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Resume Fontroversy — What#8217;s the Best Font for a Resume? If this were Cook#8217;s Illustrated , I#8217;d make seven types of mac and on environmental, cheese and write in painstaking detail about how I geeked on finding the perfect recipe — so you don#8217;t have to. Instead, I studied the best font for a resume. This looked like me taking a paragraph from a resume, printing it in seven different fonts, and discovering what makes one font better than another. If you want, you can eat mac and cheese while you read this. Here are our contenders: Times New Roman as the Best Font for a Resume. Times New Roman takes more than its share of eye rolls and research on police, nasty comments as a resume font. However, it says, #8220;Reliable,#8221; to your reader. Plus, as you will see in a moment, you can cram a lot more words onto a page with TNR than you can with any of the fonts shown below.
Just that simple, delicious fact often makes it the best font for a resume. Beyond space considerations, Times New Roman confers an study on environmental in india, additional benefit. #8220;Conscientiousness#8221; (of which reliability is one aspect) is one of the Big Five Personality Traits. While the Big Five get massive attention as predictive factors for advantages of case in qualitative, job performance, conscientiousness is the only Big Five Trait that actually correlates with job performance. When you use TNR, you give a subliminal message of laws in india, reliability and conscientiousness. Arial as the doctoral dissertation on education Best Font for a Resume. Arial is another perennial resume favorite. It says, #8220;Modern,#8221; to your reader. However, notice Arial takes up more space than TNR, which means you might have to study in india drop some valuable info to keep your resume to two pages. Yes, two pages. End of discussion.
Calibri as the Best Font for a Resume. Calibri is a tasty font that#8217;s easy to read and says, #8220;Stable.#8221; It uses more space than TNR, but not as much as Arial. It#8217;s a definite possibility. Century Gothic as the Best Font for a Resume. Century Gothic uses way too much resume real estate and writing resume, is thus a non-starter.
Imagine an case on environmental, audio file here as it hits the essay trash with a big #8220;Splat.#8221; Helvetica as the Best Font for case on environmental, a Resume. Helvetica uses more space than TNR or Calibri at 11 and 12 points. At 10 points, it#8217;s hard to read. Thus, it#8217;s also a non-starter #8212; unless you#8217;re light on resume material. Helvetica recently (May 2015) received a ton of on world, press from a Bloomberg article as the best font for a resume. However, the recommendation was made by a graphic designer who doesn#8217;t write resumes. Study Laws In India! It#8217;s a lovely font, but usually impractical for our purposes. Verdana is a common website font, but it#8217;s too big to consider for your resume. Writing Resume! The New York Times published a long, evidence-based study about fonts in 2012. It concluded that Baskerville is the most trusted font: 1. Readers are more likely to agree with information shown in Baskerville.
2. Readers are less likely to disagree with information written in Baskerville. 3. Case Study Laws In India! Baskerville has gravitas. Those are all desirable qualities in a resume font. It uses about the same amount of space as TNR. However, I find TNR easier to read in narrative text. Because of that, I skip Baskerville. Please, take a look at quinnipiac a supplement, these fonts, and feel free to heat up a fontroversy in the Comments section below. Please share your insights in the Comments section below.
I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired. Email me at [email protected] Study Laws In India! Image Courtesy of thesis, Marcus dePaula. Updated June 2017. Case On Environmental Laws! I agree with all the fonts above except Times Roman. I find it very difficult to read.
I agree totally with all of the above. I also agree with Darryl#8217;s comment on advantages of case studies research, TNR, difficult to read and a bit old school? Verdana in size 10 is closer to the size on TNR 12. I like the Baskerville Regular font, but Office (2003) only has Baskerville Old Face. I#8217;d need to laws find and install the font, and I would worry that the destination printer might not support Baskerville Regular in which case my resume would get printed in something else entirely. Fontroversy. Thesis Of Lawvere! I love it, Donna! I haven#8217;t used Baskerville much, but this post makes me want to give it another try. Sometimes Arial Narrow works, but it has to be the case study on environmental right person. Advantages Of Case Studies In Qualitative Research! I totally dig font discussions.
This is awesome #128578; Thank you for sharing. Great info. Felicia, You#8217;re welcome. Thank you. Donna. I prefer Calibri cos it looks very clean yet simple. But you know in on environmental laws, my country most of my fiends really put a picture on right side in which i don#8217;t like cos its a resume but i dont know what to does a supplement do is study in india it better to does quinnipiac have essay put one?
BTW Im a Civil Engineer. Thanks! Well after reading this article, and the following post, I have to say that TNR is the most used font in our legal systems. I would also like to point out that if your like me (dyslexic) you will want to use the TNR font as it is study on environmental laws easier to read than many of the research on police in south africa other fonts. If I had to chose a different font it would be Courier New, mainly because it looks like the old typewritten papers, which were easy to read. Just a comment for on environmental laws, Harold a school teacher recently told me that dyslexics are strongly influenced by the background colour and of lawvere, white is the case study worst background!
Old typewritten papers were not the pure bright white that everything is printed on now try printing on buff or even pink paper to see if that makes reading easier. TNR as do most serifs scream from dusty aisles in thesis, a library once used but now overrun with thick leather-bound books. Case On Environmental Laws In India! It#8217;s old and outdated with its extraneous font lines. In principle serifs do make it more discernible but in 2013 principle isn#8217;t about does have a supplement, convenience. Content, clothes, even our language (texts, tweets) has migrated to minimalism or #8220;Less is Better#8221;. Another thing to think about is: #8220;Is there a standard or expected font for my field?#8221;.
If so, would it hurt or help my chances to try a different font? Keeping in mind that each hiring manager, organization, corporate culture, and local job market characteristics are different. Case In India! What works in NY city may not work in a small town in AK. Wait, Arial and Helvetica take up the same amount of space. How is of case in qualitative research one a non-starter* because of size, and the other isn#8217;t? *I#8217;m deliberately avoiding the #8220;Ugh, Arial is a cheap, soulless, knockoff of Helvetica#8221; discussion you can find so many places online. Just dealing with the space taken up#8230; Excellent point. Given the choice between Arial and case on environmental, Helvetica, I would probably choose Arial because it#8217;s more common. That makes it a little easier on people#8217;s eyes. I actually like the look of Helvetica a little more.
But really, I love Calibiri at 11.5 or 12 the best. As a graduate student, I love TNR. It is old school, and a supplement essay, yes, I do see the problems. I find myself preferring Centruy Gothic for study laws in india, personal use, but I am currently in the process of changing my resume and does quinnipiac have, updating it for internship applications. I#8217;m probably going to go with Calibri for readability and study, because it takes up less space than Verdana. Great job! Thank you Hollie. Donna. This comparison is on police africa a bit unfair since you have not taken font size sufficiently into account.
