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armenian resume The first genocide of the 20th Century occurred when two million Armenians living in Turkey were eliminated from their historic homeland through forced deportations and massacres. For three thousand years, a thriving Armenian community had existed inside the vast region of the Middle East bordered by the Black, Mediterranean and Caspian Seas. The area, known as Asia Minor, stands at the crossroads of three continents; Europe, Asia and resume book, Africa. How To Write A Thesis Statement On A Person! Great powers rose and fell over the many centuries and berkeley book, the Armenian homeland was at various times ruled by essay, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs and Mongols. Berkeley! Despite the repeated invasions and occupations, Armenian pride and essay outlines, cultural identity never wavered.

The snow-capped peak of Mount Ararat became its focal point and by 600 BC Armenia as a nation sprang into being. Following the advent of Christianity, Armenia became the very first nation to accept it as the state religion. A golden era of peace and prosperity followed which saw the book invention of a distinct alphabet, a flourishing of literature, art, commerce, and a unique style of architecture. By the 10th century, Armenians had established a new capital at Ani, affectionately called the 'city of a thousand and one churches.' In the eleventh century, the first Turkish invasion of the Armenian homeland occurred. Thus began several hundred years of rule by Muslim Turks. By the sixteenth century, Armenia had been absorbed into the vast and mighty Ottoman Empire. At its peak, this Turkish empire included much of Southeast Europe, North Africa, and almost all of the not mad essay Middle East.

But by the 1800s the once powerful Ottoman Empire was in serious decline. For centuries, it had spurned technological and berkeley resume book, economic progress, while the nations of Europe had embraced innovation and became industrial giants. Turkish armies had once been virtually invincible. Now, they lost battle after battle to modern European armies. Essay Type! As the empire gradually disintegrated, formerly subject peoples including the berkeley resume book Greeks, Serbs and Romanians achieved their long-awaited independence. Only the Armenians and the Arabs of the Middle East remained stuck in the backward and nearly bankrupt empire, now under the autocratic rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid. By the 1890s, young Armenians began to press for political reforms, calling for a constitutional government, the right to vote and craters, an end to discriminatory practices such as special taxes levied solely against them because they were Christians. Resume Book! The despotic Sultan responded to their pleas with brutal persecutions.

Between 1894 and 1896 over masters writing, 100,000 inhabitants of book, Armenian villages were massacred during widespread pogroms conducted by the Sultan's special regiments. Write A Thesis Statement Research Paper On A! But the Sultan's days were numbered. In July 1908, reform-minded Turkish nationalists known as Young Turks forced the Sultan to berkeley resume, allow a constitutional government and guarantee basic rights. The Young Turks were ambitious junior officers in the Turkish Army who hoped to halt their country's steady decline. Armenians in Turkey were delighted with this sudden turn of events and its prospects for a brighter future. Jubilant public rallies were held attended by both Turks and not mad essay, Armenians with banners held high calling for freedom, equality and justice. However, their hopes were dashed when three of the resume book Young Turks seized full control of the government via a coup in 1913. This triumvirate of Young Turks, consisting of Mehmed Talaat, Ismail Enver and Ahmed Djemal, came to wield dictatorial powers and concocted their own ambitious plans for the future of Turkey. Data! They wanted to unite all of the berkeley resume Turkic peoples in the entire region while expanding the borders of Turkey eastward across the Caucasus all the way into Central Asia. This would create a new Turkish empire, a great and eternal land called Turan with one language and one religion.

But there was a big problem. The traditional historic homeland of Armenia lay right in the path of their plans to expand eastward. And on that land was a large population of Christian Armenians totaling some two million persons, making up about 10 percent of Turkey's overall population. Along with the Young Turk's newfound Turanism there was a dramatic rise in Islamic fundamentalist agitation throughout Turkey. Christian Armenians were once again branded as infidels (non-believers in Islam). Anti-Armenian demonstrations were staged by young Islamic extremists, sometimes leading to violence. During one such outbreak in 1909, two hundred villages were plundered and over 30,000 persons massacred in the Cilicia district on sentence the Mediterranean coast. Throughout Turkey, sporadic local attacks against Armenians continued unchecked over the next several years.

There were also big cultural differences between Armenians and Turks. The Armenians had always been one of the berkeley resume book best educated communities within the old Turkish empire. Armenians were the in creative professionals in society, the businessmen, lawyers, doctors and skilled craftsmen. And they were more open to new scientific, political and social ideas from the West (Europe and book, America). Children of wealthy Armenians went to Paris, Geneva or even to America to complete their education. By contrast, the majority of Turks were illiterate peasant farmers and small shop keepers. Leaders of the Ottoman Empire had traditionally placed little value on education and not a single institute of higher learning could be found within their old empire.

The various autocratic and despotic rulers throughout the empire's history had valued loyalty and blind obedience above all. Physics Secondary! Their uneducated subjects had never heard of democracy or liberalism and thus had no inclination toward political reform. But this was not the case with the better educated Armenians who sought political and social reforms that would improve life for themselves and Turkey's other minorities. The Young Turks decided to glorify the virtues of simple Turkish peasantry at the expense of the Armenians in order to capture peasant loyalty. They exploited the religious, cultural, economic and political differences between Turks and Armenians so that the average Turk came to resume, regard Armenians as strangers among them. When World War I broke out in online in creative 1914, leaders of the Young Turk regime sided with the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). The outbreak of war would provide the perfect opportunity to berkeley resume, solve the Armenian question once and for all. The world's attention became fixed upon the battlegrounds of France and Belgium where the data young men of Europe were soon falling dead by the hundreds of thousands.

The Eastern Front eventually included the berkeley resume border between Turkey and online in creative, Russia. With war at hand, unusual measures involving the civilian population would not seem too out of the ordinary. As a prelude to berkeley book, the coming action, Turks disarmed the entire Armenian population under the essay outlines pretext that the people were naturally sympathetic toward Christian Russia. Every last rifle and pistol was forcibly seized, with severe penalties for anyone who failed to turn in a weapon. Quite a few Armenian men actually purchased a weapon from resume, local Turks or Kurds (nomadic Muslim tribesmen) at very high prices so they would have something to turn in.

At this time, about forty thousand Armenian men were serving in hamlet essay the Turkish Army. In the fall and winter of berkeley, 1914, all of their weapons were confiscated and they were put into topics slave labor battalions building roads or were used as human pack animals. Under the brutal work conditions they suffered a very high death rate. Those who survived would soon be shot outright. For the time had come to move against the Armenians. The decision to annihilate the entire population came directly from the ruling triumvirate of ultra-nationalist Young Turks.

The actual extermination orders were transmitted in coded telegrams to berkeley, all provincial governors throughout Turkey. Armed roundups began on the evening of April 24, 1915, as 300 Armenian political leaders, educators, writers, clergy and dignitaries in Constantinople (present day Istanbul) were taken from how to for a person, their homes, briefly jailed and tortured, then hanged or shot. Next, there were mass arrests of Armenian men throughout the country by Turkish soldiers, police agents and bands of Turkish volunteers. The men were tied together with ropes in small groups then taken to the outskirts of resume book, their town and shot dead or bayoneted by christianity, death squads. Local Turks and Kurds armed with knives and berkeley book, sticks often joined in on the killing. Then it was the turn of sentence type, Armenian women, children, and the elderly. On very short notice, they were ordered to pack a few belongings and be ready to leave home, under the pretext that they were being relocated to a non-military zone for their own safety. They were actually being taken on resume book death marches heading south toward the Syrian desert. Most of the homes and villages left behind by between christianity essay, the rousted Armenians were quickly occupied by Muslim Turks who assumed instant ownership of everything. In many cases, young Armenian children were spared from deportation by local Turks who took them from their families.

The children were coerced into denouncing Christianity and becoming Muslims, and were then given new Turkish names. For Armenian boys the forced conversion meant they each had to resume, endure painful circumcision as required by Islamic custom. Essay! Individual caravans consisting of berkeley book, thousands of deported Armenians were escorted by Turkish gendarmes. These guards allowed roving government units of hardened criminals known as the masters Special Organization to berkeley book, attack the essay defenseless people, killing anyone they pleased. They also encouraged Kurdish bandits to raid the caravans and steal anything they wanted. In addition, an extraordinary amount of sexual abuse and berkeley resume book, rape of girls and young women occurred at the hands of the Special Organization and Kurdish bandits. Most of the essay topics attractive young females were kidnapped for a life of involuntary servitude. The death marches, involving over a million Armenians, covered hundreds of miles and resume book, lasted months. Indirect routes through mountains and wilderness areas were deliberately chosen in order to prolong the ordeal and to keep the write statement for a paper on a caravans away from Turkish villages.

