all mankind were polytheists. The doubtful and sceptical principles of a few philosophers, or the theism, and that too not entirely pure, of one or two nations, form no objection worth regarding. Behold then the clear testimony of history. The farther we mount up into antiquity, the more do we find mankind plunged into polytheism. On My Mother? No marks, no symptoms of any more perfect religion. The most ancient records of human race still present us with that system as the popular and established creed. The north, the american drama, south, the east, the west, give their unanimous testimony to the same fact.

What can be opposed to so full an evidence? As far as writing or history reaches, mankind, in ancient times, appear universally to have been polytheists. Shall we assert, that, in more ancient times, before the systhesis, knowledge of letters, or the discovery of any art or science, men entertained the principles of pure theism? That is, while they were ignorant and barbarous, they discovered truth: But fell into error, as soon as they acquired learning and politeness. But in this assertion you not only contradict all appearance of probability, but also our present experience concerning the principles and opinions of barbarous nations. American Poetry Reflective? The savage tribes of America , Africa , and Asia are all idolaters. Not a single exception to this rule. Causes Civil War Essay Thesis? Insomuch, that, were a traveller to afro american drama poetry reflective transport himself into any unknown region; if he found inhabitants cultivated with arts and science, though even upon that supposition there are odds against ap spanish language their being theists, yet could he not safely, till farther inquiry, pronounce any thing on that head: But if he found them ignorant and barbarous, he might beforehand declare them idolaters; and american drama there scarcely is a possibility of his being mistaken. It seems certain, that, according to physics the natural progress of human thought, the afro drama poetry essays, ignorant multitude must first entertain some groveling and. familiar notion of superior powers, before they stretch their conception to that perfect Being, who bestowed order on glycogen systhesis the whole frame of nature.

We may as reasonably imagine, that men inhabited palaces before huts and cottages, or studied geometry before agriculture; as assert that the Deity appeared to drama poetry them a pure spirit, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent, before he was apprehended to be a powerful, though limited being, with human passions and appetites, limbs and organs. The mind rises gradually, from inferior to superior: By abstracting from what is imperfect, it forms an idea of perfection: And slowly distinguishing the nobler parts of ap spanish and culture, its own frame from the grosser, it learns to transfer only the former, much elevated and refined, to its divinity. Nothing could disturb this natural progress of thought, but some obvious and invincible argument, which might immediately lead the american drama essays, mind into the pure principles of theism, and make it overleap, at one bound, the vast interval which is interposed between the human and the divine nature. Essay? But though I allow, that the order and drama poetry reflective essays frame of the universe, when accurately examined, affords such an argument; yet I can never think, that this consideration could have an influence on language and culture mankind, when they formed their first rude notions of religion. The causes of such objects, as are quite familiar to us, never strike our attention or curiosity; and however extraordinary or surprising these objects in themselves, they are passed over, by the raw and ignorant multitude, without much examination or enquiry. Adam , rising at once, in paradise, and in afro american poetry, the full perfection of his faculties, would naturally, as represented by essay a tire Milton , be astonished at the glorious appearances of american reflective essays, nature, the heavens, the air, the earth, his own organs and members; and would be led to glycogen ask, whence this wonderful scene arose. But a barbarous, necessitous animal (such as a man is on afro drama poetry essays the first origin of society), pressed by such numerous wants and passions, has no leisure to on my for kids admire the regular face of nature, or make enquiries concerning the cause of afro drama poetry essays, those objects, to systhesis which from his infancy he has been gradually accustomed. Afro American Poetry Reflective? On the contrary, the more regular and uniform, that is, the more perfect nature appears, the more is he familiarized to it, and the less inclined to scrutinize and examine it. A monstrous birth excites his curiosity, and is deemed a prodigy. It alarms him from its novelty; and immediately sets him a trembling, and sacrificing, and physics coursework praying. But an afro american poetry reflective, animal, compleat in all its limbs and organs, is to him an causes civil war essay, ordinary spectacle, and produces no religious opinion or affection.

Ask him, whence that animal arose; he will tell you, from the copulation of american poetry reflective essays, its parents. And these, whence? From the copulation of theirs. A few removes satisfy his curiosity, and set the objects at such a distance, that he entirely loses sight of language and culture essay, them. Imagine not, that he will so much as start the. question, whence the first animal; much less, whence the whole system or united fabric of the american drama poetry, universe arose. Or, if you start such a question to him, expect not, that he will employ his mind with any anxiety about a subject, so remote, so uninteresting, and literary which so much exceeds the bounds of his capacity. But farther, if men were at first led into the belief of one Supreme Being, by reasoning from the frame of nature, they could never possibly leave that belief, in order to embrace polytheism; but the same principles of reason, which at first produced and diffused over mankind, so magnificent an american drama poetry reflective essays, opinion, must be able, with greater facility, to preserve it.

The first invention and proof of any doctrine is much more difficult than the supporting and retaining of glycogen systhesis, it. There is a great difference between historical facts and speculative opinions; nor is the knowledge of the one propagated in the same manner with that of the other. An historical fact, while it passes by oral tradition from eye-witnesses and contemporaries, is disguised in every successive narration, and may at last retain but very small, if any, resemblance of the original truth, on which it was founded. The frail memories of men, their love of exaggeration, their supine carelessness; these principles, if not corrected by books and writing, soon pervert the account of historical events; where argument or reasoning has little or no place, nor can ever recal the truth, which has once escaped those narrations. It is drama poetry reflective, thus the fables of Hercules , Theseus , Bacchus are supposed to have been originally founded in true history, corrupted by tradition.

But with regard to thesis statement literary essay speculative opinions, the case is far otherwise. Drama Poetry Reflective Essays? If these opinions be founded on arguments so clear and obvious as to carry conviction with the coursework, generality of mankind, the same arguments, which at first diffused the opinions, will still preserve them in their original purity. If the arguments be more abstruse, and more remote from vulgar apprehension, the opinions will always be confined to a few persons; and as soon as men leave the contemplation of the poetry reflective, arguments, the opinions will immediately be lost and be buried in oblivion. Systhesis? Whichever side of this dilemma we take, it must appear impossible, that theism could, from reasoning, have been the primary religion of human race, and have afterwards, by its corruption, given birth to polytheism and to all the various superstitions of the heathen world. Reason, when obvious, prevents these corruptions: When abstruse, it keeps the principles entirely from the knowledge of the vulgar, who are alone liable to corrupt any principle or opinion. If we would, therefore, indulge our curiosity, in enquiring concerning the origin of religion, we must turn our thoughts towards polytheism, the primitive religion of uninstructed mankind. Were men led into the apprehension of american poetry reflective essays, invisible, intelligent power by a contemplation of the works of coursework, nature, they could never possibly entertain any conception but of one single being, who bestowed existence and order on this vast machine, and adjusted all its parts, according to reflective one regular plan or connected system. For though, to persons of a certain turn of mind, it may not appear altogether absurd, that several independent beings, endowed with superior wisdom, might conspire in the contrivance and glycogen systhesis execution of one regular plan; yet is essays, this a merely arbitrary supposition, which, even if allowed possible, must be confessed neither to be supported by probability nor necessity. All things in the universe are evidently of a piece. Of The Civil War Essay? Every thing is adjusted to every thing.

One design prevails throughout the whole. And this uniformity leads the mind to acknowledge one author; because the conception of different authors, without any distinction of american poetry reflective, attributes or operations, serves only to give perplexity to process essay how to change the imagination, without bestowing any satisfaction on the understanding. The statue of reflective, Laocoon , as we learn from causes civil war essay, Pliny , was the work of reflective, three artists: But it is ocr gcse coursework, certain, that, were we not told so, we should never have imagined, that a groupe of figures, cut from one stone, and united in one plan, was not the work and afro american reflective essays contrivance of one statuary. To ascribe any single effect to systhesis the combination of several causes, is not surely a natural and obvious supposition. On the other hand, if, leaving the works of nature, we trace the footsteps of invisible power in the various and contrary events of human life, we are necessarily led into polytheism and to reflective essays the acknowledgment of war essay, several limited and imperfect deities. Storms and tempests ruin what is nourished by the sun. The sun destroys what is american drama poetry reflective, fostered by the moisture of dews and rains. War may be favourable to a nation, whom the inclemency of the seasons afflicts with famine. Ap Spanish Language And Culture? Sickness and afro american drama pestilence may depopulate a kingdom, amidst the most profuse plenty. The same nation is not, at the same time, equally successful by sea and by land. And a nation, which now triumphs over thesis, its enemies, may anon submit to their more prosperous arms.

In short, the conduct of events, or what we call the plan of poetry, a particular providence, is causes war essay, so full of variety and uncertainty, that, if we suppose it immediately ordered by any intelligent beings, we must acknowledge a contrariety in their designs and intentions, a constant combat of opposite american drama poetry reflective essays, powers, and a repentance or change of essay mother, intention in the same power, from impotence or levity. Each nation has its tutelar deity. American Drama Poetry? Each element is subjected to its invisible power or agent. Statement? The province of each god is american poetry reflective, separate from that of another. Nor are the operations of the same god always certain and invariable. Ocr Gcse Physics? To-day he protects: To-morrow he abandons us. Prayers and sacrifices, rites and ceremonies, well or ill performed, are the sources of his favour or enmity, and produce all the good or ill fortune, which are to afro american drama reflective essays be found amongst mankind.

We may conclude, therefore, that, in all nations, which have embraced polytheism, the first ideas of religion arose not from a contemplation of the works of nature, but from a concern with regard to of the thesis the events of life, and from the incessant hopes and fears, which actuate the human mind. Accordingly, we find, that all idolaters, having separated the american, provinces of their deities, have recourse to that invisible agent, to how to change a tire whose authority they are immediately subjected, and whose province it is to superintend that course of actions, in which they are, at any time, engaged. Juno is invoked at marriages; Lucina at births. Neptune receives the prayers of american, seamen; and glycogen Mars of warriors. The husbandman cultivates his field under the protection of Ceres ; and the merchant acknowledges the authority of Mercury . Each natural event is poetry reflective, supposed to be governed by some intelligent agent; and nothing prosperous or adverse can happen in thesis statement, life, which may not be the afro american drama essays, subject of peculiar prayers or thanksgivings0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . It must necessarily, indeed, be allowed, that, in order to carry men’s attention beyond the present course of ocr gcse coursework, things, or lead them into any inference concerning invisible intelligent power, they must be actuated by some passion, which prompts their thought and reflection; some motive, which urges their first enquiry. But what passion shall we here have recourse to, for explaining an effect of such mighty consequence? Not speculative curiosity surely, or the afro drama essays, pure love of truth. That motive is too refined for such gross apprehensions; and would lead men into enquiries concerning. the frame of nature, a subject too large and comprehensive for their narrow capacities. No passions, therefore, can be supposed to work upon such barbarians, but the ordinary affections of human life; the anxious concern for happiness, the dread of future misery, the terror of systhesis, death, the thirst of revenge, the afro american drama reflective, appetite for food and other necessaries.

Agitated by hopes and fears of this nature, especially the latter, men scrutinize, with a trembling curiosity, the course of future causes, and examine the ap spanish language and culture essay, various and afro poetry essays contrary events of human life. And in this disordered scene, with eyes still more disordered and astonished, they see the process a tire, first obscure traces of divinity. Sect. III. The same subject continued. We are placed in afro american reflective essays, this world, as in a great theatre, where the true springs and causes of language and culture, every event are entirely concealed from us; nor have we either sufficient wisdom to american drama reflective foresee, or power to physics prevent those ills, with which we are continually threatened. We hang in perpetual suspence between life and death, health and sickness, plenty and american reflective want; which are distributed amongst the human species by secret and unknown causes, whose operation is oft unexpected, and always unaccountable.

These unknown causes , then, become the constant object of our hope and fear; and for kids while the passions are kept in perpetual alarm by poetry reflective an anxious expectation of the events, the imagination is equally employed in forming ideas of those powers, on which we have so entire a dependance. Could men anatomize nature, according to the most probable, at process essay how to a tire, least the most intelligible philosophy, they would find, that these causes are nothing but the particular fabric and drama poetry essays structure of the minute parts of their own bodies and of external objects; and that, by a regular and constant machinery, all the events are produced, about which they are so much concerned. But this philosophy exceeds the comprehension of the ignorant multitude, who can only conceive the unknown causes in a general and confused manner; though their imagination, perpetually employed on statement literary essay the same subject, must labour to afro reflective form some particular and distinct idea of them. The more they consider these causes themselves, and language essay the uncertainty of their operation, the less satisfaction do they meet with in their researches; and, however unwilling, they must at last have abandoned so arduous an attempt, were it not for a propensity in human nature, which leads into poetry, a system, that gives them some satisfaction. There is an universal tendency among mankind to conceive all beings like themselves, and to transfer to every object, those qualities, with which they are familiarly acquainted, and of which they are intimately conscious. Systhesis? We find human faces in the moon, armies in the clouds; and by a natural propensity, if not corrected by experience and reflection, ascribe malice or good-will to every thing, that hurts or pleases us. Hence the drama reflective, frequency and beauty of the prosopop ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier ia in poetry; where trees, mountains and streams are personified, and the inanimate parts of physics coursework, nature acquire sentiment and passion. And though these poetical figures and expressions gain not on. the belief, they may serve, at least, to prove a certain tendency in the imagination, without which they could neither be beautiful nor natural. Nor is a river-god or hamadryad always taken for a mere poetical or imaginary personage; but may sometimes enter into the real creed of the american drama poetry reflective essays, ignorant vulgar; while each grove or field is glycogen systhesis, represented as possessed of a particular genius or invisible power, which inhabits and protects it. Nay, philosophers cannot entirely exempt themselves from this natural frailty; but have oft ascribed to inanimate matter the horror of a vacuum , sympathies, antipathies, and other affections of human nature.

The absurdity is not less, while we cast our eyes upwards; and transferring, as is too usual, human passions and infirmities to afro drama poetry essays the deity, represent him as jealous and revengeful, capricious and partial, and, in short, a wicked and foolish man, in every respect but his superior power and essay on my mother for kids authority. No wonder, then, that mankind, being placed in such an absolute ignorance of causes, and american drama poetry essays being at the same time so anxious concerning their future fortune, should immediately acknowledge a dependence on invisible powers, possessed of sentiment and intelligence. The unknown causes , which continually employ their thought, appearing always in the same aspect, are all apprehended to systhesis be of the same kind or species. Nor is it long before we ascribe to them thought and reason and afro passion, and sometimes even the limbs and figures of men, in essay for kids, order to bring them nearer to a resemblance with ourselves. In proportion as any man’s course of life is afro drama essays, governed by accident, we always find, that he encreases in superstition; as may particularly be observed of gamesters and sailors, who, though, of all mankind, the least capable of serious reflection, abound most in frivolous and superstitious apprehensions.

The gods, says Coriolanus in Dionysius 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 2 * , have an influence in every affair; but above all, in war; where the how to change a tire, event is so uncertain. All human life, especially before the institution of order and good government, being subject to fortuitous accidents; it is american drama, natural, that superstition should prevail every where in barbarous ages, and statement essay put men on the most earnest enquiry concerning those invisible powers, who dispose of afro american poetry, their happiness or misery. Ignorant of astronomy and the anatomy of plants and animals, and too little curious to observe the ocr gcse coursework, admirable adjustment of final causes; they remain still unacquainted with a first and supreme creator, and with that infinitely perfect spirit, who alone, by his almighty will, bestowed order on the whole frame of nature. Such a magnificent idea is too big for their narrow conceptions, which can neither observe the beauty of the work, nor comprehend the grandeur of afro american essays, its author. They suppose their deities, however potent and invisible, to be nothing but a species of human creatures, perhaps raised from among mankind, and essay how to change a tire retaining all human passions and appetites, together with corporeal limbs and organs. Such limited beings, though masters of human fate, being, each of them, incapable of extending his influence every where, must be vastly multiplied, in order to answer that variety of events, which happen over the whole face of nature. Thus every place is stored with a crowd of local deities; and american drama reflective essays thus polytheism has prevailed, and still prevails, among the greatest part of uninstructed mankind0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 * . Any of the human affections may lead us into the notion of invisible, intelligent power; hope as well as fear, gratitude as well as affliction: But if we examine our own hearts, or observe what passes around us, we shall find, that men are much oftener thrown on their knees by the melancholy than by the agreeable passions.

Prosperity is easily received as our due, and few questions are asked concerning its cause or author. It begets cheerfulness and activity and alacrity and on my for kids a lively enjoyment of every social and sensual pleasure: And during this state of afro american reflective essays, mind, men have little leisure or inclination to language think of the unknown invisible regions. Afro American Drama Poetry Reflective? On the other hand, every disastrous accident alarms us, and sets us on enquiries concerning the principles whence it arose: Apprehensions spring up with regard to futurity: And the mind, sunk into diffidence, terror, and melancholy, has recourse to coursework every method of appeasing those secret intelligent powers, on afro reflective essays whom our fortune is supposed entirely to depend. No topic is more usual with all popular divines than to display the thesis literary, advantages of affliction, in bringing men to american drama reflective essays a due sense of religion; by subduing their confidence and essay mother for kids sensuality, which, in american reflective, times of statement, prosperity, make them forgetful of a divine providence. Nor is this topic confined merely to modern religions.

The ancients have also employed it. Afro American Poetry Reflective? Fortune has never liberally, without envy, says a Greek historian0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4 * , bestowed an. unmixed happiness on mankind; but with all her gifts has ever conjoined some disastrous circumstance, in order to chastize men into a reverence for the gods, whom, in a continued course of prosperity, they are apt to neglect and coursework forget . What age or period of life is the most addicted to superstition? The weakest and most timid. What sex? The same answer must be given. The leaders and examples of every kind of superstition, says Strabo 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 5 #x2020; , are the women. Afro Drama Poetry Reflective Essays? These excite the men to devotion and supplications, and the observance of systhesis, religious days. It is rare to meet with one that lives apart from the females, and yet is addicted to such practices. And nothing can, for american drama essays this reason, be more improbable, than the account given of an literary essay, order of men among the Getes , who practised celibacy, and were notwithstanding the most religious fanatics.

A method of reasoning, which would lead us to entertain a bad idea of the devotion of american drama poetry reflective, monks; did we not know by an experience, not so common, perhaps, in Strabo ’s days, that one may practise celibacy, and profess chastity; and yet maintain the thesis statement literary, closest connexions and most entire sympathy with that timorous and pious sex. Sect. IV. Deities not considered as creators or formers of the world. The only point of theology, in which we shall find a consent of mankind almost universal, is, that there is invisible, intelligent power in afro poetry essays, the world: But whether this power be supreme or subordinate, whether confined to one being, or distributed among several, what attributes, qualities, connexions, or principles of action ought to be ascribed to ap spanish and culture essay those beings; concerning all these points, there is the drama poetry, widest difference in the popular systems of physics coursework, theology. Drama? Our ancestors in Europe , before the revival of thesis statement essay, letters, believed, as we do at present, that there was one supreme God, the afro american drama poetry, author of nature, whose power, though in itself uncontroulable, was yet often exerted by the interposition of his angels and subordinate ministers, who executed his sacred purposes. But they also believed, that all nature was full of other invisible powers; fairies, goblins, elves, sprights; beings, stronger and mightier than men, but much inferior to the celestial natures, who surround the throne of ocr gcse, God. Now, suppose, that any one, in drama poetry reflective essays, those ages, had denied the existence of God and of his angels; would not his impiety justly have deserved the appellation of atheism, even though he had still allowed, by some odd capricious reasoning, that the popular stories of elves and fairies were just and well-grounded?

The difference, on the one hand, between such a person and a genuine theist is infinitely greater than that, on the other, between him and ocr gcse coursework one that absolutely excludes all invisible intelligent power. And it is a fallacy, merely from the casual resemblance of names, without any conformity of meaning, to rank such opposite opinions under the same denomination. To any one, who considers justly of the american drama reflective, matter, it will appear, that the gods of all polytheists are no better than the elves or fairies of our ancestors, and merit as little any pious worship or veneration. These pretended religionists are really a kind of superstitious atheists, and acknowledge no being, that corresponds to our idea of a deity. No first principle of systhesis, mind or thought: No supreme government and administration: No divine contrivance or intention in the fabric of the world. The Chinese , when0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 6 * their prayers are not answered, beat their idols. The deities of the reflective essays, Laplanders are any large stone which they meet with of an causes of the civil war essay, extraordinary shape0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 7 #x2020; . The Egyptian mythologists, in afro drama reflective essays, order to language and culture essay account for animal worship, said, that the afro drama reflective essays, gods, pursued by the violence of earth-born men, who were their enemies, had formerly been obliged to disguise themselves under the ap spanish language essay, semblance of beasts0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 8 #x2021; . The Caunii , a nation in the Lesser Asia , resolving to afro drama admit no strange gods among them, regularly, at certain seasons, assembled themselves compleatly armed, beat the air with their lances, and proceeded in that manner to their frontiers; in order, as they said, to expel the foreign deities0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 9 #x1C1; . Not even the language and culture essay, immortal gods, said some German nations to C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar , are a match for the Suevi 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 10 #xA7; . Many ills, says Dione in Homer to Venus wounded by Diomede , many ills, my daughter, have the gods inflicted on men: And many ills, in return, have men inflicted on the gods0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for afro reflective ease of on my for kids, reference 11 * . Poetry Reflective? We need but open any classic author to meet with these gross representations of the deities; and Longinus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 12 #x2020; with reason observes, that such ideas of the divine nature, if literally taken, contain a true atheism. Some writers0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for process change ease of afro reflective essays, reference 13 #x2021; have been surprized, that the thesis statement, impieties of Aristophanes should have been tolerated, nay publicly acted and applauded by the Athenians ; a people so superstitious and so jealous of the public religion, that, at that very time, they put Socrates to death for his imagined incredulity. But these writers do not consider, that the ludicrous, familiar images, under which the gods are represented by that comic poet, instead of appearing impious, were the genuine lights in which the ancients conceived their divinities. What conduct can be more criminal or mean, than that of drama poetry, Jupiter in the Amphitrion ? Yet that play, which represented his gallante exploits, was supposed so agreeable to him, that it was always acted in Rome by public authority, when the state was threatened with pestilence, famine, or any general calamity0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 14 #x1C1; . The Romans supposed, that, like all old letchers, he would be highly pleased with the recital of his former feats of prowess and vigour, and that no topic was so proper, upon which to flatter his vanity.

The Lacedemonians , says Xenophon 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 15 #xA7; , always, during war, put up their petitions very early in the morning, in order to be beforehand with their enemies, and, by being the causes, first solicitors, pre-engage the gods in their. favour. We may gather from Seneca 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 16 * , that it was usual, for the votaries in the temples, to drama poetry essays make interest with the beadle or sexton, that they might have a seat near the process how to change a tire, image of the deity, in order to be the american drama poetry reflective, best heard in their prayers and applications to him. The Tyrians , when besieged by Alexander , threw chains on the statue of Hercules , to prevent that deity from deserting to the enemy0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 17 #x2020; . Augustus , having twice lost his fleet by process how to change storms, forbad Neptune to american drama reflective essays be carried in procession along with the other gods; and fancied, that he had sufficiently revenged himself by that expedient0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 18 #x2021; . After Germanicus ’s death, the people were so enraged at their gods, that they stoned them in essay, their temples; and openly renounced all allegiance to them0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 19 #x1C1; . To ascribe the origin and fabric of the universe to these imperfect beings never enters into afro drama poetry reflective, the imagination of any polytheist or idolater. Hesiod , whose writings, with those of Homer , contained the canonical system of the heathens0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 20 #xA7; ; Hesiod , I say, supposes gods and physics men to afro reflective essays have sprung equally from the unknown powers of nature0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 21 #x2020; . Thesis Essay? And throughout the whole theogony of that author, Pandora is the only instance of creation or a voluntary production; and she too was formed by afro poetry reflective the gods merely from despight to Prometheus , who had furnished men with stolen fire from the celestial regions0 originally '#x2020;#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ocr gcse coursework ease of reference 22 #x2020;#x2020; . Afro American Reflective? The ancient mythologists, indeed, seem throughout to have rather embraced the idea of generation than that of creation or formation; and to have thence accounted for glycogen the origin of this universe. Ovid , who lived in a learned age, and had been instructed by poetry reflective essays philosophers in the principles of a divine creation or formation of the world; finding, that such an idea would not agree with the popular mythology, which he delivers, leaves it, in a manner, loose and language and culture detached from his system. Quisquis fuit ille Deorum0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for afro american poetry reflective essays ease of physics, reference 23 * ? Whichever of the gods it was, says he, that dissipated the chaos, and introduced order into afro poetry, the universe. It could neither be Saturn , he knew, nor Jupiter , nor Neptune , nor any of the received deities of causes civil, paganism. His theological system had taught him nothing upon that head; and he leaves the matter equally undetermined. Diodorus Siculus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 24 #x2020; , beginning his work with an enumeration of the afro poetry, most reasonable opinions concerning the origin of the world, makes no mention of a deity or intelligent mind; though it is evident from his history, that he was much more prone to superstition than to irreligion. And in another passage0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 25 #x2021; , talking of the causes war essay, Ichthyophagi , a nation in India , he says, that, there being so great difficulty in accounting for their descent, we must conclude them to be aborigines , without any beginning of their generation, propagating their race from all eternity; as some of the physiologers, in treating of the origin of nature, have justly observed. “But in such subjects as these,” adds the historian, “which exceed all human capacity, it may well happen, that those, who discourse the most, know the least; reaching a specious appearance of truth in their reasonings, while extremely wide of the real truth and matter of fact.”

A strange sentiment in our eyes, to be embraced by a professed and zealous religionist0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 26 * ! But it was merely by poetry reflective accident, that the question concerning the origin of the world did ever in ancient times enter into religious systems, or was treated of by theologers. The philosophers alone made profession of delivering systems of this kind; and it was pretty late too before these bethought themselves of having recourse to a mind or supreme intelligence, as the first cause of process how to change a tire, all. So far was it from reflective essays, being esteemed profane in those days to account for the origin of things without a deity, that Thales , Anaximenes , Heraclitus , and others, who embraced that system of cosmogony, past unquestioned; while Anaxagoras , the first undoubted theist among the philosophers, was perhaps the first that ever was accused of atheism0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of physics, reference 27 #x2020; . We are told by Sextus Empiricus 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 28 #x2021; , that Epicurus , when a boy, reading with his preceptor these verses of Hesiod , Eldest of beings, chaos first arose; Next earth , wide-stretch’d, the american drama poetry reflective, seat of all: the young scholar first betrayed his inquisitive genius, by asking, And chaos whence? But was told by his preceptor, that he must have recourse to the philosophers for language a solution of such questions. Drama Poetry Reflective Essays? And from this hint Epicurus left philology and all other studies, in order to betake himself to that science, whence alone he expected satisfaction with regard to these sublime subjects. The common people were never likely to push their researches so far, or derive from reasoning their systems of religion; when philologers and ap spanish essay mythologists, we see, scarcely ever discovered so much penetration. And even the philosophers, who discoursed of such topics, readily assented to the grossest theory, and admitted the joint origin of gods and men from night and chaos; from fire, water, air, or whatever they established to american drama reflective essays be the physics, ruling element. Nor was it only on their first origin, that the gods were supposed dependent on afro american drama reflective the powers of nature. Throughout the whole period of their existence they were subjected to the dominion of fate or destiny.

Think of the force of necessity, says Agrippa to the Roman people, that force, to which even the gods must submit0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 29 * . And Culture Essay? And the Younger Pliny 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of essays, reference 30 #x2020; , agreeably to this way of literary essay, thinking, tells us, that amidst the darkness, horror, and confusion, which ensued upon the first eruption of Vesuvius , several concluded, that all nature was going to wrack, and that gods and men were perishing in afro american drama reflective essays, one common ruin. It is great complaisance, indeed, if we dignify with the name of religion such an imperfect system of theology, and put it on physics coursework a level with later systems, which are founded on principles more just and afro reflective essays more sublime. For my part, I can scarcely allow the principles even of Marcus Aurelius , Plutarch , and some other Stoics and Academics , though much more refined than the pagan superstition, to be worthy of the honourable appellation of theism. For if the mythology of the heathens resemble the ancient European system of spiritual beings, excluding God and on my mother angels, and leaving only fairies and sprights; the creed of drama reflective essays, these philosophers may justly be said to exclude a deity, and to leave only angels and fairies. Sect. V. Various Forms of Polytheism: Allegory, Hero-Worship. But it is chiefly our present business to consider the gross polytheism of the vulgar, and to trace all its various appearances, in the principles of human nature, whence they are derived. Whoever learns by argument, the process how to change, existence of invisible intelligent power, must reason from the admirable contrivance of natural objects, and must suppose the world to be the workmanship of that divine being, the original cause of all things. But the vulgar polytheist, so far from admitting that idea, deifies every part of the universe, and conceives all the conspicuous productions of nature, to be themselves so many real divinities.

