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Ap Comparative Government/Politics Ch.1 Outline Essay. The Global Challenges of Comparative Politics. Introduction to Comparative Politics-Studies how different countries both shape and are shaped by the world. 1989,2001, and 2008 define the current era of world politics-describes a particular important moment; critical juncture. Sophocles Essays? A frequently cited date is 1989, when the Berlin wall was dismantled. 1989 ushered in three important changes. Marked the end of a bipolar world-marked the emergence of a unipolar world. Marked the triumph of one model of political and economic development. 1989 was a gateway to globalization. Globalization provided a new and distinctive lens for analyzing politics within and technology boon bane essay among countries.

The key question is sophocles, that whether the global diffusion of investment, trade, production, and articles essays electronic communication technologies would promote a worldwide expansion of opportunity and enhance human development. We have been forced to rethink the meaning of globalization. Since on September 11, 2001, when the antigone sophocles Islamic terrorist group led by Osama Bin Laden launched deadly attacks on The World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The attacks created a new challenge, and produced a tragic and somber critical juncture following the brief post-cold war period. Many countries have been attacked by terrorist before Sept. Boon? 11, 2001, including the antigone essays U.S. This was different because of the amount of the scale-more than 3000 deaths. 9/11 was not an isolated event, soon followed attacks around the world.

This led to be known as the Contemporary era. In October, the U.S. attacked the Taliban regime in Afghanistan because that was where it was known for Osama Bin Laden-the leader of the attack on 9/11-to be hiding. Articles Love? Globalization and Terrorism make the current era complex and fraught with uncertainties. 2008 is noteworthy because of a cascade of economic challenges. Such as the price of crude oil on world markets reached $100 a barrel and $140 by the summer. Gas at the pump cost over $4 a gallon. And a world wide recession erupted in late 2008, the sophocles demand for oil plummeted. The price of petroleum matters because the world runs on oil, it. fuels the global economy. The world supply is finite, nonrenewable, and becoming increasingly scarce.

Competition for access to petroleum has considerably increased in the twenty-first century. This is largely because China and India have achieved extraordinary rapid industrialization and economic growth that requires hugh amounts of oil. Best? Many of the major petroleum exporters have somewhat unstable regimes. Finally, the cost of petroleum is antigone essays, measured in dollars, and the U.S. dollar has significantly declined recently. 2008 was the year when scientists started warning people about CO2 emissions and that in several decades may be an best travel writing, irreversible tipping point. Involving melting polar ice caps and rising sea levels, which can be disastrous for people in coastal areas. Globalization and Comparative Politics. Globalization also involves the movement of people due to migration, employment, business, and educational opportunities. Globalization includes other profound changes that are less visible but equally significant.

For example, new applications of information technology and sophocles essays new ways to deliver news and essays on the characteristics images around the world. Making Sense of Turbulent Times. The World of antigone essays, States: the historical formation, internal organization, and interaction of states within the international order. Governing the for reception Economy: the role of the state in economic management. Sophocles Essays? The Democratic Idea: the spread of democracy and the challenges of democratization. The Politics of Collective Identities: the sources and political impact of diverse collective identities, including class, gender, ethnicity, nationality, and religion. What-and How-Comparative Politics Compares. Comparative Politics is a subfield within the academic discipline of political science as well as a method or approach to the study of politics. Comparative Politics involves comparing domestic political institutions, processes, policies, conflicts, and attitudes in different countries.

Level of Analysis. Countries comprise distinct, politically defined territories that encompass. political institutions, cultures, economics, and pagingdr gamsat ethnic and other social identities. The state is almost always the most powerful cluster of antigone sophocles essays, institutions. State refers to the key political institutions responsible for making, implementing, and adjudicating important policies in a country.

Causal Theories. Themes for Comparative Analysis. Theme 1: A World of States. States provide more or less well for the social protection of citizens through the provision-in one way or another-of health care, old age pensions, aid to dependent children, and assistance to the unemployed. It is states that regulate the movement of people across boarders through immigration law. States have been significantly affected by globalization. Theme 2: Governing the resume for reception Economy. Essays? The success of states in maintaining sovereign authority and control over their people is greatly affected by gamsat their ability to ensure that an antigone essays, adequate volume of goods and services is produced to satisfy the needs of their populations. John Essays On The? Effective economic performance is near the top of every states personal agenda. How it organizes production and the extent and nature of it intervention in the economy-is a key element in its overall pattern of governance.

Political economy refers to how governments affect economic performance and how economic performance in turn affects a country’s political processes. Sustainable development which promotes ecologically sound ways to modernize the economy and raise the standards of living. Antigone Sophocles Essays? Theme 3: The Democratic Idea. For Reception? One of the sophocles essays most important and astounding political developments in recent years has been the rapid spread of democracy throughout much of the world. There is overwhelming evidence of the strong appeal of the democratic idea, by which the claim by brown essays citizens that they should, exercise substantial control over the decisions made by their states and governments. By 2007 more countries were becoming free, while democracy is not yet uniformly practiced, nor uniformly accepted. Another important pressure for democracy is sophocles, born of the human desire for dignity and equality. Social Movements have. targeted the state because of its actions or inactions in articles, such varied spheres as environmental regulation, reproductive rights, and race or ethnic relations. Theme 4: The Politics of Collective Identity.

Comparatists thought that social class-solidarities bases on the shared experience of work or economic position. Now know that the formation of group attachments and antigone sophocles the interplay of politically relevant collective identities are far more complex and gamsat uncertain. Religion is another source of collective identity- as well as of severe political conflict. Distributional politics-the process of deciding who gets what and how resources are distributed. Sophocles Essays? Classifying Political Systems. When Comparativists classify a large number of cases into smaller number of types or clusters, they call the result a typology. Love? Typology facilitate comparison both within the same type as well as between types of states. Sophocles Essays? Can also compare across clusters or types. In this type of comparison-comparativists call this “most different case analysis”. What is the meaning-or rather meanings-of democracy? Selection to the highest public offices is on the basis of an essay on man text, free and fair election.

For an election to qualify as fair, there must be procedures in place guaranteeing candidates the right to compete, all citizens must be entitled to vote, and sophocles essays votes must be counted accurately. Political parties are free to organize, present candidates for public office, and compete in elections. The elected governments develops policy according to specified procedures. All citizens possess political rights. Gamsat? The political system contains a judiciary with powers independent of the executive and legislature. The elected government exercises supreme power within the government and antigone country. John Essays On The? There is widespread agreement that conflicts will be resolved peacefully. A Typology of sophocles essays, Political Systems. Our typology of articles love, political systems involves a further distinction between long-established, or consolidated democracies. Organization of the Text. 1: The Making of the Modern State.

Section 1 provides an overview of the forces that have shaped the particular character of the state. This discussion should give you the idea of how the country assumed its current political order. 2: Political Economy and Development. (1) Section 2 looks at the issues raised by our core theme of governing the economy and analyzes how economic development has affected political change. 3: Governance and Policy-Making. (1) Section 3 describes the state’s major policy-making institutions and procedures. Representation and Participation. (1) The focus of section 4 is the relationship between a country’s state and society.

5: Politics in Transition. (1) In Section 5, each country study returns to antigone sophocles essays, the books four themes and analyzes the major challenges reshaping the world and the study of comparative politics. Technology Bane Essay? University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Ap Comparative Government/Politics Ch.1 Outline. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Nick Carraway is The Great Gatsby’ s narrator, but he isn’t the protagonist (main character). This makes Nick himself somewhat tricky to observe, since we see the whole novel through his eyes. How can you watch the narrator? This difficulty is compounded by the fact that Nick is an unreliable narrator – basically, a narrator that doesn’t always tell us the truth about antigone essays what’s happening. In this post we will explore what we objectively know about Nick, what he does in the novel, his famous lines, common essay topics/discussion topics about Nick, and finally some FAQs about Mr. Carraway. Nick as a character Nick's background Actions in the novel Character Analysis Quotes about and by Nick Nick as a narrator Nick as a character FAQ clarifying confusing points about Nick. Our citation format in this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We're using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for travel writing, students with our copy of the book.

To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of antigone chapter), or use the technology boon essay, search function if you're using an online or eReader version of the text. Nick grew up in the “middle West,” (what we call the Midwest), in a wealthy family that was “something of a clan” (1.5). Essays? His family made their money from a wholesale hardware business his grandfather’s brother began after sending a substitute to fight for him in the Civil War. Articles Love? Nick attended Yale, like his father, and then fought in WWI. Upon his return, he found the Midwest incredibly boring and antigone sophocles so set off for New York to alexander pope text become a bond salesman: “I enjoyed the counter-raid so thoroughly that I came back restless. Instead of being the warm center of the world the antigone essays, middle-west now seemed like the ragged edge of the universe—so I decided to go east and learn the bond business” (1.6). An Essay? Of course, we later find out that Nick’s also getting away from essays a woman who expects that they’re getting married, but Nick downplays this fact in his narration, which is one of our clues to his dishonesty. To see how Nick's background intersects with the stories of the other characters in john brown characteristics the novel, check out our Great Gatsby timeline.

This is a summary of everything Nick does during the novel, leaving out flashbacks he hears from sophocles other characters. (For a complete summary of the plot, check out our book summary!) At the essays on the characteristics, beginning of antigone sophocles The Great Gatsby , Nick Carraway takes up residence in technology boon essay West Egg, in a small house next to Gatsby’s enormous mansion. The year is antigone essays 1922, the stock market is technology boon essay booming, and Nick has found work as a bond salesman. In Chapter 1, he is invited to antigone sophocles essays his cousin Daisy Buchanan’s home to have dinner with her and technology boon essay her husband Tom, an old college acquaintance of his. There he meets Jordan Baker, Daisy’s friend and a professional golfer. In Chapter 2, while hanging out with Tom he ends up being dragged first to antigone essays George Wilson’s garage to meet Tom’s mistress Myrtle Wilson, and then to the apartment Tom keeps for alexander pope, Myrtle in Manhattan. They invite over antigone essays, a bunch of friends and a drunken party ensues.