Food supplies being carried by the people quickly ran out and berkeley resume book, they were usually denied further food or water. Anyone stopping to masters writing, rest or lagging behind the caravan was mercilessly beaten until they rejoined the berkeley resume book march. If they couldn't continue they were shot. Not Mad Essay! A common practice was to berkeley book, force all of the people in the caravan to remove every stitch of design essay, clothing and have them resume the march in the nude under the scorching sun until they dropped dead by the roadside from exhaustion and dehydration. Berkeley! An estimated 75 percent of the how to write statement for a research on a Armenians on these marches perished, especially children and the elderly. Those who survived the ordeal were herded into the desert without a drop of water. Book! Others were killed by being thrown off cliffs, burned alive, or drowned in rivers. The Turkish countryside became littered with decomposing corpses. At one point, Mehmed Talaat responded to the problem by sending a coded message to all provincial leaders: I have been advised that in certain areas unburied corpses are still to be seen. I ask you to issue the type outlines strictest instructions so that the corpses and their debris in your vilayet are buried. But his instructions were generally ignored.

Those involved in the mass murder showed little interest in stopping to dig graves. The roadside corpses and emaciated deportees were a shocking sight to foreigners working in Turkey. Eyewitnesses included German government liaisons, American missionaries, and U.S. diplomats stationed in the country. The Christian missionaries were often threatened with death themselves and were unable to help the people. Resume Book! Diplomats from the still neutral United States communicated their blunt assessments of the ongoing government actions. U.S. Sentence Type! ambassador to Turkey, Henry Morgenthau, reported to Washington: When the berkeley resume book Turkish authorities gave the orders for these deportations, they were merely giving the death warrant to a whole race. The Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia) responded to news of the massacres by issuing a warning to Turkey: . the hamlet Allied governments announce publicly. that they will hold all the members of the Ottoman Government, as well as such of their agents as are implicated, personally responsible for such matters.

The warning had no effect. Newspapers in resume the West including the design essay New York Times published reports of the continuing deportations with the headlines: Armenians Are Sent to Perish in berkeley resume book the Desert - Turks Accused of topics, Plan to Exterminate Whole Population (August 18, 1915) - Million Armenians Killed or in Exile - American Committee on Relief Says Victims of Turks Are Steadily Increasing - Policy of Extermination (December 15, 1915). Temporary relief for some Armenians came as Russian troops attacked along the Eastern Front and made their way into central Turkey. But the troops withdrew in 1917 upon the Russian Revolution. Armenian survivors withdrew along with them and settled in berkeley book among fellow Armenians already living in in creative writing provinces of the former Russian Empire. There were in total about berkeley, 500,000 Armenians gathered in this region. In May 1918, Turkish armies attacked the area to achieve the goal of expanding Turkey eastward into the Caucasus and also to resume the how to a thesis statement for a research paper annihilation of the Armenians. As many as 100,000 Armenians may have fallen victim to the advancing Turkish troops. However, the Armenians managed to acquire weapons and they fought back, finally repelling the Turkish invasion at resume, the battle of online, Sadarabad, thus saving the remaining population from total extermination with no help from the outside world. Following that victory, Armenian leaders declared the establishment of the independent Republic of Armenia. Berkeley Resume! World War I ended in November 1918 with a defeat for Germany and the Central Powers including Turkey.

Shortly before the war had ended, the Young Turk triumvirate; Talaat, Enver and Djemal, abruptly resigned their government posts and fled to Germany where they had been offered asylum. In the hamlet months that followed, repeated requests were made by Turkey's new moderate government and the Allies asking Germany to send the Young Turks back home to stand trial. However all such requests were turned down. As a result, Armenian activists took matters into their own hands, located the Young Turks and assassinated them along with two other instigators of the mass murder. Meanwhile, representatives from the fledgling Republic of Armenia attended the Paris Peace Conference in the hope that the victorious Allies would give them back their historic lands seized by Turkey. The European Allies responded to their request by asked the United States to resume book, assume guardianship of the new Republic.

However, President Woodrow Wilson's attempt to essay type, make Armenia an official U.S. protectorate was rejected by the U.S. Congress in May 1920. But Wilson did not give up on Armenia. As a result of his efforts, the Treaty of book, Sevres was signed on August 10, 1920, by the Allied Powers, the Republic of Armenia and essay topics, the new moderate leaders of Turkey. The treaty recognized an independent Armenian state in an area comprising much of the former historic homeland. However, Turkish nationalism once again reared its head. The moderate Turkish leaders who signed the treaty were ousted in berkeley resume favor of differences christianity, a new nationalist leader, Mustafa Kemal, who simply refused to accept the treaty and even re-occupied the very lands in resume question then expelled any surviving Armenians, including thousands of orphans.

No Allied power came to the aid of the craters Armenian Republic and it collapsed. Only a tiny portion of the easternmost area of historic Armenia survived by being becoming part of the Soviet Union. After the resume book successful obliteration of the people of historic Armenia, the Turks demolished any remnants of Armenian cultural heritage including priceless masterpieces of ancient architecture, old libraries and differences christianity, archives. The Turks even leveled entire cities such as the once thriving Kharpert, Van and the ancient capital at Ani, to remove all traces of the three thousand year old civilization. The half-hearted reaction of the world's great powers to the plight of the Armenians was duly noted by the young German politician Adolf Hitler.

After achieving total power in Germany, Hitler decided to conquer Poland in 1939 and told his generals: Thus for the time being I have sent to the East only my 'Death's Head Units' with the orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language. Resume Book! Only in such a way will we win the vital space that we need. Who still talks nowadays about the Armenians? Copyright 2000 The History Place#153; All Rights Reserved. Terms of use: Private home/school non-commercial, non-Internet re-usage only is allowed of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials from The History Place.

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Roanoke Island: The Lost Colony Essay Sample. Of the countless words written about the beginnings of English America, perhaps none carries more of book a story as these three letters: CRO. Not even a word, this syllable, this fragment, carved into a tree that stood in front of the abandoned English fort at Roanoke, encapsulates the legend of the Lost Colony. When John White returned to Roanoke in 1590 in the hopes of relieving, rescuing, or rejoining the colony he had left there three years earlier, he found all one hundred and ten people gone and the cryptic message left behind. The whole existence of the colony — its population, its habitation, its history — were condensed into essay sentence outlines, a “secret token”: CRO. And yet John White believed this was a history he could read. In his narrative of these events, published by Richard Hakluyt in book his Principal Navigation of 1600, he describes why: …upon a tree, in the very browe thereof were curiously carved there faire Romane letters CRO: … A secret token agreed upon between them and me at physics coursework craters secondary data my last departure from then… [to] write or carve on the trees or posts of the dores the name of the place where they should be seated….If they should happen to be distressed in any of those places, that then they should carve over the letters of the name a Crosse in this forme, but we found no such sign of distress. Berkeley Book! (Hakluyt, 1600)

The story of the Lost Colony has the earmarks of a myth: recurrence, plasticity, and indeterminacy. The narrative has been repeated in different genres, and reworked toward different ends, from 1590 till the present time. The story can shrink and grow, from the dense encoding of a three-letter engraving to the endless dispersal of speculation upon what might have come before or after the physics coursework craters secondary data making of that mark. This narrative elasticity is linked to the story’s failure to conclude. As an unsolved mystery, it both invites elaboration and forbids closure, and thus remains available as a cultural medium.

This research offers a genealogy of the Lost Colony. This entails reconstructing events from White’s success in finding the island of Roanoke in 1587 to his failed rescue mission in 1590. The story of Roanoke began in 1587 when John White led a group of English colonists to plant permanent and self-perpetuating English settlement in North America. The plan for the City of Raleigh, as the settlement was to be known, differed from earlier English attempts in several important ways. The first difference was demographic. This group was largely comprised of civilians and not soldiers, and of families and not individual young men sent out on tours of duty as with Grenville’s group. It was to be a community rather than a military outpost. The second difference was its destination. The colony was headed for the richer lands and deeper ports of the Chesapeake Bay, and not for the storm-ridden and dangerous shoals of the Outer Banks that had proven all but fatal to English ships and, consequently, to the interests of English investors. The third difference was its economic base.

The colony would sustain itself agriculturally while producing goods for English markets, instead of relying on English supply ships while settings its sights on privateering or the berkeley book discovery of gold. A fourth difference was in its administration. The colonists were part of a corporation, and as such were granted status, land, and essay sentence a form of self-governance. Book! They thus held personal interest, responsibility, and physics craters secondary data advantage in the success of their colony. All of these changes were intentional, meant to repair the berkeley book damage that had been done to the prospects for Virginia by earlier ventures.

By all rights, things should have turned out very differently. Culturally and historically, the “mysteries” of the lost colony get played out in differences between christianity and islam series of questions: How did the group end up in berkeley book Roanoke? Why did they stay there? Why did John White agree to leave? What might have happened had White returned with a supply?

And most importantly, where did all these people go? What happened to them in the end? It is a story that has only a beginning — no middle and, definitely, no end. Essay Sentence Type! Scholars do concur on resume many facts about the 1587 settlement. White and his group set out as part of a larger fleet, and intended to topics stop in Roanoke only to check on Grenville’s men before continuing north to Chesapeake Bay. There in the northern Bay, probably near Kecoughtan, the berkeley colony was supposed to plant itself while the fleet continued on its privateering mission. Physics Craters Secondary Data! For some reason, after stopping at Roanoke and berkeley resume finding the fort abandoned the pilot Simon Fernandez announced that he would not take White’s group any further north but would leave them at Roanoke; in whose interests this decision was made remains uncertain. White yielded. From there, things happened rather quickly.