The sun, moon, and stars, are all gods according to his system: Fountains are inhabited by nymphs, and trees by hamadryads: Even monkies, dogs, cats, and other animals often become sacred in his eyes, and strike him with a religious veneration. And thus, however strong men’s propensity to believe invisible, intelligent power in nature, their propensity is afro poetry reflective, equally strong to rest their attention on sensible, visible objects; and in order to reconcile these opposite inclinations, they are led to unite the invisible power with some visible object. The distribution also of distinct provinces to the several deities is apt to systhesis cause some allegory, both physical and moral, to enter into the vulgar systems of polytheism. The god of war will naturally be represented as furious, cruel, and impetuous: The god of poetry as elegant, polite, and amiable: The god of american poetry, merchandise, especially in early times, as thievish and essay how to change a tire deceitful. The allegories, supposed in poetry, Homer and other mythologists, I allow, have often been so strained, that men of sense are apt entirely to reject them, and to consider them as the production merely of the fancy and conceit of critics and of the war essay commentators. But that allegory really has place in the heathen mythology is undeniable even on afro american drama reflective the least reflection. Cupid the son of Venus ; the Muses the daughters of Memory; Prometheus , the wise brother, and Epimetheus the foolish; Hygieia or the goddess of health descended from ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sculapius or the god of physic: Who sees not, in these, and in many other instances, the plain traces of allegory? When a god is supposed to process how to change a tire preside over afro american poetry, any passion, event, or system of essay, actions, it is almost. unavoidable to give him a genealogy, attributes, and adventures, suitable to his supposed powers and influence; and to american drama poetry essays carry on that similitude and comparison, which is naturally so agreeable to the mind of man. Allegories, indeed, entirely perfect, we ought not to expect as the productions of ocr gcse physics, ignorance and superstition; there being no work of genius that requires a nicer hand, or has been more rarely executed with success. That Fear and Terror are the sons of Mars is just; but why by Venus 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 31 * ? That Harmony is the afro reflective essays, daughter of Venus is regular; but why by Mars 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 32 #x2020; ? That Sleep is the brother of Death is suitable; but why describe him as enamoured of physics, one of the Graces0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 33 #x2021; ? And since the ancient mythologists fall into american poetry reflective, mistakes so gross and palpable, we have no reason surely to ap spanish expect such refined and long-spun allegories, as some have endeavoured to deduce from their fictions.

Lucretius was plainly seduced by the strong appearance of allegory, which is observable in the pagan fictions. He first addresses himself to Venus as to that generating power, which animates, renews, and beautifies the universe: But is soon betrayed by the mythology into incoherencies, while he prays to that allegorical personage to appease the furies of her lover Mars : An idea not drawn from allegory, but from the popular religion, and which Lucretius , as an afro american drama poetry reflective, Epicurean , could not consistently admit of. The deities of the vulgar are so little superior to human creatures, that, where men are affected with strong sentiments of physics coursework, veneration or gratitude for any hero or public benefactor, nothing can be more natural than to afro drama poetry convert him into a god, and fill the heavens, after this manner, with continual recruits from among mankind. Systhesis? Most of the divinities of the ancient world are supposed to have once been men, and to have been beholden for their apotheosis to afro american essays the admiration and affection of the people. Ap Spanish Language And Culture Essay? The real history of american reflective essays, their adventures, corrupted by tradition, and elevated by the marvellous, become a plentiful source of fable; especially in ap spanish language and culture essay, passing through the hands of poets, allegorists, and priests, who successively improved upon the wonder and afro american drama reflective essays astonishment of the ignorant multitude. Painters too and physics coursework sculptors came in for their share of profit in the sacred mysteries; and furnishing men with sensible representations of afro drama essays, their divinities, whom they cloathed in human figures, gave great encrease to the public devotion, and determined its object.

It was probably for want of these arts in rude and barbarous ages, that men deified plants, animals, and even brute, unorganized matter; and rather than be without a sensible object of worship, affixed divinity to such ungainly forms. Could any statuary of Syria , in process a tire, early times, have formed a just figure of Apollo , the conic stone, Heliogabalus , had never become the object of such profound adoration, and been received as a representation of the solar deity0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 34 * . Stilpo was banished by the council of Areopagus , for affirming that the Minerva in the citadel was no divinity; but the workmanship of afro american essays, Phidias , the ap spanish essay, sculptor0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 35 #x2020; . What degree of reason must we expect in the religious belief of the afro drama poetry reflective, vulgar in other nations; when Athenians and Areopagites could entertain such gross conceptions? These then are the general principles of polytheism, founded in human nature, and little or nothing dependent on on my for kids caprice and accident. As the causes , which bestow happiness or misery, are, in american drama essays, general, very little known and very uncertain, our anxious concern endeavours to language attain a determinate idea of them; and finds no better expedient than to represent them as intelligent voluntary agents, like ourselves; only somewhat superior in power and wisdom. The limited influence of these agents, and their great proximity to human weakness, introduce the various distribution and division of their authority; and thereby give rise to allegory. The same principles naturally deify mortals, superior in afro american reflective essays, power, courage, or understanding, and produce hero-worship; together with fabulous history and mythological tradition, in all its wild and unaccountable forms. And as an invisible spiritual intelligence is an object too refined for vulgar apprehension, men naturally affix it to some sensible representation; such as either the more conspicuous parts of ap spanish and culture, nature, or the statues, images, and pictures, which a more refined age forms of its divinities. Almost all idolaters, of whatever age or country, concur in these general principles and conceptions; and even the afro american, particular characters and ap spanish language essay provinces, which they assign to afro american poetry essays their deities, are not extremely different0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 36 * . Process Change A Tire? The Greek and Roman travellers and conquerors, without much difficulty, found their own deities every where; and said, This is Mercury , that Venus ; this Mars , that Neptune ; by whatever title the strange gods might be denominated.

The goddess Hertha of our Saxon ancestors seems to be no other, according to Tacitus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 37 #x2020; , than the Mater Tellus of the Romans ; and his conjecture was evidently just. Sect. VI. Origin of Theism from Polytheism. The doctrine of one supreme deity, the afro poetry essays, author of nature, is very ancient, has spread itself over great and populous nations, and among them has been embraced by all ranks and conditions of men: But whoever thinks that it has owed its success to the prevalent force of those invincible reasons, on ocr gcse coursework which it is undoubtedly founded, would show himself little acquainted with the ignorance and stupidity of the people, and afro drama essays their incurable prejudices in favour of their particular superstitions. Even at this day, and in causes civil war essay thesis, Europe , ask any of the vulgar, why he believes in an omnipotent creator of the world; he will never mention the beauty of final causes, of which he is wholly ignorant: He will not hold out his hand, and bid you contemplate the suppleness and variety of joints in his fingers, their bending all one way, the counterpoise which they receive from the thumb, the softness and fleshy parts of the inside of his hand, with all the other circumstances, which render that member fit for the use, to which it was destined.

To these he has been long accustomed; and he beholds them with listlessness and unconcern. He will tell you of the sudden and unexpected death of such a one: The fall and bruise of such another: The excessive drought of afro american reflective, this season: The cold and rains of another. These he ascribes to the immediate operation of providence: And such events, as, with good reasoners, are the chief difficulties in admitting a supreme intelligence, are with him the sole arguments for it. Many theists, even the most zealous and refined, have denied a particular providence, and have asserted, that the Sovereign mind or first principle of ap spanish language and culture, all things, having fixed general laws, by american poetry which nature is governed, gives free and uninterrupted course to and culture these laws, and disturbs not, at american poetry reflective essays, every turn, the settled order of for kids, events by particular volitions. From the beautiful connexion, say they, and rigid observance of established rules, we draw the chief argument for theism; and from the same principles are enabled to answer the afro american poetry reflective essays, principal objections against it. But so little is this understood by the generality of mankind, that, wherever they observe any one to ascribe all events to and culture essay natural causes, and to remove the particular interposition of american drama poetry essays, a deity, they are apt to suspect him of the grossest infidelity.

A little philosophy , says lord Bacon , makes men atheists: A great deal reconciles them to. religion. For men, being taught, by superstitious prejudices, to lay the stress on a wrong place; when that fails them, and they discover, by ap spanish a little reflection, that the course of nature is regular and uniform, their whole faith totters, and falls to ruin. But being taught, by more reflection, that this very regularity and uniformity is the strongest proof of design and of a supreme intelligence, they return to that belief, which they had deserted; and they are now able to establish it on a firmer and more durable foundation. Convulsions in nature, disorders, prodigies, miracles, though the most opposite to the plan of a wise superintendent, impress mankind with the strongest sentiments of religion; the causes of events seeming then the most unknown and unaccountable. Madness, fury, rage, and afro american essays an inflamed imagination, though they sink men nearest to the level of beasts, are, for a like reason, often supposed to be the only dispositions, in glycogen systhesis, which we can have any immediate communication with the Deity. We may conclude, therefore, upon the whole, that, since the vulgar, in nations, which have embraced the doctrine of poetry, theism, still build it upon irrational and language and culture essay superstitious principles, they are never led into that opinion by any process of argument, but by a certain train of thinking, more suitable to their genius and afro poetry reflective essays capacity. It may readily happen, in of the civil, an idolatrous nation, that though men admit the existence of several limited deities, yet is there some one God, whom, in a particular manner, they make the object of american essays, their worship and statement essay adoration. They may either suppose, that, in the distribution of power and territory among the gods, their nation was subjected to the jurisdiction of that particular deity; or reducing heavenly objects to drama reflective essays the model of things below, they may represent one god as the prince or supreme magistrate of the rest, who, though of the same nature, rules them with an authority, like that which an language and culture essay, earthly sovereign exercises over his subjects and vassals.

Whether this god, therefore, be considered as their peculiar patron, or as the general sovereign of heaven, his votaries will endeavour, by every art, to insinuate themselves into american poetry essays, his favour; and supposing him to be pleased, like themselves, with praise and essay mother flattery, there is no eulogy or exaggeration, which will be spared in their addresses to him. In proportion as men’s fears or distresses become more urgent, they still invent new strains of american poetry, adulation; and causes war essay even he who outdoes his predecessor in swelling up the titles of afro american drama essays, his divinity, is sure to be outdone by his successor in newer and more pompous epithets of praise. Thus they proceed; till at last they arrive at infinity itself, beyond which there is causes of the thesis, no farther progress: And it is well, if, in striving to get farther, and to american poetry reflective essays represent a magnificent simplicity, they run not into inexplicable mystery, and destroy the intelligent nature of physics, their deity, on. which alone any rational worship or adoration can be founded. While they confine themselves to the notion of a perfect being, the creator of the world, they coincide, by chance, with the principles of reason and american drama true philosophy; though they are guided to on my mother that notion, not by reason, of which they are in a great measure incapable, but by the adulation and fears of the most vulgar superstition. We often find, amongst barbarous nations, and even sometimes amongst civilized, that, when every strain of flattery has been exhausted towards arbitrary princes, when every human quality has been applauded to the utmost; their servile courtiers represent them, at last, as real divinities, and poetry point them out to the people as objects of adoration.

How much more natural, therefore, is it, that a limited deity, who at first is supposed only the immediate author of the particular goods and ills in life, should in the end be represented as sovereign maker and modifier of the universe? Even where this notion of a supreme deity is already established; though it ought naturally to physics coursework lessen every other worship, and abase every object of drama poetry essays, reverence, yet if a nation has entertained the opinion of a subordinate tutelar divinity, saint, or angel; their addresses to that being gradually rise upon them, and encroach on the adoration due to their supreme deity. The Virgin Mary , ere checked by of the civil war essay thesis the reformation, had proceeded, from being merely a good woman, to usurp many attributes of the Almighty: God and St. Nicholas go hand in hand, in all the prayers and petitions of the Muscovites . Thus the deity, who, from love, converted himself into a bull, in order to carry off Europa ; and who, from ambition, dethroned his father, Saturn , became the Optimus Maximus of the heathens. Thus, the God of Abraham , Isaac , and Jacob , became the supreme deity or Jehovah of the Jews . The Jacobins , who denied the immaculate conception, have ever been very unhappy in their doctrine, even though political reasons have kept the Romish church from condemning it.

The Cordeliers have run away with all the popularity. But in the fifteenth century, as we learn from Boulainvilliers 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for afro poetry ease of reference 38 * , an Italian Cordelier maintained, that, during the three days, when Christ was interred, the hypostatic union was dissolved, and that his human nature was not a proper object of adoration, during that period. Without the art of divination, one might foretel, that so gross and impious a blasphemy would not fail to be anathematized by the people. It was the occasion of statement, great insults on the part of the Jacobins ; who now got some recompence for their misfortunes in the war about the immaculate conception. Rather than relinquish this propensity to adulation, religionists, in all ages, have involved themselves in the greatest absurdities and contradictions. Homer , in afro drama essays, one passage, calls Oceanus and Tethys the original parents of all things, conformably to the established mythology and tradition of the Greeks : Yet, in other passages, he could not forbear complimenting Jupiter , the reigning deity, with that magnificent appellation; and accordingly denominates him the father of gods and men. He forgets, that every temple, every street was full of the on my mother for kids, ancestors, uncles, brothers, and sisters of this Jupiter ; who was in reality nothing but an poetry essays, upstart parricide and usurper. A like contradiction is observable in Hesiod ; and is so much the less excusable, as his professed intention was to deliver a true genealogy of the on my mother, gods. Were there a religion (and we may suspect Mahometanism of this inconsistence) which sometimes painted the Deity in american drama reflective essays, the most sublime colours, as the creator of civil, heaven and earth; sometimes degraded him nearly to a level with human creatures in his powers and faculties; while at the same time it ascribed to him suitable infirmities, passions, and partialities, of the moral kind: That religion, after it was extinct, would also be cited as an instance of those contradictions, which arise from the gross, vulgar, natural conceptions of mankind, opposed to their continual propensity towards flattery and exaggeration. Nothing indeed would prove more strongly the divine origin of any religion, than to find (and happily this is the case with Christianity) that it is free from a contradiction, so incident to human nature.

Sect.VII. Confirmation of this Doctrine. It appears certain, that, though the original notions of the vulgar represent the afro drama poetry essays, Divinity as a limited being, and consider him only on my for kids as the particular cause of afro american poetry reflective, health or sickness; plenty or want; prosperity or adversity; yet when more magnificent ideas are urged upon them, they esteem it dangerous to refuse their assent. Will you say, that your deity is finite and ap spanish and culture essay bounded in his perfections; may be overcome by a greater force; is subject to human passions, pains, and infirmities; has a beginning, and may have an end? This they dare not affirm; but thinking it safest to comply with the higher encomiums, they endeavour, by an affected ravishment and afro american drama poetry reflective essays devotion, to ingratiate themselves with him. As a confirmation of ocr gcse physics, this, we may observe, that the assent of the vulgar is, in afro american drama poetry, this case, merely verbal, and essay change a tire that they are incapable of conceiving those sublime qualities, which they seemingly attribute to afro american reflective the Deity. Their real idea of him, notwithstanding their pompous language, is still as poor and frivolous as ever. That original intelligence, say the Magians , who is the first principle of all things, discovers himself immediately to the mind and understanding alone; but has placed the sun as his image in on my mother for kids, the visible universe; and when that bright luminary diffuses its beams over the earth and the firmament, it is a faint copy of the glory, which resides in the higher heavens. Afro American Drama Reflective? If you would escape the displeasure of this divine being, you must be careful never to set your bare foot upon the ground, nor spit into a fire, nor throw any water upon it, even though it were consuming a whole city0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for coursework ease of reference 39 * . Who can express the afro reflective, perfections of the Almighty? say the Mahometans.

Even the noblest of his works, if compared to him, are but dust and rubbish. How much more must human conception fall short of his infinite perfections? His smile and systhesis favour renders men for ever happy; and to obtain it for your children, the best method is to cut off from them, while infants, a little bit of afro american drama poetry essays, skin, about half the ap spanish, breadth of a farthing. Drama Reflective? Take two bits of cloth0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 40 #x2020; , say the Roman catholics , about an inch or an inch and language essay a half square, join them by the corners with two strings or pieces of tape about sixteen inches long, throw this over your head, and make one of the bits of american poetry, cloth lie upon your. breast, and the other upon your back, keeping them next your skin: There is not a better secret for recommending yourself to that infinite Being, who exists from eternity to eternity. The Getes , commonly called immortal, from their steady belief of the soul’s immortality, were genuine theists and unitarians. They affirmed Zamolxis , their deity, to be the only true god; and asserted the worship of all other nations to be addressed to process how to a tire mere fictions and chimeras. But were their religious principles any more refined, on account of these magnificent pretensions?

Every fifth year they sacrificed a human victim, whom they sent as a messenger to their deity, in order to inform him of their wants and necessities. And when it thundered, they were so provoked, that, in order to return the defiance, they let fly arrows at him, and declined not the combat as unequal. Such at least is the account, which Herodotus gives of the theism of the drama reflective essays, immortal Getes 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of causes of the war essay, reference 41 #x2021; . Sect. Afro Drama Poetry Reflective Essays? VIII. Flux and reflux of polytheism and theism. It is remarkable, that the principles of religion have a kind of flux and reflux in the human mind, and that men have a natural tendency to rise from idolatry to theism, and to sink again from theism into idolatry. The vulgar, that is, indeed, all mankind, a few excepted, being ignorant and uninstructed, never elevate their contemplation to the heavens, or penetrate by essay their disquisitions into the secret structure of vegetable or animal bodies; so far as to discover a supreme mind or original providence, which bestowed order on every part of nature. They consider these admirable works in a more confined and selfish view; and american reflective finding their own happiness and misery to depend on the secret influence and unforeseen concurrence of external objects, they regard, with perpetual attention, the unknown causes , which govern all these natural events, and thesis statement essay distribute pleasure and pain, good and ill, by american poetry their powerful, but silent, operation.

The unknown causes are still appealed to on every emergence; and in this general appearance or confused image, are the perpetual objects of essay, human hopes and fears, wishes and apprehensions. By degrees, the active imagination of men, uneasy in this abstract conception of objects, about which it is incessantly employed, begins to american reflective render them more particular, and to clothe them in shapes more suitable to its natural comprehension. It represents them to be sensible, intelligent beings, like mankind; actuated by love and hatred, and flexible by causes of the civil war essay gifts and entreaties, by prayers and sacrifices. Hence the afro, origin of religion: And hence the origin of idolatry or polytheism. But the same anxious concern for happiness, which begets the idea of glycogen, these invisible, intelligent powers, allows not mankind to drama poetry essays remain long in the first simple conception of them; as powerful, but limited beings; masters of human fate, but slaves to destiny and the course of nature. Of The Civil Thesis? Men’s exaggerated praises and compliments still swell their idea upon them; and elevating their deities to the utmost bounds of perfection, at last beget the attributes of essays, unity and mother for kids infinity, simplicity and spirituality. Such refined ideas, being somewhat disproportioned to vulgar comprehension, remain not long in their original purity; but require to be supported by the notion of inferior mediators or subordinate agents, which interpose between mankind and their supreme deity. These demi-gods or middle beings, partaking more of afro american reflective, human nature, and of the war essay being more familiar to us, become the chief objects of devotion, and gradually recal that idolatry, which had been formerly banished by the ardent prayers and panegyrics of timorous and indigent mortals. But as these idolatrous religions fall every day into grosser and afro american more vulgar conceptions, they at last destroy themselves, and, by the vile representations, which they form of their deities, make the ap spanish and culture essay, tide turn again towards theism. But so great is the propensity, in this alternate revolution of human sentiments, to return back to american poetry idolatry, that the utmost precaution is not able effectually to essay on my mother for kids prevent it.

And of this, some theists, particularly the Jews and Mahometans , have been sensible; as appears by their banishing all the arts of statuary and painting, and not allowing the afro american drama essays, representations, even of human figures, to be taken by marble or colours; lest the common infirmity of mankind should thence produce idolatry. The feeble apprehensions of men cannot be satisfied with conceiving their deity as a pure spirit and perfect intelligence; and yet their natural terrors keep them from imputing to him the least shadow of limitation and causes of the civil war essay thesis imperfection. They fluctuate between these opposite sentiments. The same infirmity still drags them downwards, from an omnipotent and spiritual deity, to a limited and corporeal one, and from a corporeal and limited deity to a statue or visible representation. Afro American Drama Reflective? The same endeavour at statement literary, elevation still pushes them upwards, from the statue or material image to afro reflective the invisible power; and from the invisible power to an infinitely perfect deity, the creator and process essay a tire sovereign of the essays, universe.

Sect. IX. Comparison of these Religions, with regard to ap spanish essay Persecution and Toleration. Polytheism or idolatrous worship, being founded entirely in american poetry, vulgar traditions, is causes war essay thesis, liable to this great inconvenience, that any practice or opinion, however barbarous or corrupted, may be authorized by afro reflective it; and full scope is given, for knavery to impose on credulity, till morals and mother for kids humanity be expelled from there is a 'from' here in all editions up to and including that of 1770; it seems to afro drama poetry have vanished from the 1772 and 1777 editions by mistake the religious systems of mankind. At the same time, idolatry is attended with this evident advantage, that, by limiting the glycogen systhesis, powers and functions of its deities, it naturally admits the drama poetry reflective essays, gods of other sects and nations to a share of divinity, and renders all the various deities, as well as rites, ceremonies, or traditions, compatible with each other0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 42 * . Theism is opposite both in its advantages and disadvantages. Essay On My Mother For Kids? As that system supposes one sole deity, the perfection of american drama, reason and goodness, it should, if justly prosecuted, banish every thing frivolous, unreasonable, or inhuman from religious worship, and set before men the most illustrious example, as well as the most commanding motives, of justice and benevolence. These mighty advantages are not indeed over-balanced (for that is not possible), but somewhat diminished, by inconveniencies, which arise from the vices and prejudices of mankind.

While one sole object of devotion is acknowledged, the worship of other deities is regarded as absurd and impious. Nay, this unity of a tire, object seems naturally to require the afro drama, unity of faith and ceremonies, and furnishes designing men with a pretence for representing their adversaries as profane, and the objects of divine as well as human vengeance. For as each sect is positive that its own faith and worship are entirely acceptable to the deity, and as no one can conceive, that the same being should be pleased with different and opposite rites and principles; the several sects fall naturally. into animosity, and ap spanish language and culture essay mutually discharge on each other that sacred zeal and rancour, the most furious and american drama implacable of all human passions. The tolerating spirit of idolaters, both in process essay change, ancient and modern times, is very obvious to any one, who is the least conversant in afro poetry reflective, the writings of historians or travellers. When the oracle of language and culture essay, Delphi was asked, what rites or worship was most acceptable to the gods? Those which are legally established in each city, replied the afro drama reflective essays, oracle0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 43 * . Even priests, in those ages, could, it seems, allow salvation to of the civil war essay those of a different communion. The Romans commonly adopted the gods of the conquered people; and never disputed the attributes of reflective essays, those local and national deities, in whose territories they resided. The religious wars and persecutions of the Egyptian idolaters are indeed an exception to this rule; but are accounted for essay how to by ancient authors from reasons singular and remarkable.

Different species of animals were the deities of the different sects among the Egyptians ; and the deities being in continual war, engaged their votaries in the same contention. The worshippers of dogs could not long remain in peace with the adorers of cats or wolves0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for american essays ease of reference 44 * . But where that reason took not place, the language and culture essay, Egyptian superstition was not so incompatible as is afro american poetry essays, commonly imagined; since we learn from Herodotus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 45 #x2020; , that very large contributions were given by Amasis towards rebuilding the temple of coursework, Delphi . The intolerance of almost all religions, which have maintained the unity of God, is afro american, as remarkable as the contrary principle of polytheists. The implacable narrow spirit of the Jews is well known. Mahometanism set out mother with still more bloody principles; and even to this day, deals out damnation, though not fire and afro american drama poetry essays faggot, to all other sects. And if, among Christians , the English and Dutch have embraced the principles of toleration, this singularity has proceeded from the steady resolution of the civil magistrate, in opposition to the continued efforts of priests and bigots. The disciples of essay how to change, Zoroaster shut the doors of heaven against all but the drama reflective, Magians 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 46 #x2021; . Nothing could more obstruct the progress of the causes of the, Persian conquests, than the furious zeal of that nation against the temples and images of the Greeks . And after the afro drama, overthrow of that empire we find Alexander , as a polytheist, immediately re-establishing the worship of the Babylonians , which their former princes, as monotheists, had carefully abolished0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 47 #x1C1; . Of The Civil? Even the afro american poetry reflective essays, blind and language essay devoted attachment of that conqueror to the Greek superstition hindered not but he himself sacrificed according to the Babylonish rites and ceremonies0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 48 #xA7; . So sociable is polytheism, that the utmost fierceness and antipathy, which it meets with in an opposite religion, is scarcely able to disgust it, and keep it at afro american drama, a distance. Augustus praised extremely the reserve of his grandson, Caius C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the causes of the, text easier sar , when this latter prince, passing by Jerusalem , deigned not to sacrifice according to afro poetry essays the Jewish law.

But for what reason did Augustus so much approve of statement essay, this conduct? Only, because that religion was by the Pagans esteemed ignoble and barbarous0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 49 * . I may venture to affirm, that few corruptions of idolatry and polytheism are more pernicious to society than this corruption of theism0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for drama reflective ease of reference 50 #x2020; , when carried to the utmost height. The human sacrifices of the Carthaginians , Mexicans , and glycogen many barbarous nations0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of afro american drama, reference 51 #x2021; , scarcely exceed the inquisition and persecutions of Rome and Madrid . For besides, that the effusion of blood may not be so great in the former case as in the latter; besides this, I say, the human victims, being chosen by lot, or by some exterior signs, affect not, in so considerable a degree, the rest of the society. Whereas virtue, knowledge, love of liberty, are the qualities, which call down the fatal vengeance of inquisitors; and when expelled, leave the systhesis, society in the most shameful ignorance, corruption, and bondage. The illegal murder of one man by a tyrant is more pernicious than the death of afro drama essays, a thousand by pestilence, famine, or any undistinguishing calamity. In the temple of Diana at Aricia near Rome , whoever murdered the of the civil, present priest, was legally entitled to be installed his successor0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 52 #x1C1; . A very singular institution!

For, however barbarous and bloody the drama poetry essays, common superstitions often are to the laity, they usually turn to the advantage of the holy order. Sect. X. With regard to courage or abasement. From the causes civil war essay thesis, comparison of theism and idolatry, we may form some other observations, which will also confirm the vulgar observation, that the corruption of the afro drama, best things gives rise to the worst. Where the deity is represented as infinitely superior to mankind, this belief, though altogether just, is apt, when joined with superstitious terror, to sink the human mind into the lowest submission and abasement, and to represent the monkish virtues of causes war essay thesis, mortification, penance, humility, and passive suffering, as the only qualities which are acceptable to american drama him. But where the gods are conceived to be only a little superior to mankind, and to have been, many of them, advanced from that inferior rank, we are more at our ease in our addresses to them, and may even, without profaneness, aspire sometimes to a rivalship and emulation of them.

Hence activity, spirit, courage, magnanimity, love of liberty, and all the process how to, virtues which aggrandize a people. The heroes in paganism correspond exactly to the saints in popery and drama poetry essays holy dervises in Mahometanism . Ocr Gcse Physics Coursework? The place of afro american drama reflective essays, Hercules , Theseus , Hector , Romulus , is now supplied by Dominic , Francis , Anthony , and Benedict . Instead of the destruction of monsters, the subduing of tyrants, the defence of our native country; whippings and fastings, cowardice and humility, abject submission and slavish obedience, are become the means of obtaining celestial honours among mankind. One great incitement to the pious Alexander in his warlike expeditions was his rivalship of Hercules and Bacchus , whom he justly pretended to have excelled0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 53 * . Brasidas , that generous and noble Spartan , after falling in systhesis, battle, had heroic honours paid him by the inhabitants of Amphipolis , whose defence he had embraced0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 54 #x2020; . And in afro american, general, all founders of states and colonies among the Greeks were raised to this inferior rank of divinity, by those who reaped the benefit of their labours. This gave rise to the observation of glycogen systhesis, Machiavel 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of afro drama poetry, reference 55 #x2021; , that the doctrines of the Christian religion (meaning the catholic; for he knew no other) which recommend only passive courage and suffering, had subdued the spirit of. mankind, and had fitted them for slavery and subjection. An observation, which would certainly be just, were there not many other circumstances in human society which controul the genius and character of a religion. Brasidas seized a mouse, and being bit by glycogen it, let it go. There is nothing so contemptible, said he, but what may be safe, if it has but courage to defend itself0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 56 #x1C1; . Bellarmine patiently and humbly allowed the fleas and afro american reflective essays other odious vermin to prey upon him.

We shall have heaven, said he, to reward us for our sufferings: But these poor creatures have nothing but the enjoyment of the ap spanish, present life0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 57 #xA7; . Such difference is there between the afro american poetry reflective essays, maxims of a Greek hero and a Catholic saint. Sect. XI. With regard to reason or absurdity. Here is another observation to the same purpose, and a new proof that the corruption of the best things begets the worst. If we examine, without prejudice, the ancient heathen mythology, as contained in the poets, we shall not discover in it any such monstrous absurdity, as we may at first be apt to systhesis apprehend. Afro Drama Poetry Essays? Where is the difficulty in conceiving, that the mother, same powers or principles, whatever they were, which formed this visible world, men and afro poetry animals, produced also a species of process essay how to, intelligent creatures, of more refined substance and greater authority than the rest?

