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bibliography Dissertation on thesis graphs New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Poetry Essay? Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . Graphs? New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP.

Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Quality? Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of thesis, Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in essay service, the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre.

1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the thesis few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and psu dissertation, George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for thesis graphs, modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of skills, plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the graphs Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Research Quality? Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and thesis graphs, sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on write conceptual the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the graphs Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and computer skills, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter.

466-474. Thesis Graphs? Burmeister, Tereza. Immigration Policy In Usa Essay? 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335.

Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. Thesis Graphs? The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989.

Women in essay, Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and graphs, European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Policy In Usa? Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership. Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in thesis graphs, every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. Research Paper On Service? 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers.

Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995.

Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . Thesis? London etc.: Pandora. Study on conceptual thesis the image of the spinster.

Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to graphs sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Admission Service? Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula. 1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of thesis graphs, her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s.

In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Write Conceptual? Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the thesis graphs majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. Graduate Service? 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Graphs? Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of computer skills essay, female authors, some established and some less established. Thesis? Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and essay rubric, Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at graphs, the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990).

Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988.

Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and write thesis, Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines.

Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of graphs, 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Research? Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of graphs, women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and poetry essay, formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the thesis graphs socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in computer essay, munitions factories).

Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of thesis graphs, war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987.

The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. Binding? 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history.

Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold.

Study proceeds from literary history focusing on thesis graphs novels. Introduces established modernist writers on policy in usa the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in graphs, 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles.

Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'. Policy Essay? In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and thesis graphs, Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. 39-55. Skills? Stern, Katherine. 1987. The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction.

Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984.

The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Thesis? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Graduate Admission Essay Service? Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of graphs, showing fashionable women's clothes on poetry stage: attracting and stimulating for graphs, audience (except in paper on service quality, performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from thesis graphs flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for policy in usa essay, the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn.

1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. Puppen. Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne.

Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon. Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the graphs discourse of graduate, fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and thesis graphs, cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994.

Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . Poetry? New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of graphs, cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel.

1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and immigration essay, Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on graphs the subject of feminism and write thesis, sexual morality around the graphs turn of the admission essay service (19th to 20th) century. Graphs? Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the service restrictive cultural context of the time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and graphs, alternative forms of sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on research paper quality gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Thesis? Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and computer, Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Study on men and thesis graphs, sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by admission essay, different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora.

Study on graphs the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on psu dissertation binding women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and thesis graphs, sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Admission Service? Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. Thesis? 1987. Sex and Suffrage in rubric, Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of graphs, sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle.

Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in immigration essay, magazines and graphs, novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only in usa partially to be classified as modernist. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Graphs? One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank.

1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality.

Key words: Debate on write social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the thesis city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history.

Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and research on service, gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Graphs? Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia.

Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles.

Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Policy Essay? Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on thesis graphs the development of the scientific discourse on rubric sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. Thesis Graphs? A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is reflected in on service, the light of the thesis discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre.

Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of psu dissertation, representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl. Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Characterised by thesis graphs, a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in essay rubric, death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation.

The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Graphs? Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to research paper on service her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing).

Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Philosophically oriented dissertation on thesis graphs decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Paper? Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Greenslade, William.

1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and graphs, degeneration at the fin de siècle.

Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992. The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the graduate admission 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the graphs sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and policy essay, social changes of the thesis graphs period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed.

Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Poetry Essay Rubric? Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress.

Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning. 1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Graphs? Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84.

Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and graduate essay service, analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in graphs, Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of poetry analysis essay, Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in graphs, two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from essay rubric 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso.

Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology. For Nordau, mysticism and thesis, egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel.

1989. Faces of psu dissertation binding, Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Thesis? Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples.

Study covers texts from analysis essay rubric all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . Graphs? London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Computer Essay? Feminist study on graphs the interdependence between constructions of essay rubric, femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the graphs transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in write thesis, exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and graphs, society as a product of essay service, feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration.

Emerging concepts of regeneration within the thesis feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan. Computer Skills? 1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at all). Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and the emergence of thesis graphs, surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in essay, particular homoeroticism, the cult of thesis, vitality as a reaction to research paper on service quality late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of graphs, leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph.

1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Computer? Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Graphs? Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis.

Content: Analysis of the paper on service interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and thesis graphs, art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard. 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . Computer? London: Constable.

281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the thesis perspective of the skills essay artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and graphs, thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'. In: Edward J. Psu Dissertation Binding? Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds.

Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . Thesis? London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on psu dissertation the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of thesis graphs, degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century. Important points in policy in usa, the literary context of degeneration: popularity of thesis, a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction. Bland, Lucy. 1995.

Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Computer Skills? Bland's book is thesis a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to graduate admission service 20th) century. Thesis Graphs? Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at policy, least from a 21st-century point of graphs, view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and poetry, Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997. Graphs? Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality.

Requires knowledge of the admission service theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972.

Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Thesis Graphs? A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of psu dissertation, 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the thesis graphs history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and research on service, role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality.

Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to thesis disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by rubric, different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. Thesis Graphs? 1985.

Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and poetry analysis essay rubric, 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity. Thesis? Approach: theologically oriented social history. Psu Dissertation? Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan.

Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the thesis feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Computer? Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.).

Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of thesis, moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of conceptual thesis, female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the thesis graphs general presumption of on service quality, sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the thesis graphs modernist context.

Jeffreys shows that the emergence of graduate, sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the thesis graphs opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into research on service quality, male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in thesis graphs, England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Write Thesis? Discourse-theoretical approach.

Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on graphs social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the research paper city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Graphs? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of write, female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Graphs? Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context.

Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Graduate Admission? Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995.

Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona. 1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed.

1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Graphs? Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of interviews. Includes articles by Baudrillard and poetry analysis essay rubric, Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality.

Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. Bland, Lucy. 1995.

Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is graphs a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from binding a 21st-century point of graphs, view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. In Usa? Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of graphs, World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Paper On Service? Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989.

Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective. Thesis Graphs? Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Garner, Les. 1984. Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. On Service Quality? 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Graphs? Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Psu Dissertation? Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in thesis graphs, art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and binding, radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and thesis, self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in binding, feminist pamphlets and manifestos.

Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of thesis graphs, their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Poetry Essay? Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on thesis graphs performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Skills Essay? 166-184.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by thesis graphs, women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before.

Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of psu dissertation binding, genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Graphs? Burmeister, Tereza. 1994.

In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of graduate admission, losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of thesis graphs, canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Computer Skills? Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Thesis Graphs? Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the conceptual thesis vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. Thesis Graphs? 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents.

Deals with established and write conceptual, less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. Thesis? The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Binding? Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds.

1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Graphs? Vol.

I: The War of the Words . Psu Dissertation Binding? New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Thesis Graphs? Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. Admission Service? III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed. 1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939. Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers. Thesis Graphs? Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. Write Thesis? 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Thesis? Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established.

Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Psu Dissertation Binding? Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . Thesis Graphs? London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and immigration policy essay, the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian. 1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Thesis Graphs? Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and research on service, the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Graphs? Study on thesis the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the thesis graphs literary canon: Provides a discussion of write thesis, women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of thesis, literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of binding, (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996. Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and graphs, poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to essay their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is thesis a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on analysis the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of graphs, mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in computer skills, 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon.

Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Thesis Graphs? Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland.

Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. Immigration? 1997.

Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Thesis Graphs? Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia. Write? 1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels.

Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda.

In: Michael R. Graphs? Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of research, Isabella Ford and thesis graphs, Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is analysis essay rubric important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the thesis Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago. An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors.

She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. Write Thesis? A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Thesis? It is Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the research on service quality domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and thesis graphs, its function. She thus offers an paper on service important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally. Graphs? 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience.

In most cases such alternative publishing was the computer skills only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and thesis, Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of psu dissertation binding, modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by thesis graphs, showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to psu dissertation contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to thesis graphs discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Essay? Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century.

He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for graphs, example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for the modernist period. Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and conceptual thesis, the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Graphs? Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers.

1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Immigration Policy Essay? Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible. Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Thesis Graphs? Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art.

It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and graduate, Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155. Kaufmann shows how the place of thesis, publication can be indicative of an author's conception of poetry, literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S.

Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Thesis? Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Immigration Policy In Usa Essay? A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket. Graphs? Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in admission service, the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D.

1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Thesis? Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is analysis essay rubric not only an important document because of the thesis empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds.

Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Skills? 112-134. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. Thesis? 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Quality? Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors.

Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and graphs, Class at write thesis, the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. Thesis? 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of immigration policy, Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to graphs show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997. Who Paid for binding, Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of thesis graphs, Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in immigration policy in usa essay, his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to thesis live on one's writing.

White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. Service? A seminal account of the thesis graphs development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of admission, particular interest.

Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996. Modernist Writers and the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Thesis Graphs? An essay collection that deals with the graduate admission essay service conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and thesis, Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R.

Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine) Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and write conceptual thesis, Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of thesis graphs, little magazines as almost the only medium of computer essay, publication for experimental young authors. Graphs? Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press.

Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship. This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?.

The New Republic 104.13: 424. A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the development of graduate admission essay, a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in thesis, order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. Skills? 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin.

An anthology of what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v). His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on graphs little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and paper quality, Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56.

One of the graphs first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the computer story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine. Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. Thesis Graphs? The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and immigration, modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974).

Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. The Role of Little Magazines in thesis graphs, the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin.

Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the skills little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the graphs exact content of these magazines. Binding? van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by graphs, Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. 1996. Binding? Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the thesis graphs avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. Graduate Essay Service? An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to thesis graphs Sader, ed. (1976). Paper On Service Quality? Bradbury, Malcolm. 1958.

The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the thesis first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship. Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. Essay? The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in thesis graphs, Retrospect.

London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the Calendar served as model for F.R. Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in psu dissertation, the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm.

1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Thesis? Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190.

This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999.

Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. 187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an binding idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane.

1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Graphs? Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205.

The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Casford, E. Leonore. 1929. The Magazines of the policy in usa essay 1890's: A Chapter in thesis graphs, the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and admission, The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot.

Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and graphs, 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of write thesis, his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996.

Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from thesis graphs suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at policy in usa essay, the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of graphs, her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one. He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Analysis Essay Rubric? Clooney, J.P. 1938. Graphs? Among the immigration Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150.

A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds.

Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of graphs, little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the graduate admission essay service qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of thesis graphs, larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals.

Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines. Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the research political position of the thesis graphs Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6.

Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923. Research Paper On Service? The Limitations of American Magazines. Thesis Graphs? Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them.

He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is immigration essay especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Thesis Graphs? Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Graduate Admission Service? Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into thesis graphs, The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles. 1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War.

Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Immigration? Ferrall counters the graphs notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication.

Garner, Les. 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at policy in usa, a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism.

At times a little too subjective and thesis, anecdotal. Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in paper quality, general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing.

Graham, Walter. 1930. English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Thesis Graphs? Grant, Joy.

1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . Analysis Rubric? London: Routledge Kegan Paul. A biography of graphs, one of the essay lesser known editors of graphs, little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. Research Paper On Service? 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in graphs, which Hamilton focuses on essay an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and thesis, Horizon . Binding? Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on graphs modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for essay service, Art's sake. Graphs? ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of immigration in usa essay, women in little-magazine publishing. Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19.

Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of (American) little magazines.

Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and graphs, American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for computer essay, Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Graphs? Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich. 1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Policy Essay? Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of graphs, British and American little magazines.

The introductory chapters are also of policy essay, interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and graphs, anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of essay rubric, editors and contributors, etc. Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. Graphs? In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Essay? Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161. Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at graphs, least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on write thesis the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. Thesis? Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. Research Quality? 1973/74. Thesis Graphs? The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to conceptual a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson.

Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in thesis graphs, the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to immigration in usa essay further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of thesis graphs, Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career. Paper On Service? A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993.

Pound, Blast , and thesis graphs, Syndicalism. English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to poetry analysis rubric the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to thesis graphs him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Analysis Essay? Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is thesis graphs amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Graduate Admission? Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in thesis graphs, 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. She argues for a revaluation of immigration policy essay, these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and thesis graphs, 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in graduate, the literary field.

His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on it. Graphs? Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson. 1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of admission essay, Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997.

Britannica CD: Version 97 . Thesis? Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. Write Thesis? 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187. MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation.

Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky. A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Marek tries to show that in the function of thesis, publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture.

Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. Immigration Policy Essay? She says hardly anything about the graphs set-up of particular issues or the write thesis norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter. Thesis Graphs? 1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in psu dissertation binding, Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds.

Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36. In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the thesis role of little magazines. Psu Dissertation? He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and thesis graphs, those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. Service? 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in thesis, Short Fiction 14: 233-240. An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the conceptual thesis short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967.

The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the thesis New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in psu dissertation, portraying The New Age as a platform for graphs, innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and write thesis, The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Thesis? Masteller, Richard N. 1997. Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H.

Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Write? Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism. ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience.

He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and thesis graphs, Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in paper quality, contrast to The Freewoman it failed to thesis address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Morrisson, Mark S. Research Quality? 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Graphs? Morrisson not only gives the thesis typical account of little magazines' central role in thesis, the development of thesis, modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited.

He focuses on thesis graphs four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937. How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture. Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of write conceptual thesis, interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. In: Kevin J.H.

Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of thesis graphs, Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. Computer? He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the thesis avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the write thesis advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art.

Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and thesis, Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of poetry analysis, Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Graphs? Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303.

Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of graduate admission service, The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to thesis publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and actually made quite a lot of money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. Research Paper On Service? The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to thesis graphs retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13.

Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of computer essay, support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and thesis graphs, not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object. Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. Computer Essay? 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938.

Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America. Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in graphs, poetry with the commercial publishers). Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Computer? Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. The entries include information on works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction).

Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449. Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Graphs? Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values.

Singer, Herman B. 1940. The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Immigration Essay? Calverton) position with respect to marxism and thesis, the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. Write Thesis? 1984. Time and graphs, Tide Wait for No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. Binding? One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on thesis giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on write thesis reprinting some of their articles.

Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in graphs, Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and psu dissertation, Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Thesis? Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press.

To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on admission service publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order.

Each magazine is introduced in thesis, an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on poetry analysis essay publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. 1967. The Cri. Thesis? London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. Immigration Policy In Usa Essay? A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the magazine as an thesis graphs odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and essay rubric, an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Graphs? Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934.

Review of binding, Radical Magazines. Graphs? Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of a new turn to the left in analysis rubric, (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Graphs? Thacker, Andrew. Graduate Admission Service? 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. Thesis Graphs? English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven.

1939. The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162. An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of immigration policy in usa essay, literature and thesis graphs, stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the write conceptual magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor.

Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . London: Secker and Warburg. 93-103. Thesis Graphs? Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and of psu dissertation, The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the thesis graphs function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of poetry essay, modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in thesis, politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930.

The Story of the Little Magazines. Admission Service? The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563. Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation. College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the thesis manifesto is admission service a little too vague, including essays and graphs, programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Poetry? Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology.

In Francis Barker et al., eds. Thesis? Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of paper on service quality, Literature). Graphs? Colchester: University of Essex. 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and analysis, contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932.

Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Thesis? Zabel, Morton Dauwen.

1929. The Way of Periodicals. Policy? Poetry 34.6: 330-4. A comment on the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Study on thesis graphs the situation of women between the wars. Immigration In Usa Essay? Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an thesis enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire.

In: Carola M. Computer Skills Essay? Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Study on thesis war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war.

Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes.

Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and essay, Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on war and modernism.

Details on thesis graphs World War I: major events, the end of the thesis Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and evil. Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the thesis graphs sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993.

Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. Analysis Rubric? 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to thesis World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. Essay? pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988. English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman.

Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and thesis graphs, war. Research On Service Quality? Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter).

Different perspectives and thesis graphs, manners of perceiving war: men focus on immigration policy in usa the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the thesis graphs war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of admission service, literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on graphs political change. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture.

London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Psu Dissertation Binding? Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography.

Kern, Stephen. 1983. Thesis? The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914.

In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and skills, Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture.

Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of thesis, Wold War One on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of computer skills, space. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the thesis graphs Wars 1918-1940 . Research Paper On Service? London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan.

Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in thesis graphs, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the write thesis Great War, 1918-39. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and likewise the thesis graphs anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and research paper, Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in graphs, munitions factories).

Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of binding, hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in graphs, the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and immigration in usa essay, women's roles in thesis, postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of skills, life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism.

Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Graphs? Recharting the binding Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Thesis Graphs? Essay collection on skills the effects of World War I on thesis society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen.

Trout, Steven. 1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Quality? Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. Graphs? 1990. Write Thesis? The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994.

Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor. Thesis Graphs? 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press.

Study on World War I: based upon facts and events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Research? Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Thesis? Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and poetry analysis essay rubric, perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Thesis? Quinn, ed. Write Thesis? Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81.

Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the thesis graphs novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Write? Kaplan, eds. Graphs? 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience.

Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of in usa, Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Graphs? Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and immigration policy in usa essay, the Gendering of Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. Thesis? New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. Binding? 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the thesis vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994.

Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . Service? London: Taylor and thesis, Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981.

Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Conceptual Thesis? Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Thesis? Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Decadence. Search for new forms and contents.

War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Graduate Admission Essay? Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. Kahn, Elizabeth Louise.

1997. Thesis Graphs? Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994.

Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of write thesis, Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of graphs, stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of psu dissertation, Writing, Politics and graphs, Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch.

4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of poetry rubric, their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of thesis graphs, Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Essay? Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. Thesis Graphs? vorticists, futurists). In Usa Essay? Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. Thesis Graphs? 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279.

Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995.

How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for computer skills essay, the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. Graphs? 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the immigration essay Century: Modernism and thesis, Modernity in research paper, Literature and graphs, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in binding, the Machine Age.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and graphs, Duty: Women Between the essay Wars, 1918-1939 . Graphs? London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Analysis? Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the thesis novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John.

1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and psu dissertation binding, Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Graphs? Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite. Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value.

Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP.

Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of graduate essay service, Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . Thesis Graphs? New York London: Garland. 351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Essay? Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Thesis Graphs? Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of computer skills essay, their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals).

Detailed discussion of graphs, novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Skills Essay? Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the thesis graphs public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in write thesis, popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz.

Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. Thesis Graphs? 1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. Conceptual? 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. Thesis Graphs? The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of conceptual thesis, space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Graphs? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Admission Essay Service? Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the thesis graphs International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Graduate Admission Essay? Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in thesis, der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. Quality? St.

Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Graphs? Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Conceptual? Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H.

Lawrence Women in thesis, Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Graduate Admission Essay Service? Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the thesis graphs Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in essay, English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. Thesis Graphs? 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Poetry Analysis Rubric? Modernism. 1890-1930.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Thesis? Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Immigration Policy In Usa? Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures.

Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and thesis, Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. Paper On Service? 3 The Suburbs and thesis, the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Quality? Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Graphs? Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on immigration depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph.

1963. Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in graphs, Modern Literature . Write Thesis? New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford.

1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and thesis graphs, British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of psu dissertation, text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Graphs? Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. Immigration Policy? In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to thesis the 1930s based on service social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James. 1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . New York: St. Graphs? Martin's Press. Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s.

There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Binding? Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. Thesis? London: Mansell.

129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Service? Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of graphs, perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and immigration, sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of graphs, attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Quality? Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Thesis? Klarer, Mario.

1995. Simultaneity and research paper on service quality, Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in graphs, the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed.

Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in paper on service quality, Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. Thesis? London in the Novels of research on service quality, Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels.

Spencer, Sharon. Thesis? 1971. Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Essay? Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Thesis Graphs? Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Psu Dissertation? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the thesis graphs International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Poetry Analysis Essay Rubric? Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. Thesis Graphs? In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Policy? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson.

Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Graphs? Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus.

Theory of subjectivity and identity. Research On Service? The significance of space and thesis graphs, body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of essay, spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London. The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally.

1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. Thesis Graphs? 245-271. Alter, Peter.

1993. Paper On Service Quality? Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. Graphs? In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds.

Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler. Immigration Policy In Usa? 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in thesis, Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the graduate XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum.

310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig.

Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. Graphs? London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of psu dissertation, Chicago Press. Thesis? (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Poetry Analysis Essay Rubric? Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Thesis Graphs? Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals.

Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of graduate essay service, established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature.

Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375.

Frisby, David. 2001. Graphs? Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Graduate Admission? Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge. Hertel, Kirsten. 1997.

London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kilian, Eveline.

2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of thesis, Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to paper quality 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Thesis Graphs? Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin.

München: Hanser. Paper On Service? Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann.

Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to thesis graphs Literary London. Write Conceptual? Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard.

1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Graphs? Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and poetry analysis, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley. 1970.

Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Graphs? Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Computer Skills Essay? Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Thesis? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. Binding? The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998.

London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Graphs? Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Essay Service? Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the graphs City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities.

In: P. Conceptual? Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Graphs? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Sennet, Richard. 1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the essay service Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57.

Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to thesis graphs 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. Research On Service Quality? From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. Thesis? A Female Vision of the psu dissertation City: London in the Novels of thesis graphs, Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill.

1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. Research Quality? 1984. Graphs? Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in policy in usa, Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. Thesis? In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of admission, Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert.

1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Thesis? Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. Research On Service? The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the thesis graphs Control of skills essay, Disorder, and Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Thesis? Women and the Literature of Modernity.

Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Binding? Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck. Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353.

Birkett, Dea. 1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. Graphs? The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism.

Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance. Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for binding, social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter.

Brendon, Piers. 1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Thesis? Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in psu dissertation binding, der deutschen Literatur . Thesis Graphs? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature.

Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement. Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Psu Dissertation? Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Thesis Graphs? Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik.

1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James. 1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the immigration policy essay masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and thesis, flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on paper on service economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in thesis, the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual.

Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Psu Dissertation Binding? Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan. 1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of graphs, tourism as a commercial product.

Thesis: semiotic processes of write, tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Thesis Graphs? Dodd, Philip. 1982. The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in psu dissertation binding, the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. Thesis Graphs? In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley. Foster, Shirley. 1990.

Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the graduate service 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to graphs male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner). Mixture of male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel.

1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 93-106.

Essay on the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds.

1993. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . On Service? Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the thesis graphs demands and conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and poetry analysis essay rubric, class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Thesis Graphs? Fussell, Paul. 1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Psu Dissertation? Early authoritative text on travel literature. Graphs? Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the on service quality wars (summaries, biographical details).

Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of thesis graphs, analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992.

Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 71-92. Ghose, Indira.

1998. Women Travellers in psu dissertation binding, Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Thesis? Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Quality? Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of thesis graphs, women travellers is influenced by aspects of race, class and gender.

They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of psu dissertation binding, voyeurs or spies. This is thesis also evident in computer, the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the thesis picturesque. Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Service? Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Thesis Graphs? 230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples.

Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the graduate admission service traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson.

Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Depiction of social problems.

Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on thesis identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Conceptual? Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria. 1993.

Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and thesis graphs, the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the computer Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to thesis conventional norms of femininity.

This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Binding? Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989. Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Thesis Graphs? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and the Art of research quality, Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Thesis Graphs? Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Research Paper? Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara. 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of thesis, fact and essay service, fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation.

Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed. 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of thesis, autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994.

Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in thesis, the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for thesis, Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from thesis travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the thesis male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Graduate Admission Service? Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and the strange. The flexibility of the genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds.

Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from thesis graphs a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean.

1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on graduate tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir. Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and thesis, elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of essay, tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g.

Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of thesis, Sybil. In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of research on service, goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Graphs? Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault).

Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on research the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary. 1992. Women and thesis, Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Binding? Temperamental Journeys: Essays on thesis graphs the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32.

Morris characterises female travelling and conceptual, travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to bring in their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Graphs? Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163.

Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the psu dissertation conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to thesis the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of write thesis, landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. Thesis Graphs? 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123. A case study of computer skills, some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and graphs, the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed.

1991). Robinson, Jane. 1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Graduate Admission Essay Service? Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of graphs, women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of poetry analysis, texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. Thesis? London: Flamingo.

Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in essay, der Fremde. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597.

Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Graphs? Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and poetry, their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and thesis graphs, female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of psu dissertation, Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in graphs, Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans).

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. In Usa? Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Thesis Graphs? Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on travelling by railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on write the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature).

Schülting, Sabine. Thesis Graphs? 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. Service? 1982. Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion.

1989. Woman into graphs, the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press.

107-138. Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Computer Skills? Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and graphs, Peter Fleming from Peking through the immigration in usa Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in their writings.

Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Graphs? Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Psu Dissertation? Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of thesis graphs, literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies.

Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and in usa essay, fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994.

Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Thesis? Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Psu Dissertation Binding? Oxford: Blackwell. Study on thesis graphs women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties.

Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Poetry Analysis Essay? Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Thesis Graphs? McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties.

In: Making Space. Computer Skills? Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter.

1995. Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and thesis, the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Essay? Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. Graphs? This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on research paper on service quality women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Thesis? Women's rights to work between the paper on service quality wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Winter, J.M.

1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of graphs, living, efforts to computer essay increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the thesis graphs two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession. Policy Essay? Restraining of women from graphs working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985.

Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Immigration In Usa Essay? Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by thesis graphs, women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Binding? Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Thesis Graphs? Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. In Usa? Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Thesis Graphs? Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences.

McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994.

This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. Psu Dissertation Binding? London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Thesis Graphs? Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon.

1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and computer, World War I. Thesis Graphs? Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in research paper quality, munitions factories). Graphs? Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. Rubric? The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity.

Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and thesis graphs, literature as part of write, modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. Thesis Graphs? München. Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Conceptual? Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Thesis Graphs? Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler.

Bordo, Susan. 1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Rubric? Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and graphs, the Subversion of Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. Poetry? The Dominant and thesis, the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic.

In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . New York: Garland. Policy Essay? 87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of thesis graphs, Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark.

Doyle, Laura. Paper Quality? 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . Thesis? New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972.

Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Poetry Analysis Rubric? Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Thesis? Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and graduate service, Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press.

Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in thesis, Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Skills? Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. Graphs? [1919] 1994.

Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Essay Rubric? Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP.

Hohnsträter, Dirk. 1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds.

1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999. Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Thesis Graphs? Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990.

Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Binding? Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Thesis? Powers of Horror. Psu Dissertation Binding? An Essay on graphs Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Computer? Sargisson, Lucy. 2000.

Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. 1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds.

Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge. Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness.

In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270. Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Graphs? Introduction: Modernism and its Margins. In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds.

Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Computer Skills? Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner. The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans.

M.B. Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel.

Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Graphs? Butler, Judith. 1993. Research On Service Quality? Bodies that Matter: On the graphs Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and psu dissertation binding, Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992.

Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Graphs? Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl.

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991.

The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994.

Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds.

1990. Write Conceptual? Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. Graphs? 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of conceptual thesis, Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Thesis? Leaky Bodies and policy in usa, Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP.

Brooks, J.A. 1982. Graphs? Ghosts of write, London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on different experiences of space from antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of thesis graphs, mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.).

Space and research quality, aspects of thesis, conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Computer? Difference between normal and deviant spaces.

Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. Thesis? In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230.

Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to graduate essay the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . Thesis? London: Routledge. (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of paper on service quality, value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. Graphs? 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of immigration in usa, space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001.

Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of thesis graphs, perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Thesis? Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Thesis? Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness).

Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Essay? Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. Thesis? 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in conceptual, der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space.

Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Thesis Graphs? Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. Research On Service Quality? 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Thesis? Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Write? Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang.

1979. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on thesis space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on research paper on service the perception of thesis, space and time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. Service? 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton.

Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of thesis graphs, cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature.

Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from policy cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is graphs therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia.

Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . Immigration Essay? London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Thesis Graphs? Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and graduate essay, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford.

Blackwell. Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of thesis graphs, mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality.

Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Essay? Duncan, Nancy.

1996. Renegotiating Gender and graphs, Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145.

Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and immigration in usa, space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and graphs, designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity.

Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997. Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Immigration In Usa? Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161. Article on the volatile nature of space and graphs, identity. Approach.

Deconstructivist social geography. Graduate Admission Essay? Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject. Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and thesis, Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Conceptual Thesis? Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender.

Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Graphs? Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Binding? Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of graphs, North Carolina Press. Psu Dissertation Binding? Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from thesis graphs different ethnic cultures.

Authoritative text on essay spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Thesis? Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Skills Essay? 281-287. Graphs? Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Graduate Service? Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of thesis graphs, space in stream of skills, consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of thesis, fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Research Paper? Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of thesis, spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. Admission? 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in graphs, Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to psu dissertation the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and thesis graphs, expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer.

Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in psu dissertation, the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77.

Article on space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984. Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391.

Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975. Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in thesis, der Erzählkunst . Poetry Analysis? Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space.

Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of thesis graphs, meaning to binding space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau.

Hunt, John Dixon. Graphs? 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70. Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile.

Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Paper On Service? Study on thesis graphs the phenomenology of narrative environments of graduate admission service, action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis. Criticism: terminology is imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of research. Kilian, Eveline. Graphs? 2002.

Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. Psu Dissertation Binding? The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. Graphs? 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in policy in usa essay, modernist paintings.

Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Thesis? Klein, Holger. 1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Binding? 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in thesis graphs, drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in psu dissertation binding, drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on thesis stage vs. Poetry? linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker.

1969. Graphs? Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Lane, Eric. Immigration Policy In Usa? 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus.

Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Study on the role of space in fiction. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Graphs? Expansion and movement.

Time and service, its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975.

Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Graphs? Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Binding? Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995.

Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Thesis? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Immigration Policy In Usa? Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. Thesis? In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Graduate Admission Essay? Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and graphs, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. Admission Essay? 2000.

Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the thesis particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in computer skills essay, connection with the narrative structure of the text.

Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989. Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology.

Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in thesis graphs, novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of binding, nature. Punter, David. Thesis? 1979. Blake's Capital Cities.

In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Essay? Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning.

Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of a history of thesis, mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on computer essay the gendered nature of cities. Thesis? Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on poetry rubric cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Graphs? Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. Graduate Admission? A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of thesis graphs, Five British Women . Binding? Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of thesis graphs, novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the computer essay trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Graphs? Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James.

1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Conceptual? Oxford: Blackwell. Thesis? Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the computer skills essay 17th century. Social space and literature. Thesis? Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Skills Essay? Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Graphs? 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129.

Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of on service, literary space. Thesis? Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Rubric? Provides literary examples. Graphs? Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on the theory of binding, subjectivity and identity.

The significance of space and body for thesis, the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of essay, spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of graphs, subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Immigration In Usa Essay? Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of thesis graphs, narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on psu dissertation text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of graphs, space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). Psu Dissertation? Ronen, Rose. 1986.

Space in thesis, Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Conceptual? Categorisation of space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation. Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz.

1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of graphs, objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. In the 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of immigration policy, space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and graphs, horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Selectivity of representation of space. Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Policy In Usa Essay? Lotman, Jurij.

1972. Graphs? Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of psu dissertation binding, literary space as a model of graphs, cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Admission? Sappok, Christian.

1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an graphs Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Computer Essay? Structuralist/semiotic approach to thesis graphs space and narrative traditions. Collection of immigration essay, essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity.

Key words: setting and thesis graphs, transgression of boundaries; domains of graduate admission essay service, power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Thesis Graphs? Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from computer gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Graphs? Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Graduate? Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. Graphs? 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of poetry, text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith.

1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in thesis graphs, architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on write social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy.

1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of thesis, space from essay rubric a post-structuralist perspective.

Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Thesis? Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass.

Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and paper on service quality, Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of thesis graphs, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Graduate Admission? Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. Graphs? London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by skills essay, women in thesis graphs, the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Psu Dissertation? Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and graphs, literature. Proceeding from cultural history. Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of space in literary criticism.

Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. Computer? 261-294. Article on womanhood and thesis graphs, inner space. Psu Dissertation? Psychological approach, supported by thesis, evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences.

Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist.

Key words: psychological places of the quality interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to thesis be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997.

Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. Computer Essay? In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and thesis, formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds.

Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on skills space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness.

Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981.

Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in thesis graphs, general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of skills, selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Thesis? Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. Admission? In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

99-124. Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over thesis, its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993.

Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen. Bonn: Holos. Binding? Study on space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974.

Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed.

Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre.

1996. Graphs? The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed. Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. Analysis Rubric? 1996. The Rules of Art . Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil.

Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature. Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. Graphs? 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt.

1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153.

Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Paper Quality? Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Graphs? Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987.

Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget. 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . Research Paper? London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature.

She even offers a gender-related discussion of graphs, modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the essay latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed. 2000. Reading Bourdieu on graphs Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams.

1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter. 1994. Poetry Essay? Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Thesis? Harker, Richard et. al., eds.

1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Honneth, Axel. 1984.

Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Binding? Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. Graphs? In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds.

Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134. Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Poetry Essay Rubric? Jurt, Joseph.

1994. Thesis? Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Research? Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist.

Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out graphs that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the graduate admission service production, publication, and reception of literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. Graphs? In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol.

2. Computer Skills? London etc.: Sage. Thesis Graphs? 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251. Moi, Toril.

1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Graduate Essay Service? Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of thesis graphs, Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415.

Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. Poetry Analysis Rubric? International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds.

1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. Graphs? How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works.

Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989. The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. Paper Quality? 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Graphs? Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture. London etc: Sage.

de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Immigration Essay? Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag.

Schwingel, Markus. 1997. Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology. Shiagh, Morag.

1993. 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. Graphs? In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink.

7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Graduate Admission? Bürger, Peter. 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in graphs, the Sociology of Literature.

Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Write Thesis? Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989.

Literature and thesis, Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. Computer Essay? 1966. Thesis Graphs? Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs.

SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Write Conceptual? Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per. 1977. Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy.

1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. Thesis? von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf.

1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. Poetry Analysis? 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans. 1981.

Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. 1989. Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds.

Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Graphs? 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. Poetry Analysis Essay Rubric? 1977.

Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Thesis Graphs? Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and Treatment. Causes, Effects and Treatment. November 30, 2009. Causes, Effects and Treatments. In today’s society, people seem to thesis have a lot of problems that are classified as mental disorders. Poetry? These disorders include: depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, and thesis even seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The immediate stigma that is placed on most if not all mood disorders is that they are sicknesses. Conceptual? In the case of depression, this is not to confuse depression, a normal emotion with biological depression, an illness. Further along this line of irrational thought is the belief that they are not treatable and the person affected is in graphs, some way, shape or form disconnected from psu dissertation, civilization as we know it. Thesis? In this research paper, we will attempt to immigration policy in usa essay destroy these unfair stereotypes on this subject, attempt to thesis rationalize the psu dissertation binding, behaviors, and shed light on treatments for graphs the various disorders. Graduate Essay? The research gathered will attempt to understand and graphs answer these questions:

1. Policy? What are mood disorders and their symptoms? 2. What are the graphs, causes? 3. How can the stigma of mood disorders be removed? 4. What forms of treatment are the most successful? What Are Mood Disorders And Their Symptoms?

In order to get a good idea of what causes mood disorders, we first must attempt to categorize what various classes of disorders there are. Immigration Essay? Our text, Psychology: A Journey (2008 p. Thesis? 500), defined mood disorders as major disturbances in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania. The two major classes are: depressive and bipolar. Depressive disorders bring about extended bouts of depression, apathy, complete loss of hope, sleep deprivation, and extreme eating patterns, among symptoms. The other category of computer essay, mood. . remembering, physical slowing or agitation, lack of thesis, interest in or pleasure from activities that were once enjoyed, feelings of guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness, and emptiness, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain. Bipolar disorder known as manic-depressive disorder is a diagnosis for a mood disorder in which people experience disruptive mood swings. It is also known as mania (or hypomania) usually alternated with symptoms of depression. At the lower levels of mania, such as hypomania, a person may appear energetic and excitable. At a higher level, a person may behave erratically and impulsively, often making poor decisions due to rubric unrealistic ideas about the thesis graphs, future, and may have great difficulty with sleep. Immigration Policy In Usa Essay? At the highest level, a person can show psychotic behavior, including violence.

People who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes, or symptoms, or a mixed state in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. Common symptoms of bipolar depression include: feeling hopeless, sad, or empty, irritability, inability to experience pleasure, fatigue or loss of energy, and physical and mental sluggishness, Although major depression can be a devastating illness, it is thesis, highly treatable. Between 80 and 90 percent of those suffering from serious depression can be effectively treated and return. Words: 689 - Pages: 3. Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and Treatment. . Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and Treatment Robert Baker Psychology GE1116 Dr. Angela Isom November 30, 2009 Mood Disorders: Causes, Effects and in usa Treatments In today’s society, people seem to graphs have a lot of problems that are classified as mental disorders. These disorders include: depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, and even seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

The immediate stigma that is placed on most if not all mood disorders is graduate essay, that they are sicknesses. In the case of depression, this is not to confuse depression, a normal emotion with biological depression, an illness. Further along this line of graphs, irrational thought is the belief that they are not treatable and the person affected is in some way, shape or form disconnected from in usa essay, civilization as we know it. In this research paper, we will attempt to destroy these unfair stereotypes on this subject, attempt to rationalize the behaviors, and shed light on treatments for the various disorders. The research gathered will attempt to understand and answer these questions: 1. What are mood disorders and their symptoms? 2. Thesis? What are the causes? 3. How can the stigma of mood disorders be removed? 4. What forms of treatment are the most successful? What Are Mood Disorders And Their Symptoms? In order to get a good idea of what causes mood disorders, we first must attempt to research paper categorize what various classes of. Words: 3426 - Pages: 14.

. eBooker T. Washington Cause and effect essay Booker T. Washington was born in Franklin County Virginia in 1856. Thesis Graphs? Born and raised by an African American mother whose name was Jane but, ignored by a white father whom he never met (Gates). Essay? Booker T. Washington was born directly into slavery, however, during the civil war; his family was freed from thesis graphs, slavery but not from racism (WV Culture.org). Harlan states, at the age of nine, he carried on the role of an policy essay, adult and worked the salt furnaces and coal mines in West Virginia. “Determined to educate himself, he traveled hundreds of miles under great hardship until he arrived penniless, exhausted, and filthy at the Institute of thesis, Hampton” (Wormser). WV Culture.org also states, after Booker T. Analysis Essay? Washington graduated in 1875 at the age of graphs, nineteen, he returned to Malden to teach school for both black children and adults. During his time of teaching, Harlan claims, that he became one of the most powerful speakers and leading black educators of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Computer Essay? Mr. Thesis Graphs? Washington was considered a leader in immigration policy in usa essay, the black community because of his experience as a child with being born into slavery 2634531, secondly, he dedicated his self early to become educated, and graphs final, he strategized a method that would serve both whites and blacks to come to write a mediator for thesis through his speeches without force but more so with persuasion.

Mr. Policy In Usa? Booker T. Thesis Graphs? Washington was an intelligent man who knew how to put his education to good use to gain. Words: 1341 - Pages: 6. . Immigration Policy In Usa Essay? episodes of depression. 1. Major Depressive Disorder II. Dysthymic Disorder Major Depressive Disorder Also called major depression It is based on the occurrence of one or more major depressive episodes in the absence of mania or hypomania. DYSTHYMIC DISORDER From Greek roots dys which means bad or hard and thesis thymos meaning spirit. People with dysthymic disorder feel bad spirited or down in the dumps. In order to fulfill DSM-IV-TR criteria for this disorder the research paper, person must, over at least 2 years, exhibit a depressed mood for most of the thesis, day or more days than not.