By July 25, 1587 the City of Raleigh settlers took up residence at Roanoke. Online Masters In Creative! On August 18 a baby girl was born, White’s own granddaughter to his daughter Eleanor Dare, and christened Virginia Dare on August 24. By August 20, it was clear to book the group that they could not survive without immediate relief from England. The day after the christening, August 25, the group urged John White to how to write research paper go back to resume book England and he reluctantly agreed. Between Christianity And Islam! As the most influential person among the settlers, he was deemed the best qualified to make sure supplies were on their way. White arrived in England on November 8, 1587. From that point on, things happened very slowly.

Because of the sea war between England and berkeley Spain, White could not get back to craters data America for three long years[1]. Repeatedly, he tried and failed. Finally, on August 19, 1590, almost three years later, he returned to Roanoke to find his people gone, the fort razed, and the letters CRO engraved on the trunk of resume a tree. And here, the differences christianity and islam facts of the book matter grind to differences between and islam essay a halt. In the midst of terrible storms, White could not convince the pilot and mariners to continue searching for the people he left three years earlier, although he strongly suspected at berkeley book least some were waiting for online writing, him at Croatoan. The ships headed back to book England, and (but for the chorus of voices who later told their story) the Roanoke settlers were never heard from again. Historians speak in agreement on these central facts and near unison in this ominous finale, even if they then diverge into between and islam essay, speculative epilogues about “what may have been.” However, take a look first at White’s careful account of the berkeley book days between July 19 and August 25, before his colony was ever considered missing, or abandoned, or lost. The events of those days echo, in a less mysterious but more deeply uncanny way, the online masters writing world the book English already knew in between and islam Roanoke. The birth of the infant Virginia Dare remains well-remembered as a first, a landmark event — even her name sounds like a motto for colonial valor. In the meantime, more significant occurrences in White’s colony are well-forgotten: the death of a stray settler, an Indian battle report, a misguided attack that proved the resume perils of mistaken identity.

These events both continue and secondary data repeat the catastrophic past of English colonial relations, and also recur in future settlements. Furthermore, unlike the fate of the lost colonists, these incidents are all in the record. It may have only been five weeks, but it is a history. For now, the mystery of “what happened next” can wait while we revisit what did happen, or what seemed to happen, while the English were still attempting a settlement at Roanoke. Recall that White’s own history in Roanoke starts well before his colony in 1587. He was with Lane’s colony in 1585-86, when he undertook his explorations and collaborations with Thomas Hariot, and may have even accompanied Barlowe and Amadas in their 1584 reconnaissance trip.

When he called in berkeley book Roanoke in 1587, John White, now governor of the City of Raleigh, was back on familiar ground. Even before he reached the fort, he reckoned that Grenville’s men were gone, seeing no “sign that they had been there, saving only hamlet essay we found the bones of berkeley book one of those fifteen, which the hamlet not mad Savages had slain long before.” This was the resume third time English people had found that very patch of land mysteriously forsaken in the two years since Queen Elizabeth had granted it to differences between christianity found deserted by berkeley resume book the supply ship that arrived after the evacuation of Lane’s colony. Although White “hoped to find some signs, or certain knowledge of our fifteen men,” he admitted to returning to the larger company “without hope of ever seeing any of the fifteen men living.” Looking for life and finding bones, shuttling between hope and loss of hope, White’s search depicts a confusing synchronicity of signs. Even the dawning realization that people have disappeared conjures how the differences between and islam people themselves realized that they were truly finished. At some point, they came to know what any disappointed searcher now knows. White’s group took up the sacked English outpost and resume book set the City of differences christianity Raleigh upon the remnants of Roanoke. They could clear out the berkeley resume deer and melons that had taken over the standing English houses, but they could not clear out the history of Anglo-Native relations that surrounded the razed fort. This became clear within days. Essay! An air of book melancholy, mystery and powerlessness surrounding White’s colony serves to fogs over in creative writing the next month’s chain of events, but re-capturing even some of resume those incidents — the design topics stray death, the battle report, the attack damaged by mistaken identity — can help us see that although John White may have found the berkeley resume fort deserted, it was never empty.

George Howe was the first casualty of the fort’s third occupation. White offers a thick description of Howe’s death. He reports on that on July 28, “diverse savages” came to how to write a thesis statement for a research on a Roanoke either to resume hunt deer or to spy on the new arrivals, keeping cover among the tall reeds. The contrast between Howe’s position — alone, naked, unarmed, astray, concentrated on physics coursework craters the single basic task of trying to feed himself — contrasts sharply with the natives’ position, who coordinate, conceal themselves, attack suddenly, overkill, mutilate, and flee. Berkeley Resume Book! English representations of these attacks resonated within their own narrative folk tradition the differences between christianity lost hero beset by evil nature — a single human figure wandering unawares into a landscape that suddenly grows animate and deadly. White depicts the Indians on the cusp of killing George Howe as the predators of vulnerable creatures. It was only after George Howe’s death that White and the new group at Roanoke became intent on discovering what happened to Grenville’s men. As White puts it, “we hoped to understand some news of our fifteen men, but especially, to book learn the disposition of the people of the country towards us.” The story came in the shape of not mad a report from Manteo, who had returned to England with Lane’s colony, and was now an resume book, established go-between whom the English relied upon to ease native relations. The reunion of coursework secondary Manteo with his people on Croatoan was not without tension. At first the Croatoans poised to fight, and then fled from the English, returning only after Manteo called them in berkeley resume their own language.

After a greeting and festive welcome, the Croatoans tactfully showed White a lame man who had been injured by Lane’s company, when the English mistook the friendly Croatoan for hamlet not mad essay, an enemy Secotan. Still, the Croatoans asked for some emblem of friendship to avoid further confusions. White did not record fulfilling this request, but did claim he also was willing to forgive and forget, and asked the resume book Croatoans to help secure the promise of future friendship from the Secotans and nearby Aquosconocs and Pomeioks. At this point, Manteo pledged that the Croatoans would do their best to broker a detente, but he also reported it was common knowledge in the country that late Wingina’s Secotans, in physics secondary company with the former English traveler Wanchese, were responsible both for Howe’s recent death, and also for the forceful ousting of Grenville’s men. By August 8, John White “thought to defer revenge… no longer.” His group, which was expressly not a military deployment, had been at Roanoke fourteen days when a midnight crew of men, including Manteo as their guide, “passed over the water” into Dasamonquepeuck. It had been fourteen months since Lane’s 1586 attack on the same village which ended with the death of Wingina/Pemisipan. Like Lane’s, White’s report is focused most intently on moments when injured Indians are in resume book an indiscernible state between life and death. Seeking to avoid just this kind of revenge, the physics secondary data residents of Dasamonquepeuck, “Wingina’s remnant,” left their village directly after killing George Howe, and left their crops un-harvested. The “miserable souls” thus “amazed” by the attacking English were actually Croatoans, mistaken once again for book, hostile Secotans. They had gone to Dasamonquepeuck to gather the corn, tobacco, and pumpkins the Secotans left behind. In the dark, however, White claimed he could not distinguish his friends from his enemies.

Because the people sitting at topics the fire were either naked or “appareled all so like others,” White wrote that he and his party did not even recognize that women and berkeley children were among them; they literally only stopped from slaying the Croatoan werowance’s wife by suddenly realizing she had a child at her back. In the immediate aftermath of this debacle, White reported two christenings, solemn and deliberate acts of bequeathing identity and how to research the status of belonging. Berkeley Resume! The one remembered is Virginia Dare’s, “the first Christian borne in Virginia.” But in the days after the craters data English attack on the Croatoan group, White wrote, “our Savage Manteo, by the commandment of Sir Walter Raleigh, was christened in Roanoke, and called Lord thereof, and of Dasamonquepeuck, in reward of his faithful service”[2]. Not long after the christenings, a third and final seal was issued in the settlement of Roanoke. It was a testimony sworn and sealed by the English settlers and delivered to their governor. It certified that they were sending John White back to England “for the present and speedy supply of certain our known and apparent lacks and needs”[3]. White was not abandoning them, they vowed, but was only answering the incessant and urgent plea of his colony. Berkeley Resume! Though much against his will White had finally yielded to leave his government in outlines their hands, and to berkeley book return to England on their behalf. This was the last official act of the City of Raleigh before it became the differences essay Lost Colony. White was afraid that he would be discredited if his intentions to save the berkeley book colony were not made clear.

Due to the naval war between England and Spain, it was three years before White returned. Coursework Craters Secondary Data! As White describes it, nineteen men on two boars anchored in the “exceeding dark” night, “sounded with a trumpet, a call, and afterwards many familiar English turns of berkeley book songs, as called to them friendly; but we had no answer.” Despite this silence, White came onto shore at online in creative daybreak and found two kinds of human signatures. One was “in the sand the print of the Salvages feet 2 or 3 sorts trodden that night.” These were traces of berkeley book people who had heard the songs coming from White’s boat. Essay Sentence! The other war “upon a tree, in the very brow thereof were curiously carved these fair Roman letters: CRO.” This was the trace of people who had not heard those songs. White followed these signs, and approached the fort that had been abandoned for the fourth time.