That these creatures may be capricious, revengeful, passionate, voluptuous, is easily conceived; nor is any circumstance more apt, among ourselves, to engender such vices, than the licence of absolute authority. And in short, the whole mythological system is so natural, that, in the vast variety of planets and words worlds originally 'words'; previous editions have 'worlds' here, which is poetry reflective essays, obviously what was intended , contained in this universe, it seems more than probable, that, somewhere or other, it is really carried into coursework, execution. The chief objection to it with regard to this planet, is, that it is not ascertained by afro essays any just reason or authority. The ancient tradition, insisted on by heathen priests and theologers, is process essay, but a weak foundation; and transmitted also such a number of afro, contradictory reports, supported, all of them, by systhesis equal authority, that it became absolutely impossible to fix a preference amongst them. A few volumes, therefore, must contain all the polemical writings of pagan priests: And their whole theology must consist more of traditional stories and superstitious practices than of philosophical argument and controversy. But where theism forms the fundamental principle of afro poetry reflective essays, any popular religion, that tenet is so conformable to sound reason, that philosophy is apt to incorporate itself with such a system of theology. Physics? And if the other dogmas of afro drama poetry reflective, that system be contained in a sacred book, such as the Alcoran, or be determined by any visible authority, like that of the Roman pontiff, speculative reasoners naturally carry on their assent, and embrace a theory, which has been instilled into them by their earliest education, and which also possesses some degree of consistence and uniformity. But as these appearances are sure, all of them, to prove deceitful, philosophy will soon find herself very unequally yoked with her new associate; and ocr gcse coursework instead of. regulating each principle, as they advance together, she is at every turn perverted to serve the purposes of american poetry essays, superstition. For besides the unavoidable incoherences, which must be reconciled and adjusted; one may safely affirm, that all popular theology, especially the on my, scholastic, has a kind of appetite for absurdity and contradiction.

If that theology went not beyond reason and common sense, her doctrines would appear too easy and familiar. Afro Drama? Amazement must of necessity be raised: Mystery affected: Darkness and obscurity sought after: And a foundation of merit afforded to how to a tire the devout votaries, who desire an opportunity of subduing their rebellious reason, by afro american poetry reflective the belief of the most unintelligible sophisms. Ecclesiastical history sufficiently confirms these reflections. When a controversy is started, some people always pretend with certainty to how to change foretell the issue. Whichever opinion, say they, is most contrary to plain sense is sure to prevail; even where the general interest of the system requires not that decision. Though the reproach of afro, heresy may, for thesis statement essay some time, be bandied about among the disputants, it always rests at last on the side of reason. Any one, it is pretended, that has but learning enough of this kind to know the definition of american essays, Arian , Pelagian , Erestian , Socinian , Sabellian , Eutychian , Nestorian , Monothelite , c. not to mention Protestant , whose fate is yet uncertain, will be convinced of the truth of this observation. It is thus a system becomes more absurd in the end, merely from its being reasonable and philosophical in the beginning. To oppose the torrent of scholastic religion by such feeble maxims as these, that it is impossible for the same thing, to be and not to be , that the whole is greater than a part , that two and three make five ; is literary essay, pretending to stop the ocean with a bull-rush.

Will you set up profane reason against sacred mystery? No punishment is great enough for your impiety. And the same fires, which were kindled for heretics, will serve also for afro drama the destruction of philosophers. Sect. Essay How To Change A Tire? XII. With regard to Doubt or Conviction.

We meet every day with people so sceptical with regard to history, that they assert it impossible for afro poetry any nation ever to believe such absurd principles as those of Greek and Egyptian paganism; and at the same time so dogmatical with regard to for kids religion, that they think the afro drama reflective essays, same absurdities are to be found in no other communion. Cambyses entertained like prejudices; and language essay very impiously ridiculed, and even wounded, Apis , the great god of the Egyptians , who appeared to his profane senses nothing but a large spotted bull. Afro American Drama? But Herodotus judiciously ascribes this sally of passion to a real madness or disorder of the brain: Otherwise, says the historian, he never would have openly affronted any established worship. For on that head, continues he, every nation are best satisfied with their own, and think they have the advantage over every other nation. It must be allowed, that the Roman Catholics are a very learned sect; and that no one communion, but that of the church of England , can dispute their being the most learned of all the Christian churches: Yet Averroes , the famous Arabian , who, no doubt, had heard of the Egyptian superstitions, declares, that, of all religions, the most absurd and nonsensical is that, whose votaries eat, after having created, their deity. I believe, indeed, that there is no tenet in all paganism, which would give so fair a scope to ridicule as this of the real presence: For it is so absurd, that it eludes the glycogen systhesis, force of all argument. Reflective? There are even some pleasant stories of that kind, which, though somewhat profane, are commonly told by the Catholics themselves.

One day, a priest, it is said, gave inadvertently, instead of the sacrament, a counter, which had by accident fallen among the essay mother for kids, holy wafers. The communicant waited patiently for some time, expecting it would dissolve on his tongue: But finding that it still remained entire, he took it off. I wish, cried he to the priest, you have not committed some mistake: I wish you have not given me God the Father: He is so hard and tough there is no swallowing him. A famous general, at afro american, that time in essay, the Muscovite service, having come to Paris for american poetry reflective the recovery of his wounds, brought along with him a young Turk , whom he had taken prisoner. Some of the doctors of the Sorbonne (who are altogether as positive as the ap spanish language and culture essay, dervises of Constantinople ) thinking. it a pity, that the poor Turk should be damned for afro american drama reflective want of instruction, solicited Mustapha very hard to turn Christian, and promised him, for his encouragement, plenty of good wine in this world, and paradise in the next. These allurements were too powerful to be resisted; and therefore, having been well instructed and catechized, he at essay on my, last agreed to receive the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper.

The priest, however, to make every thing sure and solid, still continued his instructions; and began the next day with the usual question, How many Gods are there? None at all, replies Benedict ; for that was his new name. How! None at american drama poetry, all! cries the priest. To be sure, said the essay, honest proselyte. You have told me all along that there is but one God: And yesterday I eat him. Such are the drama poetry reflective, doctrines of our brethren the Catholics. But to these doctrines we are so accustomed, that we never wonder at them: Though in statement essay, a future age, it will probably become difficult to persuade some nations, that any human, two-legged creature could ever embrace such principles.

And it is drama reflective essays, a thousand to one, but these nations themselves shall have something full as absurd in their own creed, to which they will give a most implicit and most religious assent. I lodged once at Paris in the same hotel with an ambassador from Tunis , who, having passed some years at civil, London , was returning home that way. One day I observed his Moorish excellency diverting himself under the porch, with surveying the splendid equipages that drove along; when there chanced to pass that way some Capucin friars, who had never seen a Turk ; as he, on his part, though accustomed to the European dresses, had never seen the grotesque figure of a Capucin: And there is no expressing the afro american drama reflective, mutual admiration, with which they inspired each other. Had the chaplain of the embassy entered into a dispute with these Franciscans , their reciprocal surprize had been of the same nature. Essay For Kids? Thus all mankind stand staring at american essays, one another; and there is systhesis, no beating it into their heads, that the turban of the African is not just as good or as bad a fashion as the cowl of the European . He is a very honest man, said the prince of Sallee , speaking of drama poetry reflective essays, de Ruyter , It is a pity he were a Christian. How can you worship leeks and onions? we shall suppose a Sorbonnist to say to a priest of Sais . If we worship them, replies the latter; at least, we do not, at ocr gcse coursework, the same time, eat them.

But what strange objects of adoration are cats and monkies? says the learned doctor. They are at american essays, least as good as the relics or rotten bones of martyrs, answers his no less learned antagonist. Are you not mad, insists the Catholic, to cut one another’s throat about the preference of a. cabbage or a cucumber? Yes, says the pagan; I allow it, if you will confess, that those are still madder, who fight about the preference among volumes of sophistry, ten thousand of which are not equal in value to one cabbage or cucumber0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 58 * . Every by-stander will easily judge (but unfortunately the glycogen systhesis, by-standers are few) that, if nothing were requisite to establish any popular system, but exposing the absurdities of other systems, every votary of every superstition could give a sufficient reason for his blind and bigotted attachment to the principles in which he has been educated. But without so extensive a knowledge, on which to ground this assurance (and perhaps, better without it), there is not wanting a sufficient stock of religious zeal and faith among mankind. Diodorus Siculus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for drama essays ease of reference 59 #x2020; gives a remarkable instance to this purpose, of which he was himself an eye-witness. While Egypt lay under the greatest terror of the essay, Roman name, a legionary soldier having inadvertently been guilty of the sacrilegious impiety of killing a cat, the afro american reflective essays, whole people rose upon him with the essay how to a tire, utmost fury; and all the american poetry reflective essays, efforts of the prince were not able to save him. Glycogen? The senate and people of Rome , I am persuaded, would not, then, have been so delicate with regard to their national deities. They very frankly, a little after that time, voted Augustus a place in the celestial mansions; and would have dethroned every god in heaven, for his sake, had he seemed to desire it. Presens divus habebitur Augustus , says Horace . That is a very important point: And in other nations and american drama reflective other ages, the same circumstance has not been deemed altogether indifferent0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for process essay change ease of reference 60 * . Notwithstanding the afro american drama poetry essays, sanctity of our holy religion, says Tully 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 61 #x2020; , no crime is more common with us than sacrilege: But was it ever heard of, that an ocr gcse coursework, Egyptian violated the temple of a cat, an ibis, or a crocodile?

There is no torture, an Egyptian would not undergo, says the same author in another place0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of afro drama poetry essays, reference 62 #x2021; , rather than injure an ibis, an aspic, a cat, a dog, or a crocodile. Thus it is strictly true, what Dryden observes, “Of whatsoe’er descent their godhead be, “Stock, stone, or other homely pedigree, “In his defence his servants are as bold, “As if he had been born of beaten gold.” Absolom and Achitophel. Nay, the baser the how to, materials are, of which the divinity is composed, the greater devotion is he likely to excite in the breasts of his deluded votaries. They exult in their shame, and make a merit with their deity, in braving, for his sake, all the ridicule and contumely of afro american drama reflective, his enemies. Ten thousand Crusaders inlist themselves under the holy banners; and even openly triumph in those parts of civil thesis, their religion, which their adversaries regard as the most reproachful.

There occurs, I own, a difficulty in afro american drama essays, the Egyptian system of theology; as indeed, few systems of that kind are entirely free from difficulties. It is evident, from their method of propagation, that a couple of cats, in fifty years, would stock a whole kingdom; and if that religious veneration were still paid them, it would, in twenty more, not only be easier in Egypt to find a god than a man, which Petronius says was the case in some parts of Italy ; but the gods must at of the war essay thesis, last entirely starve the men, and leave themselves neither priests nor votaries remaining. It is probable, therefore, that this wise nation, the most celebrated in antiquity for prudence and sound policy, foreseeing such dangerous consequences, reserved all their worship for the full-grown divinities, and used the freedom to drown the holy spawn or little sucking gods, without any scruple or remorse. And thus the practice of warping the tenets of religion, in order to serve temporal interests, is not, by any means, to be regarded as an invention of these later ages. The learned, philosophical Varro , discoursing of religion, pretends not to deliver any thing beyond probabilities and appearances: Such was his good sense and moderation! But the passionate, the zealous Augustin , insults the noble Roman on afro poetry reflective his scepticism and ocr gcse physics reserve, and professes the afro american reflective, most thorough belief and assurance0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 63 * . A heathen poet, however, contemporary.

with the saint, absurdly esteems the religious system of the latter so false, that even the credulity of children, he says, could not engage them to believe it0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 64 #x2020; . Is it strange, when mistakes are so common, to find every one positive and dogmatical? And that the zeal often rises in proportion to the error? Moverunt, says Spartian , ea tempestate, Jud ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to mother for kids make searching the text easier i bellum quod vetabantur mutilare genitalia0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 65 #x2021; . If ever there was a nation or a time, in afro drama poetry reflective, which the public religion lost all authority over on my mother, mankind, we might expect, that infidelity in Rome , during the drama reflective, Ciceronian age, would openly have erected its throne, and that Cicero himself, in every speech and action, would have been its most declared abettor. But it appears, that, whatever sceptical liberties that great man might take, in his writings or in philosophical conversation; he yet avoided, in the common conduct of life, the imputation of deism and profaneness. Even in his own family, and to his wife Terentia , whom he highly trusted, he was willing to appear a devout religionist; and there remains a letter, addressed to her, in which he seriously desires her to offer sacrifice to Apollo and ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sculapius , in gratitude for the recovery of his health0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 66 #x1C1; . Pompey ’s devotion was much more sincere: In all his conduct, during the civil wars, he paid a great regard to auguries, dreams, and prophesies0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for thesis statement literary ease of reference 67 #xA7; . Augustus was tainted with superstition of every kind. As it is reported of Milton , that his poetical genius never flowed with ease and abundance in the spring; so Augustus observed, that his own genius for dreaming never was so perfect during that season, nor was so much to poetry essays be relied on, as during the rest of the year.

That great and able emperor was also extremely uneasy, when he happened to change his shoes, and put the right foot shoe on the left foot0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of ocr gcse physics, reference 68 * . In short it cannot be doubted, but the afro reflective, votaries of the established superstition of antiquity were as numerous in every state, as those of the modern religion are at present. Its influence was as universal; though it was not so great. As many people gave their assent to it; though that assent was not seemingly so strong, precise, and essay how to affirmative. We may observe, that, notwithstanding the dogmatical, imperious style of all superstition, the american reflective essays, conviction of the religionists, in all ages, is more affected than real, and glycogen systhesis scarcely ever approaches, in any degree, to that solid belief and persuasion, which governs us in the common affairs of life. Men dare not avow, even to their own hearts, the doubts which they entertain on such.

subjects: They make a merit of implicit faith; and disguise to themselves their real infidelity, by afro american drama poetry the strongest asseverations and process most positive bigotry. But nature is too hard for afro american drama all their endeavours, and suffers not the obscure, glimmering light, afforded in ocr gcse, those shadowy regions, to equal the strong impressions, made by common sense and by american poetry experience. The usual course of men’s conduct belies their words, and ap spanish essay shows, that their assent in these matters is some unaccountable operation of the mind between disbelief and drama poetry essays conviction, but approaching much nearer to the former than to the latter. Since, therefore, the mind of man appears of so loose and unsteady a texture, that, even at change a tire, present, when so many persons find an interest in american drama poetry essays, continually employing on it the chissel and the hammer, yet are they not able to engrave theological tenets with any lasting impression; how much more must this have been the case in ancient times, when the retainers to the holy function were so much fewer in comparison? No wonder, that the appearances were then very inconsistent, and that men, on some occasions, might seem determined infidels, and enemies to the established religion, without being so in reality; or at least, without knowing their own minds in that particular. Another cause, which rendered the for kids, ancient religions much looser than the drama reflective essays, modern, is, that the process essay how to change a tire, former were traditional and drama poetry essays the latter are scriptural ; and the tradition in the former was complex, contradictory, and, on and culture many occasions, doubtful; so that it could not possibly be reduced to any standard and afro american drama reflective essays canon, or afford any determinate articles of faith. The stories of the gods were numberless like the popish legends; and though every one, almost, believed a part of these stories, yet no one could believe or know the essay how to change a tire, whole: While, at the same time, all must have acknowledged, that no one part stood on a better foundation than the rest. The traditions of different cities and nations were also, on many occasions, directly opposite; and poetry reflective essays no reason could be assigned for glycogen preferring one to the other. And as there was an infinite number of afro essays, stories, with regard to which tradition was nowise positive; the ocr gcse coursework, gradation was insensible, from the most fundamental articles of faith, to those loose and precarious fictions. Afro American Reflective Essays? The pagan religion, therefore, seemed to vanish like a cloud, whenever one approached to it, and examined it piecemeal. It could never be ascertained by any fixed dogmas and principles.

And though this did not convert the generality of mankind from so absurd a faith; for when will the people be reasonable? yet it made them faulter and hesitate more in maintaining their principles, and was even apt to produce, in certain dispositions of mind, some practices and opinions, which had the appearance of determined infidelity. To which we may add, that the fables of the pagan religion were, of physics coursework, themselves, light, easy, and familiar; without devils, or seas of brimstone, or any object that could much terrify the afro drama poetry essays, imagination. Who could forbear smiling, when he thought of the loves of Mars and Venus , or the amorous frolics of Jupiter and Pan ? In this respect, it was a true poetical religion; if it had not rather too much levity for the graver kinds of poetry. We find that it has been adopted by language essay modern bards; nor have these talked with greater freedom and irreverence of the gods, whom they regarded as fictions, than the ancients did of the poetry reflective essays, real objects of their devotion. The inference is by thesis literary no means just, that, because a system of afro american drama reflective essays, religion has made no deep impression on the minds of ocr gcse physics coursework, a people, it must therefore have been positively rejected by all men of american drama, common sense, and civil that opposite principles, in afro poetry essays, spite of the prejudices of education, were generally established by argument and reasoning.

I know not, but a contrary inference may be more probable. The less importunate and assuming any species of superstition appears, the less will it provoke men’s spleen and indignation, or engage them into enquiries concerning its foundation and origin. Physics? This in the mean time is afro poetry reflective essays, obvious, that the empire of all religious faith over the understanding is wavering and uncertain, subject to every variety of humour, and dependent on the present incidents, which strike the imagination. On My For Kids? The difference is american drama poetry reflective essays, only in the degrees. An ancient will place a stroke of impiety and one of superstition alternately, throughout a whole discourse0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 69 * : A modern often thinks in the same way, though he may be more guarded in his expression. Lucian tells us expressly0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 70 #x2020; that whoever believed not the process how to, most ridiculous fables of paganism was deemed by the people profane and afro american poetry impious. To what purpose, indeed, would that agreeable author have employed the whole force of his wit and satire against the national religion, had not that religion been generally believed by his countrymen and systhesis contemporaries? Livy 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for american ease of reference 71 #x2021; acknowledges as frankly, as any divine would at present, the common incredulity of his age; but then he condemns it as severely. And who can imagine, that a national superstition, which could delude so ingenious a man, would not also impose on the generality of the people? The Stoics bestowed many magnificent and even impious epithets on their sage; that he alone was rich, free, a king, and equal to the immortal gods.

They forgot to add, that he was not inferior in prudence and understanding to coursework an old woman. For surely nothing can be more pitiful than the sentiments, which that sect entertained with regard to american poetry reflective essays religious matters; while they seriously agree with the common augurs, that, when a raven croaks from the left, it is glycogen systhesis, a good omen; but a bad one, when a rook makes a noise from the same quarter. Pan ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the american drama poetry, text easier tius was the only Stoic , among the Greeks , who so much as doubted with regard to auguries and divinations0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for essay on my for kids ease of reference 72 * . Marcus Antoninus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 73 #x2020; tells us, that he himself had received many admonitions from the gods in his sleep. It is true, Epictetus 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 74 #x2021; forbids us to regard the afro american poetry, language of rooks and ravens; but it is not, that they do not speak truth: It is only, because they can foretel nothing but the breaking of our neck or the forfeiture of our estate; which are circumstances, says he, that nowise concern us. Thus the Stoics join a philosophical enthusiasm to a religious superstition.

The force of their mind, being all turned to ocr gcse the side of morals, unbent itself in that of religion0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 75 #x1C1; . Plato 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 76 #xA7; introduces Socrates affirming, that the accusation of impiety raised against him was owing entirely to his rejecting such fables, as those of Saturn ’s castrating his father Uranus , and Jupiter ’s dethroning Saturn : Yet in a subsequent dialogue0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of afro drama, reference 77 #x2020; , Socrates confesses, that the doctrine of the causes of the war essay, mortality of the soul was the received opinion of the people. Is there here any contradiction? Yes, surely: But the contradiction is not in Plato ; it is in the people, whose religious principles in general are always composed of the most discordant parts; especially in an age, when superstition sate so easy and light upon them0 originally '#x2020;#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 78 #x2020;#x2020; . The same Cicero , who affected, in his own family, to appear a devout religionist, makes no scruple, in a public court of judicature, of treating the doctrine of a future state as a ridiculous fable, to which no body could give any attention0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 79 * . Sallust 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 80 #x2020; represents C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the reflective essays, text easier sar as speaking the same language in the open senate0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 81 #x2021; . But that all these freedoms implied not a total and universal infidelity and scepticism amongst the people, is too apparent to be denied. Though some parts of the national religion hung loose upon the minds of men, other parts adhered more closely to them: And it was the war essay thesis, chief business of the sceptical philosophers to american poetry essays show, that there was no more foundation for one than for ap spanish the other. American Poetry Reflective Essays? This is the artifice of Cotta in the dialogues concerning the nature of the gods . He refutes the whole system of mythology by leading the orthodox gradually, from the mother for kids, more momentous stories, which were believed, to afro american drama reflective essays the more frivolous, which every one ridiculed: From the causes civil war essay thesis, gods to american drama poetry reflective the goddesses; from the goddesses to thesis statement the nymphs; from the nymphs to the fawns and satyrs. Afro American Drama Reflective? His master, Carneades , had employed the same method of process how to a tire, reasoning0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 82 #x1C1; . Upon the whole, the afro american drama reflective essays, greatest and most observable differences between a traditional, mythological religion, and a systematical, scholastic one, are two: The former is often more reasonable, as consisting only systhesis of a multitude of stories, which, however groundless, imply no express absurdity and demonstrative contradiction; and sits also so easy and afro american poetry reflective essays light on men’s mind, that, though it may be as universally received, it happily makes no such deep impression on the affections and understanding. Sect. XIII. Impious conceptions of the divine nature in popular religions of ap spanish language and culture essay, both kinds.

The primary religion of mankind arises chiefly from an american reflective essays, anxious fear of essay mother for kids, future events; and afro drama poetry essays what ideas will naturally be entertained of invisible, unknown powers, while men lie under dismal apprehensions of any kind, may easily be conceived. Essay On My Mother For Kids? Every image of vengeance, severity, cruelty, and malice must occur, and must augment the ghastliness and horror, which oppresses the amazed religionist. A panic having once seized the mind, the active fancy still farther multiplies the objects of terror; while that profound darkness, or, what is worse, that glimmering light, with which we are environed, represents the spectres of american poetry, divinity under the most dreadful appearances imaginable. And no idea of perverse wickedness can be framed, which those terrified devotees do not readily, without scruple, apply to their deity. This appears the natural state of religion, when surveyed in one light.

But if we consider, on the other hand, that spirit of praise and eulogy, which necessarily has place in all religions, and which is the consequence of these very terrors, we must expect a quite contrary system of theology to prevail. Every virtue, every excellence, must be ascribed to the divinity, and no exaggeration will be deemed sufficient to reach those perfections, with which he is endowed. Whatever strains of panegyric can be invented, are immediately embraced, without consulting any arguments or ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena: It is esteemed a sufficient confirmation of them, that they give us more magnificent ideas of the divine objects of our worship and adoration. Here therefore is a kind of contradiction between the different principles of human nature, which enter into religion. Our natural terrors present the notion of a devilish and malicious deity: Our propensity to thesis statement literary essay adulation leads us to acknowledge an excellent and divine. And the influence of these opposite drama, principles are various, according to the different situation of the human understanding. In very barbarous and ignorant nations, such as the Africans and Indians , nay even the Japonese , who can form no extensive ideas of essay how to change, power and knowledge, worship may be paid to a being, whom they confess to afro drama essays be wicked and detestable; though they may be cautious, perhaps, of process how to, pronouncing this.

judgment of essays, him in public, or in glycogen systhesis, his temple, where he may be supposed to hear their reproaches. Such rude, imperfect ideas of the Divinity adhere long to reflective all idolaters; and it may safely be affirmed, that the change, Greeks themselves never got entirely rid of them. It is afro american poetry reflective, remarked by Xenophon 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for literary ease of reference 83 * , in praise of Socrates , that this philosopher assented not to the vulgar opinion, which supposed the gods to know some things, and be ignorant of others: He maintained, that they knew every thing; what was done, said, or even thought. Afro American Reflective Essays? But as this was a strain of philosophy0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 84 #x2020; much above the essay mother for kids, conception of his countrymen, we need not be surprised, if very frankly, in their books and conversation, they blamed the deities, whom they worshipped in their temples. It is drama reflective essays, observable, that Herodotus in particular scruples not, in many passages, to ascribe envy to the gods; a sentiment, of all others, the most suitable to a mean and devilish nature. The pagan hymns, however, sung in public worship, contained nothing but epithets of praise; even while the actions ascribed to the gods were the most barbarous and detestable. When Timotheus , the essay, poet, recited a hymn to Diana , in which he enumerated, with the greatest eulogies, all the actions and attributes of that cruel, capricious goddess: May your daughter, said one present, become such as the deity whom you celebrate0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 85 * . But as men farther exalt their idea of their divinity; it is their notion of his power and knowledge only, not of american reflective, his goodness, which is glycogen systhesis, improved. On the contrary, in proportion to the supposed extent of his science and authority, their terrors naturally augment; while they believe, that no secrecy can conceal them from his scrutiny, and that even the essays, inmost recesses of their breast lie open before him. They must then be careful not to causes civil thesis form expressly any sentiment of blame and disapprobation. All must be applause, ravishment, extacy.

And while their gloomy apprehensions make them ascribe to him measures of conduct, which, in human creatures, would be highly blamed, they must still affect to praise and admire that conduct in the object of their devotional addresses. Thus it may safely be affirmed, that popular religions are really, in afro essays, the conception of their more vulgar votaries, a species of d ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to thesis statement essay make searching the text easier monism; and the higher the deity is afro drama essays, exalted in power and knowledge, the lower of course is he depressed in mother for kids, goodness and benevolence; whatever epithets of praise may be bestowed on him by. his amazed adorers. Among idolaters, the words may be false, and belie the afro american reflective, secret opinion: But among more exalted religionists, the opinion itself contracts a kind of ap spanish language essay, falsehood, and belies the inward sentiment. The heart secretly detests such measures of cruel and implacable vengeance; but the judgment dares not but pronounce them perfect and adorable. And the additional misery of afro american drama reflective essays, this inward struggle aggravates all the other terrors, by which these unhappy victims to superstition are for ever haunted.

Lucian 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 86 * observes that a young man, who reads the history of the physics coursework, gods in Homer or Hesiod , and finds their factions, wars, injustice, incest, adultery, and afro drama poetry essays other immoralities so highly celebrated, is process essay change, much surprised afterwards, when he comes into afro american drama reflective, the world, to observe that punishments are by ocr gcse law inflicted on the same actions, which he had been taught to ascribe to american poetry essays superior beings. The contradiction is still perhaps stronger between the representations given us by some later religions and our natural ideas of generosity, lenity, impartiality, and justice; and in civil war essay, proportion to the multiplied terrors of these religions, the barbarous conceptions of the american poetry essays, divinity are multiplied upon us0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for glycogen systhesis ease of reference 87 #x2020; . Afro Poetry Reflective Essays? Nothing can preserve untainted the. genuine principles of glycogen systhesis, morals in our judgment of human conduct, but the absolute necessity of these principles to the existence of society. If common conception can indulge princes in a system of ethics, somewhat different from that which should regulate private persons; how much more those superior beings, whose attributes, views, and nature are so totally unknown to afro reflective essays us? Sunt superis sua jura0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of causes civil war essay thesis, reference 88 * . The gods have maxims of justice peculiar to afro reflective essays themselves. Sect. XIV.

Bad influence of popular religions on morality. Here I cannot forbear observing a fact, which may be worth the attention of such as make human nature the object of ocr gcse physics, their enquiry. It is certain, that, in every religion, however sublime the verbal definition which it gives of afro american reflective, its divinity, many of the votaries, perhaps the greatest number, will still seek the divine favour, not by virtue and good morals, which alone can be acceptable to a perfect being, but either by frivolous observances, by intemperate zeal, by rapturous extasies, or by the belief of mysterious and absurd opinions. The least part of the Sadder , as well as of the Pentateuch , consists in precepts of morality; and we may also be assured, that that part was always the least observed and regarded. When the old Romans were attacked with a pestilence, they never ascribed their sufferings to their vices, or dreamed of repentance and amendment. They never thought, that they were the general robbers of the change a tire, world, whose ambition and avarice made desolate the earth, and reduced opulent nations to want and beggary.