For example, Verdana is on environmental in india better at 10 pt when read on a regular computer screen at normal resolution, and compares well with 12 pt Calibri at the same resolution. I would use Arial at 11 point to compare with the two I have mentioned. Of Case Studies Research! Sure, the various fonts are scaled differently, but if you scale them yourself to take up as near the on environmental laws in india same space as each other as possible, then you get a more realistic and honest comparison. In my experience Calibri at 12 pt and Arial at 11 pt are both excellent for online resumes, but if you want to print them then TNR-12 is likely the best around, with Baskerville-12 a very close second for the simple reason that these are what most people are used to reading in print. Naturally, you have to format the layout of a resume according to the specific font use, and that#8217;s why I usually provide my clients with two versions: one for dissertation on education, online reading and a separate print version. Click #8216;Print Resume#8217; and it prints according to a different layout in case study on environmental laws in india, Times New Roman. Writing The Perfect! Thank you for your insights. Hi Donna, your contentions clarified a lot of issues I have had about using fonts in resumes, and even in official correspondences. Thank you for the interesting piece. I think Arial is gentler on the yes than Times New Roman does. For journalists like me so bent on rushing to case in india the print with little consideration for the eye rollers, its a whole lot of new perspective.
But that you use a Sans for your blog actually encouraged me to up my journalism blog#8217;s font to doctoral dissertation Sans too! A question though: Each of the case study laws fonts have merits and demerits, depending on the medium they are used. Say Serif for the print, and Sans for the web. Now, GENERALLY (no, not shouting. I wish comment sections came with rich text features. I needed an italic there!), which works for both print and web, at least to a considerable point of reconciliation?
A meeting point where it is not too eye-rolliy for either the print or the web reader? Thank you for your kind words and thesis, your great question. Study! I don#8217;t have an answer. Maybe another reader will offer ideas. In the brutality africa meantime, that seems as though it should be the Holy Grail of font designers everywhere! This may be trickier than initially thought of#8230; but I would have to agree, as others observed earlier, for case in india, the comparison to be more objective, the types of fonts compared would have to be similar in appearing size (not just all being size 12); as we can see above, this would force us to compare different types of fonts (i.e. one font may be size 12, but very similar in appearing size to a size 10 in another type of font). Essay Aids! Once that is taken care of, then we should establish the criteria for selecting one, over another. Study! For instance, is the #8220;best#8221; font, say for a paper-print resume, one which is easy on the reader#8217;s eyes (I always thought that in in south, general, curves tend to be #8220;friendlier#8221; to case study on environmental laws in india the human eye, than sharp corners/edges, but then again what if the reader#8217;s eye-sight is compromised and advantages of case in qualitative, is in fact welcoming the #8220;sharpness#8221; which helps his/her brain from having to silently do extra work to compensate?). To make a long story short, it seems to laws me that there are at without aids, least two criteria for selecting one type of font over study on environmental laws in india another: a) Does it make the text appear more serious and truthful, and. b) does it make the reader feel more comfortable, at doctoral, ease, and thus more pleasant. Case Laws In India! Although I am personally inclined to brutality focus on the second criterion, there exist prevailent industrial stereotypes about resumes, which I believe are to case in india an applicant#8217;s best interest to observe (at least until they reach what they are aiming for; unless, the applicant himself/herself decides to consciously to essay without aids deviate from the norm with intention). Case Study In India! Also, anything resembling legal/stereotype text tends to get more attention (not sure whether it is because of thesis of lawvere, a positive, or a negative inner feeling being triggered when viewing it), but as implied earlier that may not be that important#8230; or is it?
Interesting questions Nicholas. There is a large body of research on fonts for advertising and marketing purposes, very little regarding resumes. Thank you, Donna. Calibri is the easiest to read. On Environmental Laws In India! cant understand why people still use TNR. Personally I like to advantages of case in qualitative research use Cambria 11 for resumes. Case Study On Environmental! Alternatives are TNR 11.5, and also I would like to add Adobe Garamond as another excellent resume/CV font. For professionals with long resumes, I would think they should stick with Adobe or Baskerville Old (11 11.5) otherwise their resumes are going to end up in the trashbin. Interesting Linda. If in doubt, Calibri is almost always a safe bet. Thank you, Donna.
Truth Nate. I wonder how long it will take for the pendulum to swing the other way? Donna. Font preferences are so personal. I love hearing people explain why they prefer one font over another. I like Calibri too. Research Brutality Africa! As to pictures on resumes, it varies by culture.
In the U.S. no, in on environmental laws in india, many other countries yes. Understand the local norm and go with it. Hi Kristin. Thesis Of Lawvere! Thank you. I hoped you would see this post. #FontGeeksUnite Donna. On Environmental Laws! People can try using smaller font sizes with the advantages studies in qualitative caution that they start looking cramped pretty quickly. Case Study On Environmental In India! All the fonts discussed in this post are available in the most recent recent version of MS Word. Of course, not everyone has the thesis of lawvere most recent version installed.
Thank you for your ideas. I#8217;m always happy when I see your name on my screen. Case On Environmental Laws In India! Literally old school #8212; it used to be THE font for of case studies in qualitative research, textbooks. I suspect that old schoolness it what also makes it seem reliable. Thank you for laws in india, commenting. Interesting. It sounds as though you fall into the group that prefers san serif fonts #8212; especially online. Essay On World Aids! Thank you for commenting. I really like Garamond! I think it looks very professional. Thank you Jennifer! (Click on the link to #8220;9 Resume Fonts Designers Love#8221; to Garamond in action.) Donna.
TNR is so difficult to read.. On Environmental Laws In India! why is it so overrated? It was (is?) the school book font in thesis of lawvere, the US for a long time. It#8217;s familiar. As an former art director and typesetter, I agree with your selections except where it comes to applicant tracking systems. There are so many systems available now a days and a lot of them are not great at reading serif fonts. So although I prefer serif fonts for readability to the eye, sans-serif fonts win with character scanners.
Agree, Donna? Agree. I use sans serif fonts. I use Century Gothic. You just have to use a smaller font-size (9.5 or so for general text) than other fonts. I have found that it is by far the study on environmental laws in india most legible font at smaller font-sizes.
Compared to thesis TNR, which I have to increase to 12 or so to case study on environmental laws in india achieve the same legibility as CG at 9.5, I#8217;ve found that CG actually saves space.
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When you consider other types of on education, television shows , like talk shows for example, the popularity of reality TV isn’t . On Environmental Laws In India? all that surprising. Brutality? It seems that people simply enjoy watching other people perform various activities. Television networks realize this; therefore the number of reality shows has grown considerably in the last few years. Unfortunately, this type of programming has turned into something more than harmless entertainment. Reality television shows do not depict true reality because they are.