Nick witnesses some of Tom’s ugliest behavior, including his physical abuse of Myrtle. In Chapter 3, Nick is invited to attend one of Jay Gatsby’s famous parties. Alexander An Essay On Man? There, he finally meets Gatsby, and also sees Jordan again. After seeing Jordan again at that party, they begin to date, and sophocles essays also does his best to win over her old Aunt, who controls her money. Brown? Once he starts dating Jordan he vows to stop sending weekly letters to the woman back in sophocles essays the Midwest. (Though, in typical Nick fashion, he never confirms that he stops sending the letters.) He also mentions a brief affair with a woman in his office that he lets fizzle out. After meeting Gatsby in Chapter 3 they begin spending time together. In Chapter 4 they drive to Manhattan together.

At first he’s pretty wary of Gatsby and his story. This wariness of Gatsby is brown on the compounded by Nick’s poor (and very anti-Semitic!) impression of antigone sophocles Meyer Wolfsheim, one of Gatsby’s associates. Later in Chapter 4, Nick meets up with Jordan in an essay on man the plaza hotel and she tells him about sophocles Daisy and Gatsby’s romantic history (which she heard all about at the previous party). Nick agrees to arrange a meeting between Daisy and Gatsby, which occurs in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, Nick goes to Gatsby’s house and witnesses an boon bane essay, awkward exchange between Gatsby, a couple named Sloane, and antigone Tom Buchanan.

The trio had stopped by Gatsby’s house and Gatsby misreads how serious they are about having dinner together. Later, Tom and Daisy attend one of Gatsby’s parties. Tom is immediately suspicious about where Gatsby gets his money while Daisy has a bad time, looking down her nose at the affair. Gatsby confides in Nick afterwards that he wants to repeat his past with Daisy. In Chapter 7, Nick is invited along to a lunch party at Tom and john essays on the characteristics Daisy Buchanan’s house, along with Gatsby and Jordan.

Gatsby is hoping Daisy will tell Tom that she never loved him and is leaving him for sophocles, Gatsby, but starts to feel nervous doing that in Tom’s house. Daisy is anxious as well and suggests they all go to Manhattan. Nick rides to Manhattan with Tom and on the Jordan, in antigone Gatsby’s yellow car. They stop by the Wilson’s garage, where he learns that George has discovered Myrtle’s affair, but not the articles love, man she is cheating on him with. In Manhattan, the group rents a room at the Plaza hotel. A bunch of secrets come out, including the antigone essays, fact that Tom knows Gatsby is a bootlegger. Daisy tries to say she never loved Tom but can’t stand by articles love the statement, Tom, satisfied he’s won, tells Gatsby to antigone sophocles essays take Daisy back home in his yellow car while he drives back with Nick and Jordan. Perhaps the least subtle car in the history of cars.

On the way back, they come along Myrtle Wilson’s death scene: she has been hit by the yellow car. Later that night, Nick stays outside of the Buchanans’ house while waiting for a cab back to West Egg, too disgusted with their behavior to pagingdr go inside. He sees Gatsby waiting outside – he wants to antigone essays make sure Daisy is alright. Meanwhile, Nick spots Tom and Daisy inside looking like co-conspirators. In Chapter 8, Nick goes to work but can’t concentrate. Jordan calls him to say where she’s staying, but he’s disgusted she doesn’t seem shaken by technology Myrtle’s death and they fight and break up. Nick later spends time with Gatsby in antigone his mansion and for reception learns his whole life story. The next day, Gatsby is sophocles essays shot and love killed by George Wilson (and George kills himself). In Chapter 9, Nick struggles to arrange a funeral for Gatsby, which in the end is only attended by Gatsby’s father and Owl Eyes. Disgusted with the morally lawless life in the East, he decides to retreat back home to the Midwest. In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I've been turning over in my mind ever since.

Whenever you feel like criticizing any one, he told me, just remember that all the people in sophocles essays this world haven't had the advantages that you've had. (1.1-2) The first lines establish Nick as thoughtful, thorough, privileged, and judgmental. This line also sets the tone for the first few pages, where Nick tells us about for reception his background and antigone sophocles essays tries to encourage the technology boon bane, reader to antigone trust his judgment. While he comes off as thoughtful and observant, we also get the sense he is judgmental and a bit snobby. To see more analysis of why the novel begins how it does, and what Nick's father's advice means for him as a character and as a narrator, read our article on technology bane the beginning of The Great Gatsby . When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to sophocles be in uniform and at resume, a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from sophocles my reaction—Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. (1.4) Another quote from the first few pages of the novel, this line sets up the essay, novel’s big question: why does Nick become so close to Gatsby, given that Gatsby represents everything he hates? It also hints to the reader that Nick will come to care about Gatsby deeply while everyone else will earn his “unaffected scorn.” While this doesn’t give away the plot, it does help the reader be a bit suspicious of everyone but Gatsby going into the story. Every one suspects himself of at least one of the antigone sophocles, cardinal virtues, and this is mine: I am one of the few honest people that I have ever known. (3.171) This is likely the moment when you start to john essays suspect Nick doesn’t always tell the truth – if everyone “suspects” themselves of antigone one of the cardinal virtues (the implication being they aren’t actually virtuous), if Nick says he’s honest, perhaps he’s not? Furthermore, if someone has to claim that they are honest, that often suggests that they do things that aren’t exactly trustworthy.

Suddenly I wasn't thinking of Daisy and Gatsby any more but of this clean, hard, limited person who dealt in universal skepticism and brown on the who leaned back jauntily just within the circle of my arm. A phrase began to beat in my ears with a sort of heady excitement: There are only the pursued, the pursuing, the busy and the tired. (4.164) Nick’s interactions with Jordan are some of the only places where we get a sense of essays any vulnerability or emotion from Nick. In particular, Nick seems quite attracted to Jordan and john brown essays being with her makes a phrase “beat” in sophocles his ears with “heady excitement.” If there are only the pursued, the pursuing, the busy, and the tired, it would appear Nick is alexander an essay on man happy to be the pursuer at this particular moment. They're a rotten crowd, I shouted across the antigone sophocles, lawn. You're worth the an essay, whole damn bunch put together. (8.45) This line, which comes after Myrtle’s death and essays Tom, Daisy, and Jordan’s cold reaction to it, establishes that Nick has firmly come down on Gatsby’s side in the conflict between the Buchanans and Gatsby. It also shows Nick’s disenchantment with the whole wealthy east coast crowd and also that, at for reception, this point, he is devoted to Gatsby and determined to protect his legacy.

This hints to us that our once seemingly impartial narrator is now seeing Gatsby more generously than he sees others. Gatsby believed in the green light, the sophocles essays, orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that's no matter—tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther. Best Writing? . . . And one fine morning—— So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past. (9.153-4) This is sophocles essays Nick’s conclusion to his story, which can be read as cynical, hopeful, or realistic, depending on how you interpret it. You can read in detail about these lines in our article about the novel’s ending. Nick is the narrator, but he is not omniscient (he can’t see everything), and articles he’s also very human and flawed.

In other words, he’s an unreliable narrator, sometimes because he’s not present for a certain event, other times because he presents the story out of order, and finally because he sometimes obscures the sophocles, truth. (It takes most students two reads of the novel to even catch the fact that Nick has a woman waiting for him back in the Midwest.) Because of his unreliable narrator status, the essays, central questions many teachers try to get at with Nick is to sophocles essays explore his role in the story, how the story would be different without his narration, and how he compares to Gatsby. In short, you often have to analyze Nick as a character, not the narrator. This can be tricky because you have to compare Nick’s narration with his dialogue, his actions, and how he chooses to tell the technology boon bane essay, story. You also have to realize that when you’re analyzing the other characters, you’re doing that based on information from Nick, which may or may not be reliable. Basically, nothing we hear in antigone the novel can be completely accurate since it comes through the (necessarily) flawed point of view of a single person. Anyway, the best way to analyze Nick himself is to choose a few passages to close read, and use what you observe from close-reading to build a larger argument. Resume For Reception? Pay close attention tomoments, especially Nick’s encounters with Jordan, that give you a glimpse at Nick’s emotions and vulnerabilities. We will demonstrate this in action below!

Pictured: the rose-tinted glasses Nick apparently starts to see Gatsby through. Why is antigone sophocles essays Nick the narrator and not Gatsby? Since Nick gives a roughly chronological account of the summer of 1922, we get to gamsat see the development of Gatsby from mysterious party-giver to love-struck dreamer to tragic figure (who rose from antigone sophocles essays humble roots and became rich, all in a failed attempt to win over boon bane, Daisy). If Gatsby was the antigone sophocles essays, narrator, it would be harder for resume, Fitzgerald to show that progression, unless Gatsby relayed his life story way out of order, which might have been hard to accomplish from Gatsby’s POV. The novel would have also been a much more straightforward story, probably with less suspense: Gatsby was born poor in South Dakota, became friends with Dan Cody, learned how to act rich, lost Cody’s inheritance, fell in love with Daisy, fought in the war, became determined to win her back, turned to antigone essays crime. In short, Fitzgerald could have told the pagingdr, same story, but it would have had much less suspense and mystery, plus it would have been much harder to relay the antigone essays, aftermath of john Gatsby’s death. Unless the point of view abruptly switched after Gatsby was shot, the reader would have no idea what exactly happened to Gatsby, what happened to George Wilson, and finally wouldn’t be able to see Gatsby’s funeral.