They only created a dictator0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 89 #x2020; , in order to drive a nail into american drama poetry reflective essays, a door; and by that means, they thought that they had sufficiently appeased their incensed deity. In ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier gina , one faction forming a conspiracy, barbarously and treacherously assassinated seven hundred of their fellow-citizens; and carried their fury so far, that, one miserable fugitive having fled to the temple, they cut off his hands, by ap spanish which he clung to american poetry reflective the gates, and carrying him out of holy ground, immediately murdered him. By this impiety, says Herodotus 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 90 * , (not by the other many cruel assassinations) they offended the literary, gods, and contracted an inexpiable guilt. Nay, if we should suppose, what never happens, that a popular religion were found, in which it was expressly declared, that nothing but morality could gain the divine favour; if an order of priests were instituted to inculcate this opinion, in daily sermons, and with all the arts of persuasion; yet so inveterate are the people’s prejudices, that, for want of some other superstition, they would make the very attendance on these sermons the essentials of religion, rather than place them in virtue and afro drama poetry good morals. The. sublime prologue of Zaleucus ’s laws0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 91 #x2020; inspired not the Locrians , so far as we can learn, with any sounder notions of the measures of acceptance with the how to, deity, than were familiar to the other Greeks . This observation, then, holds universally: But still one may be at some loss to account for afro poetry reflective essays it. It is sufficient to observe, that the people, every where, degrade their deities into a similitude with themselves, and consider them merely as a species of human creatures, somewhat more potent and thesis statement literary essay intelligent. This will not remove the difficulty.

For there is no man so stupid, as that, judging by his natural reason, he would not esteem virtue and honesty the most valuable qualities, which any person could possess. Why not ascribe the same sentiment to his deity? Why not make all religion, or the chief part of it, to consist in these attainments? Nor is it satisfactory to say, that the practice of afro, morality is more difficult than that of causes of the civil, superstition; and is therefore rejected. Afro Drama Reflective Essays? For, not to mention the excessive pennances of the Brachmans and Talapoins ; it is certain, that the Rhamadan of the Turks , during which the poor wretches, for many days, often in the hottest months of the year, and in some of the ocr gcse physics, hottest climates of the world, remain without eating or drinking from the rising to the setting sun; this Rhamadan , I say, must be more severe than the practice of poetry, any moral duty, even to the most vicious and thesis statement depraved of mankind. The four lents of the Muscovites , and the austerities of some Roman Catholics , appear more disagreeable than meekness and benevolence.

In short, all virtue, when men are reconciled to it by ever so little practice, is agreeable: All superstition is for ever odious and burthensome. Perhaps, the following account may be received as a true solution of the difficulty. The duties, which a man performs as a friend or parent, seem merely owing to his benefactor or children; nor can he be wanting to these duties, without breaking through all the ties of nature and morality. A strong inclination may prompt him to the performance: A sentiment of order and moral obligation joins its force to these natural ties: And the whole man, if truly virtuous, is american reflective, drawn to his duty, without any effort or endeavour. Even with regard to the virtues, which are more austere, and more founded on reflection, such as public spirit, filial duty, temperance, or integrity; the moral obligation, in our apprehension, removes all pretension to religious merit; and the virtuous conduct is deemed no more than what we owe to society and to ourselves. In all this, a superstitious man finds nothing, which he has properly performed for the sake of this deity, or which can peculiarly recommend him to and culture essay the divine favour and protection.

He considers not, that the most genuine method of afro drama poetry essays, serving the divinity is by promoting the happiness of his creatures. He still looks out for some more immediate service of the supreme Being, in order to allay those terrors, with which he is coursework, haunted. And any practice, recommended to drama him, which either serves to no purpose in life, or offers the strongest violence to of the civil thesis his natural inclinations; that practice he will the more readily embrace, on account of those very circumstances, which should make him absolutely reject it. It seems the more purely religious, because it proceeds from no mixture of afro, any other motive or consideration. And if, for its sake, he sacrifices much of his ease and quiet, his claim of merit appears still to rise upon him, in proportion to the zeal and devotion which he discovers. In restoring a loan, or paying a debt, his divinity is nowise beholden to him; because these acts of justice are what he was bound to perform, and what many would have performed, were there no god in the universe. But if he fast a day, or give himself a sound whipping; this has a direct reference, in his opinion, to the service of process essay change a tire, God.

No other motive could engage him to such austerities. By these distinguished marks of american reflective, devotion, he has now acquired the divine favour; and may expect, in recompence, protection and safety in this world, and eternal happiness in the next. Hence the greatest crimes have been found, in many instances, compatible with a superstitious piety and thesis literary essay devotion: Hence, it is justly regarded as unsafe to draw any certain inference in favour of a man’s morals from the afro american poetry essays, fervour or strictness of ap spanish essay, his religious exercises, even though he himself believe them sincere. Nay, it has been observed, that enormities of the blackest dye have been rather apt to produce superstitious terrors, and encrease the religious passion. Bomilcar , having formed a conspiracy for assassinating at once the whole senate of Carthage , and invading the liberties of his country, lost the opportunity, from a continual regard to omens and prophecies. Those who undertake the drama poetry, most criminal and for kids most dangerous enterprizes are commonly the most superstitious ; as an ancient historian0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of afro american drama, reference 92 * remarks on this occasion. Their devotion and spiritual faith rise with their fears.

Catiline was not contented with the established deities, and received rites of the national religion: His anxious terrors made him seek new inventions of this kind0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 93 #x2020; ; which he never probably had dreamed of, had he remained a good citizen, and obedient to thesis essay the laws of his country. To which we may add, that, after the commission of crimes, there arise remorses and secret horrors, which give no rest to the mind, but make it have recourse to religious rites and ceremonies, as expiations of its offences. Whatever weakens or disorders the internal frame promotes the interests of american reflective, superstition: And nothing is more destructive to them than a manly, steady virtue, which either preserves us from process change, disastrous, melancholy accidents, or teaches us to bear them. During such calm sunshine of the mind, these spectres of false divinity never make their appearance. On the other hand, while we abandon ourselves to the natural undisciplined suggestions of our timid and anxious hearts, every kind of barbarity is ascribed to afro american drama poetry reflective essays the supreme Being, from the terrors with which we are agitated; and every kind of caprice, from the literary essay, methods which we embrace in order to appease him. Barbarity , caprice ; these qualities, however nominally disguised, we may universally observe, form the ruling character of the deity in popular religions. Even priests, instead of poetry reflective essays, correcting these depraved ideas of mankind, have often been found ready to foster and encourage them. The more tremendous the divinity is represented, the more tame and submissive do men become to his ministers: And the more unaccountable the measures of acceptance required by him, the more necessary does it become to abandon our natural reason, and yield to their ghostly guidance and direction. Thus it may be allowed, that the mother, artifices of men aggravate our natural infirmities and follies of this kind, but never originally beget them. Their root strikes deeper into the mind, and springs from the essential and universal properties of human nature.

Though the stupidity of men, barbarous and uninstructed, be so great, that they may not see a sovereign author in the more obvious works of nature, to which they are so much familiarized; yet it scarcely seems possible, that any one of good understanding should reject that idea, when once it is suggested to him. A purpose, an intention, a design is evident in every thing; and when our comprehension is drama poetry reflective essays, so far enlarged as to contemplate the first rise of this visible system, we must adopt, with the strongest conviction, the idea of some intelligent cause or author. Language And Culture Essay? The uniform maxims too, which prevail throughout the whole frame of the afro poetry reflective essays, universe, naturally, if not necessarily, lead us to conceive this intelligence as single and causes thesis undivided, where the prejudices of education oppose not so reasonable a theory. Even the contrarieties of nature, by discovering themselves every where, become proofs of afro american poetry essays, some consistent plan, and thesis essay establish one single purpose or intention, however inexplicable and incomprehensible. Good and ill are universally intermingled and confounded; happiness and misery, wisdom and folly, virtue and vice. Nothing is american drama poetry, pure and entirely of a piece. All advantages are attended with disadvantages. An universal compensation prevails in ocr gcse, all conditions of being and existence.

And it is not possible for us, by our most chimerical wishes, to form the idea of a station or situation altogether desirable. The draughts of life, according to the poet’s fiction, are always mixed from the vessels on each hand of Jupiter : Or if any cup be presented altogether pure, it is drawn only, as the same poet tells us, from the left-handed vessel. The more exquisite any good is, of which a small specimen is afforded us, the sharper is the afro american drama poetry reflective, evil, allied to it; and few exceptions are found to this uniform law of nature. The most sprightly wit borders on madness; the thesis essay, highest effusions of american poetry essays, joy produce the deepest melancholy; the most ravishing pleasures are attended with the most cruel lassitude and disgust; the most flattering hopes make way for the severest disappointments. And, in general, no course of life has such safety (for happiness is not to be dreamed of) as the ocr gcse physics, temperate and moderate, which maintains, as far as possible, a mediocrity, and a kind of insensibility, in afro american drama poetry, every thing. As the good, the great, the process change, sublime, the ravishing are found eminently in afro reflective essays, the genuine principles of theism; it may be expected, from the analogy of nature, that the base, the absurd, the mean, the terrifying will be equally discovered in religious fictions and chimeras. The universal propensity to believe in ap spanish language essay, invisible, intelligent power, if not an original instinct, being at least a general attendant of human nature, may be considered as a kind of mark or stamp, which the divine workman has set upon drama poetry reflective, his work; and nothing surely can more dignify mankind, than to coursework be thus selected from all other parts of the creation, and to bear the image or impression of the american drama reflective, universal Creator. But consult this image, as it appears in the popular religions of the world.

How is the deity disfigured in our representations of him! What caprice, absurdity, and immorality are attributed to him! How much is he degraded even below the of the war essay, character, which we should naturally, in common life, ascribe to a man of sense and afro american reflective virtue! What a noble privilege is it of human reason to attain the ap spanish language and culture, knowledge of the american poetry reflective, supreme Being; and, from the visible works of nature, be enabled to infer so sublime a principle as its supreme Creator? But turn the reverse of the medal. Survey most nations and thesis statement most ages. American Drama Poetry? Examine the essay how to change a tire, religious principles, which have, in fact, prevailed in american drama poetry essays, the world. You will scarcely be persuaded, that they are any thing but sick men’s dreams: Or perhaps will regard them more as the playsome whimsies of monkies in human shape, than the causes civil, serious, positive, dogmatical asseverations of a being, who dignifies himself with the name of rational. Hear the verbal protestations of all men: Nothing so certain as their religious tenets. Examine their lives: You will scarcely think that they repose the reflective, smallest confidence in them.

The greatest and truest zeal gives us no security against hypocrisy: The most open impiety is attended with a secret dread and ocr gcse coursework compunction. No theological absurdities so glaring that they have not, sometimes, been embraced by men of the greatest and most cultivated understanding. Poetry? No religious precepts so rigorous that they have not been adopted by the most voluptuous and most abandoned of men. Ignorance is the mother of ocr gcse physics, Devotion: A maxim that is afro american poetry, proverbial, and confirmed by general experience. Look out for a people, entirely destitute of religion: If you find them at all, be assured, that they are but few degrees removed from brutes. What so pure as some of the morals, included in some theological systems? What so corrupt as some of the practices, to which these systems give rise? The comfortable views, exhibited by essay the belief of afro drama poetry, futurity, are ravishing and delightful. But how quickly vanish on the appearance of its terrors, which keep a more firm and durable possession of the human mind?

The whole is a riddle, an ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nigma, an essay mother, inexplicable mystery. Doubt, uncertainty, suspence of judgment appear the only result of our most accurate scrutiny, concerning this subject. American Reflective Essays? But such is the glycogen systhesis, frailty of human reason, and such the american drama poetry reflective essays, irresistible contagion of opinion, that even this deliberate doubt could scarcely be upheld; did we not enlarge our view, and opposing one species of superstition to another, set them a quarrelling; while we ourselves, during their fury and contention, happily make our escape, into the calm, though obscure, regions of philosophy. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for mother for kids ease of reference 3. The following lines of Euripides are so much to afro american poetry reflective the present purpose, that I cannot forbear quoting them: ??? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????, ???’ ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????. ??????? ?’???’?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????, ???????? ??????????, ?? ???????. ??????? ??????. Hecuba . “There is nothing secure in the world; no glory, no prosperity. The gods toss all life into confusion; mix every thing with its reverse; that all of glycogen systhesis, us, from our ignorance and uncertainty, may pay them the more worship and reverence.” #x2021; originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of drama poetry, reference 8. Diod.

Sic. lib. i. Lucian. de Sacrificiis. Ovid alludes to the same tradition, Metam. li.v. l. 321. So also Manilius , lib. iv. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 26. The same author, who can thus account for the origin of the world without a Deity, esteems it impious to explain from physical causes, the common accidents of life, earthquakes, inundations, and tempests; and devoutly ascribes these to the anger of Jupiter or Neptune . Physics Coursework? A plain proof, whence he derived his ideas of religion. See lib. xv. p. 364. Ex edit.

Rhodomanni . * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of american drama, reference 34. Herodian . lib. v. Jupiter Ammon is represented by Curtius as a deity of the same kind, lib. iv. cap. 7. The Arabians and Persinuntians adored also shapeless unformed stones as their deity. Arnob. lib. vi. So much did their folly exceed that of the Egyptians . * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 36. See C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar of the religion of the Gauls , De bello Gallico, lib. xi. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for causes of the civil war essay thesis ease of reference 60. When Louis the XIVth took on himself the protection of the Jesuits’ College of Clermont , the american essays, society ordered the literary, king’s arms to be put up over the gate, and took down the cross, in order to make way for it: Which gave occasion to the following epigram:

Sustulit hinc Christi, posuitque insignia Regis: Impia gens, alium nescit habere Deum. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 69. Witness this remarkable passage of Tacitus : “Pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier ter multiplices rerum humanarum casus, c ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier lo terraque prodigia, fulminum monitus futurorum pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to poetry make searching the text easier sagia, l ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier ta, tristia, ambigua, manifesta. Nec enim unquam atrocioribus populi Romani cladibus, magisque justis judiciis approbatum est, non esse cur ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier Diis securitatem nostram, esse ultionem.” Hist. lib. i. Augustus ’s quarrel with Neptune is an instance of the same kind.

Had not the ocr gcse coursework, emperor believed Neptune to afro poetry essays be a real being, and to have dominion over the sea, where had been the foundation of his anger? And if he believed it, what madness to provoke still farther that deity? The same observation may be made upon Quintilian ’s exclamation, on account of the death of his children, lib. vi. Pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier f. #x1C1; originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for physics ease of reference 75. The Stoics, I own, were not quite orthodox in the established religion; but one may see, from these instances, that they went a great way: And the people undoubtedly went every length. #x2021; originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for afro american drama poetry reflective ease of reference 81. Cicero (Tusc.

Qu ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier st.) lib. Process Essay How To A Tire? i. cap. 5, 6. and Seneca (Epist. 24), as also Juvenal (Satyr. 2.), maintain that there is no boy or old woman so ridiculous as to believe the poets in their accounts of american essays, a future state. Why then does Lucretius so highly exalt his master for freeing us from these terrors? Perhaps the generality of mankind were then in the disposition of Cephalus in Plato (de Rep. lib. i.) who while he was young and healthful could ridicule these stories; but as soon as he became old and glycogen systhesis infirm, began to poetry entertain apprehensions of their truth.

This we may observe not to be unusual even at present. #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 84. It was considered among the ocr gcse physics, ancients, as a very extraordinary, philosophical paradox, that the presence of the drama poetry essays, gods was not confined to the heavens, but were extended every where; as we learn from Lucian Hirmotimus sive De sectis . #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 89. Called Dictator clavis figend ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier causa. Literary? T. Livii , l. vii. c. 3. NOTE [YY], p. 409. [Bea 38.] added for ease of reference. “F ragilis laboriosa mortalitas in partes ista digessit, infirmitatis su ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier memor, ut portionibus quisquis coleret, quo maxime indigeret.” Plin. Afro American Drama Reflective Essays? lib. ii. cap. 7. On My Mother? So early as Hesiod ’s time there were 30,000 deities. Oper. Dier. lib. i. ver.

250. But the task to be performed by these seems still too great for their number. The provinces of the deities were so subdivided, that there was even a God of Sneezing . See Arist. Probl. sect. 33. cap. 7. The province of copulation, suitably to the importance and dignity of it, was divided among several deities. NOTE [ZZ], p. 420. [Bea 47.] added for ease of reference. I t will be easy to give a reason, why Thales , Anaximander , and those early philosophers, who really were atheists, might be very orthodox in the pagan creed; and why Anaxagoras and Socrates , though real theists, must naturally, in ancient times, be esteemed impious. The blind, unguided powers of nature, if they could produce men, might also produce such beings as Jupiter and Neptune , who being the most powerful, intelligent existences in american drama essays, the world, would be proper objects of worship.

But where a supreme intelligence, the first cause of all, is admitted, these capricious beings, if they exist at all, must appear very subordinate and dependent, and consequently be excluded from the rank of mother for kids, deities. Plato (de leg. lib. x.) assigns this reason for the imputation thrown on Anaxagoras , namely his denying the divinity of the american, stars, planets, and language essay other created objects. NOTE [AAA], p. 436. [Bea 60.] added for ease of reference. V errius Flaccus , cited by Pliny , lib. xxviii. cap. 2. affirmed, that it was usual for the Romans , before they laid siege to any town, to invocate the afro drama reflective, tutelar deity of the place, and by promising him greater honours than those he at present enjoyed, bribe him to betray his old friends and votaries. The name of the tutelar deity of Rome was for thesis literary essay this reason kept a most religious mystery; lest the enemies of the republic should be able, in the same manner, to draw him over to their service. For without the name, they thought, nothing of that kind could be practised. Pliny says, that the afro american poetry essays, common form of invocation was preserved to his time in the ritual of the pontifs. And Macrobius has transmitted a copy of it from the secret things of Sammonicus Serenus . NOTE [BBB], p. 439. [Bea 62.] added for glycogen systhesis ease of reference. M ost nations have fallen into this guilt of human sacrifices; though, perhaps, that impious superstition has never prevailed very much in any civilized nation, unless we except the drama, Carthaginians . For the Tyrians soon abolished it.

A sacrifice is conceived as a present; and any present is delivered to their deity by destroying it and rendering it useless to men; by burning what is solid, pouring out the liquid, and killing the animate. Of The War Essay Thesis? For want of a better way of doing him service, we do ourselves an poetry reflective essays, injury; and fancy that we thereby express, at of the thesis, least, the heartiness of our good-will and adoration. Afro American Drama Reflective Essays? Thus our mercenary devotion deceives ourselves, and essay on my mother for kids imagines it deceives the deity. NOTE [CCC], p. Afro American Reflective? 447. [Bea 69.] added for ease of reference. I t is strange that the Egyptian religion, though so absurd, should yet have borne so great a resemblance to the Jewish , that ancient writers even of the greatest genius were not able to observe any difference between them. Ap Spanish And Culture Essay? For it is remarkable that both Tacitus , and Suetonius , when they mention that decree of the senate, under Tiberius , by which the Egyptian and Jewish proselytes were banished from Rome , expressly treat these religions as the same; and it appears, that even the decree itself was founded on that supposition. “Actum de sacris ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to afro american drama poetry essays make searching the text easier gyptiis , Judaicisque pellendis; factumque patrum consultum, ut quatuor millia libertini generis ea superstitione infecta, quis idonea ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier tas, in insulam Sardiniam veherentur, coercendis illic latrociniis; si ob gravitatem c ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to for kids make searching the text easier li interissent, vile damnum: Ceteri cederent Italia , nisi certam ante diem profanos ritus exuissent.” Tacit. Tacit. small capitals added, in afro reflective, keeping with formatting preferences elsewhere; the thesis statement literary essay, name is in small capitals in the 1772 edition, and is changed here presumably by mistake ann. lib. ii, c. 85. “Externas c ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the american poetry reflective essays, text easier remonias, ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier gyptios , Judaicosque ritus compescuit; coactus qui superstitione ea tenebantur, religiosas vestes cum instrumento omni comburere, c.” Sueton. Tiber. c. Thesis? 36. These wise heathens, observing something in the general air, and poetry reflective essays genius, and spirit of the two religions to be the same, esteemed the change a tire, differences of their dogmas too frivolous to deserve any attention. NOTE [DDD], p. 455. [Bea 74.] added for ease of reference.

X enophon ’s conduct, as related by himself, is, at once, an incontestable proof of the general credulity of mankind in those ages, and afro poetry reflective the incoherencies, in all ages, of of the thesis, men’s opinions in religious matters. That great captain and drama essays philosopher, the process essay a tire, disciple of Socrates , and one who has delivered some of the most refined sentiments with regard to poetry a deity, gave all the following marks of vulgar, pagan superstition. By Socrates ’s advice, he consulted the oracle of Delphi , before he would engage in the expedition of Cyrus . De exped. lib. iii. p. 294. ex edit Leuncl. Sees a dream the night after the generals were seized; which he pays great regard to, but thinks ambiguous. Id. p. 295. He and the whole army regard sneezing as a very lucky omen. Id. p. 300. Has another dream, when he comes to the river Centrites , which his fellow-general, Chirosophus , also pays great regard to. Id. lib. iv. p. 323. The Greeks , suffering from a cold north wind, sacrifice to it; and essay on my for kids the historian observes, that it immediately abated.

Id. p. 329. Xenophon consults the sacrifices in [Bea 75] secret, before he would form any resolution with himself about settling a colony. Lib. v. p. 359. He was himself a very skilful augur. American Poetry? Id. p. 361. Is determined by the victims to essay mother for kids refuse the sole command of the army which was offered him.

Lib. vi. p. Afro Poetry Essays? 273. Cleander , the Spartan , though very desirous of process how to change a tire, it, refuses it for the same reason. Id. p. 392. Xenophon mentions an old dream with the american poetry reflective, interpretation given him, when he first joined Cyrus , p. 373. Mentions also the place of ap spanish, Hercules ’s descent into hell as believing it, and says the marks of it are still remaining. Id. p. 375.

Had almost starved the army, rather than lead them to the field against the auspices. Id. p. 382, 383. Afro Poetry Essays? His friend, Euclides , the augur, would not believe that he had brought no money from the expedition; till he ( Euclides ) sacrificed, and then he saw the ocr gcse physics coursework, matter clearly in the Exta. American Drama Poetry Essays? Lib. vii. p. Civil? 425. The same philosopher, proposing a project of afro american drama reflective, mines for the encrease of the Athenian revenues, advises them first to essay on my for kids consult the oracle. De rat. Afro Reflective Essays? red. p. 392. That all this devotion was not a farce, in physics coursework, order to serve a political purpose, appears both from the facts themselves, and from the genius of that age, when little or nothing could be gained by hypocrisy. Afro Drama Reflective? Besides, Xenophon , as appears from his Memorabilia, was a kind of heretic in those times, which no political devotee ever is. It is for the same reason, I maintain, that Newton , Locke , Clarke , c. being Arians or Socinians , were very sincere in the creed they professed: And I always oppose this argument to some libertines, who will needs have it, that it was impossible but that these philosophers must have been hypocrites.

NOTE [EEE], p. Essay On My Mother? 460. [Bea 79.] added for ease of reference. B acchus , a divine being, is represented by the heathen mythology as the drama reflective essays, inventor of dancing and the theatre. Plays were anciently even a part of public worship on the most solemn occasions, and often employed in times of pestilence, to appease the offended deities. Ocr Gcse Physics Coursework? But they have been zealously proscribed by the godly in later ages; and the playhouse, according to a learned divine, is the porch of hell. But in order to show more evidently, that it is essays, possible for a religion to represent the process how to a tire, divinity in still a more immoral and unamiable light than he was pictured by the ancients, we shall cite a long passage from an author of taste and imagination, who was surely no enemy to Christianity. It is the Chevalier Ramsay , a writer, who had so laudable an inclination to afro drama poetry essays be orthodox, that his reason never found any difficulty, even in the doctrines which free-thinkers scruple the most, the trinity, incarnation, and satisfaction: His humanity alone, of which he seems to have had a great stock, rebelled against the doctrines of eternal reprobation and predestination. He expresses himself thus: ‘What strange ideas,’ says he, ‘would an Indian or a Chinese philosopher have of our holy religion, if they judged by the schemes given of literary, it by our modern free-thinkers, and pharisaical doctors of all sects? According to the odious and too vulgar system of these incredulous scoffers and credulous scribblers, “The God of the Jews is a most cruel, unjust, partial, and fantastical being. He created, about 6000 years ago, a man and a woman, and placed them in a fine garden of Asia , of which there are no remains.

This garden was furnished with all sorts of trees, fountains, and afro american poetry flowers. Ap Spanish Language Essay? He allowed them the use of all the fruits of this beautiful garden, except one, that was planted in the midst thereof, and that had in it a secret virtue of preserving them in continual health and vigour of body and mind, of exalting their natural powers and making them wise. The devil entered into the body of afro reflective essays, a serpent, and solicited the first woman to eat of this forbidden fruit; she engaged her husband to do the same. To punish this slight curiosity and natural desire of life and and culture knowledge, God not only threw our first parents out of paradise, but he condemned all their posterity to temporal misery, and the greatest part of them to eternal pains, though the souls of these innocent children have no more relation to that of Adam than to drama poetry essays those of Nero and Mahomet ; since, according to glycogen the scholastic drivellers, fabulists, and drama essays mythologists, all souls are created pure, and infused immediately into mortal bodies, [Bea 80] so soon as the f ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the process a tire, text easier tus is formed. To accomplish the barbarous, partial decree of predestination and reprobation, God abandoned all nations to darkness, idolatry, and superstition, without any saving knowledge or salutary graces; unless it was one particular nation, whom he chose as his peculiar people.

This chosen nation was, however, the most stupid, ungrateful, rebellious and persidious of poetry reflective, all nations. After God had thus kept the far greater part of all the human species, during near 4000 years, in a reprobate state, he changed all of a sudden, and took a fancy for other nations beside the Jews . Then he sent his only begotten Son to the world, under a human form, to appease his wrath, satisfy his vindictive justice, and die for the pardon of sin. Very few nations, however, have heard of this gospel; and all the thesis essay, rest, though left in american drama poetry essays, invincible ignorance, are damned without exception, or any possibility of remission. On My For Kids? The greatest part of afro american essays, those who have heard of it, have changed only civil war essay thesis some speculative notions about God, and some external forms in worship: For, in other respects, the bulk of Christians have continued as corrupt as the rest of mankind in their morals; yea, so much the afro essays, more perverse and criminal, that their lights were greater. Unless it be a very small select number, all other Christians, like the pagans, will be for ever damned; the great sacrifice offered up for them will become void and of no effect; God will take delight for ever, in their torments and blasphemies; and though he can, by one fiat change their hearts, yet they will remain for ever unconverted and unconvertible, because he will be for ever unappeasable and irreconcileable. It is true, that all this makes God odious, a hater of souls, rather than a lover of them; a cruel, vindictive tyrant, an impotent or a wrathful d ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier mon, rather than an all-powerful, beneficent father of spirits: Yet all this is a mystery.

He has secret reasons for his conduct, that are impenetrable; and systhesis though he appears unjust and barbarous, yet we must believe the contrary, because what is afro american drama essays, injustice, crime, cruelty, and the blackest malice in us, is in thesis literary essay, him justice, mercy, and sovereign goodness.” Thus the incredulous free-thinkers, the judaizing Christians, and the fatalistic doctors have disfigured and dishonoured the sublime mysteries of our holy faith; thus they have confounded the nature of good and american drama poetry evil; transformed the causes of the war essay, most monstrous passions into divine attributes, and surpassed the pagans in blasphemy, by ascribing to the eternal nature, as perfections, what makes the most horrid crimes amongst men. The grosser pagans contented themselves with divinizing lust, incest, and adultery; but the predestinarian doctors have divinized cruelty, wrath, fury, vengeance, and all the drama poetry essays, blackest vices.’ See the Chevalier Ramsay ’s philosophical principles of natural and revealed religion, Part II. p. 401. The same author asserts, in other places, that the Arminian and Molinist schemes serve very little to mend the essay on my mother for kids, matter: And having thus thrown himself out of all received sects of Christianity, he is obliged to afro drama essays advance a system of his own, which is a kind of Origenism , and supposes the pre-existence of the souls both of men and beasts, and the eternal salvation and language and culture conversion of all men, beasts, and devils. But this notion, being quite peculiar to himself, we need not treat of. I thought the opinions of this ingenious author very curious; but I pretend not to warrant the justness of them. 1. S ome objects produce immediately an agreeable sensation, by afro drama the original structure of our organs, and are thence denominated Good ; as others, from their immediate disagreeable sensation, acquire the appellation of Evil . Thus moderate warmth is agreeable and good; excessive heat painful and evil. Some objects again, by being naturally conformable or contrary to passion, excite an agreeable or painful sensation; and are thence called Good or Evil . The punishment of an adversary, by war essay gratifying revenge, is good; the poetry reflective essays, sickness of a companion, by affecting friendship, is evil. 2. All good or evil, whence-ever it arises, produces various passions and glycogen affections, according to drama reflective essays the light in language and culture, which it is afro american reflective essays, surveyed. When good is certain or very probable, it produces Joy : When evil is in essay mother, the same situation, there arises Grief or Sorrow . When either good or evil is uncertain, it gives rise to american drama poetry Fear or Hope , according to the degree of uncertainty on one side or the other. Desire arises from good considered simply; and Aversion , from evil.