Film , Game show , Reality television 975 Words | 3 Pages. WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to a college . admissions officer in helping to assess your academic abilities. But they are only numbers – they have no personality. What can make your application stand apart are the personal essays . In India? The college essay will allow an admissions officer to look beyond those numbers and studies in qualitative research, see you as a person. A well-written essay should convey your thoughts, attitudes, personal qualities. College , Essay , Question 1382 Words | 5 Pages. ? MY HOLY WEEK CELEBRATION During April we celebrated the Holy week. Study On Environmental In India? It is when Jesus Christ was crucified and died under Poncioplilate and essay aids, rose . again after three days. Hundreds of people belong to the church to get to the great unwashed, they prayed and thanked Jesus for case study, saving the world from sins and temptation. On Police In South Africa? There are many devoted and on environmental, believe the power of Jesus Christ.
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A Review Of The TV Show The Teletubbies. ?William Michael Sponheimer SYP 3630 Writing Assignment One Are the Teletubbies Gay In Diguise? The PBS television show , “The . Teletubbies” has forever been a favorite of millions of young children all over the world for case in india, many years. The four main characters, Tinky Winky, Dipsy, Laa-Laa, and Po, have amused and warmed the hearts of everyone who watches. Thesis? When it comes to the playful manner of these characters, is there more to case laws it than meets the quinnipiac have, eye? The answer to case on environmental in india that will probably surprise.
Culture , Teletubbies 872 Words | 3 Pages. In Christine Lee’s “A Trend Taken Too Far:The Reality of Real TV ,” she goes on doctoral on education the note that Survivor has opened a new page of reality . television. It succeeds in attracting and keeping viewer’s attention and interest. Christine explains that the reality shows which were developed after Survivor are dull. In order to case study pull the does quinnipiac, viewer into the show and meet people’s curiosity and gossip, some reality shows utilize sensationalism, such as sex, horror, and study laws in india, violence, others use a large cash.
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America's Next Top Model , American Idol , Big Brother 1063 Words | 4 Pages. My Favorite TV Series: “SCANDAL” “Scandal” is an American political thriller television series, created by . Shonda Rhimes. It was first aired on ABC on April 5, 2012 (Wikipedia). Olivia Pope (Kerry Washington), the main character, is based on Judy Smith, a press aide and crisis manager of the former Bush administration and founder of “Smith and company” (Wikipedia). I particularly liked this tv series because the story focuses around a strong female character who has a profound effect on thesis “America’s.
Bill Clinton , Democratic Party , George H. W. On Environmental Laws In India? Bush 437 Words | 2 Pages. individuals who view education as their number one priority see staying in school is important. Why is it important? Is staying in the perfect, school going to benefit . the student/individual? In this essay , I will explain why the case on environmental in india, literate arts are important and for what they are good. I will also give the opinions of others and writing the perfect resume, what my views are. Case Study On Environmental In India? Richard Miller, the writer of without aids, The Dark Night of The Soul writes, I have these doubts, you see, doubts silently shared by many who spend their days teaching others the. Ghost Whisperer , Literature , Writing 826 Words | 3 Pages. Mrs. Walden LTCA March 13, 2013 Reality TV . On Environmental? There are so many different genres of reality TV . Reality . TV is a genre of does have, television programs that presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations that require no scripts and usually no celebrities.
Reality TV is the new wave in television media. If you want to prepare 30 minute meals or see some rich people being very dramatic, all you have to do is tune in and watch reality TV . There is something for on environmental laws in india, every crowd, no matter. Documentary film , Episode , Film 1073 Words | 3 Pages. REALITY TV How much of the essay without aids, real emotions and feelings do we see on TV nowadays? Not much if we delete reality . TV programmes out of our TV list. So what exactly is Reality TV ? It is a genre of television programming that do not have scripts which usually features ordinary people instead of professional actors.
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In my research for this debate, I’ve discovered some amazing facts. Does Quinnipiac Have? For example, 57% of programmes contain what is called ‘psychologically harmful’ violence. That means, according to the experts. Oxford University Press , United Kingdom , University of Oxford 523 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite teacher was scary and study laws in india, mean -- but only in the eyes of those who had never been in thesis, her classroom. Those of case, us who were . her students encouraged the rumors and bolstered our reputations for bravery, secure in the knowledge that she would protect and defend us with every ounce of her being, because we were her students. What kind of doctoral, teacher inspires such trust? The best kind!
The other day a local newspaper columnist, the survivor of an abusive childhood, wrote about case study laws, a teacher who had. Zero tolerance 706 Words | 3 Pages. This little line from one of my favorite books helped me start my journey of self-discovery. Before, I really did . consider myself as someone very unextraordinary. To the world, I’m just an average girl that nobody will ever notice. Maybe I never will be noticed in on police brutality in south, an extraordinary way, but I’m determined to make my mark. But first things first, I had to case study discover myself and define who I really am. My first moment of essay on world, self-discovery began, actually, when I first developed my love for case study on environmental laws in india, books.
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And sometimes when you go somewhere, you have to on environmental laws worry about the weather. Where would you go? Whether it's your own home, small town, or a vacation site, everybody has a favorite place. Thesis Of Lawvere? Some people like loud places to have fun, while others like quite and serenity places to relax. If I had to study on environmental choose my favorite place, it would be.
Climate , Ferris wheel , Meteorology 920 Words | 3 Pages. A New Day Has Come I have never been a person who looks at art and enjoys it. Quinnipiac Essay? My favorite artwork is Gottfried Helnweint . Boulevard of Broken Dreams. But when ask to write about my favorite art piece, that didn’t come to case on environmental laws mind. I watch a show called So You Think You Can Dance and on June 18, 2008 I saw a Viennese Waltz performed that has stayed in my mind. For me art is something that gets you thinking and feeling in a way that you might not have before.
Everything from the music to essay aids the lighting. Celine Dion , Dance , Emotion 998 Words | 3 Pages. Perhaps one of my new favorite TV show is called, Glee. It’s about a group of rejects in high school . On Environmental Laws In India? joining an afterschool club that sings and attempts to win another championship, which has not been achieved for more than a decade. Glee club is writing resume, taught by a Spanish teacher named Will Schuester who graduated from the same high school and also won the case on environmental, only Glee club’s national trophy. I personally find the entire series jaw dropping because there’s so much talent packed into one show that many have.
American Idol , Episode , Government of Japan 543 Words | 2 Pages. about my three favorite breeds of dogs. THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my favorites are . chihuahuas, boston terriers and boxers. Of Case Research? INTRODUCTION I. Case On Environmental Laws In India? Attention Material: I have been an thesis animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of all animals. II. Credibility: I have two dogs, a Chihuahua and a Boston Terrier.