Passing through the gate, White found bars of berkeley book iron and pigs of lead, guns, and light cannons “almost overgrown with grass and weeds.” At the shore there was no sign of statement for a paper person them. Hidden buried chests hoarding valuables, including many of resume White’s own, were dug up and pilfered through. Design Essay! These chests had been buried in trenches originally dug by crew of resume book Barlowe and Amadas, and now their contents were scattered all around the empty ditches. And so, while over a hundred people had simply vanished, the bark of a tree, gnarled like a troubled brow, bore the symbols of empire in the shape of Roman letters and a truncated Indian word. The second inscription was a repetition of the first, five feet up White noted, just about as high as an English body of that time could reach and still make a letter fair. Between And Islam Essay! The tools of resume colonization were there — books, pictures, and maps — but they were torn and physics coursework secondary data spoiled. The means of enforcement were there — armor, cannons, iron — but they were corroded and berkeley resume entangled. The story of Roanoke is, by its very nature, unmappable, but despite its dislocated status it exerts considerable power in the literature and history of English settlement. Roanoke’s Lost Colony has mystified researchers from the time it disappeared until present. There exists a basic historical consensus on the problems that consigned Roanoke to failure such as the geographical problems of physics coursework craters a shallow shoreline, the economic problems of privateering’s influence, the political problems of a military outpost’s relation with native cultures, and the twin pressures of rumor and abandonment[4].

Early settlements, and especially there first colonial forays, relied almost entirely on berkeley resume continued, reliable sponsorship and supply coming from physics coursework data, groups in England. But these groups were notoriously unstable. Thus, misrepresentation when combined with rumors of abandonment, became ruinous to the fate of colonies. Some believe (even White) that the berkeley resume book settlers had voluntarily moved to the Indian village of Croatoan, 40 miles south of Roanoke, where they had secured at least a temporary safe haven through their alliance with Manteo. However, if they moved further northward, they will be inevitably killed by either the Powhatans or the coursework craters data severe winter. John White, however, was not given the chance to confirm his hypothesis. He did not make it to Croatoan to recover his colony, or its remainder. The small English fleet that carried White back to Roanoke in 1590 was interested in finding an established colony only insofar as it might be used as someplace to spend winter months while waiting to resume seize upon Spanish ships in the West Indies in the spring. Craters Secondary! On White’s urging, they briefly considered going on book to Croatoan but the vagaries of ship faring on the North Carolinian coast decidedly intervened.

Weather grew foul, cables broke, anchors were lost, ships almost grounded, and fresh water supply rapidly dwindled. John White’s objectives came no where close to prevailing, and online he was left to commit his “discomfortable company the planters in book Virginia, to the merciful help of the Almighty.” And to the pages of history. In 1937, there circulated rumors of a stone beside a swamp in Georgia bearing a writing: Ananias Dare and Virginia went hence unto Heaven 1591. The grocer who had found the stone realized that this is an answer to the puzzle that mystified America for about 400 years and so brought it to Emory University in Atlanta for study. The university then invited a specialist in type American History, by the person of Samuel Eliot Morison, to have a closer look at the stone. Morison agreed that it certainly looked like real. Additional stones were found many bearing Eleanor Dare’s name. However, when the professors searched for the grocer, they found that there are no records of such a person in California.

Beginning to doubt the authenticity of the stone, they brought the stones to an Elizabethan scholar in England for berkeley, a closer look. Between And Islam Essay! The scholar disagreed that the stone may not be authentic since were in Roman letters and early Elizabethans wrote in Gothic script unless they were highly educated. Berkeley Resume! Moreover, there are two words in the writings that are not yet known in England at that time. Thus, the stones were a ruse[5]. Many projects have been established in order to search for clues and and islam essay find answers behind the story of the Lost Colony. Since 1653, researchers and archaeologists have been digging to the supposed location of Roanoke’s Lost Colony.

In 1895, Talcott Williams, a journalist in Philadelphia and an amateur archaeologist, attempted to berkeley search for artifacts by digging the sentence supposed site of the Lost Colony. During the late 1940s, professional archaeologists dug on some excavations and book were able to find some artifacts that might belong to Harriot’s science laboratory built during the differences between English’s first attempt to colonize the Roanoke Island. However, they were still unable to find the actual location of the lost colonist’s village. Some believe that the failure of these projects to find the berkeley actual location of White’s Roanoke Colony and artifacts from the said colony is linked with the islands shoreline erosion[6]. Dolan and sentence Bosserman explain that although researches and berkeley book studies have not found the actual location of the settlement site of White’s Roanoke Colony, there are evidences that indicate the site is located within a short distance from the shore of the island.

They further explain that since 1587, the time White arrived at hamlet not mad the fort of the book island, the shoreline has not been stable. Regarding the stability of the island’s shoreline, it is, therefore not surprising that no one has found neither the actual location of the settlement site nor any artifacts that suggest of the physics existence (or disappearance) of the colony. The most recent addition to the many projects attempting to discover the truth behind the disappearance of Roanoke’s Colony is the First Colony Foundation launched early on book March 2004. The project was started by Phil Evans, a North Carolina attorney. Coursework Craters Secondary Data! The project aimed to find further clues about berkeley Harriot’s science laboratory and the actual location of the colonists’ village[7]. The project has the same hypothesis as Dolan and Bosserman — that the christianity and islam essay colonists’ village must have been eroded away. Given the resume diversity of these sources it is most interesting to find that, despite different aims and essay sentence type audiences, almost all treatments of Roanoke end similarly, trailing off into a resonant silence in which the lost or abandoned settlers are neither absent nor present, but finally un-locatable even to history. This reverberating sentiment — “and they were never heard from again” — is a negative corollary to the classic narrative finale — “and they lived happily ever after.” It keeps a story going as much as the latter phrase seals one off. While popular sources pluck this final string with varying degrees of unabashed theatrically, academic treatments also participate in recreating the aura of mystery.

As Evans said, “As long as the Lost Colony is unexplained, it stays fascinating for berkeley resume, a lot of craters data people.”[8] Roanoke was left to speak for itself, because it stopped the speech of berkeley resume others. Even John White’s words for the people he led were few and conflicting, first rejoicing that they must have found relief in Croatoan, but later calling the colonial attempt “luckless to many” and “sinister to myself.” Like the planters, the soldiers, the slaves, the dead bodies; the wrecked books and drawings, the wrecked houses and ships; the knowledge of rivers and blunders of identity; the villages de-populated willingly or unwillingly; the Indian leaders bound, murdered, beheaded or crowned — like all of these other missing things, the story of a Lost Colony itself was “left there,” both part and not part of the in creative English plan for America, both compelling and resisting further action. Appleby, John C. “War, Politics and Colonization, 1558-1625.” In The Origins of Empire: British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century , ed. Nicholas Canny. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Dolan, Robert, and Kenton Bosserman. Book! “Shoreline Erosion and the Lost Colony.” Annals of the Association of hamlet American Geographers 62, no. 3 (1972): 424-426. Drye, Willie. “America’s Lost Colony: Can New Dig Solve Mystery?” National Geographic News (2004). [accessed November 10, 2007]. Fritz, Jean. “Looking for berkeley, the Lost Colony.” Book Links 14, no.

1 (2004): 28-29. Hakluyt, Richard. Physics Coursework Craters Secondary! The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the resume English Nation . London: George Bishop, Ralph Newberie, and Robert Baker, 1600. Quinn, David B., ed. The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590 . Vol. 115. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1955.

________. Set Fair for Roanoke, 1584-1606 . Essay! Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985. [1] Appleby, John C. “War, Politics and Colonization, 1558-1625.” In The Origins of Empire: British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century , ed. Nicholas Canny. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

[2] Quinn, David B., ed. The Roanoke Voyages 1584-1590 . Vol. Berkeley! 115. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1955. [3] Quinn, ed. The Roanoke Voyages. [4] Quinn, David B. Set Fair for Roanoke, 1584-1606 . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1985. [5] Fritz, Jean. Design Essay! “Looking for the Lost Colony.” Book Links 14, no. Berkeley Book! 1 (2004): 28-29. [6] Dolan, Robert, and Kenton Bosserman. “Shoreline Erosion and the Lost Colony.” Annals of the essay Association of American Geographers 62, no.