The Will exerts itself, when either the presence of the good or absence of the evil may be attained by any action of the glycogen systhesis, mind or body. 3. None of these passions seem to contain any thing curious or remarkable, except Hope and Fear , which, being derived from the probability of any good or evil, are mixed passions, that merit our attention. Probability arises from an opposition of contrary chances or causes, by which the mind is not allowed to fix on either side; but is afro reflective essays, incessantly tossed from one to thesis statement another, and is determined, one moment, to consider an object as existent, and another moment as the afro american drama poetry reflective essays, contrary. The imagination or understanding, call it which you please, fluctuates between the opposite views; and though perhaps it may be oftener turned to ap spanish language and culture one side than the american drama, other, it is impossible for it, by causes of the reason of the opposition of causes or chances, to rest on afro american drama either. The pro and con of the question alternately prevail; and thesis essay the mind, surveying the objects in their opposite causes, finds such a contrariety as destroys all certainty or established opinion. Suppose, then, that the object, concerning which we are doubtful, produces either desire or aversion; it is evident, that, according as the mind turns itself to one side or the other, it must feel a momentary impression of joy or sorrow. An object, whose existence we desire, gives satisfaction, when we think of those causes, which produce it; and for the same reason, excites grief.

or uneasiness from the opposite afro poetry reflective essays, consideration. So that, as the understanding, in probable questions, is divided between the contrary points of view, the heart must in the same manner be divided between opposite emotions. Now, if we consider the human mind, we shall observe, that, with regard to the passions, it is not like a wind instrument of music, which, in running over all the notes, immediately loses the sound when the breath ceases; but rather resembles a string-instrument, where, after each stroke, the vibrations still retain some sound, which gradually and insensibly decays. The imagination is causes civil war essay thesis, extremely quick and agile; but the passions, in comparison, are slow and restive: For which reason, when any object is american drama reflective essays, presented, which affords a variety of views to the one and emotions to the other; though the glycogen, fancy may change its views with great celerity; each stroke will not produce a clear and distinct note of passion, but the one passion will always be mixed and confounded with the other. According as the probability inclines to good or evil, the passion of grief or joy predominates in the composition; and these passions being intermingled by means of the contrary views of the imagination, produce by the union the passions of hope or fear. 4. As this theory seems to carry its own evidence along with it, we shall be more concise in our proofs.

The passions of fear and hope may arise, when the chances are equal on both sides, and no superiority can be discovered in afro american poetry reflective, one above the glycogen systhesis, other. Nay, in this situation the passions are rather the strongest, as the mind has then the least foundation to rest upon, and reflective essays is tost with the greatest uncertainty. Thesis Statement Literary? Throw in a superior degree of probability to the side of grief, you immediately see that passion diffuse itself over drama essays, the composition, and glycogen systhesis tincture it into fear. Encrease the probability, and by that means the grief; the fear prevails still more and more, ’till at last it runs insensibly, as the joy continually diminishes, into afro poetry reflective, pure grief. After you have brought it to this situation, diminish the grief, by a contrary operation to that, which encreased it, to wit, by diminishing the ap spanish essay, probability on the melancholy side; and drama poetry reflective essays you will see the passion clear every moment, ’till it changes insensibly into hope; which again runs, by ap spanish language essay slow degrees, into joy, as you encrease that part of the composition, by the encrease of the poetry reflective essays, probability. Are not these as plain proofs, that the passions of ap spanish essay, fear and hope are mixtures of grief and joy, as in optics it is a proof, that a coloured ray of the sun, passing through a prism, is a composition of two others, when, as you diminish or encrease the afro american poetry reflective, quantity of either, you find it prevail proportionably, more or less, in the composition? 5. Probability is ocr gcse physics, of two kinds; either when the american drama poetry reflective, object is itself uncertain, and to be determined by chance; or when, though the of the civil war essay thesis, object be already. certain, yet it is reflective essays, uncertain to our judgment, which finds a number of proofs or presumptions on each side of the question. Both these kinds of process how to change, probability cause fear and hope; which must proceed from that property, in which they agree; namely, the uncertainty and fluctuation which they bestow on the passion, by that contrariety of views, which is common to american drama reflective essays both. 6. It is a probable good or evil, which commonly causes hope or fear; because probability, producing an inconstant and wavering survey of an glycogen, object, occasions naturally a like mixture and american essays uncertainty of passion.

But we may observe, that, wherever, from other causes, this mixture can be produced, the passions of glycogen systhesis, fear and hope will arise, even though there be no probability. An evil, conceived as barely possible , sometimes produces fear; especially if the afro american drama poetry reflective essays, evil be very great. Causes War Essay? A man cannot think on excessive pain and torture without trembling, if he runs the least risque of suffering them. The smallness of the probability is compensated by the greatness of the evil. But even impossible evils cause fear; as when we tremble on the brink of a precipice, though we know ourselves to poetry essays be in perfect security, and ocr gcse coursework have it in our choice, whether we will advance a step farther.

The immediate presence of the evil influences the imagination and poetry reflective essays produces a species of belief; but being opposed by the reflection on our security, that belief is immediately retracted, and causes the thesis essay, same kind of american drama reflective, passion, as when, from a contrariety of chances, contrary passions are produced. Evils, which are certain , have sometimes the same effect as the possible or impossible. A man, in a strong prison, without the least means of escape, trembles at the thoughts of the physics coursework, rack, to which he is sentenced. Drama? The evil is here fixed in itself; but the mind has not courage to fix upon it; and this fluctuation gives rise to a passion of a similar appearance with fear. 7. But it is not only where good or evil is uncertain as to its existence , but also as to its kind , that fear or hope arises. If any one were told that one of his sons is suddenly killed; the passion, occasioned by this event, would not settle into grief, ’till he got certain information which of his sons he had lost. Though each side of the question produces here the same passion; that passion cannot settle, but receives from the imagination, which is process essay how to change, unfixed, a tremulous unsteady motion, resembling the mixture and american poetry reflective essays contention of causes war essay thesis, grief and joy. 8. Thus all kinds of uncertainty have a strong connexion with fear, even though they do not cause any opposition of drama reflective, passions, by the opposite views, which they present to us. Should I leave a friend in essay, any malady, I should feel more anxiety upon his account, than if he were present; though perhaps I am not only incapable of giving him assistance, but likewise of. judging concerning the afro drama reflective essays, event of his sickness.

There are a thousand little circumstances of his situation and condition, which I desire to know; and the knowledge of them would prevent that fluctuation and uncertainty, so nearly allied to fear. Horace has remarked this ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to physics coursework make searching the text easier nomenon. Ut assidens implumibus pullus avis. Serpentum allapsus timet, Magis relictis; non, ut adsit, auxili. Latura plus pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sentibus. A virgin on her bridal-night goes to bed full of fears and apprehensions, though she expects nothing but pleasure. Afro American Reflective? The confusion of wishes and joys, the newness and greatness of the unknown event, so embarrass the systhesis, mind, that it knows not in what image or passion to fix itself. 9. Concerning the mixture of affections, we may remark, in afro american drama poetry reflective essays, general, that when contrary passions arise from glycogen systhesis, objects nowise connected together, they take place alternately. Thus when a man is afflicted for the loss of a law-suit, and joyful for the birth of a son, the mind, running from the agreeable to the calamitous object; with whatever celerity it may perform this motion, can scarcely temper the afro poetry reflective essays, one affection with the other, and remain between them in a state of indifference. It more easily attains that calm situation, when the same event is of a mixed nature, and essay on my for kids contains something adverse and something prosperous in its different circumstances.

For in that case, both the passions, mingling with each other by means of the relation, often become mutually destructive, and leave the mind in american drama poetry reflective, perfect tranquillity. But suppose, that the object is not a compound of glycogen, good and evil, but is considered as probable or improbable in any degree; in that case, the contrary passions will both of them be present at once in the soul, and instead of balancing and tempering each other, will subsist together, and by their union produce a third impression or affection, such as hope or fear. The influence of the relations of ideas (which we shall explain more fully afterwards) is plainly seen in this affair. In contrary passions, if the afro american drama reflective essays, objects be totally different , the passions are like two opposite liquors in different bottles, which have no influence on each other. Statement Essay? If the objects be intimately connected , the passions are like an alcali and afro drama poetry an acid , which, being mingled, destroy each other. If the relation be more imperfect, and consist in the contradictory views of the same object, the passions are like oil and vinegar, which, however mingled, never perfectly unite and incorporate. The effect of a mixture of passions, when one of them is thesis essay, predominant, and swallows up the other, shall be explained afterwards. 1. Besides those passions above-mentioned, which arise from a direct pursuit of good and american poetry reflective aversion to evil, there are others which are of a more complicated nature, and imply more than one view or consideration. Thus Pride is a certain satisfaction in ourselves, on account of some accomplishment or possession, which we enjoy: Humility , on the other hand, is a dissatisfaction with ourselves, on account of some defect or infirmity.

Love or Friendship is a complacency in another, on account of ocr gcse physics, his accomplishments or services: Hatred , the contrary. 2. In these two sets of passion, there is an obvious distinction to be made between the american drama essays, object of the passion and its cause . The object of pride and humility is self: The cause of the passion is some excellence in the former case; some fault, in the latter. The object of love and hatred is some other person: The causes, in like manner, are either excellencies or faults. With regard to essay change all these passions, the causes are what excite the emotion; the object is what the mind directs its view to when the emotion is excited. Our merit, for instance, raises pride; and it is essential to pride to turn our view on ourselves with complacency and satisfaction. Now, as the american essays, causes of these passions are very numerous and various, though their object be uniform and simple; it may be a subject of curiosity to consider, what that circumstance is, in which all these various causes agree; or in other words, what is the real efficient cause of the passion. We shall begin with pride and humility. 3. In order to glycogen explain the causes of these passions, we must reflect on certain principles, which, though they have a mighty influence on every operation, both of the american drama poetry essays, understanding and physics passions, are not commonly much insisted on by philosophers.

The first of these is the association of ideas, or that principle, by which we make an easy transition from one idea to another. Afro? However uncertain and changeable our thoughts may be, they are not entirely without rule and method in their changes. They usually pass with regularity, from one object, to on my for kids what resembles it, is contiguous to it, or produced by it0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . When one idea is present to the imagination, any other, united by these relations, naturally follows it, and enters with more facility, by means of poetry essays, that introduction. The second property, which I shall observe in physics coursework, the human mind, is drama, a like association of impressions or emotions. All resembling impressions are connected together; and process essay how to change a tire no sooner one arises, than the rest naturally follow. Grief and disappointment give rise to anger, anger to envy, envy to malice, and malice to grief again.

In like manner, our temper, when elevated with joy, naturally throws itself into love, generosity, courage, pride, and afro american drama poetry essays other resembling affections. In the ocr gcse physics coursework, third place, it is observable of these two kinds of association, that they very much assist and forward each other, and that the transition is more easily made, where they both concur in the same object. Thus, a man, who, by afro drama poetry an injury received from another, is ap spanish and culture, very much discomposed and ruffled in his temper, is apt to find a hundred subjects of hatred, discontent, impatience, fear, and afro american drama poetry reflective other uneasy passions; especially, if he can discover these subjects in or near the person, who was the object of his first emotion. Those principles, which forward the transition of ideas, here concur with those which operate on the passions; and coursework both, uniting in one action, bestow on the mind a double impulse. Upon this occasion I may cite a passage from an elegant writer, who expresses himself in the following manner0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 2 * : “As the fancy delights in every thing, that is american poetry essays, great, strange, or beautiful, and is still the more pleased the more it finds of ocr gcse physics coursework, these perfections in the same object, so it is afro reflective, capable of receiving new satisfaction by the assistance of another sense. Thus, any continual sound, as the music of birds, or a fall of waters, awakens every moment the mind of the beholder, and makes him more attentive to the several beauties of the place, that lie before him. War Essay? Thus, if there arises a fragrancy of smells or perfumes, they heighten the pleasure of the imagination, and make even the colours and american poetry essays verdure of the essay for kids, landscape appear more agreeable; for the ideas of afro essays, both senses recommend each other, and are pleasanter together than where they enter the mind separately: As the different colours of a picture, when they are well disposed, set off one another, and receive an additional beauty from the advantage of the situation.” In these ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to glycogen make searching the text easier nomena, we may remark the afro american poetry, association both of and culture, impressions and afro american reflective ideas; as well as the mutual assistance these associations lend to each other.

4. Civil War Essay? It seems to me, that both these species of relation have place in producing Pride or Humility , and american drama poetry reflective essays are the real, efficient causes of the passion. With regard to the first relation, that of ideas, there can be no question. Whatever we are proud of must, in some manner, belong to us. It is causes civil war essay, always. our knowledge, our sense, beauty, possessions, family, on which we value ourselves. Self, which is the object of the afro american essays, passion, must still be related to that quality or circumstance, which causes the passion. There must be a connexion between them; an causes, easy transition of the imagination; or a facility of the conception in passing from afro american reflective essays, one to the other. Where this connexion is wanting, no object can either excite pride or humility; and the more you weaken the connexion, the more you weaken the passion. 5. Ocr Gcse Coursework? The only subject of enquiry is, whether there be a like relation of impressions or sentiments, wherever pride or humility is afro poetry, felt; whether the circumstance, which causes the passion, previously excites a sentiment similar to the passion; and whether there be an easy transfusion of the one into the other. The feeling or sentiment of pride is agreeable; of humility, painful.

An agreeable sensation is, therefore, related to the former; a painful, to the latter. And if we find, after examination, that every object, which produces pride, produces also a separate pleasure; and essay every object, which causes humility, excites in like manner a separate uneasiness; we must allow, in that case, that the present theory is reflective, fully proved and ascertained. On My For Kids? The double relation of ideas and sentiments will be acknowledged incontestable. 6. To begin with personal merit and demerit, the afro drama poetry reflective, most obvious causes of these passions; it would be entirely foreign to our present purpose to examine the foundation of moral distinctions. It is systhesis, sufficient to observe, that the afro drama reflective essays, foregoing theory concerning the origin of the passions may be defended on any hypothesis. The most probable system, which has been advanced to explain the difference between vice and virtue, is, that either from a primary constitution of thesis literary, nature, or from drama poetry, a sense of public or private interest, certain characters, upon the very view and contemplation, produce uneasiness; and process essay how to a tire others, in like manner, excite pleasure. The uneasiness and satisfaction, produced in the spectator, are essential to vice and virtue. To approve of a character, is to feel a delight upon its appearance. To disapprove of it, is to be sensible of an uneasiness. The pain and pleasure, therefore, being, in a manner, the primary source of blame or praise, must also be the causes of all their effects; and consequently, the drama poetry reflective, causes of pride and humility, which are the unavoidable attendants of that distinction. But supposing this theory of morals should not be received; it is still evident that pain and pleasure, if not the sources of on my mother, moral distinctions, are at least inseparable from them.

A generous and noble character affords a satisfaction even in the survey; and when presented to us, though only in a poem or fable, never fails to charm and delight us. On the american drama poetry reflective essays, other hand, cruelty and treachery displease from their very nature; nor is essay on my mother, it. possible ever to reconcile us to american poetry essays these qualities, either in ourselves or others. Virtue, therefore, produces always a pleasure distinct from the pride or self-satisfaction which attends it: Vice, an uneasiness separate from the humility or remorse. But a high or low conceit of ourselves arises not from those qualities alone of the physics, mind, which, according to common systems of ethics, have been defined parts of moral duty; but from any other, which have a connexion with pleasure or uneasiness. Nothing flatters our vanity more than the talent of pleasing by our wit, good-humour, or any other accomplishment; and nothing gives us a more sensible mortification, than a disappointment in any attempt of that kind. No one has ever been able to tell precisely, what wit is, and to shew why such a system of american, thought must be received under that denomination, and such another rejected. It is by taste alone we can decide concerning it; nor are we possessed of any other standard, by essay on my for kids which we can form a judgment of this nature.

Now what is this taste , from which true and false wit in american poetry reflective essays, a manner receive their being, and without which no thought can have a title to either of these denominations? It is plainly nothing but a sensation of pleasure from true wit, and thesis of disgust from false, without our being able to afro poetry reflective tell the reasons of that satisfaction or uneasiness. Physics Coursework? The power of exciting these opposite sensations is, therefore, the very essence of true or false wit; and poetry reflective essays consequently, the cause of that vanity or mortification, which arises from one or the of the thesis, other. 7. Essays? Beauty of of the civil thesis, all kinds gives us a peculiar delight and satisfaction; as deformity produces pain, upon whatever subject it may be placed, and whether surveyed in an animate or inanimate object. If the beauty or deformity belong to our own face, shape, or person, this pleasure or uneasiness is converted into pride or humility; as having in this case all the circumstances requisite to produce a perfect transition, according to the present theory.

It would seem, that the very essence of beauty consists in its power of drama reflective essays, producing pleasure. All its effects, therefore, must proceed from thesis, this circumstance: And if beauty is so universally the subject of vanity, it is only from its being the cause of pleasure. Concerning all other bodily accomplishments, we may observe in general, that whatever in ourselves is either useful, beautiful, or surprizing, is an american, object of pride; and of the civil the contrary of humility. These qualities agree in afro american reflective, producing a separate pleasure; and agree in nothing else. We are vain of the surprizing adventures which we have met with, the escapes which we have made, the dangers to which we have been exposed; as well as of our surprising feats of vigour and activity. Hence the origin of of the civil war essay, vulgar lying; where men, without any interest, and afro american poetry reflective essays merely out of vanity, heap up a number of extraordinary events, which are either the fictions of their brain; or, if true, have no connexion with themselves. Systhesis? Their fruitful invention supplies them with a variety of adventures; and where that talent is reflective, wanting, they appropriate such as belong to others, in order to gratify their vanity: For between that passion, and the sentiment of pleasure, there is always a close connexion. 8. But though pride and humility have the qualities of our mind and body, that is, of ap spanish, self, for their natural and american essays more immediate causes; we find by glycogen experience, that many other objects produce these affections. We found vanity upon houses, gardens, equipage, and other external objects; as well as upon poetry reflective essays, personal merit and systhesis accomplishments. This happens when external objects acquire any particular relation to ourselves, and are associated or connected with us.

A beautiful fish in the ocean, a well-proportioned animal in a forest, and indeed, any thing, which neither belongs nor is related to us, has no manner of influence on afro american our vanity; whatever extraordinary qualities it may be endowed with, and of the war essay thesis whatever degree of surprize and admiration it may naturally occasion. It must be someway associated with us, in order to touch our pride. Afro American Reflective Essays? Its idea must hang, in a manner, upon that of ourselves; and the transition from one to the other must be easy and natural. Men are vain of the beauty either of their country, or their county, or even of their parish. Here the idea of causes thesis, beauty plainly produces a pleasure. This pleasure is related to pride. The object or cause of this pleasure is, by the supposition, related to drama poetry reflective self, the object of pride. By this double relation of sentiments and ideas, a transition is made from one to the other. Men are also vain of the happy temperature of the climate, in which they are born; of the fertility of their native soil; of the goodness of the wines, fruits, or victuals, produced by it; of the softness or force of glycogen systhesis, their language, with other particulars of that kind.

These objects have plainly a reference to the pleasures of sense, and afro poetry essays are originally considered as agreeable to the feeling, taste or hearing. How could they become causes of pride, except by means of ocr gcse coursework, that transition above explained? There are some, who discover a vanity of an opposite kind, and affect to depreciate their own country, in afro drama poetry essays, comparison of those, to which they have travelled. These persons find, when they are at home, and surrounded with their countrymen, that the strong relation between them and their own nation is shared with so many, that it is in a manner lost to them; whereas, that distant relation to a foreign country, which is formed by their having. seen it, and lived in it, is augmented by their considering how few have done the same. For this reason, they always admire the and culture, beauty, utility, and rarity of what they met with abroad, above what they find at home. Since we can be vain of a country, climate , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions or any inanimate object, which bears a relation to afro reflective us; it is no wonder we should be vain of the qualities of those, who are connected with us by war essay blood or friendship. Accordingly we find, that any qualities which, when belonging to ourselves, produce pride, produce also, in american drama poetry reflective essays, a less degree, the same affection, when discovered in persons, related to us. Essay? The beauty, address, merit, credit, and honours of afro, their kindred are carefully displayed by ap spanish language and culture essay the proud, and are considerable sources of their vanity.

As we are proud of riches in ourselves, we desire, in order to gratify our vanity, that every one who has any connexion with us, should likewise be possessed of them, and are ashamed of such as are mean or poor among our friends and relations. Poetry? Our forefathers being regarded as our nearest relations; every one naturally affects to be of a good family, and to process essay how to change a tire be descended from a long succession of afro drama reflective, rich and honourable ancestors. Those, who boast of the systhesis, antiquity of their families, are glad when they can join this circumstance, that their ancestors, for many generations, have been uninterrupted proprietors of the same portion of land, and that their family has never changed its possessions, or been transplanted into any other county or province. It is an additional subject of vanity, when they can boast, that these possessions have been transmitted through a descent, composed entirely of males, and that the honours and fortune have never passed through any female. Let us endeavour to explain these ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena from the foregoing theory. When any one values himself on the antiquity of drama poetry reflective, his family, the glycogen systhesis, subjects of his vanity are not merely the afro poetry, extent of time and number of ancestors (for in that respect all mankind are alike), but these circumstances, joined to the riches and credit of his ancestors, which are supposed to reflect a lustre on thesis literary himself, upon account of his connexion with them. Since therefore the passion depends on the connexion, whatever strengthens the connexion must also encrease the passion, and drama poetry whatever weakens the connexion must diminish the passion. Essay How To? But it is evident, that the sameness of the afro drama reflective, possessions must strengthen the relation of ideas, arising from blood and kindred, and convey the fancy with greater facility from one generation to another; from the causes of the thesis, remotest ancestors to their posterity, who are both their heirs and their descendants.

By this facility, the sentiment is drama essays, transmitted more entire, and excites a greater degree of thesis statement essay, pride and vanity. The case is the poetry reflective essays, same with the transmission of the honours and fortune, through a succession of males, without their passing through any female. It is an obvious quality of human nature, that the imagination naturally turns to whatever is important and considerable; and where two objects are presented, a small and a great, it usually leaves the former, and dwells entirely on the latter. This is the reason, why children commonly bear their father’s name, and are esteemed to be of essay for kids, a nobler or meaner birth, according to his family. And though the mother should be possessed of superior qualities to the father, as often happens, the general rule prevails, notwithstanding the exception, according to the doctrine, which shall be explained afterwards. Nay, even when a superiority of any kind is so great, or when any other reasons have such an effect, as to make the children rather represent the mother’s family than the father’s, the general rule still retains an afro, efficacy, sufficient to weaken the relation, and make a kind of breach in the line of ancestors. Thesis? The imagination runs not along them with the same facility, nor is able to transfer the honour and credit of the ancestors to drama their posterity of the essay on my mother, same name and family so readily, as when the afro american drama reflective, transition is conformable to thesis essay the general rule, and passes through the male line, from father to son, or from brother to brother. 9. But property , as it gives us the fullest power and authority over any object, is the relation, which has the greatest influence on these passions0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 * . Every thing, belonging to a vain man, is the best that is any where to be found. His houses, equipage, furniture, cloaths, horses, hounds, excel all others in drama reflective, his conceit; and it is easy to observe, that, from the least advantage in any of these , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in ap spanish language essay, earlier editions he draws a new subject of pride and vanity.

His wine, if you will believe him, has a finer flavour than any other; his cookery is more exquisite; his table more orderly; his servants more expert; the air, in which he lives, more healthful; the soil, which he cultivates, more fertile; his fruits ripen earlier, and to greater perfection: Such a thing is afro drama reflective, remarkable for its. novelty; such another for its antiquity: This is the workmanship of a famous artist; that belonged once to such a prince or great man. All objects, in a word, which are useful, beautiful, or surprizing, or are related to such, may, by means of property, give rise to this passion. These all agree in giving pleasure. This alone is common to them; and therefore must be the quality, that produces the passion, which is their common effect. As every new instance is a new argument, and as the instances are here without number; it would seem, that this theory is statement, sufficiently confirmed by experience. Riches imply the power of acquiring whatever is poetry essays, agreeable; and as they comprehend many particular objects of vanity, necessarily become one of the chief causes of that passion. 10. Our opinions of all kinds are strongly affected by society and sympathy, and it is almost impossible for civil war essay thesis us to support any principle or sentiment, against the universal consent of every one, with whom we have any friendship or correspondence.

But of all our opinions, those, which we form in our own favour; however lofty or presuming; are, at drama poetry reflective, bottom, the frailest, and thesis statement literary the most easily shaken by the contradiction and opposition of others. Our great concern, in drama, this case, makes us soon alarmed, and keeps our passions upon the watch: Our consciousness of partiality still makes us dread a mistake: And the very difficulty of judging concerning an object, which is systhesis, never set at a due distance from us, nor is seen in a proper point of view, makes us hearken anxiously to afro drama reflective essays the opinions of thesis statement essay, others, who are better qualified to form just opinions concerning us. Hence that strong love of fame, with which all mankind are possessed. It is in order to fix and confirm their favourable opinion of poetry reflective, themselves, not from any original passion, that they seek the applauses of others. And when a man desires to be praised, it is for the same reason, that a beauty is pleased with surveying herself in ocr gcse physics coursework, a favourable looking-glass, and seeing the reflection of her own charms. Though it be difficult, in all points of speculation, to american drama poetry reflective distinguish a cause, which encreases an effect, from one, which solely produces it; yet in the present case the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena seem pretty strong and satisfactory in confirmation of the foregoing principle.

We receive a much greater satisfaction from the approbation of those whom we ourselves esteem and approve of, than of those whom we contemn and despise. When esteem is obtained after a long and intimate acquaintance, it gratifies our vanity in a peculiar manner. The suffrage of those, who are shy and backward in giving praise, is causes civil war essay, attended with an additional relish and american drama poetry reflective enjoyment, if we can obtain it in our favour. Where a great man is delicate in causes of the war essay thesis, his choice of favourites, every one courts with greater earnestness his countenance and protection. Praise never gives us much pleasure, unless it concur with our own opinion, and extol us for those qualities, in which we chiefly excel. These ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena seem to afro drama poetry prove, that the favourable suffrages of the world are regarded only as authorities, or as confirmations of our own opinion. And if the opinions of others have more influence in this subject than in any other, it is easily accounted for essay mother from the nature of the subject. 11. Thus few objects, however related to afro drama poetry reflective us, and whatever pleasure they produce, are able to excite a great degree of pride or self-satisfaction; unless they be also obvious to others, and engage the approbation of the spectators. What disposition of process essay how to a tire, mind so desirable as the peaceful, resigned, contented; which readily submits to all the dispensations of providence, and afro american drama reflective essays preserves a constant serenity amidst the greatest misfortunes and disappointments?

Yet this disposition, though acknowledged to causes civil war essay be a virtue or excellence, is seldom the foundation of great vanity or self-applause; having no brilliancy or exterior lustre, and rather cheering the heart, than animating the behaviour and conversation. The case is the same with many other qualities of the mind, body, or fortune; and this circumstance, as well as the double relations above mentioned, must be admitted to be of consequence in the production of these passions. A second circumstance, which is of consequence in this affair, is the constancy and durableness of the object. What is very casual and inconstant, beyond the common course of human affairs, gives little joy, and less pride. Afro American Poetry? We are not much satisfied with the thing itself; and are still less apt to ocr gcse coursework feel any new degree of self-satisfaction upon its account. We foresee and anticipate its change; which makes us little satisfied with the thing itself: We compare it to ourselves, whose existence is afro american, more durable; by which means its inconstancy appears still greater. It seems ridiculous to make ourselves the essay on my for kids, object of a passion, on american poetry account of a quality or possession, which is of so much shorter duration, and attends us during so small a part of thesis statement literary essay, our existence. A third circumstance, not to be neglected, is that the objects, in drama poetry essays, order to ocr gcse coursework produce pride or self-value, must be peculiar to us, or at least common to us with a few others.

The advantages of sun-shine, good weather, a happy climate, c. distinguish us not from any of our companions, and poetry essays give us no preference or superiority. The comparison, which we are every moment apt to make, presents no inference to our advantage; and we still remain, notwithstanding these enjoyments, on a level with all our friends and acquaintance. As health and sickness vary incessantly to all men, and there is no one, who is solely or certainly fixed in either; these accidental blessings and calamities are in a manner separated from change a tire, us, and are not considered as a foundation for vanity or humiliation. But wherever a malady of any kind is so rooted in our constitution, that we no longer entertain any hope of recovery, from that moment it damps our self-conceit, as is evident in old men, whom nothing mortifies more than the american drama poetry reflective, consideration of their age and infirmities. They endeavour, as long as possible, to conceal their blindness and deafness, their rheums and ocr gcse physics gouts; nor do they ever avow them without reluctance and uneasiness. Reflective Essays? And though young men are not ashamed of every head-ach or cold which they fall into; yet no topic is ocr gcse coursework, more proper to mortify human pride, and make us entertain a mean opinion of our nature, than this, that we are every moment of our lives subject to american drama reflective such infirmities.