Plus, with a narrator other than Gatsby himself, it’s easier to analyze Gatsby as a character. Antigone Essays? Nick is very observant, and he is an essay text able to notice things about Gatsby, like the way he misses social cues, subtle shifts in his mood, and even smaller details like his arresting smile. We probably wouldn’t have seen these facets of Gatsby if Gatsby himself were telling the story. Finally, since Nick is both “within and without” the antigone, New York elite, he is an excellent ticket in to technology boon the reader – he can both introduce us to sophocles certain facets of essays on the characteristics that world while also sharing in much of our shock and skepticism. Nick is just like the sophocles essays, “new student at school” or “new employee” trope that so many movies and TV shows use as a way to introduce viewers into a new world. With Gatsby as narrator, it would be harder to resume observe all the details of the New York social elite. Nick Carraway: Unreliable Narrator? In many ways, Nick is an unreliable narrator: he’s dishonest about his own shortcomings (downplaying his affairs with other women, as well as his alcohol use), and he doesn’t tell us everything he knows about the characters upfront (for example, he waits until Chapter 6 to tell us the truth about Gatsby’s origins, even though he knows the whole time he’s telling the sophocles, story, and even then glosses over unflattering details like the articles love, details of antigone sophocles essays Gatsby’s criminal enterprises), and he’s often harsh in his judgments (and additionally anti-Semitic, racist, and brown misogynistic). As a reader, you should be skeptical of Nick because of sophocles essays how he opens the story, namely that he spends a few pages basically trying to prove himself a reliable source (see our beginning summary for gamsat, more on this), and antigone later, how he characterizes himself as “one of the boon essay, few honest people I have ever known” (3.171). Antigone Sophocles? After all, does an honest person really have to pagingdr gamsat defend their own honesty? However, despite how judgmental he is, Nick is antigone sophocles a very observant person, especially in regard to essays on the characteristics other people, their body language, and social situations.

For example, in essays Chapter 6, Nick immediately senses Gatsby isn’t really welcome at the Sloanes’ house before Tom says it outright. Nick is also able to accurately predict Daisy won’t leave Tom at best writing essays, the end of essays Chapter 1, after observing her standing in the door with Tom: “I was confused and a little disgusted as I drove away. It seemed to me that the pope an essay on man, thing for Daisy to do was to rush out of the house, child in arms—but apparently there were no such intentions in her head” (1.150). If only Jay could have seen Daisy’s intentions so clearly! We also come away with a very clear understanding of the messy climax (Myrtle’s death at the hands of Daisy in antigone sophocles Gatsby’s car, George Wilson’s psychological decay and for reception murder/suicide of Gatsby), since Nick tells the antigone, events from his point of view but also from Michaelis’s, who owns a coffee shop near George Wilson’s garage. In short, Nick delegates to another narrator when he knows he doesn’t have enough information, and articles essays makes sure the reader comes away with a clear understanding of the fundamental events of the tragedy. In short, you shouldn’t believe everything Nick says, especially his snobbier asides, but you can take his larger characterizations and version of events seriously. But as you read, try to antigone separate Nick’s judgments about people from his observations! Is Nick actually the hero of the story?

A hero, or protagonist, is generally the character whose actions propel the story forward, who the story focuses on, and they are usually tested or thwarted by an antagonist. So in the most traditional sense, Gatsby is the hero – he drives the action of the story by getting Jordan and Nick to reintroduce him to Daisy (which leads to the affair, confrontation in Manhattan, the death of Myrtle, and then the murder-suicide), he goes up against an antagonist of travel sorts (Tom), and the story ends with his death. Gatsby’s story is thus a cynical take on the traditional rags-to-riches story. However, some people see the protagonist as also the person who changes the most in the course of a story. In this case, you might argue that since Nick changes a lot during the sophocles essays, novel (see below), while Gatsby during the story itself doesn’t change dramatically (his big character changes come before the chronology of the novel), that Nick is in fact the articles, protagonist. Nick’s story is antigone sophocles essays a take on the coming of age narrative – he even has an important birthday (30) in the novel! Basically, if you think the protagonist is the character who propels the action of the story, and someone who has an antagonist, it’s Gatsby. But if you think the protagonist is the person who changes the resume for reception, most, you could argue Nick is the hero. We never get a physical description of Nick, so don't blame yourself if your mental image of him is bland and amorphous like this fellow. How does Nick change throughout the novel? Nick starts out naive and hopeful about his summer, and his future in New York more generally, as revealed through his narration (this optimism about his own life is mixed up with his sharp, snarky characterizations of others, which remain mostly the same all through the novel).

And so with the sunshine and the great bursts of leaves growing on the trees—just as things grow in fast movies—I had that familiar conviction that life was beginning over again with the summer. There was so much to read for one thing and so much fine health to be pulled down out essays, of the young breath-giving air. (1.11-12) (emphasis added) As the summer goes on, he meets someone wildly more hopeful than he is – Gatsby, of course – and for reception he begins to be more cynical in how he views his own life in comparison, realizing that there are certain memories and feelings he can no longer access. Through all he said, even through his appalling sentimentality, I was reminded of something—an elusive rhythm, a fragment of sophocles essays lost words, that I had heard somewhere a long time ago. For a moment a phrase tried to take shape in my mouth and my lips parted like a dumb man's, as though there was more struggling upon them than a wisp of startled air. But they made no sound and articles essays love what I had almost remembered was uncommunicable forever. (6.135) (emphasis added) Finally, after the deaths of sophocles essays Myrtle, Gatsby, and essays characteristics Wilson, as well as the passing of his thirtieth birthday, Nick is thoroughly disenchanted, cynical, regretful, even angry, as he tries to protect Gatsby’s legacy in the face of an uncaring world, as well as a renewed awareness of antigone sophocles essays his own mortality. I'm thirty, I said. For Reception? I'm five years too old to lie to myself and call it honor.

She didn't answer. Angry, and half in antigone sophocles love with her, and tremendously sorry, I turned away. (9.125-6) After Gatsby's death the writing essays, East was haunted for me like that, distorted beyond my eyes' power of correction. (9.127) On the sophocles, last night, with my trunk packed and my car sold to the grocer, I went over and looked at resume, that huge incoherent failure of a house once more. Antigone Essays? On the white steps an obscene word, scrawled by some boy with a piece of brick, stood out clearly in the moonlight and I erased it, drawing my shoe raspingly along the stone. (9.150) In short, as much as this is a novel about Gatsby’s failed dream/love for Daisy, you could also argue it tells the story of Nick’s loss of articles love hope and sophocles innocence as he enters his 30s.

How does Nick feel about Gatsby? Why does he come to like him so much? Nick goes from initially taken with Gatsby, to skeptical, to pagingdr essay admiring, even idealizing him, over the course of the book. When he first meets Gatsby in Chapter 3, he is drawn in by his smile and immediately senses a peer and friend, before of antigone sophocles course Gatsby reveals himself as THE Jay Gatsby: He smiled understandingly—much more than understandingly. It was one of alexander on man text those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in sophocles it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faced—or seemed to face—the whole external world for an instant, and technology bane essay then concentrated on you with an sophocles, irresistible prejudice in your favor.

It understood you just so far as you wanted to be understood, believed in you as you would like to believe in yourself and assured you that it had precisely the impression of you that, at your best, you hoped to convey. (3.73) In Chapter 4, Nick is highly skeptical of Gatsby’s story about his past, although he is somewhat impressed by the medal from best travel essays “little Montenegro” (4.32). He looked at me sideways—and I knew why Jordan Baker had believed he was lying. Antigone Sophocles Essays? He hurried the technology bane essay, phrase educated at antigone, Oxford, or swallowed it or choked on it as though it had bothered him before. Essays? And with this doubt his whole statement fell to pieces and I wondered if there wasn't something a little sinister about him after all. (4.24) He also seems increasingly skeptical after his encounter with Meyer Wolfshiem, who Nick describes very anti-Semitically.

When Wolfshiem vouches for Gatsby’s “fine breeding,” (4.99) Nick seems even more suspicious of Gatsby’s origins. In Chapter 5, as Nick observes the reunion between Gatsby and Daisy, he first sees Gatsby as much more human and flawed (especially in the first few minutes of the encounter, when Gatsby is incredibly awkward), and sophocles essays then sees Gatsby has transformed and “literally glowed” (5.87). As Nick watches Gatsby blossom in boon bane essay Daisy’s presence, I think Nick himself is won over by Gatsby. Notice how warm Nick’s description is: But there was a change in Gatsby that was simply confounding. Antigone Essays? He literally glowed; without a word or a gesture of exultation a new well-being radiated from him and essays filled the antigone, little room (5.87) In Chapter 6, Nick honestly and frankly observes how Gatsby is snubbed by the Sloanes, but he seems more like he’s pitying Gatsby than making fun of him. It almost seems like he’s trying to protect Gatsby by cutting off the scene just as Gatsby comes out the door, coat in hand, after the writing, Sloanes have coldly left him behind:

Tom and I shook hands, the rest of us exchanged a cool nod and they trotted quickly down the drive, disappearing under the August foliage just as Gatsby with hat and light overcoat in hand came out the front door. (6.59) By Chapter 7, during the confrontation in the hotel, Nick is firmly on Gatsby’s side, to the point that he is sophocles elated when Gatsby reveals that he did, in fact, attend Oxford but didn’t graduate: I wanted to get up and slap him on the back. I had one of those renewals of essays love complete faith in him that I'd experienced before. (7.221) As the rest of the novel plays out, Nick becomes more admiring of Gatsby, even as he comes to dislike the Buchanans (and Jordan, by extension) more and more. Why exactly Nick becomes so taken with Gatsby is, I think, up to the reader. In my reading, Nick, as someone who rarely steps outside of social boundaries and rarely gets “carried away” with love or emotion (see how coldly he ends not one but three love affairs in the book!), is admiring and even somewhat jealous of Gatsby, who is so determined to antigone sophocles build a certain life for himself that he manages to transform the poor James Gatz into john brown on the, the infamous, wealthy Jay Gatsby.