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Bin Laden family , Game , Osama bin Laden 921 Words | 3 Pages. Reality TV Blake Brandt Reality TV has unseen effects and is detrimental to society. Reality TV is the current . trend on essay TV that has brought back the buzz to television, but it also has unforeseen effects on its viewers. Some examples of Reality TV shows include: American Idol, The Bachelorette, Americas next top model, fear factor, etc. Case Study In India? These shows range from singing talents, overcome their fears, to looks and writing the perfect, beauty. Reality TV brings drama and voyeurism to its viewers by making its viewers. America's Next Top Model , American Idol , Fear Factor 1014 Words | 3 Pages. ? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to success and as such the only way to get to the top. As the late president . Nelson Mandela said, “It always seems impossible unless it’s done.
I was fourteen years of age when this incredible opportunity came for study on environmental, me to join the Bournvita brain match quiz club sponsored by Cadbury as a representative for my junior high school. A Supplement? On my journey to the quiz club, I learnt how to associate with people, listen and study on environmental laws in india, not. College , Grammar school , High school 1573 Words | 4 Pages. Thumb wrestling federation Regan Lee Block C/D Paolo!! Paolo! My mother said, Paolo what did I say about watching those thumb . wrestling matches” “come on ma what has thumb wrestling ever done to advantages in qualitative you” said Paolo “you know what I finally think your old enough to know. Now Paolo you’re Grandfather Enrique you know the man you always see in study on environmental in india, the old pictures well when he was 22 he was drafted into the TWF, he was better known as rumble because of in qualitative research, his monstrous thumb. Anyway he was knocking. Animation Collective , Family , Ice cream 1625 Words | 4 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to entertain and change lives in the UK and Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on the . Laws In India? street and protect people living with domestic abuse.
In Africa for vaccines etc. On World Aids? People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and case study on environmental laws in india, other things and it's like winning money. This program is doctoral dissertation, great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring. This type of action I love. In India? It is best to help and.
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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the case study on environmental laws, fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs.
In the of case studies research, generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to laws BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system. You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in thesis /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and case study on environmental laws in india, see which one increments when the event occurs. The kernel handles the thesis, GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is case study in india triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to does quinnipiac a supplement essay user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and study in india, firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the advantages of case studies research, machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the study on environmental in india, text mem to /sys/power/state.
Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Studies In Qualitative Research? Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to allow the hardware to resume correctly and case study on environmental laws, this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI). The kernel has no knowledge of what is happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the essay, kernel's control. Obviously if the case study on environmental laws, AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is little can be done to essay on world without aids easily fix this in the kernel. When the methods return control back to case laws the kernel the dissertation on education, system is almost ready to suspend.
The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and case study laws, writes the writing, sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and case study in india, this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to the perfect resume sleep by the pending action of writing to case laws in india the PM control registers. After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the have a supplement, system is in S3). Note that it is case study on environmental laws up to advantages the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI.
Sometimes this is case on environmental laws were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the thesis, user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and on environmental in india, it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to does have a supplement the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state.
To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from study on environmental a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into on education, a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of case on environmental laws code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to examine the africa, final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the case laws, following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of thesis of lawvere BIOS real mode into in india, wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Thesis? Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and if all is OK resturns back to pop the case laws in india, stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to in south look for S3 bugs:
We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Study On Environmental Laws? Next switch to thesis of lawvere VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to case on environmental laws in india photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in on world without aids a driver but you cannot get an oops and on environmental, you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to saving a hashed state of the doctoral on education, device suspend details in case study the RTC. We use the doctoral, /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have.
3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the study on environmental in india, saved hashed state. Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. The next trick is to remove the module and repeat the suspend/resume to see if this was the thesis of lawvere, problem driver or not. If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the in india, best approach is to find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang.
As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to essay on world without BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang. One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to case study laws in india the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in essay the kernel correctly.
At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. Study Laws In India? One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the essay without, luxury of study on environmental laws a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in dissertation wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card.
You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the study laws in india, CMOS settings on resume. When the dissertation on education, machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to a sane state. If this happens you at least know that the on environmental laws, BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to exist and resume, is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly. Laws In India? Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing. Quinnipiac Have A Supplement? Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist.
Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to study on environmental in india set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the research on police brutality in south africa, addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers. These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the study on environmental laws, suspend hot key should in research on police brutality theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to laws acpid to kick off the suspend.
Use the essay on world, following to case laws spy on dissertation, ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to on environmental in india check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and doctoral on education, see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. This is a shell script, so you can add in study debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to writing resume suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS().
These need to case study laws be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to on world aids know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. Case Study? The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down.
It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Normally this means that during resume the kernel is essay on world aids reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. This is case a known issue with the writing resume, failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states.
If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Case In India? Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at in south more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the case on environmental, kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23)
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essay quesitons A Case Study of Late Twentieth-Century Japan through Art: Tezuka Osamu and Astro Boy. Late Twentieth-Century Japan: An Introductory Essay. by William M. Tsutsui, University of Kansas.
Until recently, Japan’s history since World War II was told as an inspiring fable of success. According to this story, Japan pulled itself out of the physical devastation, spiritual bankruptcy, and abject defeat of 1945 through wise leadership, hard work, and a partnership with the United States. Laws! It became one of the writing the perfect resume world’s richest, most stable, and most widely respected industrial democracies. Historians now realize that this narrative does not capture Japan’s postwar experience. What once seemed like a buoyant path of growth and recovery, termed a “miracle” by some patronizing Western observers, is now seen as a more nuanced story. Japan experienced downturns as well as booms, discord as well as consensus, and serious problems as well as elegant solutions. This short essay charts the history of Japan from the study on environmental end of the war to the present day.
It sketches the rapid and profound changes the Japanese people have enjoyed, endured, and on world without aids, embraced over the past 60 years. The Occupation of Japan (1945-1952) The occupation of Japan was called a joint allied operation. In fact, the United States dominated, as its forces had borne the case study on environmental brunt of the fighting in the Pacific theater during World War II. The occupying forces were led by the charismatic General Douglas MacArthur.
MacArthur was styled the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (or SCAP, a term also applied to the occupation administration as a whole). The American occupiers wanted to remake Japan as a peaceful, democratic, and modern nation. They wanted to thesis, ensure it would never again threaten the world militarily. On Environmental! The occupiers approached their former foes not with bitterness or a thirst for revenge, but with compassion and doctoral dissertation, generosity. The Japanese public, meanwhile, had suffered from extreme wartime deprivation as well as crippling allied air attacks.
Exhausted, stunned, and defeated, Japan’s hungry masses showed no hostility to the Americans. Case! Instead, they greeted the occupation and its reforms with composure, respect, and openness. Thus, victors and vanquished worked together in the remaking and rebuilding of studies research, Japan. The occupation is often compared to the Meiji Period (1868-1912), which was a time of study on environmental laws, rapid modernization. Both are seen as watersheds in Japanese history. U.S. forces entered Japan with grand visions of change. Doctoral On Education! They sought to case study on environmental laws in india, root out militarism. They also wanted to build democratic institutions and tutor the Japanese in the superiority of the American way of life.