This proves, that bodily pain and sickness are in themselves proper causes of humility; though the custom of estimating every thing, by essay comparison, more than by its intrinsic worth and value, makes us overlook those calamities, which we find incident to every one, and causes us to form an idea of our merit and american reflective character, independent of them. We are ashamed of such maladies as affect others, and on my for kids are either dangerous or disagreeable to drama reflective them. Of the epilepsy; because it gives a horror to every one present: Of the itch; because it is infectious: Of the king’s evil; because it often goes to posterity. Men always consider the ap spanish language, sentiments of others in their judgment of themselves. A fourth circumstance, which has an influence on these passions, is general rules ; by which we form a notion of different ranks of men, suitably to the power or riches of which they are possessed; and this notion is afro american essays, not changed by any peculiarities of the health or temper of the persons, which may deprive them of all enjoyment in their possessions. Custom readily carries us beyond the just bounds in our passions, as well as in our reasonings.

It may not be amiss to observe on this occasion, that the influence of general rules and maxims on the passions very much contributes to facilitate the effects of process essay change, all the principles or internal mechanism, which we here explain. For it seems evident, that, if a person full grown, and of the same nature with ourselves, were on a sudden transported into our world, he would be much embarrassed with every object, and would not readily determine what degree of love or hatred, of pride or humility, or of any other passion should be excited by it. The passions are often varied by american drama poetry reflective very inconsiderable principles; and these do not always play with perfect regularity, especially on statement literary the first trial. Afro Drama Reflective Essays? But as custom or practice has brought to light all these principles, and has settled the just value of every thing; this must certainly. contribute to how to change a tire the easy production of the passions, and afro poetry reflective guide us, by means of on my, general established rules, in the proportions, which we ought to observe in preferring one object to another. This remark may, perhaps, serve to obviate difficulties, that may arise concerning some causes, which we here ascribe to particular passions, and which may be esteemed too refined to afro american drama poetry essays operate so universally and certainly, as they are found to do. 1. In running over all the causes, which produce the passion of pride or that of humility; it would readily occur, that the same circumstance, if transferred from thesis, ourselves to another person, would render him the object of love or hatred, esteem or contempt. The virtue, genius, beauty, family, riches, and authority of others beget favourable sentiments in their behalf; and their vice, folly, deformity, poverty, and meanness excite the contrary sentiments. The double relation of impressions and ideas still operates on these passions of american drama essays, love and hatred; as on the former of systhesis, pride and humility.

Whatever gives a separate pleasure or pain, and is related to another person or connected with him, makes him the object of our affection or disgust. Hence too injury or contempt towards us is one of the greatest sources of our hatred; services or esteem, of our friendship. 2. Sometimes a relation to ourselves excites affection towards any person. But there is always here implied a relation of sentiments, without which the american drama reflective, other relation would have no influence0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4 * . A person, who is related to us, or connected with us, by blood, by similitude of fortune, of adventures, profession, or country, soon becomes an process essay how to change a tire, agreeable companion to us; because we enter easily and familiarly into his sentiments and conceptions: Nothing is strange or new to us: Our imagination, passing from american reflective, self, which is ocr gcse coursework, ever intimately present to us, runs smoothly along the relation or connexion, and conceives with a full sympathy the person, who is nearly related to self. He renders himself immediately acceptable, and is at once on an easy footing with us: No distance, no reserve has place, where the person introduced is supposed so closely connected with us. Relation has here the drama poetry reflective, same influence as custom or acquaintance, in exciting affection; and from like causes. Language And Culture Essay? The ease and satisfaction, which, in afro american drama poetry essays, both cases, attend our intercourse or commerce, is the essay change, source of the friendship.

3. The passions of love and hatred are always followed by, or rather conjoined with, benevolence and anger. It is this conjunction, which chiefly distinguishes these affections from pride and humility. For pride and humility are pure emotions in the soul, unattended with any desire, and. not immediately exciting us to essays action. Change A Tire? But love and hatred are not compleat within themselves, nor rest in that emotion, which they produce; but carry the afro american drama poetry essays, mind to something farther. Ocr Gcse Physics Coursework? Love is american poetry, always followed by a desire of happiness to the person beloved, and an aversion to his misery: As hatred produces a desire of the essay, misery, and an aversion to the happiness of the person hated.

These opposite desires seem to be originally and primarily conjoined with the passions of love and hatred. It is a constitution of nature, of which we can give no farther explication. 4. Compassion frequently arises, where there is no preceding esteem or friendship; and reflective compassion is an uneasiness in the sufferings of another. It seems to spring from the intimate and strong conception of his sufferings; and our imagination proceeds by degrees, from the lively idea to the real feeling of statement literary essay, another’s misery. Malice and envy also arise in the mind without any preceding hatred or injury; though their tendency is exactly the same with that of poetry essays, anger and ill-will. The comparison of ourselves with others seems to be the source of envy and malice. The more unhappy another is, the more happy do we ourselves appear in our own conception. 5. The similar tendency of causes of the civil thesis, compassion to that of benevolence, and of envy to anger, forms a very close relation between these two sets of passions; though of afro, a different kind from that which was insisted on above. It is not a resemblance of feeling or sentiment, but a resemblance of tendency or direction. Its effect, however, is the same, in producing an essay mother for kids, association of passions. Compassion is afro american drama poetry, seldom or never felt without some mixture of tenderness or friendship : ; originally a colon; the literary essay, lowercase 'a' following suggests that a semi-colon was intended, and there is a semi-colon here in all the previous editions (N.B. prior to the 1772 edition, the drama poetry reflective, semi-colon in the next sentence was a colon (with a capital 'A' following), but the flow clearly suggests the same apposition in each sentence, thus it is natural to suppose that Hume later aligned the punctuation accordingly) and envy is naturally accompanied with anger or ill-will.

To desire the happiness of mother, another, from whatever motive, is a good preparative to affection; and to delight in another’s misery almost unavoidably begets aversion towards him. Even where interest is the source of our concern, it is commonly attended with the same consequences. A partner is a natural object of friendship; a rival of afro drama reflective, enmity. 6. Glycogen? Poverty, meanness, disappointment, produce contempt and dislike: But when these misfortunes are very great, or are represented to us in very strong colours, they excite compassion, and tenderness, and friendship. Drama Poetry Reflective? How is this contradiction to be accounted for? The poverty and meanness of another, in their common appearance, gives us uneasiness, by a species of imperfect sympathy; and this uneasiness produces aversion or dislike, from the resemblance of process how to change, sentiment.

But when we enter more intimately into another’s concerns, and wish for his happiness, as well as feel his misery, friendship or good-will arises, from the similar tendency of the inclinations. A bankrupt, at first, while the idea of his misfortunes is fresh and recent, and afro drama poetry essays while the comparison of his present unhappy situation with his former prosperity operates strongly upon us, meets with compassion and friendship. Coursework? After these ideas are weakened or obliterated by time, he is in danger of compassion dislike originally 'compassion'; from the context it seems clear that this is an error (N.B. this paragraph was first added in the 1777 edition, so unfortunately there are no other editions to check) and contempt. 7. In respect, there is a mixture of afro drama poetry essays, humility, with the esteem or affection: In contempt, a mixture of pride. The amorous passion is usually compounded of complacency in beauty, a bodily appetite, and friendship or affection. The close relation of these sentiments is very obvious, as well as their origin from each other, by on my mother for kids means of that relation. Were there no other ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon to reconcile us to the present theory, this alone, methinks, were sufficient. 1. Afro Reflective Essays? The present theory of the passions depends entirely on the double relations of sentiments and mother for kids ideas, and the mutual assistance, which these relations lend to each other. It may not, therefore, be improper to illustrate these principles by some farther instances. 2. The virtues, talents, accomplishments, and possessions of others, make us love and esteem them: Because these objects excite a pleasing sensation, which is related to love; and as they have also a relation or connexion with the person, this union of ideas forwards the union of sentiments, according to the foregoing reasoning.

But suppose, that the afro american drama poetry reflective, person, whom we love, is also related to us, by blood, country, or friendship; it is evident, that a species of pride must also be excited by his accomplishments and possessions; there being the same double relation, which we have all along insisted on. The person is related to us, or there is an easy transition of thought from ocr gcse, him to us; and the sentiments, excited by his advantages and american essays virtues, are agreeable, and consequently related to coursework pride. Accordingly we find, that people are naturally vain of the good qualities or high fortune of their friends and countrymen. 3. But it is observable, that, if we reverse the afro drama reflective, order of the passions, the same effect does not follow. We pass easily from and culture essay, love and affection to pride and vanity; but not from the latter passions to the former, though all the relations be the same. We love not those who are related to american drama reflective essays us, on account of our own merit; though they are naturally vain on account of our merit. Ap Spanish And Culture Essay? What is the reason of this difference?

The transition of the imagination to ourselves, from objects related to drama reflective us, is always easy; both on account of the relation, which facilitates the transition, and because we there pass from remoter objects, to those which are contiguous. But in passing from ourselves to objects, related to us; though the former principle forwards the transition of thought, yet the latter opposes it; and consequently there is not the same easy transfusion of passions from pride to love as from ap spanish, love to pride. 4. The virtues, services, and fortune of one man inspire us readily with esteem and affection for another related to him. The son of our friend is naturally entitled to our friendship: The kindred of drama poetry reflective essays, a very great man value themselves, and are valued by others, on account of that relation. The force of the double relation is here fully displayed. 5. The following are instances of another kind, where the operation of these principles may still be discovered. Envy arises from a superiority in others; but it is observable, that it is systhesis, not the great disproportion between us, which excites that passion, but on the contrary, our proximity. A great disproportion cuts off the afro american reflective, relation of the ideas, and either keeps us from comparing ourselves with what is remote from us, or diminishes the effects of the comparison. A poet is not apt to envy a philosopher, or a poet of a different kind, of a different nation, or of a different age. All these differences, if they do not prevent, at essay on my mother, least weaken the comparison, and afro drama poetry reflective consequently the ap spanish, passion.

This too is the reason, why all objects appear great or little, merely by a comparison with those of the same species. A mountain neither magnifies nor diminishes a horse in our eyes: But when a Flemish and a Welsh horse are seen together, the one appears greater and the other less, than when viewed apart. From the same principle we may account for that remark of historians, that any party, in drama reflective, a civil war, or even factious division, always choose to thesis literary call in a foreign enemy at afro reflective essays, any hazard, rather than submit to their fellow-citizens. Literary Essay? Guicciardin applies this remark to the wars in Italy ; where the relations between the different states are, properly speaking, nothing but of drama essays, name, language, and contiguity. Yet even these relations, when joined with superiority, by making the comparison more natural, make it likewise more grievous, and cause men to search for some other superiority, which may be attended with no relation, and by that means, may have a less sensible influence on the imagination.

When we cannot break the association, we feel a stronger desire to remove the superiority. This seems to be the reason, why travellers, though commonly lavish of their praise to the Chinese and causes of the civil war essay Persians , take care to depreciate those neighbouring nations, which may stand upon a footing of rivalship with their native country. 6. The fine arts afford us parallel instances. Should an afro drama poetry, author compose a treatise, of which one part was serious and profound, another light and humorous; every one would condemn so strange a mixture, and would blame him for the neglect of all rules of art and criticism. Yet we accuse not Prior for joining his Alma and Solomon in the same volume; though that amiable poet has perfectly succeeded in the gaiety of the one, as well as in the melancholy of the other. Even suppose the reader should peruse these two compositions without any interval, he would feel little or no difficulty in the change of the passions.

Why? but because he considers these performances as entirely different; and by that break in the ideas, breaks the progress. of the on my mother for kids, affections, and hinders the one from influencing or contradicting the afro drama essays, other. An heroic and burlesque design, united in one picture, would be monstrous; though we place two pictures of so opposite a character in the same chamber, and even close together, without any scruple. 7. It needs be no matter of for kids, wonder, that the easy transition of the imagination should have such an influence on all the passions. It is this very circumstance, which forms all the relations and connexions amongst objects. We know no real connexion between one thing and another.

We only know, that the idea of one thing is associated with that of another, and afro american reflective essays that the imagination makes an and culture essay, easy transition between them. And as the easy transition of ideas, and that of sentiments mutually assist each other; we might before-hand expect, that this principle must have a mighty influence on all our internal movements and affections. And experience sufficiently confirms the theory. For, not to reflective repeat all the foregoing instances: Suppose, that I were travelling with a companion through a country, to physics which we are both utter strangers; it is evident, that, if the prospects be beautiful, the roads agreeable, and the fields finely cultivated; this may serve to put me in good-humour, both with myself and fellow-traveller. But as the country has no connexion with myself or friend, it can never be the immediate cause either of self-value or of afro drama, regard to him: And therefore, if I found not the passion on process essay how to change a tire some other object, which bears to one of us a closer relation, my emotions are rather to american essays be considered as the process a tire, overflowings of an elevated or humane disposition, than as an established passion. But supposing the agreeable prospect before us to be surveyed either from his country-seat or from mine; this new connexion of ideas gives a new direction to the sentiment of pleasure, derived from the prospect, and raises the emotion of regard or vanity, according to the nature of the connexion. There is not here, methinks, much room for doubt or difficulty. 1. It seems evident, that reason, in a strict sense, as meaning the american reflective, judgment of truth and glycogen systhesis falsehood, can never, of itself, be any motive to the will, and poetry essays can have no influence but so far as it touches some passion or affection. Abstract relations of ideas are the object of thesis, curiosity, not of volition. And matters of afro american drama poetry reflective, fact , where they are neither good nor evil, where they neither excite desire nor aversion, are totally indifferent; and whether known or unknown, whether mistaken or rightly apprehended, cannot be regarded as any motive to ocr gcse coursework action. 2. What is commonly, in a popular sense, called reason, and is so much recommended in moral discourses, is reflective essays, nothing but a general and a calm passion, which takes a comprehensive and a distant view of its object, and actuates the will, without exciting any sensible emotion.

A man, we say, is diligent in his profession from reason; that is, from a calm desire of riches and a fortune. A man adheres to justice from thesis, reason; that is, from a calm regard to public good, or to a character with himself and others. 3. The same objects, which recommend themselves to reason in this sense of the word, are also the afro american essays, objects of what we call passion, when they are brought near to us, and acquire some other advantages, either of external situation, or congruity to our internal temper; and by that means excite a turbulent and sensible emotion. Evil, at a great distance, is avoided, we say, from reason: Evil, near at hand, produces aversion, horror, fear, and is the object of passion. 4. The common error of process how to change a tire, metaphysicians has lain in ascribing the direction of the will entirely to one of these principles, and supposing the american essays, other to have no influence. Men often act knowingly against their interest: It is not therefore the view of the greatest possible good which always influences them.

Men often counteract a violent passion, in prosecution of their distant interests and designs: It is essay, not therefore the present uneasiness alone, which determines them. In general, we may observe, that both these principles operate on the will; and american reflective essays where they are contrary, that either of them prevails, according to essay mother the general character or present disposition of the person. What we call strength of afro, mind implies the how to, prevalence of the calm passions above the violent; though we may easily observe, that there is no. person so constantly possessed of this virtue, as never, on any occasion, to yield to the solicitation of violent affection and desire. From these variations of temper proceeds the great difficulty of afro american drama poetry reflective essays, deciding with regard to the future actions and thesis statement essay resolutions of afro drama poetry reflective essays, men, where there is any contrariety of motives and passions. 1. We shall here enumerate some of those circumstances, which render a passion calm or violent, which heighten or diminish any emotion. It is a property in human nature, that any emotion, which attends a passion , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions is easily converted into it; though in their natures they be originally different from, and even contrary to each other.

It is true, in order to cause a perfect union amongst passions, and make one produce the other, there is always required a double relation, according to language the theory above delivered. But when two passions are already produced by their separate causes, and are both present in the mind, they readily mingle and unite; though they have but one relation, and sometimes without any. American Reflective Essays? The predominant passion swallows up the inferior, and converts it into itself. The spirits, when once excited, easily receive a change in their direction; and it is natural to imagine, that this change will come from the prevailing affection. The connexion is in many cases closer between any two passions, than between any passion and indifference. When a person is once heartily in love, the little faults and language essay caprices of his mistress, the jealousies and quarrels, to which that commerce is so subject; however unpleasant they be, and rather connected with anger and hatred; are yet found, in many instances, to give additional force to drama poetry the prevailing passion. Process How To Change? It is a common artifice of afro drama poetry reflective, politicians, when they would affect any person very much by a matter of process, fact, of which they intend to drama poetry reflective inform him, first to excite his curiosity; delay as long as possible the satisfying of it; and by process change that means raise his anxiety and impatience to the utmost, before they give him a full insight into the business.

They know, that this curiosity will precipitate him into american drama poetry essays, the passion, which they purpose to change a tire raise, and will assist the object in its influence on the mind. A soldier advancing to battle, is naturally inspired with courage and confidence, when he thinks on his friends and fellow-soldiers; and is struck with fear and terror, when he reflects on the enemy. Afro Essays? Whatever new emotion therefore proceeds from the former, naturally encreases the courage; as the same emotion proceeding from the latter, augments the fear. Hence in martial discipline, the uniformity and lustre of habit, the regularity of figures and motions, with all the pomp and majesty of war, encourage ourselves and physics coursework our allies; while the same objects in essays, the enemy strike terror into us, though agreeable and beautiful in themselves. Hope is, in itself, an agreeable passion, and statement literary essay allied to friendship and afro drama poetry benevolence; yet is it able sometimes to blow up anger, when that is the predominant passion. Spes addita suscitat iras. Virg . 2. Since passions, however independent, are naturally transfused into statement essay, each other, if they be both present at the same time; it follows, that when good or evil is placed in such a situation as to drama cause any particular emotion, besides its direct passion of desire or aversion, this latter passion must acquire new force and violence. 3. This often happens, when any object excites contrary passions. For it is observable, that an opposition of passions commonly causes a new emotion in the spirits, and ap spanish language produces more disorder than the concurrence of afro american drama reflective essays, any two affections of equal force. Change A Tire? This new emotion is easily converted into the predominant passion, and in many instances, is poetry reflective essays, observed to encrease its violence, beyond the pitch, at which it would have arrived, had it met with no opposition.

Hence we naturally desire what is forbid, and often take a pleasure in performing actions, merely because they are unlawful. The notion of duty, when opposite to the passions, is not always able to overcome them; and when it fails of glycogen systhesis, that effect, is apt rather to encrease and irritate them, by producing an opposition in our motives and afro american essays principles. 4. The same effect follows, whether the opposition arise from internal motives or external obstacles. The passion commonly acquires new force in both cases. The efforts, which the mind makes to surmount the obstacle, excite the spirits, and ocr gcse coursework enliven the passion. 5. Afro Poetry Reflective? Uncertainty has the same effect as opposition. The agitation of the thought, the glycogen systhesis, quick turns which it makes from one view to another, the variety of passions which succeed each other, according to the different views: All these produce an emotion in the mind; and this emotion transfuses itself into the predominant passion. Security, on the contrary, diminishes the passions. The mind, when left to itself, immediately languishes; and in order to american drama reflective preserve its ardour, must be every moment supported by a new flow of passion.

For the same reason, despair, though contrary to security, has a like influence. 6. Nothing more powerfully excites any affection than to conceal some part of its object, by throwing it into a kind of shade, which , a comma is missing here from the on my, 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions at the same time that it shows enough to prepossess us in favour of the object, leaves still some work for the imagination. Besides that obscurity is always attended with a kind of uncertainty; the effort, which the fancy makes to compleat the idea, rouzes the afro poetry reflective essays, spirits, and mother for kids gives an additional force to the passion. 7. As despair and security, though contrary, produce the same effects; so absence is observed to have contrary effects, and in different circumstances, either encreases or diminishes our affection. Rochefoucault has very well remarked, that absence destroys weak passions, but encreases strong; as the afro drama poetry reflective, wind extinguishes a candle, but blows up a fire. Long absence naturally weakens our idea, and diminishes the passion: But where the affection is so strong and lively as to support itself, the uneasiness, arising from absence, encreases the passion, and gives it new force and influence. 8. Process Essay? When the poetry reflective, soul applies itself to the performance of any action, or the conception of any object, to which it is not accustomed, there is a certain unpliableness in the faculties, and a difficulty of the spirits moving in their new direction. Process Change A Tire? As this difficulty excites the spirits, it is the source of wonder, surprize, and of all the emotions, which arise from novelty; and is, in itself, agreeable, like every thing which enlivens the mind to a moderate degree.

But though surprize be agreeable in itself, yet, as it puts the spirits in agitation, it not only augments our agreeable affections, but also our painful, according to the foregoing principle. Hence every thing that is new, is most affecting, and gives us either more pleasure or pain, than what, strictly speaking, should naturally follow from it. When it often returns upon us, the novelty wears off; the passions subside; the hurry of the spirits is over; and afro american reflective essays we survey the object with greater tranquillity. 9. The imagination and affections have a close union together. The vivacity of the former gives force to the latter. On My For Kids? Hence the prospect of any pleasure, with which we are acquainted, affects us more than any other pleasure, which we may own superior, but of afro drama poetry reflective essays, whose nature we are wholly ignorant. Civil Thesis? Of the one we can form a particular and afro poetry reflective determinate idea: The other we conceive under the general notion of pleasure. Any satisfaction, which we lately enjoyed, and of the war essay of which the memory is american, fresh and recent, operates on the will with more violence, than another of which the traces are decayed and glycogen almost obliterated. A pleasure, which is afro reflective essays, suitable to the way of thesis, life, in which we are engaged, excites more our desire and appetite than another, which is foreign to afro drama reflective it.

Nothing is more capable of infusing any passion into the mind, than eloquence, by which objects are represented in the strongest and most lively colours. The bare opinion of another, especially when enforced with passion, will cause an idea to have an influence upon us, though that idea might otherwise have been entirely neglected. It is remarkable, that lively passions commonly attend a lively imagination. In this respect, as well as in others, the force of the passion depends as much on the temper of the person, as on the nature and situation of the object. What is distant, either in place or time, has not equal influence with what is near and contiguous. I pretend not to have here exhausted this subject. It is sufficient for thesis essay my purpose, if I have made it appear, that, in the production and conduct of the passions, there is a certain regular mechanism, which is susceptible of afro drama poetry essays, as accurate a disquisition, as the laws of motion, optics, hydrostatics, or any part of natural philosophy. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4. The affection of systhesis, parents to children seems founded on an original instinct. The affection towards other relations depends on the principles here explained. NOTE [R], p. 193. [Bea 13.] added for ease of reference.

T hat property is a species of relation , which produces a connexion between the person and the object is evident: The imagination passes naturally and easily from the consideration of a field to afro reflective that of the person to whom it belongs. It may only be asked, how this relation is causes of the civil war essay, resolvable into any of those three, viz. causation , contiguity , and resemblance , which we have affirmed to afro american drama poetry essays be the only connecting principles among ideas. To be the proprietor of any thing is to be the change a tire, sole person, who, by the laws of afro drama reflective essays, society, has a right to dispose of it, and to enjoy the benefit of it. This right has at least a tendency to language procure the american drama poetry, person the exercise of it; and in fact does commonly procure him that advantage. For rights which had no influence, and never took place, would be no rights at all. Now a person who disposes of an object, and reaps benefit from it, both produces, or may produce, effects on it, and is affected by it. Glycogen Systhesis? Property therefore is a species of causation . It enables the person to produce alterations on the object, and it supposes that his condition is afro poetry, improved and altered by it. It is indeed the relation the most interesting of essay, any, and occurs the most frequently to the mind.

I t seems an unaccountable pleasure, which the spectators of a well-written tragedy receive from sorrow, terror, anxiety, and other passions, that are in drama poetry, themselves disagreeable and uneasy. The more they are touched and affected, the more are they delighted with the spectacle; and as soon as the uneasy passions cease to operate, the piece is at an end. One scene of full joy and thesis statement essay contentment and security is the utmost, that any composition of this kind can bear; and it is sure always to be the concluding one. If, in the texture of the piece, there be interwoven any scenes of satisfaction, they afford only faint gleams of afro, pleasure, which are thrown in by way of variety, and in essay on my, order to plunge the actors into deeper distress, by means of afro american drama reflective essays, that contrast and disappointment. The whole art of the poet. is employed, in rouzing and supporting the compassion and indignation, the anxiety and resentment of his audience. They are pleased in proportion as they are afflicted, and never are so happy as when they employ tears, sobs, and cries to on my for kids give vent to their sorrow, and relieve their heart, swoln with the tenderest sympathy and compassion. The few critics who have had some tincture of philosophy, have remarked this singular ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon, and american drama poetry essays have endeavoured to account for language and culture it. L’Abbe Dubos , in his reflections on poetry and painting, asserts, that nothing is in general so disagreeable to american drama poetry reflective the mind as the languid, listless state of indolence, into which it falls upon the removal of all passion and occupation.

To get rid of thesis literary essay, this painful situation, it seeks every amusement and pursuit; business, gaming, shews, executions; whatever will rouze the passions, and take its attention from itself. No matter what the passion is: Let it be disagreeable, afflicting, melancholy, disordered; it is still better than that insipid languor, which arises from drama reflective, perfect tranquillity and repose. It is impossible not to essay on my mother for kids admit this account, as being, at least in part, satisfactory. You may observe, when there are several tables of gaming, that all the company run to those, where the deepest play is, even though they find not there the best players. The view, or, at least, imagination of high passions, arising from great loss or gain, affects the spectator by sympathy, gives him some touches of the afro american drama, same passions, and statement literary serves him for a momentary entertainment.

It makes the time pass the easier with him, and poetry reflective essays is some relief to that oppression, under which men commonly labour, when left entirely to their own thoughts and meditations. We find that common liars always magnify, in their narrations, all kinds of danger, pain, distress, sickness, deaths, murders, and cruelties; as well as joy, beauty, mirth, and. magnificence. It is an absurd secret, which they have for pleasing their company, fixing their attention, and attaching them to such marvellous relations, by the passions and emotions, which they excite. There is, however, a difficulty in applying to the present subject, in process how to change, its full extent, this solution, however ingenious and american drama reflective essays satisfactory it may appear. It is certain, that the same object of process essay, distress, which pleases in a tragedy, were it really set before us, would give the most unfeigned uneasiness; though it be then the most effectual cure to languor and indolence.

Monsieur Fontenelle seems to have been sensible of this difficulty; and accordingly attempts another solution of the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon; at least makes some addition to drama essays the theory above mentioned0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . “Pleasure and pain,” says he, “which are two sentiments so different in themselves, differ not so much in their cause. From the instance of tickling, it appears, that the movement of pleasure, pushed a little too far, becomes pain; and change that the movement of pain, a little moderated, becomes pleasure. Hence it proceeds, that there is such a thing as a sorrow, soft and agreeable: It is a pain weakened and diminished. The heart likes naturally to american be moved and affected. Melancholy objects suit it, and even disastrous and glycogen systhesis sorrowful, provided they are softened by some circumstance. It is certain, that, on the theatre, the representation has almost the afro poetry reflective, effect of reality; yet it has not altogether that effect. However we may be hurried away by the spectacle; whatever dominion the senses and imagination may usurp over the reason, there still lurks at physics, the bottom a certain idea of falsehood in the whole of what we see. American Reflective Essays? This idea, though weak and disguised, suffices to diminish the pain which we suffer from the causes war essay, misfortunes of those whom we love, and to reduce that affliction to such a pitch as converts it into a pleasure. We weep for the misfortune of a hero, to whom we are attached.

In the same instant we com- fort ourselves, by reflecting, that it is essays, nothing but a fiction: And it is precisely that mixture of sentiments, which composes an agreeable sorrow, and tears that delight us. But as that affliction, which is caused by exterior and sensible objects, is stronger than the consolation which arises from an thesis literary essay, internal reflection, they are the drama essays, effects and essay symptoms of afro american drama poetry reflective essays, sorrow, that ought to predominate in the composition.” This solution seems just and convincing; but perhaps it wants still some new addition, in order to make it answer fully the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon, which we here examine. All the passions, excited by eloquence, are agreeable in glycogen, the highest degree, as well as those which are moved by painting and the theatre. The epilogues of Cicero are, on this account chiefly, the delight of afro american drama, every reader of taste; and it is difficult to read some of them without the deepest sympathy and sorrow. His merit as an orator, no doubt, depends much on his success in essay on my mother, this particular. When he had raised tears in his judges and all his audience, they were then the most highly delighted, and expressed the greatest satisfaction with the pleader. The pathetic description of the butchery, made by afro american drama poetry essays Verres of the Sicilian captains, is a masterpiece of essay how to, this kind: But I believe none will affirm, that the being present at a melancholy scene of that nature would afford any entertainment.

Neither is the sorrow here softened by fiction: For the audience were convinced of the reality of drama reflective essays, every circumstance. What is it then, which in this case raises a pleasure from the bosom of uneasiness, so to speak; and a pleasure, which still retains all the features and outward symptoms of distress and sorrow? I answer: This extraordinary effect proceeds from that very eloquence, with which the melancholy scene is essay on my mother for kids, represented. Afro Reflective Essays? The genius required to paint objects in a lively manner, the art employed in collecting all the pathetic circumstances, the judgment displayed in disposing them: the exercise, I say, of essay for kids, these noble talents, together with the force of expression, and. beauty of oratorial numbers, diffuse the highest satisfaction on the audience, and excite the most delightful movements. By this means, the poetry reflective, uneasiness of the melancholy passions is not only overpowered and effaced by something stronger of an opposite kind; but the whole impulse of those passions is converted into pleasure, and swells the delight which the eloquence raises in us. The same force of oratory, employed on an uninteresting subject, would not please half so much, or rather would appear altogether ridiculous; and of the civil thesis the mind, being left in absolute calmness and indifference, would relish none of those beauties of imagination or expression, which, if joined to passion, give it such exquisite entertainment.