On the last night, with my trunk packed and my car sold to the grocer, I went over and looked at that huge incoherent failure of a house once more. On the white steps an obscene word, scrawled by some boy with a piece of brick, stood out clearly in the moonlight and sophocles essays I erased it, drawing my shoe raspingly along the stone. (9.150) Gatsby’s fate also becomes entangled with Nick’s own increased cynicism, both about his future and life in New York, so he clings to the memory of Gatsby and becomes determined to pagingdr essay tell his story. At first, this might not seem plausible – Nick dates Jordan during the antigone, book (and also admits to a few other love affairs with women) and at one point confesses to being “half in love with [Jordan].” So why do people think Nick is gay? First of all, consider the alexander pope, odd moment at the end of Chapter 2 that seems to suggest Nick goes home with Mr. McKee:

Come to lunch some day, he suggested, as we groaned down in the elevator. Keep your hands off the lever, snapped the elevator boy. I beg your pardon, said Mr. McKee with dignity, I didn't know I was touching it. All right, I agreed, I'll be glad to. . . . I was standing beside his bed and sophocles essays he was sitting up between the sheets, clad in his underwear , with a great portfolio in his hands. Beauty and the Beast . . . Loneliness . . Articles Love? . Old Grocery Horse . Antigone Essays? . . Brook'n Bridge . Writing? . Antigone Sophocles Essays? . Technology Bane? . Then I was lying half asleep in the cold lower level of the Pennsylvania Station, staring at the morning Tribune and waiting for the four o'clock train. (2.128-136) Nick’s narration is confused and sporadic as he was quite drunk after the party. However, what we do see – the elevator boy chiding him to “keep your hands off the lever” (hint hint wink wink nudge nudge), shortly followed by Nick saying “I was standing beside [Mr. Essays? McKee’s bed and he was sitting up between the sheets, clad in his underwear”—seems to pretty strongly suggest a sexual encounter.

And in a novel that is so short and brown essays characteristics carefully constructed, why add this short scene unless it’s supposed to antigone sophocles essays help us understand Nick? Some people see that scene as a confirmation of Nick’s sexual preference, or at least an indication he’s attracted to men as well as women. However, since this was the 1920s, he couldn’t exactly be out and proud, which is for reception why he would never frankly admit to being attracted to men in sophocles his sober narration. So instead, as the john brown essays characteristics, theory goes, his love for and attraction to for Gatsby is sophocles essays mirrored through a filter of intense admiration. So, using this reading, The Great Gatsby is best travel writing narrated by a man suffered from sophocles unrequited love. Do you have to take this reading as fact? Not at all. Pagingdr Gamsat Essay? But if you’re curious you can check out a fuller write-up of the “Nick as gay” reading and antigone sophocles decide for yourself. These are questions students often have about Nick after reading the book, but ones that don’t always come up in classroom discussions or essay topics.

Read on if you still have unanswered questions about essays love Nick! Also, be sure to let us know in the comments if you have more questions about Nick! What’s up with Nick and Jordan’s relationship? Do they actually like each other? Nick says in his opening narration that most people in antigone the east have earned his “unaffected scorn,” so it’s confusing to see him cozy up to Jordan in the next few chapters (1.4). However, keep in mind that scorn is earned over the course of the novel, and Nick writes the opening narration looking back at everything. Essays? So before the tragic conclusion, Nick actually is strongly attracted to Jordan and hasn’t yet realized that her attractive skepticism actually means she can be callous and uncaring. Our quote above from Chapter 4, as Nick finds himself attracted to essays the “hard, clean, limited” Jordan, illustrates that strong initial attraction.

But post break-up, do they still feel anything for each other? Their break-up scene is really helpful to analyze to answer this question: Nevertheless you did throw me over, said Jordan suddenly. Essay? You threw me over on the telephone. I don't give a damn about you now but it was a new experience for me and I felt a little dizzy for a while. Oh, and do you remember— she added, ——a conversation we had once about antigone sophocles driving a car?

You said a bad driver was only safe until she met another bad driver? Well, I met another bad driver, didn't I? I mean it was careless of me to make such a wrong guess. I thought you were rather an essays love, honest, straightforward person. I thought it was your secret pride. I'm thirty, I said. I'm five years too old to antigone sophocles essays lie to myself and call it honor. She didn't answer. Angry, and half in for reception love with her, and tremendously sorry, I turned away. (9.130-136) Jordan, for her part, seems to essays admit to having genuinely liked Nick when they break up at brown essays on the characteristics, the end and was quite hurt. And Nick, for once, is a mess of emotions: “angry” and “half in love.” So despite Nick’s earlier proclamation that everyone from the east coast is the object of antigone sophocles his “unaffected scorn,” it would seem his attachment to Jordan is a bit more complicated: he’s disgusted by travel writing some of her behavior and antigone sophocles essays yet still feels a strong attraction to her, strong enough that he’s angry and sorry during their break-up.

Of course, if you subscribe to boon essay the “Nick loves Gatsby” theory you could chalk much of this scene up to repressed desires, especially Nick’s comment about not wanting to lie to himself. Why does Nick say “you’re better than the whole damn bunch of sophocles essays them”? This statement officially marks Nick’s disillusionment with the East Coast, old money crowd. Remember that this line comes after the car accident, and the scene in the hotel just before that, so he’s just seen Daisy and Tom’s ugliest behavior. Nick is proud of the statement since it was one of the last things he ever got to john on the say to Gatsby. What can be a bit harder to spot is when exactly Nick’s earlier distrust of Gatsby morphed into respect.

I argued above it begins in Chapter 5, when he watches Gatsby’s reunion with Daisy and sees Gatsby transformed and enraptured by love. Nick sets the stage in Chapter 1 by first explaining why he can be trusted as a narrator. Essays? Read our summary of Chapter 1 for more analysis as to why Nick’s opening makes him a bit suspicious as a narrator. Want to read more about Nick and Jordan’s relationship? Curious as to why they get together despite their differences in background? Read about love, desire, and relationships in Gatsby for more on their relationship.

Did Fitzgerald see himself as more of a Carraway or a Gatsby? Read our history of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s life for characteristics, more on the man behind the book. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from Stanford University with honors. Antigone Sophocles Essays? In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on essays SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of 5 on seven AP tests. Antigone Sophocles? As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the technology boon bane essay, college admission process largely on her own, she is antigone passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in the college admissions process. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on alexander pope an essay our latest articles right on antigone sophocles essays your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about john brown characteristics this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an important step in the startup process. It helps you and antigone, your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. Essay. But because of antigone sophocles essays, all the effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of articles love, sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the antigone sophocles essays, pain out of the process. Small business owners can benefit from simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and more time launching. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is john on the characteristics a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences. Antigone. It covers everything from bane essay what you sell and who will buy it to how you will get paid, hustle to find customers, foresee challenges and overcome the antigone sophocles, obstacles all in a single page. [Writing a Business Plan?

Do These 5 Things First] Not all small businesses are concerned with credit lines, partnerships and office space at least not in the beginning. So why should their initial business plans include these things? Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan doesn#39;t. Instead, it offers a business-plan template fit for alexander pope on man, the real would-be entrepreneur#39;s world. Whereas most business-plan templates assume all businesses are uniform, Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan was created to sophocles essays get to technology what entrepreneurs really need to know to start a business: the ins and outs of the product or service, how customers will find the business and sophocles, how the business will make money. Simply copy and paste the template of the Remarkably Simple Business Plan, created by writing Sonia Simone, co-founder and chief content officer of Copyblogger Media, and you#39;re good to go. Founded in 2011, Enloop is regarded as an innovative player in the business-plan-creation industry. Like many others, the sophocles essays, service uses an online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation. To get started, users enter basic information about their businesses, including product details. Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the financial performance of the company in comparison with others in technology bane essay the sector. According to CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions.

Users can get started on antigone sophocles, Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available. LivePlan is bane essay a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the antigone essays, way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans. From there, users can create the presentation necessary to pitch their business ideas to would-be investors. Once off the ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface.

Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company. Created by boon bane The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to address to start a business: their vision for the company, mission for antigone sophocles, why the bane, business exists, objectives for setting out goals, strategies to make the business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to antigone essays be done. Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan.

Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. Writing. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by separating a single page into different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments. Write down your ideas or responses on sophocles, a sticky note, and then stick it on for reception, the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sophocles essays, sticky notes for better organization. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to best travel better fit the direction in which your business is essays headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. Gamsat. The fact that the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the SBA#39;s offerings before. The agency has a wealth of antigone sophocles, free planning, financing and consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is alexander pope an essay tied to antigone sophocles that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the company#39;s plans progress.

The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to use their generated plans to resume for reception discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. The SBA#39;s tool is available online at no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out essays don#39;t need lengthy business plans. What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to get started. The internal working plan consists of four simple questions that make up the technology bane essay, simple business plan: What is your product or service? Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of essays, answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for pope an essay text, information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to antigone have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Resume. Updated on May 1, 2015.

Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.

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Discount Internet Securities Broker. 580 Washington Boulevard. Chicago, Illinois 60661. This company raised $1 million (at $.20 per antigone sophocles share) and an additional $400,000 in articles loans using this plan written in May 1999. A revised version will likely raise between $2 million and $3 million by the first quarter of 2001. Technology Consultants, Inc., a business planning and strategy firm for early-stage technology companies, supplied the plan. The financial services industry has two unique market windows converging in the next six months that Incorporated (#x0022;;) is positioned to assume a leadership role: Discount Internet Securities Brokers are grabbing customers and trading volume from traditional full-service brokers at an increasing pace. Extended trading hours on NASDAQ and the NYSE by early fall 1999 will require brokerages to double their staff to meet client requirements to trade and access portfolio and company information#x2014;or build their own online trading system.

For $500 a month and sophocles, $1.00 per articles trade, Incorporated can offer broker-dealers a #x0022;Schwab(c)-like#x0022; turnkey discounted online trading service. There are currently no directly competing services to the offering and antigone sophocles essays, the alternative#x2014;to build in-house#x2014; is technologically complex with costs ranging from $250,000 to over $1,000,000. This service can be quickly implemented and essays, is fully customizable so that the client thinks the trading is occurring at the broker-dealer site and server. Sophocles Essays? All client portfolios and client information appears on the site. The system is essays love, one of the most secure on the market, using technology from GlobalEye Security Systems as a foundation for solid transaction and server security. In the U.S., there are more than 5,500 securities firms with more than 62,000 branch offices.

With over 130 stock exchanges globally, it#x0027;s expected that the antigone sophocles essays number of essay, broker-dealers comprising the target market exceeds 50,000 firms. The company requires U.S. $4 million over the next year to do a market trial and launch the sophocles essays service nationally. Pope An Essay On Man? A fully functioning pilot of the system is installed at sophocles,, a broker-dealer and customer. Within four weeks of funding, the system will be ready to market trial with AMXStock#x0027;s 100 brokers. Within a month, parallel trials will occur in essays Chicago and New York.

Following this, will direct market to 2,000 of the largest mid-sized broker-dealers not already online, and commence international expansion and publicity to establish it as a leader in providing this service. The company#x0027;s founder is Dr. Essays? Theodore Singer, who has a Ph.D. in engineering, mathematics and articles essays, computer science from M.I.T. and more than 30 years of experience. Dr. Essays? Singer has assembled a strong management team with broad experience in the securities and high-tech industries. Incorporated was chartered in the state of Oregon for the purpose of developing, marketing and acting as a service bureau for Internet-based securities trading systems. The company has exclusive rights to a suite of secure server and pope, transaction software developed specifically for essays, the brokerage industry. This suite of software combines with proprietary trading and clearing systems to produce a turnkey, secure, Web-based discount brokerage trading system targeted to small- and medium-sized broker-dealers who do not have the resources to develop their own online systems. will contract out john brown essays all R#x0026;D to antigone sophocles GlobalEye Security Systems (GES). GES operates out of premises in Montreal, Quebec.

The facility has state-of-the-art computer testing and best essays, assembly space and an Internet Service Provider (ISP) location with 10MB fiber optics #x0022;pipe.#x0022; The facility is alarmed and visited nightly at least 6 times on a random basis by a local security company. has an established management office in Portland and will initially operate #x0022;identity#x0022; sales offices in Chicago and New York. Within 24 months, the company expects to antigone essays have full offices in those cities, as well as representatives in Chicago alliances with firms in Toronto, Hong Kong, and Sydney. Goal: to be the de-facto standard for essay, Web-based brokerage systems solutions within 24 months of market launch, through savvy marketing, alliance, and business operations strategies. To achieve the sophocles essays above goal, the company#x0027;s objectives are set out in essays on the phases. In Phase I, the objective was to design an online brokerage trading system that would incorporate all the functionality of sophocles essays, current Web-based systems and also be extremely secure and portable to many clients, either through selling the software or on an outsourced service bureau basis. This objective was achieved in March 1998. In Phase II, the objective was to find a broker-dealer client who would be willing to essay work through and refine the system and also act as a demo site for capabilities. Sophocles? In addition, patent processes for travel essays, the software would be started.

The demo/client site was achieved by signing as a customer in June 1998; the patent process is underway and still pending. In Phase III, the objective is to raise capital ($500K) to add third-party quote systems, refine the essays site to technology make it a world-class Internet destination. Essays? The management team that has already agreed to join the company will be brought on board on essays characteristics, a full- and part-time basis as funds permit. The product will undergo a full market trial in Chicago, New York, and, pending regulatory issues, Toronto. In this phase, the emphasis will be on building the sophocles essays operations and administrative infrastructure and technical support systems so that clients, once signed, can be swiftly implemented and brought online. This phase is already underway and with funding will be completed by August 15, 1999.

In Phase IV, the objective is to raise additional capital ($1.5 million) to launch the product in the U.S. and Canada through an intensive telemarketing, hosted events, and advertising campaign to capitalize on the #x0022;extended hours#x0022; trading in September. In this Phase, the brown company wants to ensure that sales growth does not outstrip the antigone sophocles ability of development, operations, and technical teams to properly support existing and new clients. The company expects that there will be a number of #x0022;evolutions#x0022; of the available product, and will build automated upgrade systems for existing clients. An aggressive, but steady growth pattern will continue until March 2000. In Phase V, additional capital will be required for essays, additional staff, facilities, and international expansion ($2 million).

This will occur with the assistance of a public relations and advertising campaign, and hiring experienced high level staff to essays manage this process. The company will increase sales and support staff and develop full offices in Chicago, New York, Toronto, and essay, Sydney. The company expects to grow by alliance or merger with well established firms in London, Hong Kong, and other international investment hubs that have support staff and financial systems experience and sophocles essays, customers. Alexander An Essay Text? The company expects to expand into other financial verticals such as insurance and financial planning advisors with products specific to industry needs. This phase is antigone sophocles essays, expected to last until June 2001. Phase VI, the future. For Reception? The company will continue to antigone sophocles essays expand internationally, developing specific products to handle the resume for reception more than 130 stock exchanges globally and sophocles, the increasing need of investors to writing essays have access to truly global investment opportunities. has a responsibility to sophocles essays return a profit to the company#x0027;s stockholders, then establish a process whereby future investors may reap substantial profits. To fulfill this responsibility, the company#x0027;s management team must produce a quality, leading-edge software and travel essays, service offering that is cost effective and competitive.

Company profits should follow closely. Due to the nature of this business, the end user is generally not the paying customer. So, this technology and service must be managed in a dignified and sophocles, responsible manner so that the company#x0027;s customers are able to retain and grow their client base. The Mission of will be to perform these functions with uncompromising integrity, excellence, and service with utmost respect towards the firms and individuals we serve. The company has progressed from the idea stage to the product development and essays love, pilot stage, Phases I and II, with founders seed money. The company is in Phase III of its plan and seeks funding to complete the sophocles last phases of making the service market-ready, conducting a market trial and establishing the management team and infrastructure. As soon as Phase III is completed, the company plans to enter Phase IV, market launch, and will be seeking additional funds according to the Financial Plan section later in this document. gives small to medium-sized broker-dealers an online stock trading system with functionality similar to E-Trade#x00A9; or Schwab#x00A9; for $500 a month and $1.00 per trade. Transaction security is the most important and highly sought-after element in the growth of online financial applications. Available security software utilizing public key and SSL (secure sockets layer) encryption protocols can be cumbersome, may inhibit speed of gamsat, transactions, and if penetrated have inherent adverse side effects.;s software combines patent-pending transaction and server security with proprietary security trading and clearing functions. It allows full service broker-dealers or financial advisers the ability to offer feature-rich and very secure online discounted trading and remain profitable. customers will be able to offer clients access to their portfolios over the Internet, allow interaction with their brokers to buy and antigone essays, sell, and will also allow them to love take advantage of discount trading.

The online trading system has been designed with customization tools that make installation straightforward and fast. Features of the system include: Fully customizable to broker-dealer#x0027;s image and client servicing requirements Speedy installation#x2014;can be operational in less than a week Quotes, charts, news, and client portfolio Online trading with real-time quotes Online registration and client information. There are currently three members of the Board of antigone sophocles essays, Directors who have agreed to act until changed by the company stockholders at the first annual stockholders meeting. It#x0027;s expected that three additional directors will be appointed as soon as the company begins formal operation. Dr. Theodore Singer , Founder and Chief Technology Officer. Dr. Singer holds a Ph.D. in pagingdr essay engineering and antigone essays, applied mathematics and computer sciences from M.I.T. (1974), where he worked at essay, the internationally famous Morningstar Research Institute conducting many projects.

From 1976 to 1983, he was a college professor of Computer and Engineering Sciences. His industry experience includes MIS, software design, and consulting for major companies in the U.S. and Canada. He did extensive research in large project management and consulted on famous IT projects such as Project Atlantis-M. Dr. Antigone? Singer founded GlobalEye Security Systems Inc., a computer firm specializing in network integration and innovative software solutions. He was responsible for the company#x0027;s rise from a small home operation to a successful company with sales in excess of $10 million. Henry Muster , Director. Mr. Alexander Pope On Man Text? Muster holds a M.S. in mathematics (San Diego University, 1965) and an Executive M.B.A. Antigone Sophocles? (University of Notre Dame, 1987).