BIPOLAR DISORDERS A psychological disorder characterized by mood swings between states of extreme elation and depression. BIPOLAR I MANIC EPISODE during a manic episode the person experiences a sudden elevation or expansion of mood and feels unusually cheerful, euphoric or optimistic. BIPOLAR II * Involves less severe forms of graduate essay service, mania but more frequent major depressive episodes HYPOMANIA * Refers to episodes of increased energy that are not sufficiently severe to qualify as full blown mania CYLOTHYMIA * From Greek words klykos means circle and thymos meaning spirit. Is considered by DSM-IV-TR to be chronic but less severe form at thesis, bipolar disorder. CAUSES SOCIAL FACTORS. . . Thesis? PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS * COGNITIVE DISTORTION All-or-Nothing Thinking Overgeneralization Mental Filter Disqualifying the Positive Jumping to Conclusion Mind reading Fortune teller. Words: 509 - Pages: 3. The Treatment of Mood Disorders Using Marijuana. . INTRODUCTION Many studies have been suggested that marijuana is the root cause of many mental disorders. In spite of government warnings about health risks, many people see it as a harmless substance that helps you to graphs relax and ‘chill’ – a drug that, unlike alcohol and write conceptual cigarettes, might even be good for your physical and mental health. On the other hand, recent research has suggested that it can be a major cause of psychotic illnesses in those who are genetically vulnerable. This paper looks at the research on mood disorders and the use of cannabis for its treatment.

It will brief on the types of mood disorders, their symptoms, and treatment and finally discuss both positive and negative effects of using marijuana as a ‘cure’ for mood disorders. WHAT ARE MOOD DISORDERS? Mood disorders, or affective disorders, are mental health problems such as all types of depression, bipolar disorder, and mania (Klasco, 2011). Thesis Graphs? The disorders in this category include those where the primary symptom is paper on service quality, a disturbance in mood; in other words, inappropriate, exaggerated, or limited range of feelings. There are chemicals in the brain, called endorphins, which are responsible for positive moods. Graphs? Other chemicals in the brain, called neurotransmitters, regulate endorphins. Policy In Usa? Most likely, depression (and other mood disorders) is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain (The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center). Life events (such as unwanted changes in life) may also contribute to. Words: 1858 - Pages: 8. . all working together, to get the children’s literacy development up so that the communities can stop the damaging trend and effect of illiteracy. Works Cited Casey, K. et al. “The case for quality education in juvenile correctional facilities.” EDJJ.

University of Maryland, n.d. Thesis? Web. 8 February 2013. Dagatan, Rhodora. “Top 10 Causes of Illiteracy in the World.” Tip Top Tens.com. Tip Top Tens, 30 September 2012. Web. 7 February 2013. Highlands Today. “Illiteracy causes more problems than first thought.” Highlands Today. Tampa Media Group, 13 April 2010.

Web. 7 February 2013. “Illiteracy: The Downfall of policy in usa, American Society.” Education Portal. Education-Portal.com, 13 June 2011. Thesis Graphs? Web. 7 February 2013.

Kunerth, Jeff. “Learning Disabilities Often Cause Illiteracy.” Orlando Sentinel, 25 August 2004. Web. 8 February 2013. “Literacy Statistics.” Begin to Read. The Family Literacy Centers, 2012. Web.

8 February 2013. Sessams, Gail. “Effects of Illiteracy on Business.” Chron. Hearst newspapers, 2013. Web. 8 February 2013. Words: 1147 - Pages: 5. . forms required by research on service the state. Regulations and taxes may have an especially strong impact on smaller companies since they have less access to capital markets than larger enterprises. When fewer small businesses start and when larger firms curtail expansion, jobs that otherwise might be created never come to be. Thesis? Regulations sometimes overlooked in their impact on on service quality, unemployment are those dealing with occupational licensing.

If individuals cannot use their cars as cabs, sell homemade sandwiches on street corners, or move furniture without the appropriate licenses, their job opportunities become limited. Thesis Graphs? Licensing boards control practitioners in the relevant occupations, and these practitioners often use their licensing powers to restrict the number of entrants to their occupations. An overall assessment of graduate admission essay service, licensing will consider the screening services provided by the boards and the increased cost of thesis, licensed goods and services as well as the inhibiting effects of licensing on employment. I've made it through the process to obtain a license for a business. Research Paper Quality? It is not comfortable. Several policy decisions are necessary like the thesis graphs, location of the zones. The specific taxes and regulations from which the business would be exempt, and the duration of the exemptions. In general, fewer jobs related within them. Binding? I also believe that there should be government programs to help provide jobs. Two of the largest programs, forerunners of the present CETA programs, were the Neighborhood Youth. Words: 1048 - Pages: 5. . Disorder: this is the most common type of BD; the individual experiences at least one episode of mania and thesis one episode of depression ¦ Bipolar II Disorder: as opposed to “full-blown manic episodes” (M.

Smith, et al, 2009), individuals with Bipolar II Disorder experience manic episodes of lower intensity (known as hypomania) as well as severe depression. ¦ Cyclothymia: the milder form of BD’s, cyclothymia is characterized by mood swings that come in poetry essay, cycles as well as regular symptoms of BD, but experienced in less intensity When diagnosing bipolar disorder, mental health professionals must be very thorough in their evaluations, especially in graphs, children and adolescents as symptoms of computer essay, BD can be confused with other biological factors. The developmental stage of the child must be taken into consideration as well. Thesis Graphs? In adults, the mood swings and periods of depression can be caused by other psychological or biological disorders. An exam for BD usually consists of a psychological evaluation that explores family psychiatric history, personal symptoms, a history of the problem, and any previous treatment you have received (if any). Poetry Analysis Essay? The mental health professional may also meet with the individual’s family to discuss any notices in behavior in mood. Thesis Graphs? A physical exam is poetry, also conducted to rule out thesis graphs any psychical causes for write the symptoms, including any medications the individual may be on. Paper submitted to Prof.

Kiely for graphs Psychology 201, 8/17/2010 Treatment of Bipolar. Words: 1510 - Pages: 7. . Psu Dissertation Binding? patients to benefit from CBT with panic surfing, they need to be accepting of anxiety and be able to understand the principles. Patients with overwhelming symptoms found it difficult to learn and apply the principles of this approach. Graphs? The Lampugh et al. (2008) study has a number of limitations. Firstly participants were not followed up over longer periods of time and it is not known how long the observed treatment gains were maintained. Secondly the study relied on self report instruments and did not have an analysis, index to measure the intensity and frequency of panic attacks. Thirdly a small sample size was used for graphs the study and essay is not representative of the thesis, total population. Fourthly a control group of participants for comparison was not present and therefore could not ascertain whether non-specific factors might have played a role in affecting the results.

Generalisabilty of the computer essay, findings were difficult to thesis graphs establish as referrals to the clinic were screened for suitability, before clinic attendees were considered for inclusion into the study. Rubric? The results should be generalised to other age groups and to graphs the opposite gender group i.e. men. CBT is an computer skills, exposure-based approach aimed at helping patients re-acquire a sense of safety around cues associated with anxiety disorders. Education and the provision of skills to deal with anxiety reduce the probability of relapse (Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2003). In contrast to CBT, pharmacological interventions aim. Words: 1793 - Pages: 8. . Abstract There are many different varieties of mood disorders however this paper is focused on cyclothymic and dysthymic disorders.

Dysthymic mood disorder has long term effects where cyclothymic has short term effects. Mood disorders can happen to anyone at any time. It can be hereditary or simply caused by chronic stress. This paper will look at what each of these disorders are, how the come about, symptoms, and treatment. This paper will also talk about some case studies involved in each disorder to give examples of what it is like to live with a mood disorder. The entire scholarly journal authors used in this paper has a degree in phycology or education. Key Words: Dysthymic, Cyclothymic Tina is a 25 year old that lives a very happy productive life most of the graphs, time. She goes through highs where she is super happy and excited but that doesn’t last forever, she then goes into a depression where all she wants to do is stay at home and research paper sleep. Tina doesn’t know what to do, she wants to be able to live her life to the fullest but unable to do so due to her constant misunderstood emotions. Bill is an average male on the outside but inside he suffers some serious problems he is happy but in a few days he won’t be. Thesis? He will become severely depressed everyday of his life for nearly two years.

If bill doesn’t get help for his depression he is at paper on service, high risk for suicide. Significantly, cyclothymic and dysthymic mood disorders are affecting people from all parts of the graphs, world. Words: 824 - Pages: 4. . have already graduated, and quality some are still going to college. Graphs? I will always remember him for his caring about our career and future. I do not think I will be here in college without his support. Finally, another thing I can say I learned from him is how important is my opinion, even if it is wrong. I am the youngest member in my family and they used to ignore me all the time. Essay? He taught me how to express my opinion and believe in myself. Moreover, he makes me more confident.

I saw him many times in a conversation with his father or elder people; he was not afraid of them, it is like he do not care. That made me realize and understand how to speak with older people and respect them even more. I were scared and shy and maybe I still, but definitely not how I used to be. At last, he influenced all of our friends and graphs me, and I appreciate that very much. On Service Quality? Although he is angry and thesis graphs had his issues, but he did have positive effects on me and binding my friends. We will never forget what he did to all of us. Words: 478 - Pages: 2. . My Personal Writing Process Maya James COM/170 September 8, 2014 John Samar Abstract Writing has always been a challenge for me since grammar school and all the way to my senior year in high school. In the past, when I was writing any type of paper, formal or informal I tend to be all over the place (no direction), which can cause confusion among readers. It was much different from the writing process that is discussed in the book because I did not follow the important rules of writing. Just by starting this class and I have already learned so much about the proper way of writing and the techniques to improve my writing skills.

Moving forward, I plan on using the important rules that will prevent me from thesis graphs, making the mistakes I made in the past. I am able to paper on service quality follow the prewriting process to help me in organizing and developing my ideas. Prewriting works for me because I love researching information, writing different ideas, and thesis graphs sharing my thoughts in immigration essay, developing topics that will catch the reader’s attention. Then, I create an outline to organize my main ideas into small sub ideas that will describe, explain, and support the thesis, main topic. Once I finish the outline then I organize my ideas and immigration in usa essay write a rough draft of my topic using my own words to make it more personal and relatable to my reader. The next process is to edit or proof read, and then revise my rough draft by improving the sentences, creating a structure, and to make sure the content is clear and thesis graphs concise.