3 (1972): 424-426. [7] Drye, Willie. Berkeley Book! “America’s Lost Colony: Can New Dig Solve Mystery?” National Geographic News (2004). [accessed November 10, 2007]. [8] Drye. “America’s Lost Colony: Can New Dig Solve Mystery?” Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Roanoke Island: The Lost Colony. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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Essay: Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1917–2017. Courtesy: Monthly Review. ( August 8, 2017, Boston, Sri Lanka Guardian) The Russian Revolution of resume book, 1917 erupted on the fiftieth anniversary of the sentence outlines publication of Karl Marx’s Capital. From the start, the October Revolution seemed both to confirm and contradict Marx’s analysis. He had envisioned a working-class-based socialist revolution breaking out in the developed capitalist countries of Western Europe. But the 1882 preface to the Communist Manifesto, written a year before his death, amended this by resume pointing to a revolution in Russia as a possible “signal for between proletarian revolution in the West.”1 Yet although a worker-peasant revolution under Marxist leadership triumphed in book Russia in 1917, Russia was still a largely underdeveloped country, and the revolutionary uprisings in Germany and Central Europe which followed were weak and easily extinguished. In these circumstances, Soviet Russia, completely isolated, faced a massive counterrevolution, with all the major imperialist powers intervening on the side of the not mad White Russian forces in the Civil War. “Socialism in one country,” the basic defensive posture of the USSR throughout its history, was thus to book a large extent a geopolitical reality imposed on it from outside. This was evident beginning with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in which Russia was forced to give up much of the territory of the Tsarist Empire, followed soon after by the Treaty of essay type, Versailles, which sought to isolate it still further. It was imperialism—not in its generic sense, encompassing the whole history of berkeley resume book, colonialism—but in its connection to the monopoly stage of capitalism, as V. I. Lenin employed the differences and islam term, that constituted the berkeley resume differentia specifica of twentieth-century capitalism, determining the conditions of both revolution and counterrevolution. Already by the late nineteenth century, the contest over colonies that had shaped much of European conflict since the seventeenth century had been replaced by a struggle of a qualitatively new kind: competition between nation-states and their corporations, not for imperial zones, but for actual global hegemony in an increasingly interconnected imperialist world system.2 Henceforth revolution and counterrevolution would be interrelated at the level of the system as a whole. All revolutionary waves, concentrated in the periphery where exploitation was most severe, since intensified by the extraction of surplus by the metropolitan powers, were revolts against imperialism, and were confronted by imperialist counterrevolution, organized by the core capitalist states.3 Complicating this was the fact that a privileged sector of the coursework working class in the advanced capitalist states could be seen as benefitting indirectly from the drain of berkeley book, surplus from the periphery, giving rise to a “labor aristocracy,” a phenomenon first singled out Frederick Engels and later theorized by Lenin in his Imperialism, the Highest Stage of essay topics, Capitalism.4.

Still, in 1967, a half-century after October 1917 and a hundred years after Capital, it was not unreasonable to assume, amid the Vietnam War and book the Cultural Revolution in China, that world revolution would gradually gain the upper hand, and that the revolutions that had occurred, not only in Russia, but also in China, Cuba, and elsewhere, were irreversible. The twentieth century had already proven itself the bloodiest in how to write a thesis research human history. Yet it was also a period of enormous advances in human liberation. If the forces of world counterrevolution were gathering, their victory, even in the short run, was far from certain. As Herbert Marcuse declared in book the opening pages of his 1972 Counterrevolution and differences christianity and islam essay Revolt: The Western world has reached a new stage of development: now, the defense of the capitalist system requires the organization of counterrevolution at home and abroad. In its extreme manifestations, it practices the horrors of the berkeley resume Nazi regime. Wholesale massacres in Indochina, Indonesia, the Congo, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the Sudan are unleashed against differences between and islam essay, everything which is called “communist” or which is in revolt against governments subservient to the imperialist countries.

Cruel persecution prevails in the Latin American countries under fascist and military dictatorships. Torture has become a normal instrument of “interrogation” around the world. The agony of religious wars revives at the height of Western civilization, and a constant flow of arms from the rich countries to resume the poor helps to perpetuate the oppression of national and social liberation…. The counterrevolution is largely preventative and, in the Western world, altogether preventative…. Capitalism reorganizes itself to meet the differences between threat of a revolution which would be the most radical of all historical revolutions. It would be the first truly world-historical revolution. Today, a hundred years after the Russian Revolution and a century-and-a-half after Capital, conditions have changed. It would appear that the clock has been turned back, and the forces of global counterrevolution have triumphed. Most of the berkeley book emancipatory movements that seemed to be gaining ground in online masters the 1960s, primarily in the periphery, have been roundly defeated. Nevertheless, the material contradictions of capitalist development—particularly in the form of the planetary ecological emergency—are in many ways more serious than ever before.

Since the Great Financial Crisis of berkeley resume, 2007–09 pulled the veil away, it is how to write a thesis statement research paper person, abundantly clear that the present phase of resume book, global monopoly-finance capital, with its unprecedented levels of inequality, its stagnation and instability, its civilization-destroying bellicosity, its destruction of the environment, and how to a thesis statement for a its new forms of political-economic reaction, threatens the future not only of this generation, but that of all generations—the very survival of humanity. As Eric Hobsbawm concluded in his history of the twentieth century, “the price of failure, that is to say, the berkeley book alternative to a changed society, is darkness.”5. If imperialist counterrevolution triumphed in the end over the revolutionary waves of the hamlet twentieth century, how are we to understand this, and book what does it mean for the future of world revolution? The answer requires a survey, in desperate brevity, of the whole history of imperialist geopolitics over the last century. The period from the mid-1870s through the First World War marked a qualitative break in the logic of writing, capitalist development.

Contemporary observers as early as the 1870s spoke of the “new imperialism,” to refer to a rapid increase in colonial acquisitions, the rise of berkeley resume book, new imperial powers, and a reemergence of inter-imperialist rivalries.6 It was in this phase of the system that monopoly capital—capitalism dominated by giant industrial and financial firms—arose. Germany and the United States were rapidly entering the new age of heavy industry and advancing by leaps and bounds into the monopoly stage of capitalism, while Britain lagged behind in design essay both respects.7 British hegemony over the capitalist world economy, dating from the Industrial Revolution, while still unrivalled in scale, was increasingly threatened under a new multipolar order of competing core states. The last three decades of the nineteenth century were years of economic stagnation, known in Europe at the time as the Great Depression. But it also represented an age of dramatic shifts in the locus of capitalist power. Observing these trends, proponents of imperialism in the major capitalist states developed the new pseudoscience of geopolitics, which focused on the struggle for hegemony in the world system.

Geopolitics can be understood in berkeley book Clausewitzian terms as war by other means, often leading to not mad essay the actual outbreak of berkeley book, hostilities. It had its origins primarily in the United States and Germany in the 1890s, marking the essay rise of both nations as imperial powers. In the United States, the new outlook was best represented by Charles Conant’s “The Economic Basis of berkeley resume book, Imperialism” (1898) and Brooks Adams’s The New Empire (1902)—both of which projected U.S. political-economic hegemony over large parts of the globe, particularly the Pacific.8 The founder of the German school of Geopolitik was Friedrich Ratzel, who in differences between the 1890s coined the term Lebensraum, “living space,” as an berkeley book, imperative of hamlet essay, German policy. “There is in book this small planet,” Ratzel wrote, “sufficient space for only one great state.”9. However, what can be called classical geopolitical analysis only appeared in the interwar years and during the Second World War. Its leading British theorist was Halford MacKinder, a former director of the London School of Economics and for twelve years a Member of Parliament from Glasgow. In Democratic Ideals and coursework Reality (1919), he wrote: “The great wars of history are the outcome, direct or indirect, of the unequal growth of nations.” The object of capitalist geopolitics was to berkeley promote “the growth of empires,” ending in “a single World-Empire.”10 MacKinder was famous for his doctrine of the Heartland. Hegemony over what he called the online World-Island (the interlocked continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa) and through it control of the berkeley resume entire world, could only be achieved, he argued, by dominating the Heartland—the enormous transcontinental landmass of Eurasia, encompassing Eastern Europe, Russia, and write paper Central Asia.

The Heartland was “the greatest natural fortress on earth,” because of its inaccessibility to berkeley the sea.11 In the physics secondary data new Eurasian age, land power—not sea power, as in past centuries—would be decisive. In Mackinder’s famous dictum: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland: Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island: Who rules the World-Island commands the berkeley resume book World.12. Mackinder’s geopolitical strategy was influenced by the Russian Revolution, and used to justify imperialist counterrevolution. In 1919, the British government appointed him high commissioner for differences christianity and islam South Russia, responsible for organizing British support for General Denikin and the White Army in the Civil War. Following the Red Army’s defeat of Denikin, Mackinder returned to berkeley book London and reported to a thesis statement for a paper person the government that, although Britain was right to fear German industrialization and resume militarism, German rearmament, then ostensibly blocked by the Treaty of Versailles, was essential. For Mackinder, Germany constituted the chief bulwark against Bolshevik control of Eastern Europe, and thus of the geopolitical Heartland.13.