He has over best travel essays 30 years#x0027; professional experience in finance, management, and engineering. As President and essays, CEO of he directs and manages a broker-dealer with a wide range of products, services, and contacts. Jennifer Heartly , President and CEO. Ms. Heartly holds an M.B.A. and is a Certified Management Consultant. Since 1994, she has consulted on technology management issues in the U.S. and articles, Canada and has managed over $200 million in technology acquisitions and contracts.

Ms. Essays? Heartly is on the board of Capital Ventures Inc., and has most recently specialized in taking technology startups from concept to financing stages. Bane Essay? She has extensive experience opening international high-tech markets through direct, agency, and reseller channels. Ms. Heartly has been involved with technology since 1981, as a systems analyst supporting the brokerage offerings for Data Keys in New York City. Antigone? Subsequently, with Morris Ltd. she managed telecommunications for the New York Stock Exchange and Zoe Securities. With Mission Data Systems, she worked closely with Michael Roberts to best travel writing essays develop an early ISDN brokerage system in conjunction with TRG Telephone Systems. As acting Director of the Eastern seaboard Branch of the Timber S Group, she was responsible for all the financial modeling and antigone sophocles essays, analysis for its comprehensive New York Stock Exchange project. Nicholas Moster , Vice President, Sales and Marketing. Mr. Moster has more than 15 years#x0027; high-tech sales and international equity trading experience in more than seven countries around the world.

In 1984, with a degree from the European Securities Institute, he became a Director and Partner in four private companies headquartered in Paris, France. In 1989, he moved to Singapore as a Company Director and articles love, Institutional Business Manager for the Keystone Group. He provided consulting to nearly all of the respective members of the Singapore Stock Exchange and then further afield to include Malaysia, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and surrounding South East Asian countries working with brokerage firms and government-managed equity funds. In 1993 he moved to New York City working as a Senior Account Manager for the Timbe S Group. Interfacing with each of the listed companies on antigone sophocles, the New York Stock Exchange, he later incorporated his expertise to assist Canadian Companies with the foreign listings in articles the U.S. on the NASDAQ and the NYSE. Mr. Moster now resides in Toronto working in the technology sector specializing in Strategic Account Management at a senior level for Internet #x0022;startup#x0022; companies. He plans to join the company within a month of initial funding. Jeremy Birch , President, Development and Operations. Mr.

Birch has been involved in the business and deployment sides of technology since1981. Antigone? He holds an M.B.A. Best Essays? focusing on Finance and Entrepreneurial studies and antigone essays, an undergraduate majoring in economics and computer science. He spent three years developing business plans, financial plans, and business analysis reports for on the characteristics, high-tech companies in their early stages of antigone essays, development and three years#x0027; head office accounting and IT management in a multinational corporation. Since 1988 he has provided outsourced IT management services to a number of small clients and a large corporate client ($1 million annual IT budget). Technology Boon? He is the primary designer and developer of over 50 custom financial, accounting, and investment analysis software applications. His investment activities include short-term trading of technology and resource stocks, a general partner in one commercial software company, and a limited partner in antigone sophocles a software development fund. Mr. Birch#x0027;s current projects include an boon essay all-inclusive corporate intranet site development, Y2K readiness preparation, and antigone sophocles, computerizing a custom stock trading system and a graphical data based economic/market data trends website. He plans to join the company within two months of gamsat, initial funding, working part-time in the interim until he completes his current work.

Gene Benson , Vice President, Administration. Following 20 years with Delta Airlines, during which time he was responsible for antigone sophocles, developing North America#x0027;s first self-service airline ticketing kiosks, Mr. Benson continued to combine his expertise and knowledge providing new services to the travel and tourism sectors. As joint founder and Vice President, Sales and Marketing of an online #x0022;e-Commerce#x0022; company, Mr. Benson provided new capabilities to major vacation resorts in North America, including online sales ranging from accommodation reservations to lift-ticket sales. From 1993 to 1995 he was Vice President, Business Development for a Toronto tourism information system which was part of a larger Ontario provincial tourism initiative. From 1989 to 1993 he concentrated on interactive multimedia technologies and developed an electronic #x0022;duty free#x0022; shopping center located within hotels. It served an international clientele on behalf of international airlines.

Mark Waddle , Acting Director of Technology. Mr. Waddle holds a B.S. in Physics (University of Chicago, 1995) and is currently head of MIS systems for GlobalEye Security Systems Inc. He is experienced in UNIX, Novell, and NT and is a C programming specialist. Mr. Alexander Text? Waddle plans to work with the company until Mr. Birch comes on board in essays order to transition development work smoothly. He will remain as a full-time employee of GlobalEye Security Systems,;s outsourced development and data center in Montreal, Quebec. The company#x0027;s marketing and best essays, sales strategy is to promote and support its quickly installable online trading system as a solution to NASDAQ and NYSE extended trading hours and the loss of clients by broker-dealers to discount Web-based trading firms.

The company#x0027;s initial target market is the small- to medium-sized broker-dealers and brokers that do not have online systems in the U.S. and Canada. There are 5,500 broker-dealers in the U.S. with over 60,000 branch offices. Within a month of initial funding, will be ready to market to broker-dealers and brokers in antigone sophocles both the U.S. and alexander text, Canada. Due to antigone sophocles essays regulatory constraints, the Canadian product will have to be modified. However, there is an alexander pope text immediate opportunity for mutual fund sales through both small brokerages and antigone essays, financial advisors. NYSE and NASDAQ have announced extended trading hours to be implemented by early fall, extending trading to twelve hours a day from the current six. For full service brokerage firms without an gamsat online trading option, this means huge costs in staffing and antigone, support personnel to maintain trading for clients while the markets are open. Similar announcements are expected at text, other major exchanges around the world. The company feels that there is a window of opportunity to take advantage of this timing, and has set its market launch to occur prior to extended trading. With funding in place, it is critical that the company pursue its marketing objectives as soon as possible.

These accounts will be managed by the President and Sales Vice President, as they generally require executive level contacts. has a partnership with GlobalEye Security Systems and exclusive rights to its products for the financial industry. GlobalEye Security Systems was conceived to meet the need of secure commerce on the Internet. GlobalEye has low cost top layer products designed to remove the threat of intruders being able to essays break in and compromise an Internet server and its data as it travels over the Internet. When used in combination these products provide the most secure and effective electronic commerce applications available. Brown Essays Characteristics? GlobalEye Systems will provide data center, development, and technical support until the company is sufficiently funded to build its own infrastructure and systems. The company has formed a strategic alliance with of Chicago which has been a pilot site for the development of the online trading system. has over 100 brokers who will comprise the first market trial of the company#x0027;s Internet trading solution. Based on this trial, expected to start a month after funding occurs, the company will revise and essays, refine its product and continue trials in Chicago and Toronto until market launch late August. The company has also formed an resume alliance with Dr. Antigone? Mark Woo of john essays on the characteristics, Woo International (WI).

WI will be assisting in;s international market expansion and essays, future investment. With its affiliates in many different countries, WI has a global network for marketing, joint venture, partnership, and investment for high-tech products. In foreign countries, WI has a particularly strong market base in Germany, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and pagingdr essay, China. The company intends to pursue alliances with international firms actively developing business in the brokerage services sector in Austral-Asia, Europe, and South America. The company Sales Vice President has extensive international experience with firms in Asia and Australia, and it#x0027;s expected that much of essays, his effort in the early part of Year Two will be to develop these alliances and manage the relationship with WI. Prior to market launch, a complete list of prospects will be gathered and an intensive telemarketing campaign will commence, so that sales activities can begin as soon as there is a completed online system. Technology? has an up-to-date, accurate listing of 4,000 of these broker-dealers, and antigone essays, will be narrowing and enhancing the list with contact names, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses over the next three months to pope an essay the top 2,000 prospects. Use of demo websites and e-mail as marketing tools will greatly shorten the sales cycle. Hosted group information sessions will allow a larger number of brokers to sophocles be handled than through individual meetings. The company#x0027;s strategy is to first sell the largest broker-dealers not on the Internet, then through the broker-dealer set up a series of for reception, group information sessions for its brokers, with appropriate follow-up and marketing materials.

The company plans to hire a telemarketing person by July to research and begin this process to contact each of the first 2,000 prospective broker-dealers. The company expects that as many as 25 percent of the prospective clients for essays, the service will not require an in-person visit, and that a strong telemarketing program will yield excellent results. Advertisement and Promotion Objectives. The company is using a moderate advertising and public relations strategy from August to October 1999 until a core of solid broker-dealers and dealers have been signed and the sales process is an essay on man, well underway. Two approaches will be used. Full-page advertisements in national financial papers (WSJ) will announce the availability of the service to brokers and essays, broker-dealers. Full-page advertisements in national newspapers ( USA Today ) will announce the availability to clients of those brokers.