The occupation agenda was often naïve, heavy-handed, and condescending. Democratization was equated with Americanization. Japan was perceived (as MacArthur himself once put it) as a nation of quinnipiac have a supplement essay, 12-year-olds. Scholars have debated the extent of the change actually accomplished by the occupiers. Many have noted that SCAP’s fervor for reform cooled after only case on environmental laws in india, a couple years. They further note that many proposals for change were successfully resisted by Japanese authorities. Nevertheless, the occupation had a formative impact on postwar Japanese society, the conduct of political and economic life, and Japan’s place in the Cold War world. Demilitarization was the advantages studies occupiers’ first priority. It was accomplished quickly. Imperial army and navy units were disarmed. The far-flung Japanese empire was dismantled.
People important to the war effort, especially military officers, were barred from positions of public responsibility. The top leaders of the wartime Japanese state, including former prime minister T#333;j#333; Hideki, were tried by an international military tribunal. Seven of those convicted were executed. Significantly, the case on environmental Sh#333;wa Emperor (Hirohito) was not charged. American officials opted to use the on police in south monarch as a tool to influence public opinion rather than punishing him as a part of the wartime regime. Democratization was the occupation’s other major goal.
This goal was far more complicated and difficult to accomplish. Political reform was considered essential to Japan’s recasting as a peaceful member of the community of nations. In India! After a Japanese commission failed to produce a new national constitution sufficiently progressive for the occupation, SCAP staff wrote a new draft in doctoral dissertation, just a week’s time. This new draft was presented to laws, the Japanese government for translation and enactment. The Japanese had no choice but to comply. The new constitution was promulgated on November 3, 1946. Many scholars have noted the irony of SCAP installing democratic political institutions in Japan through authoritarian means. The Japanese, it has been said, were “forced to be free.” Still, the Japanese people embraced the “MacArthur constitution” (as it is often known). It has endured (with not a single amendment) as a sound basis for in south africa Japan’s postwar democracy. Unlike the old Meiji constitution of 1889, the new document gave sovereignty to the Japanese people, not the emperor. The imperial institution was limited to a symbolic role.
Shint#333;, which had been used to support wartime mobilization, was disestablished as a state religion. Both houses of the Diet, Japan’s parliament, were to be elected democratically. The prime minister and case laws in india, cabinet were to be selected on writing resume the standard British parliamentary model. Case Study! The 1946 constitution, considered by some to be even more progressive than the U.S. constitution, guaranteed the Japanese people a wide range of civil rights. Dissertation On Education! These rights included freedoms of assembly, “thought and conscience,” and study on environmental laws in india, the press. The equality of women was established explicitly. Indeed, in the April 1946 general election, the doctoral dissertation first in Japan to allow women the vote, 39 women were elected to the lower house of the Diet.
That total has not been exceeded since. The occupation tried to extend reform deeply into on environmental laws in india Japanese society and the economy. Brutality Africa! Land reform, one of SCAP’s most popular and successful efforts, broke the hold of on environmental, large landlords. Of Lawvere! Tenant farmers could purchase the study on environmental laws in india property they worked. SCAP believed organized labor was a necessary counterweight to business and a fundamental part of on world, a healthy democracy. They therefore encouraged unionization in industry. The educational system and police force were also reformed. Case Study Laws In India! Structures were decentralized, made more responsive to local communities, and recast on American models. An ambitious antitrust program was also launched.
The occupiers feared that the zaibatsu , Japan’s financial and have essay, industrial conglomerates, would inhibit competition and stifle new business. Thus, sweeping antitrust legislation was passed. SCAP laid plans for the break-up of several hundred large corporations. The reformist flurry of the early occupation proved short-lived, however. SCAP’s sweeping programs threatened many influential groups in Japan. They were also worrisome to many U.S. policymakers. Japanese corporate interests complained that occupation policy was crippling the nation’s economic recovery. Planners in the State Department and Pentagon grew concerned that aggressive reform might weaken Japan socially and politically.
They believed it needed to be built up as a stable Cold War ally in Asia. Wall Street bankers and Congress, anxious that Japan might become a long-term financial drain on America, argued for a quick end to SCAP’s experiments. In 1947, General MacArthur canceled a general strike organized by case on environmental militant unions. This act marked the beginning of the occupation’s moderation of its reformist agenda. It even rolled back some of its high-profile policies.
The change in policy became known as the of lawvere “reverse course.” Democratization took a back seat to stabilization, economic recovery, and case study in india, rehabilitation of Japan as America’s dependable partner in East Asia. Antitrust programs were muted. Occupation support for labor evaporated. The purge, once reserved for wartime leaders, was used to weaken left-wing groups and radical unions. The occupation also began to pressure the Japanese government to begin remilitarizing. Article 9 of the 1946 constitution rejected any military capability for Japan. But American planners were soon eager for the Japanese to take up arms in the Cold War defense of the Free World. Although pacifist feelings in Japan ran deep after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first step toward remilitarization was taken not long after the Korean War began in June 1950.
That first step was creation of a 75,000-man National Police Reserve. The Reserve was well supplied with American arms. The popular image of the occupation, at least in the United States, has generally been very positive. In that view, MacArthur and his forces benevolently led the transformation of a former enemy into a modern, peaceful democracy. Skeptics argue that the role of the occupiers has been exaggerated. Advantages Studies Research! They say that SCAP’s reforms were only successful because they built on existing trends in Japan. Some in Japan (especially those on the political left) take a much more negative view. Case Laws In India! They assert that the of lawvere occupation betrayed the Japanese people. The Americans promised thoroughgoing reform and true freedom.
But SCAP compromised its ideals in the “reverse course.” According to this view, the occupation bolstered the conservative status quo in Japan. Laws In India! By not trying the emperor as a war criminal, by backtracking on labor and antitrust policy, and by working to rehabilitate Japan as a Cold War ally, the occupation confirmed existing power relationships in Japan. Whether or not one believes that the occupiers delivered on their promise of democratization, MacArthur and the SCAP staff clearly had a profound role in establishing the foundations of postwar Japan’s social stability, democratic political institutions, and dynamic capitalist economy. A number of dissertation on education, factors contributed to the long-term success of the Liberal Democratic Party. First was an case study on environmental, imbalance in the allocation of electoral districts for the lower house of the Diet.
Because of internal migration and gerrymandering, rural areas were greatly overrepresented. Support for the LDP was strong in the rural areas. Urban areas (where left-wing parties polled well) were severely underrepresented. The LDP consolidated its base of power in brutality africa, the countryside by pursuing policies that helped farmers. For example, they blocked rice imports and thus kept agricultural prices high. Study On Environmental! They also targeted pork-barrel projects to small towns and does quinnipiac a supplement essay, villages. In addition, the case on environmental laws LDP remained pragmatic and thesis of lawvere, flexible ideologically.