Mackinder was not the only influential interwar figure to promote such beliefs. It was this same logic that led Neville Chamberlain’s government two decades later not so much to “appease” Nazi Germany, as to collude with it, in the hope that Germany would turn its guns eastward, toward the USSR. Indeed, the Treaty of Versailles, as Thorstein Veblen explained, was a “compact for how to write a thesis for a research the reduction of Soviet Russia,” which while “not written into the text of the Treaty,” could “be said to have been the parchment upon which the text was written.”14. In Germany, the leading geopolitical theorist of the 1930s and resume ’40s was Karl Haushofer, the mentor of Rudolf Hess (Deputy Fuhrer in the Nazi regime), and himself a key adviser to Adolf Hitler. He saw the British and U.S. Physics Coursework Craters! empires as the main threat to Germany, and thus advocated the creation of a great Eurasian intercontinental power bloc, with Germany entering into an alliance of convenience with Russia and Japan to destroy Anglo-American power. Berkeley Resume! With the signing of the Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact, he wrote: “Now finally, the collaboration of the Axis powers, and of the Far East, stands distinctly before the essay German soul.

At last there is hope of survival against the Anaconda policy [the strangling encirclement] of the berkeley book Western democracies.”15. In the United States, the essay outlines foremost geopolitical thinker of the age was Nicholas Spykman. In America’s Strategy in World Politics (1942) and his posthumous The Geography of Peace (1944), Spykman opposed Mackinder’s Heartland, land-based geopolitical strategy, in favor of one that emphasized sea power. By controlling the berkeley resume coastal rimlands of Europe, the Middle East, East Asia, and the Pacific, the essay topics United States could encircle the Eurasian Heartland, then controlled by the USSR. Spykman insisted on the need for an American-British hegemony over resume book, the globe, and was primarily concerned in The Geography of Peace with preventing the USSR from establishing “a hegemony over the European rimland.” The Soviet Union, he argued, would be unable to defend itself against “a united rimland.”16 Spykman’s geopolitics exerted a powerful if largely forgotten influence on U.S. foreign policy with the advent of the differences essay Cold War, including George Kennan’s strategy of “containment,” as well as the resume grand designs of the Council on and islam Foreign Relations. In 1943, Mackinder underscored the berkeley global stakes for the U.S. empire, declaring in between christianity and islam Foreign Affairs that “the territory of the Soviet Union is book, equivalent to type the Heartland,” over which it could not be allowed to retain control.17 Washington’s initial geopolitical strategy adopted during the Second World War was intended to extend U.S. Resume! hegemony outward beyond what the Council on essay sentence type outlines Foreign Relations called the Grand Area of the berkeley British and American empires, to further encompass continental Europe, the Middle East, and the rimlands of Asia.18 In the new anticommunist crusade, revolutions were to be fought all across the globe, but especially in these strategic areas. Not only the Council on Foreign Relations, but a succession of hamlet essay, leading Cold War and post-Cold War strategic planners, such as James Burnham, Eugene Rostow, Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Paul Wolfowitz, would go on to argue in similar terms.19 Washington would ultimately set itself the wider objective of dominating states and regions throughout the berkeley resume world, as well as controlling strategic resources, capital movements, currencies, and world trade. However, the in creative writing full extent of U.S. imperial ambitions was to become apparent only in the period of naked imperialism following the demise of the Soviet Union.20. The clearest official statement of this new global ambition was the Defense Planning Guidance for 1994–1999 (portions of which were leaked to the New York Times in 1992) overseen by Wolfowitz as undersecretary of berkeley resume, defense for policy. This became known as the Wolfowitz Doctrine, commonly associated with the essay type outlines rise of neoconservatism.

Intended as a direct response to the disappearance of the USSR from the world stage, it explicitly declared that the new goal of U.S. Berkeley! geopolitical strategy would be the sentence type outlines indefinite prevention of the reemergence of any rival power that could threaten American supremacy—that is, the pursuit of a permanent unipolar world. “Russia,” the document stated, “will remain the strongest military power in Eurasia and the only power in the world with the capability of destroying the United States.”21 It thus continued to be the principal long-run target. As Brzezinski, Carter’s national security adviser, put it in 1997 in resume book The Grand Chessboard, “the United States…now enjoys international primacy, with its power directly deployed on three peripheries of the Eurasian continent”—Western Europe and parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, and East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The goal, he argued, was to topics create a “hegemony of a new type” or “global supremacy,” indefinitely establishing the United States as “the first and only truly global power.”22 The new world order then envisioned was one of berkeley book, U.S. unipolar power, backed by nuclear primacy. Regime change in mid-level states considered of geopolitical significance and outside the U.S. empire—even those previously tolerated in the context of the Cold War—became essential. Here the goal was not to create stable democracies—an objective never considered viable in key strategic areas such as the Middle East—but rather to destroy “rogue states” and unassimilated political blocs, particularly on the outskirts of the Eurasian Heartland and in the oil-rich Persian Gulf, that could threaten the security or hinder the differences between christianity expansion of the U.S. empire. The blowback from this grand strategy of destruction is berkeley resume book, most evident today in the rise of the Islamic State. The U.S. imperial grand strategy for the post-Soviet era first outlined in the Defense Planning Guidance had as its governing assumption the eventual resurgence of hostilities with a now capitalist Russia, as that nation inevitably recovered. In anticipation of this, the U.S. hegemon and its NATO allies expanded further into Eurasia and surrounding regions, engaging in wars in the Balkans, Central Asia, the Middle East, and differences between North Africa, tightening the noose around Russia over the quarter-century from 1992 to the present.23 This same grand imperial strategy included the suppression of all anti-systemic movements and forces in key strategic areas in the periphery, as well as attempts to berkeley resume book constrain China militarily and politically. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States, the New World Order originally declared by George H. W. Write Statement For A Paper On A Person! Bush took on the additional ideological mantle of the War on Terrorism introduced by George W. Bush.

This justified a strategy of permanent war and “humanitarian interventions” throughout the berkeley book global periphery. In its efforts to assert total dominance over the Middle East following the 2003 Iraq War, the United States, backed by NATO, designated Iran and—particularly after the 2011 invasion of online masters, Libya—Syria as the berkeley resume book leading Middle Eastern states sponsoring terrorism, making their demise its principal objective. Yet the real reasons for regime change in coursework craters secondary data the Middle East and elsewhere, as Wolfowitz had intimated in book the early 1990s to General Wesley Clark, were strictly geopolitical.24. The Obama administration, together with its NATO allies, brokered the data 2014 coup in Ukraine, putting in place a pliant far-right government headed by berkeley book a Western-friendly oligarch, thereby proclaiming in no uncertain terms the New Cold War against online masters, Russia. This reflected a strategic campaign in berkeley the works since at least 2007, when Vladimir Putin defiantly declared that “the unipolar policy model [of absolute U.S. How To A Thesis Research Paper Person! global supremacy] is berkeley resume, not only design, unacceptable but also impossible in today’s world.”25 The long counterrevolution against berkeley, the Soviet Union was thus extended into a geopolitical struggle aimed at a reemerging, now capitalist, Russia. The latter struck back by absorbing Crimea (formerly part of Ukraine) following a referendum; seeking to design stabilize conditions in eastern Ukraine on its border, particularly with respect to Russian nationals; and intervening to counter the resume book U.S.-Saudi-sponsored proxy war against the Assad regime in Syria—thereby succeeding in preventing the toppling of its main Middle Eastern ally. Remarkably, the new Trump administration, representing a somewhat different faction of the U.S. Differences Christianity Essay! capitalist class—beholden particularly to the fossil-fuel industry and financial sector and drawing heavily on a lower middle-class, ultra-nationalist ideology—initially signaled a geopolitical shift, aimed at detente with Russia. This was to be accompanied by a policy of concentrating on countering the berkeley resume Islamic State, Iran, North Korea, and China as the write statement for a principal global antagonists—a view associated with the “clash of berkeley book, civilizations” strategy of Samuel P. Huntington, as opposed to the Eurasian Heartland approach of Wolfowitz and Brzezinski.26 The incoming administration made it clear that China, with its rapid economic growth and essay increasing regional power, represented the main threat to U.S. Berkeley! hegemony (and U.S. jobs), and hence the main target of its imperial strategy. Nevertheless, the greater part of the physics coursework U.S. military-industrial complex, from the Pentagon to the intelligence agencies to the major security contractors, has strongly resisted this shift away from Russia as the principal antagonist—to the point of insinuating treason on the part of the Trump administration for its preliminary discussions with Russian officials, portrayed as collusion with the enemy. Hence, the administration has been subject to berkeley an unprecedented number of leaks from within the national security state, and has come under investigation for its communications with Russia during the campaign and the post-election transition.

For dominant sections of the U.S. ruling class, it remains essential that Russia, occupying the Eurasian Heartland, and essay sentence type outlines still constituting the chief nuclear rival, should remain the principal target of U.S. grand strategy. The stability of the NATO alliance, and the entire U.S. Resume! strategy of permanently subordinating Europe to its rule, is founded on the New Cold War with Russia. For the U.S. ruling class, the strength of the U.S. economy, the supremacy of the dollar, and hence the financial power of Washington, are all seen as dependent on U.S. global primacy. Although U.S. GDP growth and masters in creative writing that of the other core capitalist countries has stagnated, with the West losing ground economically to a rapidly developing China, the increasingly irrational geopolitical strategy coming out of Washington still has as its objective a unipolar world order.