An aggressive but low-key approach will yield excellent market penetration in conjunction with an excellent website that showcases the features of the system. Other direct mail, fax, and regional advertising and PR efforts will emphasize the following: Security of the service using the GlobalEye Security Systems software versus security measures used by essays, most of the other online brokerage and finance offerings Raise the awareness of the general low level of security that is antigone, currently available in e-commerce and financial transactions Promote as the writing #x0022;first to market#x0022; with this innovative solution to the small to medium-sized brokerage problems caused by extended trading and migration of clients to discount houses Encourage investment interest Implement a #x0022;pull#x0022; strategy to encourage brokerage clients to ask their brokers and broker-dealers why they don#x0027;t have an #x0022;affordable#x0022; online solution. Marketing Materials and antigone essays, Online Presence. The bulk of the marketing budget will be spent on essays on the characteristics, increasing the antigone sophocles essays functionality and design appeal of technology boon,;s online demo site and alliance sites of antigone sophocles essays, software suppliers such as GlobalEye Security Systems Inc. Essay? A standard e-mail message will be developed that links to reports showing the increased migration of customers away from traditional broker-dealers, security issues reports, and antigone sophocles essays, online#x0027;s demo site. Initially, the demo site will be, since this will serve to act as a reference of a real customer. The company intends to essays love develop its own demo site within three months of antigone sophocles, initial funding, once it has a customer list and track record sufficiently impressive to promote. Within six months, the company intends to seek out speaking engagements at financial trade shows and conferences, emphasizing the same points as in the advertising section. It intends to position itself as a market leader and innovator in text the area of antigone sophocles essays, secure brokerage systems and intends to raise industry awareness of the possible threats to personal and business privacy and transactions. Resume? Through this approach, the company expects to be able to assist its customers in their ability to antigone retain clients and start to reverse the migration to the larger online brokerage offerings currently on articles essays, the market.

All company personnel will be considered members of the sophocles essays sales team. The administrative assistant and support personnel who implement the systems will all have an active role in customer relations and customer satisfaction. The company intends to conduct training for all personnel who may have customer contact to ensure that top-level communication occurs at all times. The in-field sales force will be made up five regionally located sales professionals. The regions are the East Coast, West Coast, Central Plains, Canada (including the Pacific Northwest), and International (based in alexander on man text San Diego).

Each salesperson will live in the geographical area in which they are responsible to reduce travel expense and build a local presence. Additional sales people will be added as the company develops demand. The company has budgeted for web-based contact and customer management software to handle the widely dispersed organization. Pricing for services are set to be affordable to individual brokers, yet return excellent profitability once a core group of customers has been signed up. Sophocles Essays? Current competitive pricing is for the broker-dealer to build their own system, estimated to cost at least $250,000 and as much as $1,000,000.;s profit will be based on a monthly fee of gamsat, $500 per broker. This will allow the antigone sophocles broker to quickly have an online offering and a look customized based on color, logo, and fonts.

Additional customization will be billed at an hourly rate of $80 an hour and pope text, average customization charges are expected to be $2,000, although the range will be from $500 to sophocles essays $50,000. Per transaction price will be $1.00 per best travel essays trade, payable by the broker-dealer. The broker-dealer will add this cost to its billing of the sophocles essays per-trade cost to essays love each broker. Variable costs average 26 percent as a percentage of antigone essays, sales over the first four years. The company believes that this percentage will be reduced once there is a core group of customers to achieve economies of scale. For large broker-dealers with a large complement of john brown essays on the, in-house sales staff, the sophocles essays company expects to offer volume pricing on the monthly service charge. It also anticipates restructuring the pricing to accommodate business practices in different countries.

There are more than 500 brokerage companies on resume for reception, the Internet. By the end of 1999, an estimated 10 million brokerage accounts will be able to trade online. Despite the antigone essays tremendous growth in this market, only travel writing, 6 percent of investors are currently trading online, but 58 percent are either currently using the Internet, or plan to go online within one year. There are currently 5,500 full service broker-dealers serving the U.S.#x0027;s eight stock exchanges. These firms have over 62,000 branch offices (source NASD). Antigone Sophocles Essays? Virtually all of the broker-dealers will require Internet trading services in technology boon essay the immediate future to retain their client base. The era of the full-service brokerage charging high premiums for trading is in its #x0022;sunset#x0022; phase. Sophocles? A number of recent studies support the need for full-service broker-dealers to have an online presence. The vast community of on the, small to medium-sized brokerage firms are likely to essays suffer if they are not able to sustain an attractive cost structure, high levels of service, quality offerings, and advice for full-service investors in the future. #x0022;The implication is that unless full-service firms begin to articles realign their services to include high-quality online offerings, investors who believe they are not getting personalized service from sophocles essays, their brokers will quickly become candidates for these hybrid, direct competitors#x0022; (ABN AMRO study).

Globally there are over 130 stock exchanges (see Appendix B). Best Essays? At this stage, the company has not been able to obtain figures on the exact number of broker-dealers worldwide, but by conservative estimates it is over essays 50,000 firms, all of whom will require an online presence as the global Internet services market expands. has researched exhaustively and has not found a direct competitor to this service. There is one firm based in Atlanta, Georgia, that offers a similar service who could potentially migrate to the offering. FireBird Securities of on the, Atlanta is offering entrepreneurs the chance to operate their own Internet brokerage operation via a franchise system. FireBird provides entrepreneurs with the Internet dealing software customized with their company logo, color scheme, and specific requirements. FireBird also provides franchisees with a network of executing brokers throughout the world, to antigone essays which orders to pope an essay buy/sell stocks are automatically routed via its franchise system. FireBird#x0027;s system also allows traditional broker-dealers to have a #x0022;private-label#x0022; online system. Antigone Essays? The company is in travel the process of determining pricing and more information on FireBird to understand how large a threat they may be in antigone the future. There are a number of firms that offer solutions for broker-dealers to build their own systems, and numerous consulting and bane, web development firms who offer similar services, but no one has a service offering with an outsourced solution.

It is possible that a number of firms may enter the market once establishes that there is a viable, lucrative opportunity. Below are the various groups that may in future provide competitive offerings. A few clearing firms have set up systems to market to antigone sophocles essays their correspondents and a number of essays on the characteristics, broker-dealers already have online solutions. It would be relatively straightforward to offer their current service to broker-dealers and brokers in a similar manner to Some of the better broker-dealer sites include Hickory #x0026; Kendall, a national firm with an impressive online site, and Fidelity. These sites are well designed, are quick loading, and have a wealth of investment information and portfolio management tools. The company believes that most broker-dealers will not compromise their broker relationships by offering online trading to other broker-dealers or brokers. Issues of confidentiality, client lists and competition issues will more than likely prevent this group from antigone, becoming a strong competitor.

The company will position itself as providing a much more secure trading environment, and publicizing the current e-commerce security threats will be critical to keeping a market leadership role. There are many firms that offer development tools and packages to allow traditional brokers to offer online services. Among these, the ones the company found that were most viable were: Queenlink is a division of travel writing essays, Quarks, Litter #x0026; Post (QLP) Securities Corporation, a leading investment banking and securities firm with total capital of over $8 billion and total assets of over $80.3 billion. Antigone Essays? QLP is a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange. It has a product sold as a reliable solution for offering access to account information, trading capability, news, quotes, and other content on best writing, the World Wide Web. A customized version of antigone sophocles, this product enables financial organizations to offer online services to their clients, and offers Internet-based tools that investment professionals need to effectively service clients. Michaels Ltd. based in Nevada with a sales office in New York, has a product called LMP/NetWebbing. It provides financial firms with a vehicle in which to utilize the best essays Internet as a low-cost, highly effective communication methodology, providing headquarters system access to all professionals via the sophocles essays Internet/Intranet. Michaels has a joint venture with a major computer corporation to resume for reception provide build online brokerage solutions for broker-dealers.

K#x0026;K Investments, Inc., a Florida corporation, provides a comprehensive solution to transact online securities trading including site hosting, website design, and development, client/server interfaces, and database interaction. K#x0026;K was incorporated in antigone sophocles 1994 and placed its first online trading site on the Internet in 1996.

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Heredity Versus Environment Essay. A major debate within psychology is whether it is antigone sophocles nature or nurture which influences people; the way people act and behave, cognitive development, and what we look for in a partner are just some aspects of the debate. Resume For Reception? Nature supporters, or Naturists, believe that our behaviour is down to essays genetics and is inherited from our parents. They believe that everything about a person is alexander an essay on man decided at the moment on conception. Whereas nurture supporters believe that people learn their behaviour from the sophocles, environment, their upbringings and the surrounding influences; such as friends, peers and work colleagues. Travel Essays? There is lots of research, studies and antigone essays evidence to support both arguments on a variety of articles, subjects.

The nature argument is often used in court cases to describe uncharacteristic or deviant behaviour. Humans are often related to essays as animals as this is believed that people evolved from, Charles Darwin is a leading figure in this side of the argument. He pioneered his theory of evolution, and it is widely accepted that humans did derive from a ‘common ancestor’, therefore do have instinctive behaviour, and traits about their personality (Allaboutscience, 2014). A real life example of this would be a baby, who is unable to communicate, and has little understanding of the world; however still show signs of fear if they were to hear a loud noise. Nurture supporters believe that a person’s upbringing is a major factor which influences people in later life. A real life example of this would be serial killers, when studied, they were often subject to horrific abuse as a child and they blame this for their inabilities to conform to society’s norms and commit dreadful crimes. This is supported by a psychological study Bowlby’s 22 juvenile thieve study; people commit crimes due to what kind of boon essay, upbringing they received.

The lack of a secure attachment with their primary care giver (McCloud, 2007). The term gender refers to whether a person socially and culturally class themselves as male or female, and which role they choose to live their life by in sophocles essays society. John Essays On The? Rather than the term sex; which is what’s chosen biologically by antigone genetics whilst in the womb (Who, 2014). Psychologists look at gender difference within the nature/nurture debate; to see if genetics or environment factors play a part in what makes genders behaviour and act differently. Best Travel Writing? There are stereotypical gender roles in sophocles society; examples of which are that females are seen as maternal caring and loving people whereas males are seen as aggressive, dominate, and the breadwinners. Scientists know that there are biologically difference between genders; such as hormones, and chromosomes, these are scientifically proven. Also they have been shown to majorly impact a person’s behaviour, for example the best travel essays, male hormone testosterone is sophocles contributor to aggressive behaviour and is the reason behind why males have more muscle mass supporting the pope an essay text, nature perspective.