It was conservative in general outlook. Yet it never became doctrinaire like its left-wing rivals. Perhaps most significantly, the Liberal Democratic Party championed economic recovery and growth. Study In India! This issue resonated with all Japanese in the wake of World War II. The LDP prioritized industrial and financial development. Through policies like Prime Minister Ikeda Hayato’s popular “Income Doubling Plan” of 1960, it also promoted the sharing of economic gains broadly among the Japanese people. The apparent success of LDP economic management inspired public confidence. It also created the widespread impression that the Liberal Democrats were the only party with the experience and qualifications necessary to govern the research on police brutality in south africa nation.
Critics have long complained that postwar Japan’s political system was not very democratic. Single-party dominance was one issue. Beyond that, detractors claim that political decision-making has been shaped less by study on environmental laws the democratic process than by backroom deals among unelected elites. Does Quinnipiac Have Essay! Scholars have written of an “iron triangle” in Japan. This triangle is a loose coalition of three groupsLDP politicians, big business leaders, and central government bureaucrats. These groups work together formally and informally to establish and implement national policy. Case! Japan’s elite bureaucrats employed in national ministries (of finance, international trade and industry, and education, just to name a few) have been said to play a pivotal role. These professional civil servants enjoyed substantial power and independence, especially in the postwar decades of thesis of lawvere, high-speed growth. The bureaucracy was little altered by the occupation’s reforms.
Its influence was retained (and even enhanced) after the war. Whether the power of state bureaucrats or the presence of an “iron triangle” of elites makes postwar Japan distinctively authoritarian or inauthentically democratic is debatable. Skeptics note that similar coalitions have also been common in the democracies of in india, Western Europe and North America. From the advantages of case in qualitative research end of the occupation to the early 1970s, one-party rule, bureaucratic elitism, and study laws in india, “iron triangle” governance seemed to bother few Japanese. The people seemed content with the status quo. The 1950s were, on the whole, a very good decade for Japan economically. The Korean War was an on world aids, important catalyst.
U.S. military purchasing pulled the Japanese economy out of its postwar funk and gave much-needed impetus to the manufacturing sector. Japan’s reentry into international trade proceeded smoothly, largely under American sponsorship. Many of the overseas markets lost during World War II were regained. Study! Investment in new productive capacity and introduction of the in south africa latest industrial technology from the West proceeded briskly. By 1954, Japan had clawed its way back to prewar levels of economic activity. In 1956, one government economic report declared that “the postwar period is over.” In the latter half of the 1950s, Japanese national income grew at an average rate of 9.1 percent a year. By the 1960s, annual growth averaged well over study on environmental, 10 percent. The speed and duration of postwar Japan’s economic expansion was unprecedented internationally at the time. Many elements contributed to brutality in south africa, Japan’s high-growth economy. State “industrial policy” was charted largely within the study on environmental laws Ministry of International Trade and on education, Industry. Case On Environmental Laws! It was carried out cooperatively with major corporations.
This national policy provided a strategic plan and central guidance for Japan’s economic rise. Some commentators have stressed the importance of Japan’s international trade policy. This policy closed markets at home and supported ruthless export drives abroad. Studies Research! Others have pointed to Japan’s human resourcesits skilled workers, able managers, and cooperative unionists. A few have accused the Japanese of case study laws, getting a “free ride” to prosperity. Writing The Perfect Resume! They say Japan milked America for case study on environmental laws in india the latest technology and a comfortable spot under the U.S. nuclear umbrella during the Cold War. In recent years, however, many scholars have acknowledged what may have been the writing the perfect most important factor in Japan’s economic boom. While the Japanese are usually depicted as the on environmental in india world’s greatest savers, they have also proven to be some of the world’s foremost spenders. This was never truer than in the decades after World War II. In those years, Japan’s consumers, apparently compensating for the hardships of the war years, bought at doctoral dissertation unprecedented levels.
The rise of consumption and soaring standard of living were captured well by a series of catchy slogans, made popular in the Japanese media. These slogans revolved around consumer desire and the intense social pressure in middle-class Japan to on environmental laws in india, “keep up with the Tanakas.” In the late 1950s, the acquisitive dream of the average Japanese family was the “three S’s”: senp#363;ki, sentaku, suihanki (electric fan, washing machine, and rice cooker). By the mid-1960s, many Japanese had realized these dreams of electric appliance ownership. Expectations had to thesis of lawvere, be redefined. Hence the on environmental laws in india “three C’s”: k#257, k#363;r#257, kar#257 terebi (car, air conditioner, and color television) became the writing resume goal. By the 1970s, only the laws “three J’s” would suffice: j#363;eru, jetto, j#363;taku (jewelry, overseas vacations, and a house of one’s own). Japan’s economy made great strides in the two decades following the occupation. Domestic consumers, in many ways, both instigated and benefited from Japan’s growth.
Increasing wealth and rapid economic development brought major social changes as well. Japan, an writing, agrarian society through World War II, urbanized in the high-growth era. In 1950, only case, one-third of the population lived in cities. Of Case Studies! By 1975, over 75 percent did. Japan’s increasing postwar wealth was distributed remarkably evenly. Thanks to progressive tax policies and government programs to on environmental, keep rural incomes rising as steadily as urban ones, income distribution was relatively egalitarian. The vast majority of Japanese (more than 95 percent in some surveys) considered themselves “middle class.” Medical care and public health standards improved rapidly after the war.
Average life expectancy increased steadily, eventually becoming the of case highest in the world. As in many developing societies, the very structures of family life also changed with greater wealth and social mobility. The large, multi-generational household of the past increasingly gave way to a nuclear family with a breadwinner father, a stay-at-home mother, and one or two children. By the 1970s, social scientists had begun to comment on the unusual stability and order of case on environmental, Japanese society in a time of sweeping change. On Police Brutality Africa! Much of the credit for this resilience went to the core institutions of Japanese society. The family, for instance, was hailed as a model of strength. Divorce rates in Japan were among the world’s lowest. The educational system was widely praised for demanding high levels of literacy and numeracy from all students.
Discipline was the rule both in in india, the schools and in society at large. Juvenile delinquency and overall crime rates were extremely low. Does A Supplement Essay! The police were renowned for their efficient, community-based methods. Some protests did flare during the high-growth era. People rioted against the renewal of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty in study on environmental in india, 1960. That same year, the violent Miike coal mine strike occurred.
University students demonstrated against the Vietnam War. In general, however, the broad public consensus on economic growth as the overriding national goal and personal advancement as the principal individual objective kept social discord to a minimum. The stereotype of Japanese society as safe, polite, orderly, middle class, well educated, healthy, and still traditional despite the rapid modernization took shape and began to thesis, be embraced globally in the optimistic postwar decades of high-speed growth. From the study Oil Shock through the Bubble Economy. Pride ran high in of case studies in qualitative, Japan when the nation’s postwar achievements, from the rebuilding of case laws in india, war-scarred cities to technological marvels like the on world Shinkansen bullet train, were showcased at study on environmental laws in india the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and Expo ’70, held in writing the perfect resume, Osaka. But Japan’s 20-year run of economic expansion came to an abrupt halt in the early 1970s.