So. Words: 339 - Pages: 2. Disorders of the essay, Brain: Mood Disorder. . ganglia do? A modeling perspective.

Biological Cybernetics, 103(3), 237-253. doi:10.1007/s00422-010-0401-y Dougherty, Deckersbach, Ottowitz, (n.d.). Harvard Department of psychiatry, MGH PSYCHIATRIC NEUROIMAGING: MOOD DISORDERS SECTION. Retrieved from: http://www.hms.harvard.edu/psych/redbook/redbook-affectivedisorders-02.htm Drevets, W., Price, J., Furey, M. (2008). Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Graphs? Brain Structure Function, 213(1-2), 93-118. doi:10.1007/s00429-008-0189-x MedlinePlus Trusted health information for you (2014).,Mood disorder. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mooddisorders.html Schatzberg, A., (n.d.).

Pioneering Solutions for Depression and Bipolar Disorder, The Stanford Mood Disorders Center. Retrieved from: http://bipolar.stanford.edu/documents/Mood_Disorders_051513.pdf Stangor, C. (2010) Introduction to Psychology. Irvington, NY: Flat World Knowledge, Inc. Tracey, N., (2009). Causes of Mood Disorders – Serotonin, Dopamine, Norepinephrine. Retrieved from: http://natashatracy.com/medicationtype/antidepressants/causes-mood-disorders/. Words: 836 - Pages: 4. . Romuald Jean Lori Bouzane ENG3UR May 2nd, 2014 Life; cause and effect. The past is, simply, a point in time that has already occurred; unfortunately, more often than none, the in usa, past plays a detrimental role to both the present and the future. This may not always be the case, nevertheless, it is impossible to completely escape one’s past; what has happened and one’s past actions will always be significant.

The bestselling novel ‘The Memory Keeper’s Daughter,’ illustrates the impact of the thesis, past throughout the entire story. Kim Edwards uses her story and her characters to demonstrate that one’s past decisions and actions are inescapable. The author uses the on service, narrative of the story to indicate that David, Norah and Caroline have all been deeply influenced by graphs their pasts either negatively or positively. To begin, David spends his life paying penance for graduate admission his shortcomings in the past. Upon returning from thesis graphs, his performance, Paul’s parents annoy him which causes him to sneak out, David catches up to graduate essay service him and they began to drive back home. Whilst in the car, Paul confronts David for thesis turning a blind eye to write the infidelity of Norah; ‘“You don’t even give a damn about thesis graphs that Howard guy.”’ (Edwards p. Computer Essay? 200) Moreover, David confesses that he is aware of the thesis graphs, events that occurred between Norah and binding Howard; David behaves as though he is unaware for he is certain that this affair is a direct result of the decision he made thirteen years ago. David does not confront Norah in an attempt to repent. Words: 1382 - Pages: 6. . to come up with a solution.

This needs to be done so that the problem can be solved completely the first time around, rather than just addressing part of it and having the problem run on and on. This process is called “Cause and Effect Analysis”. Professor Kaoru Ishikawa created Cause and Effect Analysis in the 1960s. The technique uses a diagram-based approach for thinking through all of the possible causes of graphs, a problem. This helps you to carry out a thorough analysis of the research paper quality, situation. There are four steps to using the tool. [1] 1. Identifying the graphs, problem and/or goals 2. Brainstorming; Work out the major factors involved 3. Chart Analysis; Identify possible causes 4. Analyse your diagram develop an action plan Cause and Effect Analysis can be used for rubric both; looking forward to plan a chain of events, or looking backward to better understand one. Cause and Effect: Looking Back Cause and Effect analysis is typically used to figure out why something went wrong.

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The Reversal of Power Relations in Dessa Rose Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2012 20 Pages. 2 Defying the Power of Literacy. 2.1 Adam Nehemiah's Master Text in Dessa Rose. 2.2 Dessa's Seizing of the Power of the Word. 2.3 Resisting the Prescriptive Pen. 3 Exercising the thesis graphs, Power of Orality. 3.1 The Power of Listening and Speaking. 3.2 The Power of Humming and skills essay, Singing. 3.3 Dessa's Final Victory by the Use of Orality and Literacy.

4 Reversing Power Relations through Narrative Form. 4.1 The Deconstruction of Nehemiah's Master Text through Narrative Transmission. 4.2 The Reversal of Slave Narrative Conventions. In literary criticism Sherley Anne Williams' novel Dessa Rose is often argued to be a story of graphs, a woman's triumph in a (white) man's world” (Beaulieu 40) and the story of a woman's passage from slavery to conceptual, freedom (McDowell 147). The novel, as a postmodern neo-slave narrative, stands as a counter-text to master texts and the slave narratives of the 18th and thesis graphs, 19th century and presents a series of reversals, contradicting conventional expectations with regard to both race and gender” (Beaulieu 31). As McDowell notes, the novel stages the oppositions of slavery and freedom, orality and literacy, fact and psu dissertation, fiction [. ] in thesis graphs an untidy network of social and material specifities” (147). This paper is concerned with the power relations expressed through the relationship between orality and textuality, between the admission, spoken word that enlivens and the written one that captivates” and their reversal (Rushdy 2004, 99). As a novel, dealing with oppressive literacy” and emancipatory orality” Dessa Rose is a novel that directs our attention to the disparity in access to power between those who write master texts and those who produce slave narratives [. ]” (Rushdy 1993, 366; 1999,136).

In this paper this interesting discrepant relationship is going to be analysed on graphs, three different levels. On the level of the story of Dessa Rose it is going to be analysed how the immigration, southern white author Adam Nehemiah attempts to assume mastery over the slave woman Dessa and how Dessa refuses to thesis, be subject to his efforts of subjugation. It will be shown how Nehemiah reads” Dessa according to immigration, his own terms and appropriates her (hi)story in his writing. Thesis Graphs? Furthermore, it will be revealed how Dessa seizes the power of her own voice, how she resists being captivated in paper on service Nehemiah's book and how she eventually makes use of the written word herself. On the level of narrative transmission, it will be described how this struggle between literacy and orality is mirrored and at the same time deconstructed by the way the narrative is mediated.

Finally, it will be discussed how Williams' novel reverses the conventions of the traditional slave narrative and graphs, thereby hints at the power disparity that the authors of traditional slave narratives faced in their effort to tell their own stories. As such, this paper is concerned with the power relations in literary institutions” and the significance of individual writers' acts of appropriation” (Rushdy 1999,135). 2.1 Adam Nehemiah’s Master Text in Dessa Rose. In the first part of thesis, Williams' novel, The Darky”, the character Adam Nehemiah is presented as a member of the thesis graphs, cultural apparatus that creates both masters and master texts” (Rushdy 1999, 143) who sets out to write a book about the prevention of computer essay, slave revolts. He therefore gathers information for his book The Roots of graphs, Rebellion in the Slave Population and Some Means of write, Eradicating Them and wants to thesis graphs, use Dessa as a source of information for his purpose (cf. Conceptual Thesis? DR 1 21, 23). Nehemiah understands himself as a man of science”, research” and rationalism and he believes himself to be an thesis, expert on [t]he mind of the darky” (ibid. 232). He has already written another book on slaves, namely The Masters' Complete Guide to Dealing with Slaves and Other Dependents, a handbook” about sound management” for plantation owners (ibid.

24-25). Nehemiah functions as an operative agent” in the mainstream publishing industry in which he, a man of immigration in usa essay, lower class background, strives to achieve the graphs, status of an important southern author and gain himself reputation among the powerful class of plantation owners (cf. DR 25; Rushdy 1999, 143; cf. Goldman 326). As the scribe of antebellum culture”, he functions, as his name indicates, very much like the biblical Adam, as a namer and controller of language”, and psu dissertation binding, similar to the Old Testament prophet Nehemiah, he stands for the guardianship of traditional culture and values” (McKible 224; cf. Kemp Davis 547-548). Thus, Adam Nehemiah embodies the general voice of white paternalism and racism, masculine patriarchy and sexism, American self-reliance and capitalism (Schultz 372, cf. Sievers 75). Furthermore, as a white, male, literate individual, Nehemiah occupies the highest rung on the ladder of power” and he attempts to master Dessa, the black, female, pregnant slave, who is at the very bottom of America's race, class and gender hierarchy of the time, by getting her into his book (Beaulieu 31; cf. McKible 225).

In his strive to exercise power over her, he repeatedly refers to graphs, Dessa as the darky”, compares her to computer essay, animals likes horses and thesis graphs, cows (cf. DR 22, 30, 32, 36) and also calls her the devil woman”, a slut” and sly bitch” (cf. 21, 71). As Schultz maintains, Nehemiah thereby degrades her race, her mind, her humanity, her individuality [. ] [and] her gender as well” (372; cf. Kemp Davis 548). Additionally to misnaming Dessa, he does not ask for her real name and only picks it up when she talks about herself. He then immediately renames her by referring to in usa essay, her as Odessa” (cf. Graphs? DR 46, 50).

The names” which Nehemiah calls Dessa, and also other blacks, such as Kaine whom he calls Kay-ene”, the buck” and also the darky” (ibid. 40, 60), demonstrate Nehemiah's use of words to control” (Schultz 372). He thus puts individual human beings into one fit category which is that of the powerless slave who is denied an individual identity. Additionally, with the goal in mind to write about the prevention of slave revolts, Nehemiah misinterprets and appropriates Dessa's life story about her love to Kaine, her life on the plantation and the loss of her partner by essentialising only four facts of the darky's history as I have thus far uncovered them” (DR 39): The master smashed the young buck's banjo. The young buck attacked the master.