Whereas nurture supporters believe that gender differences come from the environment, for example, children are dressed in sophocles colours which are stereotypical for their sex; blue for resume a boy and pink for a girl. This is antigone further supported by the self-fulfilling prophecy; that if a person is travel essays told that they are something (male or female in antigone essays this case) they will eventually believe this which will affect their behaviour. Interactionism is a term used to describe genetic gender differences which are influence or modified by the environment. Mary Mead conducted an experiment supporting the nurture argument of gender differences in 1935, where she studied three different tribes; Arapesh, Mundugumor, and Tchambuli. The arapesh were non aggressive, with a caring attitude towards children. The Mundungumor were aggressive and cold towards children. On Man Text? The Tchambuli was the tribe were the antigone sophocles essays, males were submissive and passive.

The results were that Mead found a slight pattern in male and essay female behaviour across different cultures however there were a lot more differences. Supporting the nurture argument as in Mead’s study two tribes showed role reversal; in one tribe the males were dominate and aggressive, whereas in another the females were, and the males were submissive. Also females being cold and uncaring towards children; this showed psychologists that it can’t be instinctive or genetic that women must have maternal tendencies. This therefore shows interactionism in western society. A criticism of antigone essays, this study is that all three tribes where in close proximity therefore are the resume for reception, sample could be said to sophocles essays be culturally similar (Benson, 2005). Buss et al in 1990 conducted a study which found that males are more aggressive than females regardless of culture. They found cross cultural similarities between the genders; these were in resume for reception how people look for a perspective reproductive partner. Buss et al found that men preferred youth and attractiveness whereas women looked for wealth and status.

This study supports the antigone sophocles, nature debate as Buss et al studied a wide and varied sample of people, and some people believe that these results can still be seen today in the western world. Another psychologist credited for his work in regards to this debate is Bronislaw Malinowski; he carried out a research project in north-western Melanesia in 1929. Malinowski like Mead studied tribes however he looked at their sexual behaviour and concluded that sexual behaviour dominates every aspect of life regardless of culture, which further supports the nature debate. As with all studies, there are things which may affect the pagingdr gamsat, results of the research. With studying tribes there could of been a communication barrier, between the researcher and the participating tribes which would effect the results.

The gender of the psychologist performing the study could influence the results as they could be said to be bias; as they may favour there own gender. Also the presence of a researcher in sophocles essays a person’s everyday life may alter the boon, way that person behaves and acts around them. To conclude, there are lots of gender differences, some appear similar across the antigone sophocles, world whereas others appear to be culturally connected. John Brown Essays On The Characteristics? In relation to the nature/nurture debate, there are arguments and studies to support both sides, and will always be a conflicting argument throughout psychology. Critically evaluate some evidence which offers support for essays the role of ‘nature’ in the heredity-environment debate on intelligence. One disagreement people have in the topic of heredity versus environment is about the subject of intelligence; are people born an intelligent person or is this acquired over time, when information is learned and boon bane absorbed into a person brain.

Intelligence is defined as a ‘manifestation of essays, a high metal capacity’ (Dictionary, 2014). A commonly used test to assess a person’s intelligence is brown on the a series of questions called an IQ test; the higher the IQ score the more intelligent a person is believed to be. Francis Galton in antigone sophocles 1869 studied the john essays on the, subject of intelligence and since then lots of psychologists have been interested in antigone sophocles the debate and there have been many studies conducted (Malim Birch, 1998). In support of the nature debate, there have been a lot of experiments conducted on siblings, including twins studies, and cousins. Twins can be categorised into two groups; monozygotic (MZ), and pagingdr essay dizygotic (DZ). Antigone Essays? Monozygotic twins are ‘identical’ and share the same genetic information as they were produced from travel essays, one egg, whereas dizygotic twins are produced from two separate ova and have the same genetic information as two children with the same parents (Malim Birch, 1998). Antigone Essays? As with all studies in this debate, these have been heavily criticised by supporters of the opposing arguments, this assignment will evaluate some of these.

The main criticism of the majority of IQ studies is that all the participants are children or adolescents. Newman et al in 1937 embarked on a ten year research project studying 100 pairs of twins, 19 of which were adopted MZ twins; 7 males and 9 females. John Brown Characteristics? These adopted twins had experienced different upbringings so Newman wanted to see how this affected their intelligence (Twin Studies, 2014). The results were that the IQ of monozygotic twins was higher than that of the antigone essays, dizygotic twins which Newman studied. They also showed that the IQ of twins reared together was higher that if the twins had been separated after birth. However a major criticism of this study is that Newman enrolled the twins that he studied on similarities to ensure that the twins he studied were MZ, as at the time the pagingdr gamsat, technology wasn’t available to scientifically prove whether the sophocles, twins were identical or not. Also the sample of articles, twins which Newman et al studied has been said to be biased, due to the expense of conducting the experiment; Newman had to pay for the sample to travel and antigone sophocles stay in lodgings in Chicago.

The results could then be flawed as twins may have acted in a certain way to be chosen for resume for reception the study in order to go on an all-expenses paid holiday during a time of sophocles essays, great depression across America. It has also been proven that a pair of for reception, twins from Newman’s sample group were raised in sophocles essays the same town and even attended the resume, same school (Benson, 2005). A more recent twin study was conducted by sophocles essays James Shields in brown on the 1962; Shields took a sample of 44 pairs of identical twins who had been brought up apart from each other. Shields enlisted these twins by antigone a television advertisement and wanted to find out the correlation between their IQ results. The findings were that the correlation of identical twins reared apart was higher than the essays love, non-identical twins reared together; who Shields also studied.

This study is often criticised due to the method the participants were enrolled onto essays, the study; twins were put forward to the study as they looked alike, they may not have necessarily of gamsat essay, been proven to be monozygotic or identical. Another flaw is that although Shield’s claims that the twins were brought up separately, they were often raised by members of the same family, lived locally, and went to the same schools. It is reported that one pair of twins, lived next door to each other. Despite the flaws this study is often seen as one of the strongest twin studies in psychology in relation to IQ again supporting nature (Firth, 2009). Other than twin studies, some psychologist studied intelligence and how it correlates with differently between different ethnic groups and races in society. Arthur Jensen was one of these, in 1969 he analysed the differences in sophocles essays IQ results between different races, and published his results, which sparked outrage across america. Jensen’s devised an intelligence test for children, and alexander pope his pupils to sit the test from the antigone sophocles, school which he was a professor at. The test comprised of two parts; level one abilities or associative learning and level two abilities or conceptual learning. The results were that the ‘white american’ students performed better at the task two abilities than students of other races (Telegraph, 2013).

Jensen concluded that intelligence was 80% inherited, as he believed this from his results that a child’s ancestry was the gamsat, reason that some children scored poorly on the test. This leading to sophocles essays him to for reception believing that intelligence is a factor of genetics and antigone is passed on on man text, through generations. Antigone Essays? However there is an opposing argument, that this study also supports the nurture debate, as it shows how different cultures are effected differently. For example, the caucasian children would of come from a higher social class than the alexander pope an essay on man text, ethnic minorities; therefore it was the environment and peers which affected their mental ability. The ethical issues involved with this study are evident as Jensen incited racism by antigone publishing these figures. This could of also led to violence, and sparked hatred within the community and brown essays on the characteristics across american.

Also some students could of been favoured over others, as they would be seen as clever, therefore received priority treatment, as proven in sophocles essays Rosenthal Jacobson’s study in pagingdr 1968. Jensen completed his test in 1960’s america, which was a hostile time, in particular within regards to sophocles race segregation, with the speech and assassination of Matin Luther King. Hans Eysenck was a German psychologist who is also credited for his work in relation to intelligence and race (Cherry, 2014). Articles Essays? He wrote a book called: The IQ argument: race, intelligence and education, based on these studies and summarised the results. This book claims that ’80% of variability is inborn’ (Benson, 2005). Hans was also criticised as his views also focused on the differences between IQ results of blacks and antigone whites, rather than treating people as equally as individuals. Eysenck believed it to be fact that white people had a higher IQ and set about telling the world. Pagingdr Gamsat Essay? Some people didn’t agree with his views which involved him being attacked on antigone sophocles, numerous occasions and becoming a hated public figure. In conclusion, there are a lot of studies in psychology in technology boon bane essay regards to the nature/nurture debate, on a whole array of topics.

Intelligence is only one of these. Criticisms are prevalent throughout all these studies as it is a debate which people just can not agree on, and everyone has their own opinion. Allaboutscience, 2014, Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] Benson, N, 2005, Introducing Psychology, Totem Books:USA. Birch, Malim, A T, 1998, Introductory Psychology, Macmillan Press:Hampshire. Cherry, 2014, Hans Eysenck Biography (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 23-04-2014] Dictionary, 2014, Intelligence | Define Intelligence at (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 07-04-2014]

Firth, J, 2009, Shields (1962) (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] Joesph, J, 2008 Separated Twins and the Genetics of antigone sophocles, Personality Differences: A Critique, (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 12-.4-2014] McCloud, S, 2007, John Bowlby | Maternal Deprivation Theory | Simply Psychology (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] McCloud, S, 2007, Nature / Nurture in Psychology, (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 07-04-2014] Telegraph, 2013, Arthur Jensen (Online) Available at love [Last Accessed 23-04-2014]

Twin Studies, 2014, Twin Studies, (Online) Available at antigone sophocles essays [Last Accessed 08-04-2014] Who, 2014, WHO | What do we mean by “sex” and “gender”? (Online) Available at [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Heredity Versus Environment. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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