The impulse or vehemence, arising from sorrow, compassion, indignation, receives a new direction from the sentiments of beauty. The latter, being the predominant emotion, seize the whole mind, and essays convert the essay, former into drama poetry essays, themselves, at least tincture them so strongly as totally to change alter their nature. And the soul, being, at the same time, rouzed by passion, and charmed by eloquence, feels on the whole a strong movement, which is altogether delightful. The same principle takes place in tragedy; with this addition, that tragedy is an imitation; and imitation is always of itself agreeable. This circumstance serves still farther to smooth the motions of afro, passion, and convert the whole feeling into one uniform and strong enjoyment. Objects of the greatest terror and systhesis distress please in painting, and please more than the most beautiful objects, that appear calm and indifferent0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for afro american drama ease of reference 2 * . The affection, rouzing the mind, excites a large stock of spirit and vehemence; which is all transformed into pleasure by the.

force of the prevailing movement. It is thus the fiction of tragedy softens the passion, by ocr gcse physics an infusion of a new feeling, not merely by weakening or diminishing the sorrow. You may by degrees weaken a real sorrow, till it totally disappears; yet in none of its gradations will it ever give pleasure; except, perhaps, by accident, to a man sunk under lethargic indolence, whom it rouzes from that languid state. To confirm this theory, it will be sufficient to produce other instances, where the subordinate movement is converted into the predominant, and gives force to it, though of a different, and even sometimes though of a contrary nature. Novelty naturally rouzes the mind, and attracts our attention; and the movements, which it causes, are always converted into any passion, belonging to the object, and afro drama join their force to glycogen it. Afro Poetry? Whether an event excite joy or sorrow, pride or shame, anger or good-will, it is sure to produce a stronger affection, when new or unusual. And though novelty of itself be agreeable, it fortifies the painful, as well as agreeable passions. Had you any intention to move a person extremely by the narration of any event, the best method of encreasing its effect would be artfully to delay informing him of it, and first to excite his curiosity and impatience before you let him into the secret. This is the artifice practised by Iago in the famous scene of Shakespeare ; and ocr gcse physics coursework every spectator is afro drama poetry reflective, sensible, that Othello ’s jealousy acquires additional force from his preceding impatience, and that the glycogen systhesis, subordinate passion is drama poetry essays, here readily transformed into the predominant one. Difficulties encrease passions of every kind; and by rouzing our attention, and exciting our active powers, they produce an emotion, which nourishes the ocr gcse, prevailing affection.

Parents commonly love that child most, whose sickly infirm frame of body has occasioned them the greatest pains, trouble, and anxiety in afro reflective essays, rearing him. The agreeable sentiment of affection here acquires force from coursework, sentiments of uneasiness. Nothing endears so much a friend as sorrow for his death. The pleasure of his company has not so powerful an influence. Jealousy is afro drama poetry reflective, a painful passion; yet without some share of causes of the civil war essay thesis, it, the agreeable affection of love has difficulty to subsist in its full force and violence. Absence is also a great source of complaint among lovers, and gives them the drama, greatest uneasiness: Yet nothing is more favourable to their mutual passion than short intervals of that kind.

And if long intervals often prove fatal, it is only because, through time, men are accustomed to them, and they cease to give uneasiness. Jealousy and absence in love compose the dolce peccante of the ocr gcse physics coursework, Italians , which they suppose so essential to all pleasure. There is a fine observation of the afro american reflective, elder Pliny , which illustrates the principle here insisted on. It is very remarkable , says he, that the glycogen, last works of celebrated artists, which they left imperfect, are always the drama poetry essays, most prized, such as the of the civil war essay thesis, Iris of Aristides , the Tyndarides of Nicomachus , the Medea of Timomachus , and the Venus of Apelles . These are valued even above their finished productions: The broken lineaments of the piece, and the half-formed idea of the afro american poetry, painter are carefully studied; and our very grief for that curious hand, which had been stopped by death, is an glycogen, additional encrease to our pleasure0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 #x2020; . These instances (and many more might be collected) are sufficient to afford us some insight into the analogy of nature, and to american drama reflective show us, that the pleasure, which poets, orators, and musicians give us, by exciting grief, sorrow, indignation, compassion, is not so extraordinary or paradoxical, as it may at first sight appear. The force of imagination, the energy of expression, the power of numbers, the charms of ap spanish and culture, imitation; all these are naturally, of themselves, delightful to the mind: And when. the object presented lays also hold of some affection, the pleasure still rises upon reflective, us, by the conversion of this subordinate movement into statement literary essay, that which is predominant. The passion, though, perhaps, naturally, and when excited by the simple appearance of a real object, it may be painful; yet is so smoothed, and softened, and mollified, when raised by the finer arts, that it affords the highest entertainment. To confirm this reasoning, we may observe, that if the movements of the imagination be not predominant above those of the passion, a contrary effect follows; and american essays the former, being now subordinate, is converted into the latter, and still farther encreases the pain and affliction of the sufferer. Who could ever think of it as a good expedient for comforting an afflicted parent, to exaggerate, with all the change a tire, force of elocution, the irreparable loss, which he has met with by the death of a favourite child?

The more power of imagination and afro american poetry reflective expression you here employ, the more you encrease his despair and affliction. The shame, confusion, and terror of Verres , no doubt, rose in proportion to the noble eloquence and ocr gcse coursework vehemence of Cicero : So also did his pain and uneasiness. These former passions were too strong for the pleasure arising from the beauties of elocution; and operated, though from the same principle, yet in a contrary manner, to essays the sympathy, compassion, and indignation of the on my mother, audience. Lord Clarendon , when he approaches towards the catastrophe of the royal party, supposes, that his narration must then become infinitely disagreeable; and he hurries over the king’s death, without giving us one circumstance of it. He considers it as too horrid a scene to be contemplated with any satisfaction, or even without the utmost pain and american poetry reflective aversion. He himself, as well as the readers of that age, were too deeply concerned in the events, and felt a pain from subjects, which.

an historian and a reader of another age would regard as the most pathetic and most interesting, and, by consequence, the most agreeable. An action, represented in tragedy, may be too bloody and atrocious. It may excite such movements of horror as will not soften into pleasure; and essay the greatest energy of expression, bestowed on descriptions of that nature, serves only to augment our uneasiness. Such is that action represented in the Ambitious Stepmother , where a venerable old man, raised to the height of fury and despair, rushes against afro american drama poetry a pillar, and striking his head upon it, besmears it all over with mingled brains and gore. The English theatre abounds too much with such shocking images. Even the common sentiments of compassion require to be softened by some agreeable affection, in order to give a thorough satisfaction to the audience. On My For Kids? The mere suffering of plaintive virtue, under the triumphant tyranny and oppression of vice, forms a disagreeable spectacle, and is carefully avoided by all masters of the drama. In order to dismiss the audience with entire satisfaction and contentment, the virtue must either convert itself into a noble courageous despair, or the vice receive its proper punishment. Most painters appear in this light to have been very unhappy in their subjects.

As they wrought much for churches and convents, they have chiefly represented such horrible subjects as crucifixions and martyrdoms, where nothing appears but tortures, wounds, executions, and passive suffering, without any action or affection. When they turned their pencil from this ghastly mythology, they had commonly recourse to Ovid , whose fictions, though passionate and agreeable, are scarcely natural or probable enough for drama poetry essays painting. The same inversion of that principle, which is here insisted on, displays itself in common life, as in the effects of oratory and poetry. Raise so the subordinate passion that it becomes. the predominant, it swallows up that affection which it before nourished and encreased. Too much jealousy extinguishes love: Too much difficulty renders us indifferent: Too much sickness and infirmity disgusts a selfish and unkind parent. What so disagreeable as the dismal, gloomy, disastrous stories, with which melancholy people entertain their companions? The uneasy passion being there raised alone, unaccompanied with any spirit, genius, or eloquence, conveys a pure uneasiness, and is attended with nothing that can soften it into pleasure or satisfaction. #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3. Illud vero perquam rarum ac memoria dignum, etiam suprema opera artificum, imperfectasque tabulas, sicut, Irin Aristidis , Tyndaridas Nicomachi , Medeam Timomachi , quam diximus Venerem Apellis , in majori admiratione esse quam perfecta. Quippe in ap spanish language and culture, iis lineamenta reliqua, ips ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier que cogitationes artificum spectantur, atque in lenocinio commendationis dolor est manus, cum id ageret, extinct ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier . Lib. xxxv. cap. 11.

NOTE [N], p. 235. [Mil 220.] added for ease of reference. P ainters make no scruple of representing distress and sorrow as well as any other passion: But they seem not to dwell so much on these melancholy affections as the poets, who, though they copy every motion of the human breast, yet pass quickly over the agreeable sentiments. A painter represents only one instant; and if that be passionate enough, it is sure to affect and delight the spectator: But nothing can furnish to afro poetry reflective essays the poet a variety of scenes and incidents and sentiments, except distress, terror, or anxiety. Compleat joy and satisfaction is causes, attended with security, and leaves no farther room for action. T he great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one’s observation. Men of the most confined knowledge are able to remark a difference of poetry essays, taste in the. narrow circle of their acquaintance, even where the persons have been educated under the same government, and have early imbibed the process essay change, same prejudices. But those, who can enlarge their view to contemplate distant nations and remote ages, are still more surprized at the great inconsistence and contrariety. Afro Drama? We are apt to call barbarous whatever departs widely from glycogen, our own taste and apprehension: But soon find the epithet of reproach retorted on us.

And the highest arrogance and self-conceit is at last startled, on observing an equal assurance on all sides, and scruples, amidst such a contest of sentiment, to pronounce positively in its own favour. As this variety of taste is obvious to the most careless enquirer; so will it be found, on examination, to be still greater in reality than in afro american drama reflective, appearance. The sentiments of men often differ with regard to beauty and deformity of all kinds, even while their general discourse is the same. There are certain terms in every language, which import blame, and others praise; and all men, who use the same tongue, must agree in their application of them. Physics Coursework? Every voice is united in applauding elegance, propriety, simplicity, spirit in writing; and in afro american poetry, blaming fustian, affectation, coldness, and a false brilliancy: But when critics come to particulars, this seeming unanimity vanishes; and on my for kids it is found, that they had affixed a very different meaning to their expressions. In all matters of opinion and science, the afro american drama, case is opposite: The difference among men is there oftener found to lie in generals than in particulars; and to be less in systhesis, reality than in appearance. An explanation of the terms commonly ends the controversy; and afro drama poetry the disputants are surprized to find, that they had been quarrelling, while at bottom they agreed in their judgment. Those who found morality on glycogen systhesis sentiment, more than on reason, are inclined to comprehend ethics under the american drama poetry reflective, former. observation, and to maintain, that, in all questions, which regard conduct and manners, the difference among men is really greater than at ap spanish language essay, first sight it appears.

It is indeed obvious, that writers of all nations and all ages concur in applauding justice, humanity, magnanimity, prudence, veracity; and in blaming the opposite qualities. Even poets and other authors, whose compositions are chiefly calculated to please the imagination, are yet found from Homer down to Fenelon , to inculcate the same moral precepts, and to bestow their applause and blame on american drama essays the same virtues and vices. This great unanimity is usually ascribed to the influence of plain reason; which, in all these cases, maintains similar sentiments in all men, and prevents those controversies, to which the abstract sciences are so much exposed. So far as the unanimity is real, this account may be admitted as satisfactory: But we must also allow that some part of the glycogen systhesis, seeming harmony in morals may be accounted for from the very nature of language. The word virtue , with its equivalent in afro american poetry reflective essays, every tongue, implies praise; as that of vice does blame: And no one, without the most obvious and grossest impropriety, could affix reproach to a term, which in general acceptation is understood in a good sense; or bestow applause, where the idiom requires disapprobation. Essay On My? Homer ’s general precepts, where he delivers any such, will never be controverted; but it is obvious, that, when he draws particular pictures of american poetry reflective, manners, and represents heroism in Achilles and prudence in Ulysses , he intermixes a much greater degree of systhesis, ferocity in the former, and of cunning and fraud in the latter, than Fenelon would admit of. The sage Ulysses in the Greek poet seems to delight in lies and fictions, and often employs them without any necessity or even advantage: But his more scrupulous son, in the French epic writer, exposes himself to the most imminent perils, rather than depart from the most exact line of truth and veracity. The admirers and followers of the Alcoran insist on the excellent moral precepts interspersed throughout that wild and absurd performance. But it is to be supposed, that the Arabic words, which correspond to the English , equity, justice, temperance, meekness, charity, were such as, from the constant use of that tongue, must always be taken in a good sense; and it would have argued the greatest ignorance, not of morals, but of language, to have mentioned them with any epithets, besides those of applause and approbation. But would we know, whether the pretended prophet had really attained a just sentiment of morals? Let us attend to his narration; and we shall soon find, that he bestows praise on such instances of treachery, inhumanity, cruelty, revenge, bigotry, as are utterly incompatible with civilized society.

No steady rule of right seems there to be attended to; and every action is blamed or praised, so far only as it is beneficial or hurtful to the true believers. The merit of delivering true general precepts in ethics is indeed very small. Whoever recommends any moral virtues, really does no more than is implied in the terms themselves. That people, who invented the word charity , and used it in a good sense, inculcated more clearly and much more efficaciously, the precept, be charitable , than any pretended legislator or prophet, who should insert such a maxim in american poetry, his writings. Of all expressions, those, which, together with their other meaning, imply a degree either of blame or approbation, are the physics coursework, least liable to be perverted or mistaken. It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste ; a rule, by which the poetry reflective essays, various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision, decision originally 'decision,'; this comma first appeared in the 1777 edition, but from the sense it is hard to physics coursework believe that it was put there deliberately afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning another. There is a species of philosophy, which cuts off all hopes of success in such an attempt, and represents the impossibility of ever attaining any standard of taste. The difference, it is said, is afro american drama poetry reflective essays, very wide between judgment and civil sentiment. All sentiment is right; because sentiment has a reference to nothing beyond itself, and is always real, wherever a man is conscious of it. Afro Reflective? But all determinations of the understanding are not right; because they have a reference to something beyond themselves, to how to a tire wit, real matter of fact; and are not always conformable to that standard.

Among a thousand different opinions which different men may entertain of the american drama reflective essays, same subject, there is one, and but one, that is and culture essay, just and true; and afro american poetry reflective essays the only difficulty is to fix and ascertain it. On the essay, contrary, a thousand different sentiments, excited by the same object, are all right: Because no sentiment represents what is really in the object. It only afro poetry essays marks a certain conformity or relation between the object and the organs or faculties of the mind; and if that conformity did not really exist, the causes of the, sentiment could never possibly have being. Afro American? Beauty is glycogen systhesis, no quality in things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and afro american drama each mind perceives a different beauty. One person may even perceive deformity, where another is sensible of beauty; and every individual ought to acquiesce in his own sentiment, without pretending to regulate those of others.

To seek the real beauty, or real deformity, is as fruitless an enquiry, as to process essay change a tire pretend to ascertain the real sweet or real bitter. According to the disposition of the organs, the same object may be both sweet and afro american poetry bitter; and the proverb has justly determined it to be fruitless to dispute concerning tastes. It is very natural, and even quite necessary, to extend this axiom to mental, as well as bodily taste; and thus common sense, which is so often at variance with philosophy, especially with the sceptical kind, is glycogen, found, in one instance at least, to agree in pronouncing the same decision. But though this axiom, by afro reflective essays passing into glycogen systhesis, a proverb, seems to have attained the sanction of common sense; there is certainly a species of common sense which opposes it, at least serves to modify and restrain it. Whoever would assert an equality of genius and afro reflective elegance between Ogilby and for kids Milton , or. Bunyan and afro american drama essays Addison , would be thought to defend no less an extravagance, than if he had maintained a mole-hill to be as high as Teneriffe , or a pond as extensive as the ocean. Though there may be found persons, who give the preference to the former authors; no one pays attention to ap spanish and culture essay such a taste; and we pronounce without scruple the sentiment of these pretended critics to be absurd and ridiculous. The principle of the natural equality of tastes is then totally forgot, and while we admit it on some occasions, where the objects seem near an equality, it appears an extravagant paradox, or rather a palpable absurdity, where objects so disproportioned are compared together. It is evident that none of the drama poetry reflective, rules of composition are fixed by reasonings a priori , or can be esteemed abstract conclusions of the understanding, from comparing those habitudes and relations of ideas, which are eternal and immutable. Their foundation is the systhesis, same with that of all the practical sciences, experience; nor are they any thing but general observations, concerning what has been universally found to please in all countries and in all ages.

Many of the beauties of poetry and poetry reflective even of eloquence are founded on falsehood and fiction, on hyperboles, metaphors, and process change a tire an abuse or perversion of terms from their natural meaning. To check the sallies of the imagination, and to reduce every expression to afro essays geometrical truth and exactness, would be the most contrary to the laws of criticism; because it would produce a work, which, by universal experience, has been found the most insipid and disagreeable. But though poetry can never submit to exact truth, it must be confined by rules of art, discovered to the author either by genius or observation. If some negligent or irregular writers have pleased, they have not pleased by their transgressions of rule or order, but in spite of these transgressions: They have possessed other beauties, which were conformable to just criticism; and the force of thesis, these beauties has been able to afro poetry reflective essays overpower censure, and give the mind a satisfaction superior to a tire the disgust arising from the blemishes. Ariosto pleases; but not by american reflective essays his monstrous and glycogen systhesis improbable fictions, by his bizarre mixture of the serious and comic styles, by the want of coherence in his stories, or by the continual interruptions of his narration. He charms by afro american reflective essays the force and thesis statement literary clearness of his expression, by drama essays the readiness and variety of his inventions, and by his natural pictures of the passions, especially those of the gay and amorous kind: And however his faults may diminish our satisfaction, they are not able entirely to destroy it. Did our pleasure really arise from those parts of his poem, which we denominate faults, this would be no objection to criticism in general: It would only be an physics, objection to those particular rules of criticism, which would establish such circumstances to be faults, and would represent them as universally blameable. If they are found to afro american poetry please, they cannot be faults; let the pleasure, which they produce, be ever so unexpected and unaccountable. But though all the general rules of art are founded only on experience and on the observation of the common sentiments of human nature, we must not imagine, that, on every occasion, the feelings of men will be conformable to these rules.

Those finer emotions of the process how to change, mind are of a very tender and delicate nature, and american drama reflective essays require the concurrence of many favourable circumstances to make them play with facility and exactness, according to their general and established principles. The least exterior hindrance to such small springs, or the least internal disorder, disturbs their motion, and essay on my confounds the afro american poetry reflective essays, operation of the thesis literary essay, whole machine. When we would make an american poetry reflective, experiment of this nature, and would try the force of any beauty or deformity, we must choose with care a proper time and place, and bring the fancy to of the thesis a suitable situation and disposition. A perfect serenity of mind, a recollection of american essays, thought, a due attention to the object; if any of these circumstances be wanting, our experiment will be fallacious, and we. shall be unable to judge of the ocr gcse, catholic and universal beauty. The relation, which nature has placed between the form and afro drama poetry reflective the sentiment, will at least be more obscure; and it will require greater accuracy to trace and discern it. And Culture? We shall be able to ascertain its influence not so much from the operation of afro american drama poetry, each particular beauty, as from the durable admiration, which attends those works, that have survived all the caprices of mode and fashion, all the mistakes of ignorance and process essay how to envy. The same Homer , who pleased at Athens and Rome two thousand years ago, is still admired at Paris and at London . All the changes of climate, government, religion, and drama poetry reflective language, have not been able to obscure his glory. Authority or prejudice may give a temporary vogue to a bad poet or orator; but his reputation will never be durable or general. When his compositions are examined by posterity or by foreigners, the glycogen, enchantment is dissipated, and his faults appear in their true colours.

On the contrary, a real genius, the longer his works endure, and the more wide they are spread, the more sincere is the admiration which he meets with. Envy and afro drama poetry jealousy have too much place in a narrow circle; and even familiar acquaintance with his person may diminish the applause due to his performances: But when these obstructions are removed, the beauties, which are naturally fitted to excite agreeable sentiments, immediately display their energy; and while the world endures, they maintain their authority over thesis, the minds of afro american essays, men. It appears then, that, amidst all the variety and caprice of taste, there are certain general principles of approbation or blame, whose influence a careful eye may trace in all operations of the mind. Some particular forms or qualities, from the original structure of the internal fabric, are calculated to please, and ocr gcse physics others to displease; and if they fail of reflective essays, their effect in any particular instance, it is from some apparent defect or imperfection in the organ. And Culture? A man in a fever would not insist on his palate as able to decide concerning flavours; nor would one, affected with the jaundice, pretend to give a verdict with regard to colours. In each creature, there is a sound and a. defective state; and the former alone can be supposed to afford us a true standard of taste and sentiment. If, in american drama poetry reflective, the sound state of the organ, there be an entire or a considerable uniformity of sentiment among men, we may thence derive an idea of the perfect beauty; in thesis essay, like manner as the appearance of objects in day-light, to the eye of a man in health, is denominated their true and real colour, even while colour is allowed to be merely a phantasm of the senses. Many and frequent are the defects in the internal organs, which prevent or weaken the influence of those general principles, on which depends our sentiment of american essays, beauty or deformity. Though some objects, by the structure of the mind, be naturally calculated to give pleasure, it is ap spanish and culture, not to be expected, that in every individual the pleasure will be equally felt. Particular incidents and situations occur, which either throw a false light on the objects, or hinder the american drama poetry reflective essays, true from conveying to the imagination the proper sentiment and causes of the thesis perception.

One obvious cause, why many feel not the proper sentiment of afro american reflective essays, beauty, is the want of that delicacy of imagination, which is requisite to convey a sensibility of those finer emotions. This delicacy every one pretends to: Every one talks of it; and would reduce every kind of change, taste or sentiment to its standard. But as our intention in american essays, this essay is to process how to a tire mingle some light of the understanding with the feelings of poetry reflective, sentiment, it will be proper to give a more accurate definition of delicacy, than has hitherto been attempted. Essay On My For Kids? And not to draw our philosophy from too profound a source, we shall have recourse to a noted story in Don Quixote . It is with good reason, says Sancho to the squire with the great nose, that I pretend to have a judgment in wine: This is a quality hereditary in our family. Two of my kinsmen were once called to give their opinion of a hogshead, which was supposed to be excellent, being old and poetry essays of a good vintage. One of them tastes it; considers it; and after mature reflection.

pronounces the wine to glycogen be good, were it not for a small taste of leather, which he perceived in it. The other, after using the same precautions, gives also his verdict in favour of the wine; but with the reserve of drama essays, a taste of glycogen, iron, which he could easily distinguish. You cannot imagine how much they were both ridiculed for their judgment. But who laughed in the end? On emptying the hogshead, there was found at the bottom, an old key with a leathern thong tied to it. The great resemblance between mental and bodily taste will easily teach us to apply this story. Essays? Though it be certain, that beauty and deformity, more than sweet and bitter, are not qualities in objects, but belong entirely to the sentiment, internal or external; it must be allowed, that there are certain qualities in objects, which are fitted by nature to produce those particular feelings. Now as these qualities may be found in a small degree, or may be mixed and confounded with each other, it often happens, that the taste is not affected with such minute qualities, or is not able to distinguish all the particular flavours, amidst the disorder, in which they are presented. Where the organs are so fine, as to allow nothing to escape them; and at the same time so exact as to causes civil war essay thesis perceive every ingredient in the composition: This we call delicacy of taste, whether we employ these terms in the literal or metaphorical sense. Here then the general rules of afro poetry essays, beauty are of use; being drawn from established models, and from the glycogen, observation of what pleases or displeases, when presented singly and in a high degree: And if the same qualities, in afro poetry reflective, a continued composition and in a smaller degree, affect not the organs with a sensible delight or uneasiness, we exclude the person from all pretensions to this delicacy.

To produce these general rules or avowed patterns of ocr gcse physics, composition is drama, like finding the key with the leathern thong; which justified the verdict of Sancho ’s kinsmen, and confounded those pretended judges who had condemned them. Though the hogshead had never been emptied, the taste of the one was still equally delicate, and statement literary essay that of the other equally dull and languid: But it would have been more difficult to drama reflective essays have proved the superiority of the former, to. the conviction of every by-stander. In like manner, though the beauties of essay on my, writing had never been methodized, or reduced to general principles; though no excellent models had ever been acknowledged; the different degrees of afro drama poetry, taste would still have subsisted, and the judgment of one man been preferable to that of another; but it would not have been so easy to silence the bad critic, who might always insist upon his particular sentiment, and ocr gcse physics coursework refuse to afro drama essays submit to his antagonist. But when we show him an systhesis, avowed principle of art; when we illustrate this principle by examples, whose operation, from his own particular taste, he acknowledges to american drama be conformable to the principle; when we prove, that the same principle may be applied to the present case, where he did not perceive or feel its influence: He must conclude, upon the whole, that the fault lies in himself, and that he wants the process how to change, delicacy, which is requisite to make him sensible of every beauty and every blemish, in any composition or discourse. It is acknowledged to be the perfection of every sense or faculty, to perceive with exactness its most minute objects, and allow nothing to escape its notice and observation. The smaller the objects are, which become sensible to the eye, the finer is drama, that organ, and the more elaborate its make and composition.

A good palate is not tried by strong flavours; but by a mixture of small ingredients, where we are still sensible of each part, notwithstanding its minuteness and its confusion with the rest. Glycogen? In like manner, a quick and acute perception of beauty and deformity must be the perfection of our mental taste; nor can a man be satisfied with himself while he suspects, that any excellence or blemish in a discourse has passed him unobserved. In this case, the perfection of the man, and the perfection of the sense or feeling, are found to american poetry reflective essays be united. A very delicate palate, on many occasions, may be a great inconvenience both to a man himself and to his friends: But a delicate taste of wit or beauty must always be a desirable quality; because it is the source of all the finest and most innocent enjoyments, of which human nature is susceptible. In this decision the sentiments of all mankind are agreed.

Wherever you can ascertain a delicacy of taste, it is sure to meet with approbation; and the best way of ascertaining it is to appeal to those models and principles, which have been established by essay the uniform consent and experience of nations and ages. But though there be naturally a wide difference in afro poetry, point of delicacy between one person and another, nothing tends further to encrease and improve this talent, than practice in a particular art, and the frequent survey or contemplation of a particular species of beauty. When objects of any kind are first presented to the eye or imagination, the sentiment, which attends them, is obscure and confused; and the mind is, in a great measure, incapable of pronouncing concerning their merits or defects. The taste cannot perceive the and culture, several excellencies of the performance; much less distinguish the particular character of each excellency, and ascertain its quality and degree. If it pronounce the whole in afro american poetry essays, general to be beautiful or deformed, it is the utmost that can be expected; and even this judgment, a person, so unpractised, will be apt to ocr gcse deliver with great hesitation and reserve. But allow him to acquire experience in those objects, his feeling becomes more exact and nice: He not only perceives the afro american reflective, beauties and defects of each part, but marks the distinguishing species of each quality, and assigns it suitable praise or blame. A clear and distinct sentiment attends him through the ocr gcse physics, whole survey of the objects; and he discerns that very degree and kind of approbation or displeasure, which each part is naturally fitted to afro poetry essays produce. Causes? The mist dissipates, which seemed formerly to hang over the object: The organ acquires greater perfection in its operations; and can pronounce, without danger of mistake, concerning the merits of afro poetry reflective, every performance. In a word, the same address and dexterity, which practice gives to the execution of any work, is also acquired by the same means, in statement essay, the judging of it. So advantageous is practice to afro american poetry reflective the discernment of beauty, that, before we can give judgment on any work of importance, it will even be requisite, that that very individual performance be more than once perused by us, and essay how to a tire be surveyed in different.

lights with attention and american drama poetry reflective deliberation. There is a flutter or hurry of thought which attends the first perusal of any piece, and which confounds the genuine sentiment of beauty. The relation of the parts is not discerned: The true characters of style are little distinguished: The several perfections and defects seem wrapped up in a species of confusion, and present themselves indistinctly to the imagination. Not to mention, that there is a species of beauty, which, as it is process essay how to, florid and superficial, pleases at poetry reflective essays, first; but being found incompatible with a just expression either of reason or passion, soon palls upon the taste, and is then rejected with disdain, at least rated at a much lower value. It is impossible to continue in the practice of contemplating any order of beauty, without being frequently obliged to form comparisons between the several species and degrees of statement, excellence, and estimating their proportion to each other. American Poetry? A man, who has had no opportunity of comparing the different kinds of beauty, is indeed totally unqualified to pronounce an opinion with regard to any object presented to him. Essay? By comparison alone we fix the epithets of praise or blame, and learn how to assign the afro drama reflective, due degree of each. The coarsest daubing contains a certain lustre of colours and exactness of process change a tire, imitation, which are so far beauties, and would affect the american drama poetry, mind of a peasant or Indian with the ap spanish and culture, highest admiration.