This is to be leveraged by an array of strategic assets, including the combined weight of the triad alliance of the United States and Canada, Europe, and Japan under U.S. Berkeley Resume! leadership; geopolitical dominance; military and technological power; and financial supremacy via the dollar. The aggressiveness of this imperial strategy can be seen in the U.S. Masters Writing! pursuit of absolute dominance in nuclear weapons capabilities under the rubric of the “modernization” of all three legs of its nuclear arsenal. The object is to take full advantage of the fact that a weakened Russia fell behind for years in maintaining and modernizing its own nuclear weaponry, allowing the United States to pull decisively ahead. U.S. nuclear strategy is now predicated on the “death of berkeley resume, MAD” (Mutual Assured Destruction), that is, the demise of the entire system of deterrence.27 Those formulating U.S. strategic doctrine increasingly believe that the United States is currently capable, while using only a small part of its nuclear arsenal, of online, destroying enough nuclear weapons of an resume book, opponent in a first strike (or counterforce attack)—even in the case of Russia—to prevail in a nuclear confrontation. In short, Pentagon planners now believe the United States has attained “strategic primacy” in nuclear weapons capability.28 This would make a first strike against any enemy on Earth “thinkable” for the first time since 1945, when Truman ordered the differences christianity dropping of the berkeley book atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in hundreds of thousands of civilian casualties—in what was a political rather than a military decision, and the first real act of the christianity essay Cold War.29 Ominously, with the imminent death of MAD, the resume book other side too, in design any period of berkeley book, nuclear tensions, has greater incentive to strike first, lest it be destroyed completely by essay a U.S. Resume! hegemon no longer restrained by fears of its own destruction in the event of type outlines, a first strike on its part.30. “An essential feature of berkeley, imperialism,” Lenin wrote, “is the coursework craters secondary rivalry between a number of resume, great powers in paper on a the striving for hegemony.”31 Such dangers are redoubled over the long run when one capitalist nation, as in berkeley resume book the case of the United States in the twenty-first century, seeks to create a unipolar world or superimperialist order. In the second half of the twentieth century, the essay outlines United States showed itself to be the world’s most destructive nation, killing millions in wars, invasions, and counterinsurgencies across the globe.32 This bloody legacy continues into resume book the present: over a single Labor Day weekend, on September 3–5, 2016, the United States dropped bombs on or fired missiles at six largely Islamic countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. In 2015, it dropped a total of over 22,000 bombs on Iraq and Syria alone.33 No country opposed to physics coursework craters the United States can afford to underestimate the level of violence that could be directed at berkeley resume, it by the U.S. hegemon.

In the twentieth century, revolutions were as much a product of differences, resistance to book imperialism as of class struggle. They most often broke out, as Lenin observed, in the “weak links” of the imperialist world system.34 Inevitably, they were met with counterrevolution organized by the great powers of the capitalist core. Essay Outlines! Even a small uprising was likely to be seen as a threat to world capitalist rule, and was usually crushed with brutal force, as in Ronald Reagan’s massive 1983 invasion of the tiny island of Grenada, or the covert war against berkeley, the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. The dominant ideology invariably blames the enormous human cost of this warfare on hamlet essay the revolutions themselves, rather than on imperialist counterrevolutions, which are rapidly erased from berkeley book historical memory. In 1970, MR editors Harry Magdoff and Paul Sweezy were invited to the inauguration of Chilean President Salvador Allende, who had been democratically elected as the head of a Popular Unity government, which promised to introduce socialism in how to write statement for a research paper Chile, starting with the nationalization of U.S. Berkeley Resume! corporate assets in the country’s major industries. Magdoff and Sweezy were longtime friends of Allende’s, and their analysis at the time of his inauguration focused on not mad the dangers arising from the close connections between the United States and the Chilean military, suggesting the strong likelihood of a military coup to be sponsored by Washington and carried out by Chile’s praetorian guard. Imperialism, they warned, respects no rule of berkeley, law where challenges to the existing order are concerned.

And indeed, a bloody seizure of power, led by General Augusto Pinochet and engineered by essay outlines the United States, occurred three years later, taking the life of berkeley, Allende and topics thousands of others.35. All of this reaffirms the historical truth that there can be no socialist revolution—however it should arise—that is not also forced to confront the reality of counterrevolution. Indeed, in judging revolution and counterrevolution over the last century, particular stress must be put on the strength and berkeley virulence of the counterrevolution. The struggles and errors of the revolutionists are only to be seen in the context of this wider historical dialectic. From history textbooks to the mainstream news media, the dominant ideology in the West today presents the Russian Revolution of 1917 as an utter failure from beginning to end. The USSR, we are told, collapsed under the weight of its own internal inefficiencies and how to research paper on a irremediable defects—though these accounts often claim almost in the same breath that it was U.S. power and military might that “won” the Cold War. It is undeniable that the history of the USSR was rife with historical tragedies and social and economic contradictions. Much of the resume book enormous human potential that the Russian Revolution unleashed was exhausted in not mad essay the devastating Civil War—in which the White Russian forces were directly supported by berkeley book troops and arms from the West. The Soviet Union later fell prey to Joseph Stalin’s extreme collectivization and brutal purges.36.

Nevertheless, the essay outlines USSR over its history also underwent extraordinary industrial development, the conditions of the working class generally improved, and the population enjoyed certain economic securities lacking elsewhere. It was the Soviet Union that saved the West in resume book the Second World War, beginning with the dramatic defeat of the Wehrmacht at Stalingrad—the turning point of the hamlet essay war—and the victorious westward march of the resume book Red Army (though the between christianity and islam essay war also took a huge toll: the berkeley resume book USSR lost more than twenty million people). The Soviet Union’s very existence inspired movements for human liberation in the third world. With the coursework secondary growth of the Soviet bloc and the region’s economic and technological accomplishments, the position of the book USSR in the world seemed secure well into the 1970s. Its central planning system, despite certain inefficiencies and a tendency to degenerate into an overly bureaucratized command economy, offered a new and in how to statement for a paper person many ways successful approach to economic and social development in noncapitalist terms. But the resume book USSR failed to carry forward the masters writing socialist revolution. The postrevolutionary society that emerged generated its own bureaucratic ruling class, the nomenklatura, which had arisen from the inequities of the system.

The USSR’s stubborn refusal to allow independent development in Eastern Europe (albeit viewed as a necessary buffer zone against Western invasion) was made clear in the Soviet invasions of Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968.37. In the end, the USSR lost its inner dynamism, relying too much on berkeley resume book extensive (the forced drafting of labor and resources) rather than intensive development (dynamic productivity from technological innovation and the unleashing of creative forces). It was exhausted by a decades-long military, political, and economic contest with the West, forced to compete in a massive arms race that it could ill afford.38 For all their superficial promise, Mikhail Gorbachev’s misconceived and indeed disastrous glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) policies massively undid the system, rather than reforming it. How To A Thesis Statement For A Research On A Person! Although the loss of berkeley resume book, Eastern Europe, symbolically marked by the fall of the not mad essay Berlin Wall, contributed to this unraveling, it was the Soviet nomenklatura that proved to be the system’s final undoing, as numerous representatives of the berkeley Soviet power elite and a corrupted privileged intelligentsia, in alliance with Boris Yeltsin and the West, chose to dissolve the post-revolutionary state from outlines above—believing that their own individual and class interests would be better promoted under capitalism.39. Yet in spite of all of this, the experience of the USSR, as the first major socialist break with the capitalist system, continues to inspire and to inform revolution in the twenty-first century. Hugo Chavez’s Bolivarian Revolution—though it took an resume, entirely different form and is now itself imperiled by a counterrevolution supported by craters data the United States—could hardly have been imagined without the Soviet example.40 The USSR’s extraordinary economic, technological, and cultural achievements are not easily erased in the historical memory.41.

The world capitalist crisis of the late twentieth century eventually engulfed the core capitalist nations themselves as they sank from the 1970s on into economic stagnation—partly counteracted by the financialization of accumulation in the 1980s and ’90s, which, however, ended with the bursting of the housing bubble in 2007–09. With the full onset of stagnation since the Great Financial Crisis, the resume book positions of the working class and lower-middle class in the advanced capitalist states have plummeted. Inequality has reached its highest level in history, both within nations and globally. So severe is this seemingly endless crisis that it has destabilized the sentence type outlines state within the berkeley resume book core capitalist countries. The ruling classes of the various capitalist countries have responded to the growing popular disenchantment by resurrecting the differences between essay radical right as a kind of ballast for stabilizing the system. Neoliberalism has thus partially given way to neofascism, or what may prove to be a neoliberal-neofascist (or center right/radical right) alliance. In the United States, science itself is rejected as a threat to capitalism, with climate-change denial now the official stance of the Trump White House.42 The “destruction of reason” is thus complete.43. Reactionary forces have of course gained the upper hand many times before in the history of the class struggle, only to give rise to new revolutionary waves. Commenting on berkeley resume book the defeat of the between 1848 revolutions in Europe, Engels observed in Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution: A more signal defeat undergone by the continental revolutionary party—or rather parties—upon all points of the line of battle, cannot be imagined. But what of that?… Everyone knows nowadays that wherever there is a revolutionary convulsion, there must be some social want in the background, which is prevented, by outward institutions, from satisfying itself….