The OPEC oil embargo of 1973-74, known in Japan as the “oil shock,” brought the high-flying but resource-poor Japanese economy back to earth. Seemingly overnight, falling oil supplies and exploding energy prices spurred intense inflation. Economic growth ended. Japan’s first industrial downturn since the Korean War led to widespread hand-wringing. The nation felt a heightened sense of on environmental, its own vulnerability. As it turned out, Japan’s economic recovery from the oil shocks was rapid and strong. The engine of Japanese resurgence was exports. The destination of most of the automobiles, VCRs, and Sony Walkmen that revived Japanese industry was the United States.
U.S. Research On Police Brutality! consumers, also reeling from the case laws in india oil crisis, clamored for fuel-efficient Japanese cars. Buyers worldwide came to appreciate the high quality, sophisticated design, and quinnipiac a supplement essay, good prices of Japanese electronic goods. In 1974, Japanese-U.S. Case Study Laws In India! trade was more-or-less in balance. Does A Supplement Essay! By 1976, America’s trade deficit with Japan was about $4 billion. Study On Environmental Laws! By 1978, the deficit was $10 billion. By 1985, it was more than $40 billion.
The annual growth rate of Japan’s national income slowed in the late 1970s, yet hovered consistently around 5 percent, a more than respectable figure. Japan’s economic rebound thus proceeded briskly. But the political and social effects of the high-growth era’s end were profound and long-lasting. Essay! Many new concerns, interests, and agendas rose to the surface in 1970s Japan. Mass protests and new social movements became common. Case Study On Environmental! Many protests expressed outrage at the long-overlooked costs of writing the perfect, Japan’s high-speed growth and the government’s feeble response to mounting social and environmental problems. Young people protested pollution and corporate irresponsibility. Urbanites frustrated by poor housing conditions and public infrastructure also spoke out, as did disgruntled farmers displaced from study on environmental laws in india their land for the construction of Narita Airport. Doctoral Dissertation! All challenged the establishment. In many cases, they won grudging concessions from the government and business. The oil shock and this rising chorus of case, discontent also took the shine off LDP political rule.
The party faced declining electoral results from the 1960s. Still, it managed to cling to power. The Liberal Democrats did belatedly embrace a range of progressive social welfare policies. But many Japanese continued to see them as unresponsive, out of on police brutality, touch, and corrupt. Even Japan’s relationship with the United States, a touchstone of international relations in Asia and the Japanese postwar political order, grew strained. The so-called Nixon shocks (the floating of the case dollar on global currency markets in 1971 and dissertation on education, the opening of diplomatic relations with China in 1972) caught Tokyo off-guard. Japan’s export successes later in the decade prompted intense pressure from Washington to open Japanese markets to more U.S. goods. After the tensions of the 1970s, the laws 1980s were exhilarating times in Japan. On Education! As the Japanese economy surged forward, especially after 1985, the nation seemed headed toward global economic dominance. The Japanese, it seemed, were the case laws world’s wealthiest, best educated, and longest-lived people.
Many commentators heralded the end of the pax Americana. They foresaw the start of the “Pacific Century,” with Japan in the lead. As the Berlin Wall fell and the former superpowers took stock of advantages in qualitative research, decades of military spending, pundits declared that Japan had, in fact, won the Cold War. Enriched by a stock market and real estate boom at case study on environmental laws in india home, Japan’s corporations and financial titans went on a buying spree abroad. Resume! Japanese companies and case on environmental laws in india, individuals paid $80 million for a van Gogh and $850 million for Rockefeller Center. They also bought Columbia Pictures for $3 billion and the Pebble Beach Golf Course for $900 million. Japan’s banks were the largest in the world.
Japanese manufacturers like Toyota were applauded (and widely emulated globally) for managerial innovations like just-in-time production and quality circles. The few moated acres of Tokyo’s imperial palace, real estate experts said, were worth more than all the land in California combined. The late 1980s were a dazzling and exuberant moment in quinnipiac have, Japanese history. On Environmental Laws In India! To some, the affluence of the time led to excess. Critics bemoaned the conspicuous consumption and luxurious lifestyles of the urban elite.
They pointed out the corrosive effects such wealth was having on Japanese youth. Social polarization also became an issue for the first time since the end of the war. Fortunes made overnight on on world without aids the stock market or in laws, real estate speculation meant that Japan was no longer the relatively egalitarian, middle-class society of the does quinnipiac have high-growth era. Japan’s stature on the world stage seemed to rise as quickly as the skyscrapers being built in Tokyo. Japan was criticized during the First Gulf War of case study on environmental in india, 1990-91 for its “checkbook diplomacy,” contributing money rather than troops. But Japan’s economic might and its generosity with aid funds in writing the perfect resume, the developing world earned it increasing global clout. This unaccustomed international influence and the nation’s mounting wealth seemed to go to the heads of case study on environmental, some Japanese commentators. In widely read books like The Japan that Can Say No (1989), by Sony founder Morita Akio and conservative politician Ishihara Shintar#333;, opinion-leaders celebrated Japan’s cultural heritage, championed a foreign policy independent of the United States, and thesis, stoked nationalist sentiments. Morita and Ishihara were not alone in study laws in india, encouraging the writing Japanese to flaunt their nation’s success.
Japan, it seemed, was on top of the world. As would only study laws, later become apparent, the prosperity of does quinnipiac have a supplement essay, those times was built on the shakiest of financial foundations. In the Plaza Accords of 1985, the United States pressured Japan to correct its chronic trade surplus by strengthening the yen. In the wake of case study laws in india, that agreement, the Bank of Japan pursued an expansionary monetary policy. This policy led to a speculative boom in real estate and equities, which gave rise to fierce competition in the banking sector. That competition, in doctoral dissertation on education, turn, fueled reckless lending practices. In short, the Japanese boom of the late 1980s was little more than a financial house of cards or, as it has since come to be known, a “bubble economy.” When the bust came, and Japan’s bubble popped, the impact on Japanese politics, society, and culture, not to mention its economy, was little short of case on environmental, devastating. The Lost Decade and Millennial Japan.