The most vulgar ballads are not entirely destitute of harmony or nature; and none but a person, familiarized to superior beauties, would pronounce their numbers harsh, or narration uninteresting. A great inferiority of essays, beauty gives pain to process essay how to change a tire a person conversant in the highest excellence of the kind, and is for that reason pronounced a deformity: As the most finished object, with which we are acquainted, is naturally supposed to have reached the pinnacle of perfection, and to be entitled to the highest applause. One accustomed to see, and examine, and weigh the afro drama poetry reflective, several performances, admired in different ages and nations, can alone rate the merits of a work exhibited to language essay his view, and assign its proper rank among the productions of genius. But to enable a critic the more fully to execute this undertaking, he must preserve his mind free from drama reflective, all prejudice , and allow nothing to enter into his consideration, but the very object which is ap spanish language and culture, submitted to his examination. We may observe, that every work of art, in order to afro american drama produce its due effect on mother the mind, must be surveyed in a certain point of view, and cannot be fully relished by persons, whose situation, real or imaginary, is not conformable to that which is required by afro american drama essays the performance. An orator addresses himself to statement literary a particular audience, and afro american poetry reflective essays must have a regard to their particular genius, interests, opinions, passions, and prejudices; otherwise he hopes in causes of the thesis, vain to govern their resolutions, and inflame their affections. Should they even have entertained some prepossessions against him, however unreasonable, he must not overlook this disadvantage; but, before he enters upon the subject, must endeavour to american drama poetry reflective essays conciliate their affection, and acquire their good graces.

A critic of a different age or nation, who should peruse this discourse, must have all these circumstances in his eye, and must place himself in the same situation as the audience, in physics, order to american poetry reflective form a true judgment of the oration. In like manner, when any work is addressed to ocr gcse physics coursework the public, though I should have a friendship or enmity with the author, I must depart from american drama poetry essays, this situation; and considering myself as a man in general, forget, if possible, my individual being and my peculiar circumstances. Ocr Gcse Coursework? A person influenced by prejudice, complies not with this condition; but obstinately maintains his natural position, without placing himself in that point of view, which the performance supposes. If the work be addressed to persons of a different age or nation, he makes no allowance for their peculiar views and prejudices; but, full of the manners of his own age and country, rashly condemns what seemed admirable in the eyes of afro american reflective essays, those for whom alone the discourse was calculated. If the work be executed for the public, he never sufficiently enlarges his comprehension, or forgets his interest as a friend or enemy, as a rival or commentator. Ap Spanish Language And Culture Essay? By this means, his sentiments are perverted; nor have the same beauties and blemishes the same influence upon him, as if he had imposed. a proper violence on his imagination, and had forgotten himself for afro poetry reflective a moment.

So far his taste evidently departs from the true standard; and of consequence loses all credit and ap spanish language and culture essay authority. It is well known, that in american drama reflective essays, all questions, submitted to the understanding, prejudice is destructive of sound judgment, and perverts all operations of the intellectual faculties: It is no less contrary to good taste; nor has it less influence to corrupt our sentiment of beauty. It belongs to ap spanish and culture essay good sense to check its influence in both cases; and in american essays, this respect, as well as in many others, reason, if not an essential part of taste, is at glycogen, least requisite to the operations of this latter faculty. In all the nobler productions of genius, there is a mutual relation and correspondence of parts; nor can either the beauties or blemishes be perceived by afro reflective essays him, whose thought is not capacious enough to comprehend all those parts, and statement literary compare them with each other, in order to perceive the consistence and uniformity of the whole. Every work of art has also a certain end or purpose, for which it is calculated; and is to be deemed more or less perfect, as it is more or less fitted to attain this end. The object of eloquence is to persuade, of history to instruct, of poetry to afro drama poetry essays please by means of the essay mother for kids, passions and the imagination.

These ends we must carry constantly in our view, when we peruse any performance; and afro american poetry essays we must be able to judge how far the means employed are adapted to their respective purposes. Besides, every kind of composition, even the most poetical, is nothing but a chain of essay on my mother, propositions and reasonings; not always, indeed, the justest and most exact, but still plausible and specious, however disguised by the colouring of the imagination. The persons introduced in afro drama reflective essays, tragedy and epic poetry, must be represented as reasoning, and process how to thinking, and concluding, and afro poetry reflective acting, suitably to their character and ap spanish circumstances; and without judgment, as well as taste and invention, a poet can never hope to succeed in so delicate an undertaking. Not to mention, that the same excellence of faculties which contributes to the improvement of reason, the same clearness of conception, the afro essays, same exactness of distinction, the same vivacity of apprehension, are essential to. the operations of true taste, and are its infallible concomitants. It seldom, or never happens, that a man of sense, who has experience in any art, cannot judge of its beauty; and it is process, no less rare to meet with a man who has a just taste without a sound understanding. Thus, though the principles of taste be universal, and nearly, if not entirely the same in all men; yet few are qualified to give judgment on any work of drama poetry, art, or establish their own sentiment as the standard of beauty. The organs of internal sensation are seldom so perfect as to allow the process how to change, general principles their full play, and afro american reflective produce a feeling correspondent to those principles.

They either labour under some defect, or are vitiated by some disorder; and by that means, excite a sentiment, which may be pronounced erroneous. When the critic has no delicacy, he judges without any distinction, and is only essay affected by the grosser and more palpable qualities of the object: The finer touches pass unnoticed and disregarded. Where he is afro american drama reflective essays, not aided by practice, his verdict is attended with confusion and hesitation. Where no comparison has been employed, the glycogen, most frivolous beauties, such as rather merit the name of defects, are the poetry reflective, object of his admiration. Where he lies under the influence of prejudice, all his natural sentiments are perverted. Where good sense is wanting, he is not qualified to discern the beauties of design and reasoning, which are the ap spanish language and culture essay, highest and most excellent. Under some or other of these imperfections, the generality of men labour; and hence a true judge in the finer arts is observed, even during the most polished ages, to be so rare a character: Strong sense, united to afro reflective essays delicate sentiment, improved by practice, perfected by comparison, and causes of the war essay thesis cleared of all prejudice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character; and the joint verdict of such, wherever they are to be found, is the true standard of taste and beauty. But where are such critics to be found? By what marks are they to be known? How distinguish them from reflective essays, pretenders?

These questions are embarrassing; and seem to causes of the war essay throw us back into the same uncertainty, from which, during the american drama poetry reflective essays, course of this essay, we have endeavoured to extricate ourselves. But if we consider the matter aright, these are questions of fact, not of sentiment. Whether any particular person be endowed with good sense and a delicate imagination, free from prejudice, may often be the subject of dispute, and be liable to great discussion and enquiry: But that such a character is valuable and estimable will be agreed in by all mankind. Where these doubts occur, men can do no more than in other disputable questions, which are submitted to the understanding: They must produce the best arguments, that their invention suggests to them; they must acknowledge a true and decisive standard to exist somewhere, to wit, real existence and glycogen systhesis matter of fact; and afro american drama poetry they must have indulgence to such as differ from them in their appeals to this standard. It is sufficient for our present purpose, if we have proved, that the taste of all individuals is not upon an equal footing, and that some men in general, however difficult to be particularly pitched upon, will be acknowledged by universal sentiment to have a preference above others.

But in essay how to a tire, reality the poetry reflective, difficulty of process essay how to change a tire, finding, even in particulars, the standard of taste, is not so great as it is represented. Afro American Drama Poetry? Though in speculation, we may readily avow a certain criterion in science and deny it in sentiment, the matter is found in practice to be much more hard to ascertain in the former case than in the latter. Theories of glycogen systhesis, abstract philosophy, systems of profound theology, have prevailed during one age: In a successive period, these have been universally exploded: Their absurdity has been detected: Other theories and systems have supplied their place, which again gave place to their successors: And nothing has been experienced more liable to the revolutions of chance and fashion than these pretended decisions of poetry essays, science. The case is ap spanish language, not the same with the beauties of eloquence and american drama poetry reflective essays poetry. Just expressions of passion and essay on my for kids nature are sure, after a little time, to gain public applause, which they maintain for ever. Aristotle , and Plato , and Epicurus , and Descartes , may successively yield to each other: But Terence and Virgil maintain an afro poetry reflective, universal, undisputed empire over the minds of men. The abstract philosophy of Cicero has lost its credit: The vehemence of thesis essay, his oratory is still the afro drama reflective, object of our admiration. Though men of delicate taste be rare, they are easily to be distinguished in society, by the soundness of their understanding and the superiority of their faculties above the rest of mankind.

The ascendant, which they acquire, gives a prevalence to that lively approbation, with which they receive any productions of genius, and renders it generally predominant. Many men, when left to themselves, have but a faint and dubious perception of beauty, who yet are capable of relishing any fine stroke, which is pointed out to them. Every convert to the admiration of the real poet or orator is the cause of some new conversion. And though prejudices may prevail for a time, they never unite in celebrating any rival to essay on my mother for kids the true genius, but yield at last to the force of nature and just sentiment. Thus, though a civilized nation may easily be mistaken in the choice of their admired philosopher, they never have been found long to err, in their affection for a favourite epic or tragic author. But notwithstanding all our endeavours to fix a standard of taste, and reconcile the discordant apprehensions of men, there still remain two sources of variation, which are not sufficient indeed to confound all the boundaries of beauty and afro american drama reflective deformity, but will often serve to produce a difference in the degrees of our approbation or blame.

The one is the different humours of particular men; the other, the particular manners and opinions of our age and country. Essay Mother? The general principles of taste are uniform in human nature: Where men vary in drama poetry essays, their judgments, some defect or perversion in the faculties may commonly be remarked; proceeding either from prejudice, from want of practice, or want of delicacy; and there is just reason for approving one taste, and condemning another. Process Essay Change? But. where there is such a diversity in the internal frame or external situation as is entirely blameless on both sides, and leaves no room to give one the american poetry reflective essays, preference above the other; in that case a certain degree of diversity in glycogen, judgment is afro american reflective, unavoidable, and we seek in vain for a standard, by which we can reconcile the contrary sentiments. A young man, whose passions are warm, will be more sensibly touched with amorous and tender images, than a man more advanced in years, who takes pleasure in wise, philosophical reflections concerning the conduct of life and moderation of the ocr gcse coursework, passions. At twenty, Ovid may be the favourite author; Horace at american drama poetry, forty; and perhaps Tacitus at on my for kids, fifty. Vainly would we, in reflective, such cases, endeavour to enter into the sentiments of others, and of the war essay divest ourselves of afro drama poetry, those propensities, which are natural to us. Essay On My Mother For Kids? We choose our favourite author as we do our friend, from a conformity of humour and disposition. Mirth or passion, sentiment or reflection; whichever of these most predominates in our temper, it gives us a peculiar sympathy with the writer who resembles us. One person is more pleased with the sublime; another with the tender; a third with raillery. One has a strong sensibility to blemishes, and is extremely studious of correctness: Another has a more lively feeling of beauties, and pardons twenty absurdities and american drama reflective essays defects for one elevated or pathetic stroke.

The ear of this man is coursework, entirely turned towards conciseness and energy; that man is afro american essays, delighted with a copious, rich, and harmonious expression. Simplicity is affected by one; ornament by another. Comedy, tragedy, satire, odes, have each its partizans, who prefer that particular species of writing to all others. It is and culture, plainly an error in a critic, to confine his approbation to one species or style of writing, and condemn all the rest. But it is drama poetry essays, almost impossible not to feel a predilection for ocr gcse physics that which suits our particular turn and disposition. Such preferences are innocent and afro poetry unavoidable, and systhesis can never reasonably be the object of dispute, because there is no standard, by which they can be decided. For a like reason, we are more pleased, in the course of our. reading, with pictures and characters, that resemble objects which are found in our own age or country, than with those which describe a different set of customs. It is not without some effort, that we reconcile ourselves to the simplicity of ancient manners, and behold princesses carrying water from the spring, and kings and afro american drama reflective heroes dressing their own victuals. We may allow in general, that the representation of such manners is no fault in the author, nor deformity in the piece; but we are not so sensibly touched with them.

For this reason, comedy is not easily transferred from one age or nation to another. A Frenchman or Englishman is not pleased with the thesis statement literary, Andria of Terence , or Clitia of Machiavel ; where the fine lady, upon whom all the play turns, never once appears to the spectators, but is always kept behind the scenes, suitably to the reserved humour of the ancient Greeks and afro reflective modern Italians . A man of learning and reflection can make allowance for these peculiarities of manners; but a common audience can never divest themselves so far of their usual ideas and sentiments, as to relish pictures which no wise resemble them. But here there occurs a reflection, which may, perhaps, be useful in examining the celebrated controversy concerning ancient and modern learning; where we often find the one side excusing any seeming absurdity in ocr gcse physics coursework, the ancients from the manners of the age, and the other refusing to admit this excuse, or at least, admitting it only as an apology for the author, not for the performance. In my opinion, the proper boundaries in this subject have seldom been fixed between the contending parties. Where any innocent peculiarities of afro american drama reflective essays, manners are represented, such as those above mentioned, they ought certainly to be admitted; and a man, who is shocked with them, gives. an evident proof of false delicacy and causes war essay refinement.

The poet’s monument more durable than brass , must fall to the ground like common brick or clay, were men to make no allowance for the continual revolutions of manners and customs, and would admit of nothing but what was suitable to the prevailing fashion. Must we throw aside the pictures of our ancestors, because of their ruffs and fardingales? But where the ideas of morality and decency alter from one age to another, and where vicious manners are described, without being marked with the proper characters of blame and disapprobation; this must be allowed to disfigure the poem, and to american drama be a real deformity. I cannot, nor is it proper I should, enter into such sentiments; and however I may excuse the poet, on account of the manners of his age, I never can relish the composition. The want of humanity and of decency, so conspicuous in the characters drawn by several of the ancient poets, even sometimes by glycogen systhesis Homer and the Greek tragedians, diminishes considerably the merit of their noble performances, and drama reflective essays gives modern authors an advantage over them. We are not interested in the fortunes and sentiments of such rough heroes: We are displeased to find the process essay how to, limits of vice and virtue so much confounded: And whatever indulgence we may give to the writer on account of his prejudices, we cannot prevail on ourselves to enter into his sentiments, or bear an affection to characters, which we plainly discover to be blameable. The case is american essays, not the same with moral principles, as with speculative opinions of any kind. Ap Spanish Essay? These are in continual flux and revolution. The son embraces a different system from the afro, father. Nay, there scarcely is any man, who can boast of great constancy and uniformity in this particular.

Whatever speculative errors may be found in the polite writings of any age or country, they detract but little from the of the civil war essay, value of those compositions. American Poetry Reflective Essays? There needs but a certain turn of thought or imagination to make us enter into all the opinions, which then. prevailed, and relish the glycogen, sentiments or conclusions derived from drama reflective, them. But a very violent effort is requisite to essay how to change our judgment of manners, and american drama excite sentiments of approbation or blame, love or hatred, different from those to which the mind from long custom has been familiarized. Glycogen? And where a man is confident of the rectitude of that moral standard, by which he judges, he is justly jealous of it, and will not pervert the sentiments of his heart for a moment, in complaisance to any writer whatsoever. Of all speculative errors, those, which regard religion, are the most excusable in compositions of genius; nor is it ever permitted to judge of the civility or wisdom of afro poetry, any people, or even of single persons, by the grossness or refinement of their theological principles. The same good sense, that directs men in the ordinary occurrences of life, is not hearkened to thesis statement literary in religious matters, which are supposed to american poetry reflective be placed altogether above the cognizance of human reason. On this account, all the absurdities of the pagan system of theology must be overlooked by every critic, who would pretend to systhesis form a just notion of afro drama reflective, ancient poetry; and ocr gcse physics our posterity, in their turn, must have the same indulgence to their forefathers. No religious principles can ever be imputed as a fault to any poet, while they remain merely principles, and take not such strong possession of his heart, as to lay him under the imputation of bigotry or superstition . Where that happens, they confound the sentiments of morality, and alter the natural boundaries of vice and virtue.

They are therefore eternal blemishes, according to the principle above mentioned; nor are the prejudices and false opinions of the age sufficient to justify them. It is essential to the Roman catholic religion to inspire a violent hatred of every other worship, and to represent all pagans, mahometans, and heretics as the objects of divine wrath and vengeance. Such sentiments, though they are in reality very blameable, are considered as virtues by the zealots of afro reflective essays, that communion, and are represented in their tragedies and epic poems as a kind of divine heroism. This bigotry has. disfigured two very fine tragedies of the French theatre, Polieucte and process Athalia ; where an afro poetry essays, intemperate zeal for particular modes of worship is set off with all the on my mother for kids, pomp imaginable, and forms the predominant character of the heroes. Afro Drama Poetry Reflective Essays? “What is this,” says the sublime Joad to Josabet , finding her in discourse with Mathan , the priest of Baal , “Does the daughter of David speak to this traitor? Are you not afraid, lest the earth should open and pour forth flames to devour you both? Or lest these holy walls should fall and crush you together? What is his purpose? Why comes that enemy of God hither to poison the air, which we breathe, with his horrid presence?” Such sentiments are received with great applause on the theatre of Paris ; but at London the spectators would be full as much pleased to hear Achilles tell Agamemnon , that he was a dog in his forehead, and a deer in his heart, or Jupiter threaten Juno with a sound drubbing, if she will not be quiet. Religious principles are also a blemish in any polite composition, when they rise up to superstition, and intrude themselves into every sentiment, however remote from any connection with religion.

It is no excuse for the poet, that the customs of his country had burthened life with so many religious ceremonies and observances, that no part of mother for kids, it was exempt from that yoke. It must for ever be ridiculous in american essays, Petrarch to compare his mistress, Laura , to causes of the civil war essay thesis Jesus. Christ . Nor is reflective, it less ridiculous in that agreeable libertine, Boccace , very seriously to give thanks to God Almighty and the ladies, for their assistance in defending him against his enemies.

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So that everyone can fully utilize the resources in the career center, we ask the following: Be Mindful of the other Job Seekers. Do not bring children with you into the career center. We have a child care facility in the building where you can leave your younger children while you are visiting us. Do not bring food or drinks into afro american drama poetry reflective the career center.

We have sensitive electronics which cannot tolerate liquid spills or food splatter. Do not talk on your cell phone. We are in a enclosed space and essay for kids, chatter on the phone will not only afro american drama poetry reflective essays disrupt your neighbor but all career center visitors. Do not surf the web for fun, to do homework, or use chat rooms or other social media. The computers and the internet are there for ap spanish, job search or career enhancement activities only. Our staff will monitor this.

Do not expect assistance with Unemployment Insurance issues. These are handled exclusively by the Texas Workforce Commission in Austin. We can furnish you contact information for them. Schedule your visit during slower times like early morning, late afternoon and later in the week. Lunchtime is a very busy time!

What You Need to know About Your UI (Unemployment Benefits) Texas unemployment insurance benefits are available if you meet these criteria. Unemployed through no fault of your own Able to essays work Available for work Be actively seeking work Willing to accept full time work You receive benefits if you have enough base period wages and language and culture essay, no disqualifying eligibility or job separation issues, and you file your payment requests, as instructed on afro drama essays, time. Be registered for work search online at Generally, you must be unemployed through no fault of glycogen systhesis, your own. You must be available to work, able to poetry work and actively seeking work to coursework continue to qualify for benefits. Qualifying reasons to collect Texas unemployment benefits CAN ALSO include: You were laid off due to lack of afro poetry reflective essays, work. You are still working but the employer reduced your hours. (Your reduction in hours must not be the coursework, result of a disciplinary action.) You were fired without work-related misconduct. Examples of misconduct are a violation of company policy; violation of law; neglect or mismanagement of your position; or failure to perform your work acceptably if you are capable of doing so. You quit your job for a good well-documented work-related or medical reason.

TWC may rule good cause if the work situation would cause a person who truly wants to keep the job to leave it. Examples of afro drama essays, possible good cause are unsafe working conditions or a significant change in hiring agreement, or not receiving payment for your work. Examples of medical reasons are quitting on your doctor's advice, or quitting to care for a minor child, or quitting to care for a terminally ill spouse if there is no alternative care provider. In addition: If you quit to move with your husband or wife, you may be able to receive benefits after a disqualification of 6 to ocr gcse coursework 25 weeks. This is a disqualification of both time and money, because we must subtract the number of disqualified weeks from your total benefits. To apply OnLine and get all of the information on your Unemployment Insurance go to this Texas Workforce Commission UI website. This website will let you apply for your benefits as well as manage any correspondence or other related needs. For those who can't make it to our Career Centers. Finding employment is not the drama reflective, intimidating process it can sometimes feel like. It comes down to:

Delivering a SUPER Sales Pitch so the interviewer knows that you're the answer they're looking for. I know . sounds like I want you to ap spanish and culture essay do a sales job - Yes - in it's simplest terms without all the buzz words that the american drama poetry, experts use to show their, well, expertise - that's what Job Search is. One of the hardest things for how to a tire, job seekers is telling employers how good they are and the valuable skills they bring to the table. Yes - it's a form of bragging, and many people just. don't. Afro American Drama Reflective! like. to. brag. But, ask yourself this - If you don't tell them, how is that interviewer expected to know how good you are? If you depend on the interviewer soliciting your best qualities in the interview - the odds are pretty much that it is not going to happen (most of them are not professional interviewers). Make no mistake about it - it's up to causes war essay thesis you. A truism in sales is that 20% make the big bucks, the other 80% try to make a living. The 20% folk know their product WELL and american reflective, they push it enthusiastically and convincingly . Strive to process a tire be in that 20% and essays, enjoy the success . Note: To follow this path in your job search journey be aware of the following requisites:

You are aware of your knowledge, skills, and abilities (SKA s) and civil war essay, are looking for similar employment, or progression in current employment , using complementary versions of those SKA s. You realize that no one else can do the afro drama reflective essays, work for thesis literary, you. For marketing materials to be believable it has to come from you, in your own words. Employers can easily pick up on coached resumes and afro drama poetry, interview questions and those mostly wind up in glycogen systhesis the waste basket or are otherwise ignored - a waste of your precious time. If you need any help with this journey or have suggestions you think may benefit others EMAIL us.

OK - if you're ready, let's take that first step. The best sales people know their products backwards, forwards, up and down. They can answer any questions about the american poetry essays, product in a positive manner hopefully reinforcing the customer's desire to have it. Now, let's inject this into our job search. There is no one who knows what you bring to the table better than YOU! The task now is for you to ap spanish language and culture essay identify those parts of your inventory that relate to the position for which you are applying. Your best bet to begin this process is to afro american poetry reflective perform a Position Description Analysis. The position description, also called a job description, is what describes the position and requests applicants to ap spanish apply. ( After you've identified your skills, determine how well you match up with the Position Description. If you're close - go for it. If not, reconsider your choice or look at where you can get the skills you are lacking. ) REMEMBER: THIS SECTION IS ONLY APPLICABLE IF YOU KNOW THE TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR AND ALREADY HAVE THE NECESSARY SKILLS. There are three types of skill sets.

Take your time and afro, make a thorough list. Identify the skills and add short examples of how they were used. There is no one who knows what you bring to the table better than YOU ! Job Specific Skills relate to the skills that you use with a specific job and would not necessarily use with any other job. They usually relate to how you handled data, people, things, and ideas in your past employment. For a short sample list, click HERE. Transferable skills may be used in a number of different occupations, regardless of the type of work. They are skills you can transfer from one type of work to physics another without much training from the employer. For a short sample list, click HERE. Soft skills tell your potential employer whether or not your personality is a match the afro essays, prevalent attitudes of the how to change, company, management, and co-workers. Employers sometimes prefer to drama hire a employee with good soft skills than an ap spanish language, experienced employee who might not fit in. For a short list of Self-Management Skills, click HERE.

If you have completed your skills inventory and are able to drama poetry essays give examples of how you used these skills, go to statement Step2. You've identified the skills you have - you've performed your Position Description Analysis and american drama, determined you have the necessary skills - now let's do this marketing thing. In this stage we are going to do the essay mother, following: First you have to determine the geographical area you are interested in. Do you want to stay close to home or are you willing to commute a distance. Or, are you willing to move elsewhere. Think about it.

Next you have to determine who the customers (remember - you are selling to employers) are within your chosen geographic area. Make a list of the companies and do a little research on them to make sure you want a job there. Then prepare your marketing/advertising material. In this case we are talking resumes, cover letters and necessary credentials. We'll discuss this below. Distribute the marketing materials.

Send them out to the companies you are interested in. At this stage you are fishing - throwing out bait, hoping you get a bite. Keep a record of these activities. Who you sent stuff to, who you heard back from, who you haven't. If no bites - two options - redo the american reflective essays, resum or broaden your geographic are to include other employers.

LETS TALK RESUME - Next to interviews this is ap spanish and culture, what is dreaded the afro poetry reflective essays, most. Resume's are not difficult. On My! You've done most of the work in afro drama reflective step 1 where you identified your skills. A resume is ocr gcse, composed of these sections (Everyone will tell you something different, but this info never changes even though there are different templates (chronological, functional, hybrid)) : Contact Information. This is who I am and this is afro american drama poetry, how you can reach me. Objective Statement. Hey - this is why I'm sending you this resume - for causes civil, this position. These are the skills I have that match with what you are looking for. This is afro american reflective essays, where I got these skills. Education or Work Experience References.

If you don't believe me, these are people you can ask. (This form is actually best used seperate from the resume. Mother For Kids! Greater effect if you pull this list out in american drama reflective the interview. LETS TALK COVER LETTER - A cover letter should accompany each resume you send. If possible personalize it with the company's contact information - if available and ap spanish essay, make sure your contact information is on afro drama essays, it also. Sometimes cover letters and resumes get seperated.

A cover letter consists of 3 short paragraphs: Para 1 - This is why I am sending you my resume - naming the position for which applying. Civil Thesis! You don't know who opens the afro poetry essays, mail, so you want to glycogen systhesis be sure it gets in the right stack. Para 2 - These are a couple of my skills that match what you are looking for. Para 3 - Let's get together so I can tell you about my skills in greater detail. Sending out afro american poetry reflective essays, resumes is like fishing - you're casting out the thesis, bait, hoping for a bite. Do your own resume.

Employers will pick it up in a minute during the afro american drama reflective, interview if you had someone else write it. Ok - We know our product well - We've done our Marketing - We got some bites. Essay Mother! Next Step . You've done the afro american drama reflective essays, marketing - now it's time to close the sale. Interview rule #1. Nothing personal - keep everything business even if the interviewer wants to thesis go there. There should not be any studying involved. You know yourself best. You are confident of the skills you have.

The trick in interviewing is to seize on 4 or 5 of your skills that you think best matches up with the employer's wants. Afro American Poetry Essays! You use those skills in answering most of the interview questions. Keep hammering home those same skills, yes it will be repetitive, but what will the employer remember about you when you leave? Oh yes, he/she can do this, this, and that. Physics! This let's you control the afro drama poetry reflective essays, outcome versus a job seeker who wants to throw the kitchen sink at the interviewer who will remember nothing about them. Thesis Statement Essay! Try it - It Works! Pick out your 4 or 5 strongest skills and drive them home. Tool for Identifying Your Job Skills. Use these Job Descriptions to Identify Skills You Have. Your skills may come from some previous work experience. To help you identify some of these skills. Poetry Reflective Essays! we have provided access to 400+ job descriptions.

Copy and Paste to your Skill's Section on your Resume page those skills in the job descriptions which you have actually acquired and civil war essay, used. Note: These job description and american reflective, listed skills are basic and designed to help you get started. Embellish (but don't fib) where you can. In the thesis statement essay, above example we assumed certain traits. Afro Poetry Reflective Essays! If you didn't have them all, these links are for you to research careers, identify and augment your skills, resume assistance, interviewing, etc. Let me remind you that professional career counselors are available in our career centers who can assist you with any of these topics and are waiting for you to come in. Texas Labor Market Information CareerOneStop - your source for ap spanish, career exploration, training jobs Occupational Outlook Handbook - The OOH can help you find career information on afro poetry essays, duties, education and training, pay, and outlook for hundreds of occupations My Next Move is a web-based interactive tool from the Labor Department for new job seekers, students and other career-explorers to systhesis learn more about their career options. 'My Next Move' complements the poetry, department's mySkills myFuture site, which is essay how to change a tire, designed to help those with previous work experience match existing skills to new occupations. For veterans, a specialized My Next Move for Veterans helps find careers through keyword search, by browsing industries that employ different types of workers, or by discovering civilian careers that are similar to their job in the military. ?Hablas espanol? Mi Proximo Paso is a version of the 'My Next Move' tool for drama poetry essays, Spanish-language speakers. Live Career - Check out essay mother for kids, our free examples and then use LiveCareer's Resume Builder to build your resume in just minutes.

Monster - Cover letter resume sample by industry. Monster - From job interview preparation to the interview thank you letter, our job experts at Monster can help you learn about afro reflective essays, what to expect, how to prepare, and how to follow up for glycogen systhesis, your interview. HelpGuide - Interviewing Techniques and Tips. LiveCareer - Behavioral Job Interviewing Strategies for american drama poetry reflective essays, Job-Seekers.