The master killed the young buck. The darky attacked the master - and was sold to the Wilson coffle (ibid.). Without understanding the motives behind the in usa essay, events, Nehemiah didn't for a minute believe that was all there was to the young buck's attack on his master” and his documented facts sounded like some fantastical fiction” (ibid. 39). As it turns out from the very beginning, Nehemiah (mis)uses Dessa's oral accounts about her past by attempting to decipher” and reconstruct” her words, even though he hadn't caught every word”, or had puzzled overlong at some unfamiliar idiom or phrase, now and then losing the tale in the welter of names the darky called” (ibid.

18). Even though Nehemiah literally does not understand Dessa and has no comprehension for thesis graphs, or awareness of her cultural background (e.g. the meaning of call-and-response singing, cf. Paper On Service Quality? chapter 3.2), he is convinced that he has everything vivid in his mind” and feels capable to write down Dessa's story as though he remembered itword for word” (ibid.; cf. Rushdy 1999,145). Also, when Dessa relates the incident with her mistress who believes that Dessa is pregnant from the thesis, master and not from Kaine, Nehemiah misinterprets her account and reconstructs another version in favour of the mistress's accusation about poetry analysis slave concubinage” (DR 42). In his journal, he adds the fact”, which actually only is a misleading speculation, that [i]t's obvious the buck shared the mistress's suspicion about the master and graphs, this wench.

Why else would the psu dissertation, darky attack a white man, his master?” (ibid.). By writing about Dessa, Kaine and the other blacks in the mode of scientific racism”, Nehemiah attempts to fit Dessa into a proslavery text” and thus perpetuates the subjugation of blacks (McDowell 148; cf. Thesis? Sievers 97; cf. Moody 642). Immigration Essay? With the aim of helping others to be happy in the life that has been sent them to thesis graphs, live' (DR 45), he aims to recreate the prevailing schemes of domination [. ]” of white masters over black slaves and also of men over women (Rushdy 1999,139). He does so by misnaming, misusing and misinterpreting the paper on service, people and the events that Dessa relates. 2.2 Dessa’s Seizing of the Power of the thesis graphs, Word. In the text of The Darky” it becomes clear that there is more to Dessa than what Nehemiah reconstructs about in usa essay her in his master text. Graphs? It is apparent through the computer skills essay, depiction of Dessa's own thoughts and ideas that she has her very own motives for speaking to Nehemiah. At first, when Dessa realises that Nehemiah wants to use what she tells him for a book he is writing, she reacts thoroughly aroused” and ready to flee” (DR 45) . Her distrust in his writing and literacy in general represents the fear of the written word” as it often was used as a potent weapon against people of African descent” (Rushdy 2004, 99), something which Nehemiah also expresses when he attempts to calm Dessa with the thesis, words that his notes about her cannot hurt you now. You've already been tried and judged” (DR 45).

Although she is write conceptual distrustful of thesis graphs, Nehemiah's writing and also does not see how her story can help peoples be happy in the life they sent” as she herself is not happy when I live it” (ibid. 50), she starts to look forward to the talks with the white man” (ibid. 53). For Dessa, they made a break in computer the monotony of her days” and graphs, [t]alking with the thesis, white kept her, for those brief periods, from counting and recounting the cost” of the dreadful violence she and her friends had to resort to during the uprising of the slave coffle to save their own lives (ibid. 54). Dessa observes that Nehemiah is graphs a little man, hardly taller than herself’ (ibid.) and always keeping a careful distance between them”, sitting on his chair always above her, behind her”, thereby displaying his higher hierarchical status and assuming the role of mastering Dessa and getting her in his book (ibid. 56, cf. 231; cf. Basu 391). Research Quality? To avoid being hit by Nehemiah again as he had done once before, she now kept her face vacant (better to appear stupid than sassy); but her mind continued to roam” (DR 56).

After Dessa had spoken rarely for weeks, probably because of shock and depression after what she had experienced and because she could only talk by responding to some white man's questions” (ibid. 57), she begins to utter her thoughts aloud in the presence of Nehemiah. It is because [s]he had lost Kaine, become a self she scarcely knew, lost to family, to friends [. ] [that] she talked” (ibid. 58). Thesis? Having nothing to lose and being separated from the community she had once known, Dessa chooses herself to speak and after some time gets [c]aught in graduate service her own flow” (ibid.

57; cf. Moody 642). While talking, she listened and continued, seeing as she spoke the power of Master as absolute and evil” (DR 57). Dessa begins to see her past as she talked, not as she had lived it, but as she had come to understand it” (ibid. 58), and gradually learns to see white people not only as biological beings, but also as social forces in graphs her life” (Rushdy 1999, 146). As Rushdy mentions, her conversation provides her with a transformative understanding of her past, a kind of knowledge that not only changes in paper retrospect but also creates the conditions for her to change herself and her circumstances (1999,146; cf. Schultz 373).

Talking, then, is what Dessa does for herself and thesis graphs, not for Nehemiah. She speaks to own” herself, to redefine and reassert her identity and to heal. Dessa's seizing the power of words, in one sense, therefore means that she seizes power over herself in the first place. She more and more attempts to make use of the power of the word to computer, recreate [her]self as [a] self-actualizing human being[. ]” (Kemp Davis 552). Thesis Graphs? This can also be seen in the narrative transmission which increasingly depicts Dessa's gradual claiming of voice” (Sievers 77; cf. Policy Essay? chapter 4.1), and demonstrates her development to a self-conscious teller of her story” (cf. Moody 643) which is thesis graphs fully achieved in the last section of the novel. Moreover, according to Beaulieu, it is policy [t]he senseless death of thesis, Kaine and the anticipation of his child” which instill in Dessa a tremendous will to survive” (42). After Dessa realises that the reason the master killed Kaine and she kill white mens” is cause she can”, because a nigger could, too” (DR 20, 58), she gradually develops from a passive victim to skills essay, a doer because this is graphs what Kaine's act said to her” (ibid. 58). 2.3 Resisting the Prescriptive Pen.

While Dessa seizes the essay rubric, power of the word, she at graphs the same time refuses to be mastered by Nehemiah's writing. Even though Dessa does not know whether she can escape her execution (cf. Graduate Admission Essay Service? DR 63), her behaviour shows that she resists being subject to thesis, Nehemiah's power and actively influences their conversations. Nehemiah writes in his journal that Dessa answers questions in a random manner, a loquacious, roundabout fashion - if, indeed, she can be brought to poetry essay rubric, answer them at all” (ibid. 23; cf. Thesis Graphs? Moody 643). The writer considers this exasperating” but constantly remind[s] himself that she is policy but a darky and a female at thesis that”, believing that Dessa is stupid and slow, an impression she consciously supports by keeping her face vacant for graduate admission service, her own protection (cf. DR 56). Furthermore, in her story-telling she is replete with names as Dessa weaves a rich tapestry of thesis graphs, her life which conceals, rather than reveals, her essential history” (Mary Kemp Davis 547).

She also takes care to on service quality, turn [the white man's] questions back upon themselves” (DR 60) and so is able to mislead him and thesis graphs, sabotage[. ] his enterprise” (McDowell 150; cf.). For Dessa [t]alking with the white man was a game” (DR 60) which she does not take serious: [i]t marked time and she dared a little with him, playing on words, lightly capping, as though he were no more than some darky bent on bandying words with a likely-looking gal (ibid.). Thus, Dessa not only chooses that she speaks, but she also exercises choice in essay the conversations with Nehemiah in deciding what she will reveal to him” (Beaulieu 33). Thesis Graphs? As Rushdy mentions Williams [. ] represents the research paper on service quality, literal process by graphs, which Dessa uses her voice to achieve her liberation from the prescriptive pen of Nehemiah's written record” (1993, 366). 1 To differentiate between the text of the novel itself and essay service, Williams' remarks as an author, the text of the novel will be referred to as DR.

When the „Author's Note or another piece of writing by Williams' is referred to, her name and the year of thesis graphs, publication will be stated.

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Resume Fontroversy — What’s the thesis Best Font for a Resume? If this were Cook’s Illustrated , I’d make seven types of mac and cheese and write in painstaking detail about in usa how I geeked on finding the perfect recipe — so you don’t have to. Instead, I studied the graphs best font for a resume. This looked like me taking a paragraph from a resume, printing it in seven different fonts, and write thesis, discovering what makes one font better than another. If you want, you can eat mac and cheese while you read this. Here are our contenders: Times New Roman as the Best Font for a Resume. Times New Roman takes more than its share of eye rolls and nasty comments as a resume font. However, it says, “Reliable,” to your reader.

Plus, as you will see in a moment, you can cram a lot more words onto a page with TNR than you can with any of the fonts shown below. Just that simple, delicious fact often makes it the best font for a resume. Beyond space considerations, Times New Roman confers an additional benefit. Graphs. “Conscientiousness” (of which reliability is conceptual one aspect) is thesis graphs one of the Big Five Personality Traits. While the Big Five get massive attention as predictive factors for immigration in usa, job performance, conscientiousness is the thesis only Big Five Trait that actually correlates with job performance. When you use TNR, you give a subliminal message of reliability and conscientiousness. Arial as the Best Font for write, a Resume. Arial is another perennial resume favorite. It says, “Modern,” to your reader. However, notice Arial takes up more space than TNR, which means you might have to drop some valuable info to keep your resume to thesis graphs two pages. Yes, two pages.

End of discussion. Calibri as the essay rubric Best Font for a Resume. Calibri is a tasty font that’s easy to read and says, “Stable.” It uses more space than TNR, but not as much as Arial. It’s a definite possibility. Century Gothic as the Best Font for a Resume. Century Gothic uses way too much resume real estate and is thus a non-starter. Imagine an audio file here as it hits the trash with a big “Splat.” Helvetica as the Best Font for a Resume. Helvetica uses more space than TNR or Calibri at 11 and 12 points.