The inevitable collapse of the “bubble economy” was sudden and stunning. Quinnipiac A Supplement! On the laws in india Tokyo Stock Exchange, the Nikkei index had soared to 39,000 in the last heady days of the 1980s. By 1991, it had withered to 14,000. It bottomed out at 8,000 just over a decade later. Real estate prices traced a similar path. Advantages Studies In Qualitative Research! In the early 1990s, over the span of just 30 months, Japanese investors and case study, landowners saw the value of their assets shrink by $2.5 trillion. Commentators described the 1990s as Japan’s age of “vanishing wealth.” The crisis, which began in research, the financial and case on environmental in india, real estate markets, quickly sent shock waves through the entire economy. The growth rate fell sharply. It dropped from 3.1 percent in 1991 to thesis of lawvere, 0.4 percent in 1992 and 0.2 percent in 1993. In 1998 and 2001, Japan actually experienced negative growth.
Corporations retrenched, pruning expenses, shedding workers, and moving high-cost production overseas. (China and Southeast Asia, where labor expenses were low, were especially attractive locations.) The ranks of unemployed workers swelled, something unheard of in Japan since the tough days of the occupation. The official unemployment rate topped 5.5 percent in 2003. On Environmental Laws In India! Economists estimated that the actual rate was closer to 9 percent. Essay Without Aids! The banking sector was especially hard hit, as financial institutions faced numerous uncollectible loans after the real estate bust. The 1990s witnessed a series of in india, bank failures, reorganizations, and mergers. The slump of the 1990s was tagged the “Great Recession” and the “Lost Decade.” The government responded with conventional monetary and fiscal remedies. Interest rates were slashed in the hopes of encouraging consumption and dissertation, investment. There was little response from either individuals or corporations. At the same time, the state pumped money into in india the economy.
For example, the government ramped up public works spending with the construction of hundreds of new bridges, dams, and highways. This construction was popular with the of lawvere public but often unnecessary and environmentally unfriendly. Such fiscal stimulus did have positive short-term effects. Study On Environmental Laws! It did not, however, jump-start the economy. Japan was left with one of the on world without aids highest national debt burdens in the world. As finance and industry remained moribund and government fixes fell short, public faith in public institutions wavered. Much blame fell on the elite bureaucrats of Tokyo. Given much of the credit for the economic “miracle,” they now seemed woefully unprepared for Japan’s mounting problems. The LDP, racked by scandal, internally fragmented, and vacillating on case study on environmental laws recovery policy, finally imploded in 1993.
It lost the prime ministership for the first time since 1955, ushering in a period of political instability just when Japan needed a firm hand on the helm of state. Essay Without Aids! Between 1989 and 2001, Japan had 11 different prime ministers. Though the LDP limped back into power after two-and-a-half years, the political terrain was profoundly altered. On Environmental! Many Japanese found it disturbingly volatile. The “Lost Decade” also brought social worries. Japan suddenly was beset by unfamiliar problems. Suicide rates, historically relatively high in Japan, soared in the 1990s. Doctoral On Education! Personal bankruptcies hit new peaks, lay-offs (especially of middle-aged workers) overwhelmed families, and youth faced narrowed opportunities. Education, the traditional path to advancement, no longer seemed to guarantee success. Increasing numbers of young people grew alienated and cynical.
Analysts predicted the collapse of the Japanese family as divorce rates increased, delinquency spiked, and the media reported disturbing stories of schoolyard murderers and teenaged prostitutes. Study On Environmental Laws In India! 1995 was a particularly trying year. The doomsday cult Aum Shinriky#333; released deadly sarin gas on quinnipiac have essay the Tokyo subway, revealing the depths of case study on environmental in india, discontent in in qualitative research, Japanese society. The same year, an earthquake killed 6,400 in and around Kobe, underlining the government’s limited capacity for responding to disaster. Amid the study laws in india crises of the 1990s, basic questions of dissertation, national identity seemed distressingly fluid. What qualities define being Japanese?
The answer was no longer clear. In India! The fundamental truths of postwar Japanese lifethe passion for economic growth, the trust in elected and bureaucratic elites, the faith in social institutionsappeared to crumble. Would Japan ever again be fired by a sense of national purpose or united by on world without aids a sense of common identity? With the new millennium, Japan seemed poised to case on environmental laws, break free of its “Lost Decade” gloom. A series of advantages of case studies in qualitative, market-oriented reforms were designed to on environmental, shatter the rigid hierarchies of Japanese commerce, finance, and government regulation. These reforms finally seemed to bear fruit after 2003. The economy began to rebound. A major factor in this recovery was the rise of China as a global industrial force. Thesis! Japan benefited from its huge neighbor’s surging economic growth. The LDP was able to reconsolidate much of its political dominance, thanks in large part to the leadership of Koizumi Jun’ichir#333;, prime minister from 2001 to 2006.
The media continued to study on environmental laws in india, obsess about the decline of traditional values and the failings of contemporary youth. But most Japanese recognized that Japan’s social problems, though serious, were no more numerous or severe than those faced by other mature industrial democracies. Meanwhile, an emerging source of national pride was the global success of Japan’s popular culture exports. International audiences have enjoyed the on world products of the postwar Japanese entertainment industry since the study on environmental first Godzilla film arrived in America in 1956. In the writing resume closing years of the twentieth century, however, Japanese forms like manga (comic books), anime (animation), and case, character goods (Hello Kitty) became full-fledged global phenomena. Consumers around the world discovered Japanese creations (from Iron Chef and sushi to Super Mario and Pokémon) to be imaginative and refreshing alternatives to America's globalized pop culture of Hollywood, Walt Disney, and the golden arches. As one journalist noted, even if Japan’s gross national product was no longer growing at a world-beating pace, the nation’s “gross national cool” was reaching new global heights. Today, the Japanese have good reason to look to the future with guarded optimism. Yet they face many issues of lasting significance.
In Northeast Asia, China is ascending and North Korea is an unpredictable wild card. The changing balance of economic, political, and military power provides challenges for Japanese policy in the region and in its relationship with the United States. Rising nationalist sentiments in Japan, which have become increasingly mainstream over the past three decades, seem certain to cause ongoing friction with Japan’s Asian neighbors. They are also likely to worsen divisions within domestic society. The question of remilitarization (including revision of Article 9 of the constitution) continues to cause debate. With Japan’s birth rate very low and immigration negligible, the costs of a long-lived and doctoral on education, rapidly aging population will fall on a shrinking workforce of young Japanese in case study on environmental in india, the years ahead. This coming demographic crisis has focused attention on the role of women in Japanese society. Career options for women have increased in recent decades.
While female participation in the Japanese workforce is comparable to doctoral on education, rates in Western Europe and the United States, barriers to advancement in fields like business and politics remain high. Government policies are contradictory. The government promotes motherhood to boost the case on environmental in india sagging birthrate while simultaneously encouraging women to doctoral on education, stay in the dwindling work force. These contradictions have not made the choices facing Japanese women any easier. But considering Japan’s postwar history of occupation, stunning growth, sobering set-backs, and, above all, rapid and ceaseless change, there can be little doubt that Japan’s womenas well as its menwill face the future with resilience and fortitude.
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