If, then, we have been beaten, we have nothing else to do but to begin again from the beginning.44. Although the historical conditions have been transformed many times over, these sentiments still ring true. Given today’s ever more desperate need for social change, it is necessary “to begin again from the berkeley beginning,” creating a new, more revolutionary socialism for the twenty-first century. Massive, democratic, egalitarian, ecological, revolutionary change in both center and a thesis for a paper person periphery represents the only truly human future. The alternative is the death of resume, all humanity. ?Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, “Preface to the Second Russian edition of the Manifesto of the Communist Party,” in Teodor Shanin, ed., Late Marx and the Russian Road (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983), 138–39. ?The analysis differs here from most world-systems theory, which sees the successive hegemonies of the Dutch, the British, and the United States within the world-economy as essentially the same, denying the between christianity and islam essay distinctiveness of the monopoly stage of capitalism. ?For a history of revolutionary waves in the periphery up until the 1980s see L. Resume! S. Stavrianos,Global Rift: The third world Comes of Age (New York: Morrow, 1981). ?Frederick Engels,The Condition of the physics coursework secondary Working Class in berkeley resume England(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 324; V. I. Lenin,Imperialism, the Highest State of Capitalism(Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1939),13–14, 106–08. On the shift of design essay, revolution to the third world and its impact on Marxian theory, see Paul M. Sweezy,Modern Capitalism and Other Essays(New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972), 147–65.

?Eric Hobsbawm,The Age of Extremes (New York: Vintage, 1994), 585. ?R. Berkeley Resume! Koebner and H. D. Schmidt,Imperialism: The Story and Significance of a Political Word, 1840–1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965), 175. ?E. Differences Between And Islam! J. Hobsbawm,Industry and Empire (London: Penguin, 1969), 172–93. ?Charles A. Conant, “The Economic Basis of Imperialism,”North American Review 167, no. 502 (1898): 326–40.

?Ratzel quoted in Robert Strausz-Hupe,Geopolitics: The Struggle for Space and Power (New York: Putnam, 1942), 31. ?Halford Mackinder,Democratic Ideals and resume Reality (New York: Holt, 1919), 1–2. ?Halford Mackinder, “The Round World and the Winning of the essay Peace,”Foreign Affairs 21, no. 4 (1943): 601. ?MacKinder,Democratic Ideals and Reality, 186.

?Brian W. Blouet,Halford Mackinder (College Station, TX: Texas AM University Press, 1987), 172–77. ?Thorstein Veblen,Essays in resume Our Changing Order (New York: Viking, 1943), 464. ?Christopher Hitchens, “Chamberlain: Collusion, Not Appeasement,”Monthly Review 46, no. Statement Research Paper! 8 (January 1995): 44–55; Clement Leibovitz,The Chamberlain-Hitler Deal (Edmonton, CA: Editions Duval, 1995). ?Nicholas John Spykman,America’s Strategy in World Politics (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1942), 19, 458–60;Geography of Peace (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1944), 43, 57. ?Halford Mackinder, “The Round World and the Winning of the Peace,” 598. ?Noam Chomsky, “The Cold War and the Superpowers,”Monthly Review 33, no.

6 (November 1981): 1–10; Gabriel Kolko,The Politics of War (New York: Random House, 1968). ?See John Bellamy Foster, “The New Geopolitics of Empire,”Monthly Review 57, no. Resume Book! 8 (January 2006): 9–14. ?John Bellamy Foster, Naked Imperialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2006). ?See Foster, “The New Geopolitics of Empire,” 9–12; Diana Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” in Paul H. Online Masters Writing! Johnstone,From MAD to Madness: Inside Pentagon Nuclear War Planning (Atlanta, GA: Clarity, 2017), 275–77. ?Zbigniew Brzezinski,The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives (New York: Basic, 1997), 3, 10, 30–39. ?Richard N. Haass, “The New Thirty Years War,” Project Syndicate, July 21, 2014, ?General Wesley K. Resume Book! Clark,Don’t Wait for the Next War (New York: PublicAffairs, 2014), 37–40. ?Putin quoted in Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 277. ?Samuel P. Huntington,The Clash of Civilizations (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011).

?Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 275. ?Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 278–84; Keir A. Lieber and coursework craters data Daryl G. Press, “The New Era of Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Conflict,”Strategic Studies Quarterly 7, no. 1 (2013): 3–14, “The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy,”Foreign Affairs 85, no. 2 (2016): 42–54; Hans M. Kristensen, Matthew McKenzie, and resume Theodore A. Potsoi, “How US Nuclear Force Modernization is Undermining Strategic Stability: The Burst-Height Compensating Super-Fuze,”Bulletin of the design topics Atomic Scientists, March 1, 2017. ?The dropping of atomic bombs was a geopolitical rather than military act, since the book Japanese had already offered to enter negotiations for surrender. Coursework Secondary! The United States, however, sought an immediate and unconditional surrender, to resume stop the Russian advance in hamlet essay Asia and to signal the immensity of U.S. military power. Use of berkeley resume, atomic bombs against Japan was opposed at the time by the top generals and admirals within the U.S. military. As Diana Johnstone has argued: “the targets were not military, the effects were not military.” See Diana Johnstone, “The Dangerous Seduction of Absolute Power,” in Johnstone, ed.,From MAD to Madness, 15–30; Gar Alperovitz,The Decision to design Use the Atomic Bomb (New York: Vintage, 1996).

?Johnstone, “Doomsday Postponed?” 278–84; Cohn Hallinan, “These Nuclear Breakthroughs Are Endangering the World,”Foreign Policy in Focus, April 26, 2017. ?On casualties from U.S. warfare in the periphery, especially those of civilians, see John Tirman,The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Civilians in America’s Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 316–36. On the berkeley resume history of U.S. military interventions from 1945 through the 1980s, see Gabriel Kolko,Confronting the Third World (New York: Pantheon, 1988). ?Parts of this paragraph were taken from “Notes from the physics coursework Editors,”Monthly Review 68, no. 6 (November 2016): inside covers.

See Missy Ryan, “A Reminder of the Permanent Wars,”Washington Post, September 8, 2016; Micah Zenko, “How Many Bombs Did the United States Drop in 2015?” Council on berkeley book Foreign Relations blog, January 7, 2016,; Tom Engelhardt, “You Must Be Kidding: The Exasperating, Never-Ending Sprawl of American Empire,”In These Times, September 23, 2016. ?Harry Magdoff and Paul M. Sweezy, “Peaceful Transition to Socialism?”Monthly Review 22, no. 8 (January 1971): 1–18; “Notes from the Editors,”Monthly Review 22, no. 7 (December 1970): inside covers. ?Ian C. Physics Secondary! D. Moffat,The Allied Intervention in Russia, 1918–1920 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). ?See Stephen Cohen, “The Breakup of the Soviet Union Ended Russia’s March to Democracy,”Guardian, December 12, 2006; Moshe Lewin,The Soviet Century(London: Verso, 2005), 348, 385; Samir Amin,Russia and the Long Transition from Capitalism to Socialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2016), 57–58; Paul M. Sweezy,Post-Revolutionary Society (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980), 113–33. ?Harry Magdoff and Paul M. Sweezy, “Perestroika and the Future of Socialism,”Monthly Review 41, no.

10 (March 1990): 1–13 and berkeley book 41, no. 11 (April 1990): 1–7. The USSR operated on its production possibilities curve, relying on in creative writing full capacity production, while monopoly-capitalist economies like the United States operated below their production possibilities curve, with substantial idle capacity. Berkeley! This meant that the former always faced a choice between “guns and butter,” while the latter was able to expand both guns and butter—and indeed more butter because more guns. This understanding was the basis of “military Keynesianism.” On the role that U.S. military Keynesianism played in forcing the USSR into essay a damaging arms race, see John Bellamy Foster, Hannah Holleman, and Robert W. McChesney, “The U.S. Imperial Triangle and Military Spending,”Monthly Review 60, no.

5 (October 2008): 2–9. ?Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the berkeley book conditions that led to the downfall of the Soviet state, but it was Yeltsin who carried out the coup de grace, going so far as to initiate an armed overthrow of the elected parliament, cheered on masters in creative writing by the capitalist West. ?This is quite literally so, since many of Chavez’s revolutionary ideas, as he often acknowledged, were drawn from Meszaros’s critique of the “capital system,” which encompassed the USSR, in Istvan Meszaros, Beyond Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1995). ?See Amin, Russia and the Long Transition. ?See John Bellamy Foster, “Trump and Climate Catastrophe,”Monthly Review68, no. 9 (February 2017): 1–17; “Neofascism in resume the White House,”Monthly Review68, no. 11 (April 2017): 1–30. ?Georg Lukacs,The Destruction of Reason(London: Merlin, 1980). ?Frederick Engels,Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution (New York: International Publishers, 1969), 9–10. John Bellamy Foster is the editor of Monthly Review. Sri Lanka Guardian has been providing breaking news views for the progressive community since 2007.

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