At 10 points, it’s hard to read. Thus, it’s also a non-starter — unless you’re light on graphs, resume material. Helvetica recently (May 2015) received a ton of press from conceptual thesis a Bloomberg article as the best font for a resume. Thesis. However, the recommendation was made by a graphic designer who doesn’t write resumes. It’s a lovely font, but usually impractical for our purposes. Verdana is a common website font, but it’s too big to consider for your resume. The New York Times published a long, evidence-based study about fonts in write 2012.

It concluded that Baskerville is the most trusted font: 1. Readers are more likely to agree with information shown in Baskerville. 2. Readers are less likely to disagree with information written in Baskerville. 3. Baskerville has gravitas. Those are all desirable qualities in a resume font. It uses about the same amount of space as TNR. However, I find TNR easier to read in narrative text. Because of that, I skip Baskerville.

Please, take a look at these fonts, and feel free to thesis graphs heat up a fontroversy in the Comments section below. Please share your insights in the Comments section below. I write executive resumes and LinkedIn profiles. Save time. Get hired. Email me at graduate service [email protected] Image Courtesy of Marcus dePaula.

Updated June 2017. I agree with all the thesis graphs fonts above except Times Roman. Binding. I find it very difficult to read. I agree totally with all of the above. I also agree with Darryl’s comment on TNR, difficult to read and a bit old school? Verdana in size 10 is closer to the size on graphs, TNR 12.

I like the computer skills essay Baskerville Regular font, but Office (2003) only thesis, has Baskerville Old Face. I’d need to write conceptual find and install the font, and I would worry that the destination printer might not support Baskerville Regular – in which case my resume would get printed in something else entirely. Fontroversy. I love it, Donna! I haven’t used Baskerville much, but this post makes me want to give it another try. Sometimes Arial Narrow works, but it has to be the right person. I totally dig font discussions. This is awesome #128578; Thank you for sharing. Thesis Graphs. Great info.

Felicia, You’re welcome. Thank you. Donna. I prefer Calibri cos it looks very clean yet simple. But you know in essay my country most of my fiends really put a picture on right side in which i don’t like cos its a resume but i dont know what to do is graphs it better to put one? BTW Im a Civil Engineer. Thanks! Well after reading this article, and the following post, I have to say that TNR is the most used font in our legal systems. Immigration In Usa Essay. I would also like to point out that if your like me (dyslexic) you will want to use the thesis graphs TNR font as it is easier to read than many of the other fonts. If I had to chose a different font it would be Courier New, mainly because it looks like the old typewritten papers, which were easy to read.

Just a comment for Harold – a school teacher recently told me that dyslexics are strongly influenced by immigration essay the background colour and thesis graphs, white is the worst background! Old typewritten papers were not the pure bright white that everything is printed on now – try printing on buff or even pink paper to see if that makes reading easier. TNR as do most serifs scream from dusty aisles in a library once used but now overrun with thick leather-bound books. It’s old and outdated with its extraneous font lines. Research. In principle serifs do make it more discernible but in 2013 principle isn’t about graphs convenience.

Content, clothes, even our language (texts, tweets) has migrated to minimalism or “Less is Better”. Another thing to think about is: “Is there a standard or expected font for my field?”. If so, would it hurt or help my chances to try a different font? Keeping in mind that each hiring manager, organization, corporate culture, and local job market characteristics are different. What works in NY city may not work in a small town in AK. Wait, Arial and Helvetica take up the same amount of space.

How is one a non-starter* because of size, and the other isn’t? *I’m deliberately avoiding the computer essay “Ugh, Arial is a cheap, soulless, knockoff of Helvetica” discussion you can find so many places online. Graphs. Just dealing with the space taken up… Excellent point. Write Thesis. Given the choice between Arial and Helvetica, I would probably choose Arial because it’s more common. That makes it a little easier on people’s eyes. I actually like the look of thesis graphs, Helvetica a little more. But really, I love Calibiri at 11.5 or 12 the write thesis best. As a graduate student, I love TNR. It is old school, and yes, I do see the problems.

I find myself preferring Centruy Gothic for personal use, but I am currently in the process of changing my resume and thesis, updating it for internship applications. I’m probably going to go with Calibri for readability and because it takes up less space than Verdana. Great job! Thank you Hollie. Donna. This comparison is a bit unfair since you have not taken font size sufficiently into skills essay, account. For example, Verdana is better at graphs 10 pt when read on a regular computer screen at normal resolution, and poetry essay, compares well with 12 pt Calibri at the same resolution.

I would use Arial at 11 point to thesis compare with the two I have mentioned. Sure, the research quality various fonts are scaled differently, but if you scale them yourself to take up as near the same space as each other as possible, then you get a more realistic and graphs, honest comparison. Binding. In my experience Calibri at 12 pt and Arial at 11 pt are both excellent for online resumes, but if you want to print them then TNR-12 is likely the best around, with Baskerville-12 a very close second – for the simple reason that these are what most people are used to reading in thesis print. Naturally, you have to format the binding layout of a resume according to the specific font use, and that’s why I usually provide my clients with two versions: one for thesis, online reading and a separate print version. Click ‘Print Resume’ and it prints according to a different layout in Times New Roman. Thank you for essay, your insights. Hi Donna, your contentions clarified a lot of issues I have had about using fonts in resumes, and thesis, even in official correspondences. Thank you for the interesting piece. I think Arial is gentler on computer skills, the yes than Times New Roman does. For journalists like me so bent on rushing to thesis the print with little consideration for the eye rollers, its a whole lot of new perspective. Graduate. But that you use a Sans for your blog actually encouraged me to up my journalism blog’s font to Sans too!

A question though: Each of the fonts have merits and demerits, depending on the medium they are used. Say Serif for graphs, the print, and Sans for the web. Now, GENERALLY (no, not shouting. I wish comment sections came with rich text features. I needed an italic there!), which works for both print and web, at policy essay least to a considerable point of reconciliation? A meeting point where it is not too eye-rolliy for graphs, either the print or the web reader? Thank you for immigration policy, your kind words and your great question. I don’t have an answer. Maybe another reader will offer ideas. Graphs. In the meantime, that seems as though it should be the Holy Grail of font designers everywhere! This may be trickier than initially thought of… but I would have to write thesis agree, as others observed earlier, for the comparison to thesis graphs be more objective, the types of write thesis, fonts compared would have to be similar in thesis appearing size (not just all being size 12); as we can see above, this would force us to compare different types of fonts (i.e. one font may be size 12, but very similar in appearing size to a size 10 in psu dissertation binding another type of thesis graphs, font).

Once that is psu dissertation binding taken care of, then we should establish the criteria for thesis graphs, selecting one, over another. Immigration Policy In Usa. For instance, is the “best” font, say for a paper-print resume, one which is easy on the reader’s eyes (I always thought that in thesis general, curves tend to be “friendlier” to the human eye, than sharp corners/edges, but then again what if the reader’s eye-sight is compromised and is in fact welcoming the rubric “sharpness” which helps his/her brain from having to silently do extra work to compensate?). To make a long story short, it seems to me that there are at least two criteria for selecting one type of font over another: a) Does it make the text appear more serious and truthful, and. b) does it make the thesis reader feel more comfortable, at ease, and thus more pleasant. Although I am personally inclined to graduate admission service focus on the second criterion, there exist prevailent industrial stereotypes about resumes, which I believe are to an applicant’s best interest to observe (at least until they reach what they are aiming for; unless, the applicant himself/herself decides to consciously to thesis graphs deviate from the write norm with intention). Also, anything resembling legal/stereotype text tends to get more attention (not sure whether it is because of a positive, or a negative inner feeling being triggered when viewing it), but as implied earlier that may not be that important… or is it? Interesting questions Nicholas. There is a large body of research on fonts for advertising and marketing purposes, very little regarding resumes. Thesis. Thank you, Donna. Calibri is the easiest to read. cant understand why people still use TNR.

Personally I like to essay use Cambria 11 for resumes. Thesis. Alternatives are TNR 11.5, and also – I would like to add Adobe Garamond as another excellent resume/CV font. For professionals with long resumes, I would think they should stick with Adobe or Baskerville Old (11 – 11.5) – otherwise their resumes are going to end up in research paper quality the trashbin. Interesting Linda. If in doubt, Calibri is almost always a safe bet. Thank you, Donna. Truth Nate. I wonder how long it will take for the pendulum to swing the thesis other way?

Donna. Font preferences are so personal. I love hearing people explain why they prefer one font over another. I like Calibri too. As to pictures on poetry, resumes, it varies by culture. In the U.S. no, in many other countries yes. Understand the local norm and go with it. Hi Kristin. Thank you.

I hoped you would see this post. Thesis. #FontGeeksUnite Donna. People can try using smaller font sizes with the caution that they start looking cramped pretty quickly. All the fonts discussed in this post are available in the most recent recent version of MS Word. Of course, not everyone has the policy in usa essay most recent version installed. Thank you for graphs, your ideas. I’m always happy when I see your name on my screen.

Literally old school — it used to skills essay be THE font for textbooks. I suspect that old schoolness it what also makes it seem reliable. Thesis Graphs. Thank you for commenting. Interesting. It sounds as though you fall into the group that prefers san serif fonts — especially online. Thank you for commenting. I really like Garamond! I think it looks very professional.

Thank you Jennifer! (Click on the link to poetry essay “9 Resume Fonts Designers Love” to Garamond in action.) Donna. TNR is thesis so difficult to read.. why is it so overrated? It was (is?) the immigration policy essay school book font in the US for a long time. It’s familiar. As an former art director and typesetter, I agree with your selections except where it comes to applicant tracking systems. There are so many systems available now a days and a lot of them are not great at reading serif fonts. So although I prefer serif fonts for readability to the eye, sans-serif fonts win with character scanners. Agree, Donna? Agree. I use sans serif fonts.

I use Century Gothic. Graphs. You just have to use a smaller font-size (9.5 or so for general text) than other fonts. I have found that it is by far the most legible font at smaller font-sizes. Compared to TNR, which I have to increase to 12 or so to achieve the poetry rubric same legibility as CG at 9.5, I’ve found that CG actually saves space.