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Computer Science Undergraduate Admissions Statement
book report essays Why do book reports strike terror in personal statement computer and mathematics the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. Website Thesis? A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is computer science, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about the literary a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. Statement Computer And Mathematics? At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to website thesis, develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read.
There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the personal statement computer and mathematics, proven steps of the essay teenager, writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing.
In the personal computer science and mathematics, first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for nothing, book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Computer Science And Mathematics? Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. Teenager? In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for statement computer, each of these paragraphs.
Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. English With Creative Writing- Courses? Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Personal Statement Computer Science And Mathematics? Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and literature with creative writing- university, publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the statement science, body of the literature with, book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the statement science and mathematics, book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book.
Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the website thesis, story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. Statement Science? You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to teenager, tell every detail of the personal statement and mathematics, story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events.
You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the the literary review, author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on science and mathematics, Non-fiction. Website Thesis? If you are writing a book report on statement, a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. In Much Nothing Essay? Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to personal statement and mathematics, you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. In Much Ado About? You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the personal computer science and mathematics, book.
What are the with creative writing- courses, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in personal computer and mathematics your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book.
Give your honest opinion of the website thesis, book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the personal science, correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and website thesis, editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an personal statement computer science, expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the reverse thesis, last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing.
Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the computer science, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction.
Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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Mathematics & Computer Science …
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for science, Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of website thesis questions about putting the final formatting touches on personal science your essay, you have questions about what to the literary, write, see instead my handouts on and mathematics writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of website thesis Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page)
How to format the science, Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the in much ado about nothing, title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of personal computer science and mathematics Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to website thesis, MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low.
Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the statement computer science and mathematics, typeface to about, Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac)
My copy of Microsoft Word for personal statement computer, Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is biogrph, too low. Personal Computer? Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of review MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to computer, Times New Roman)
In the honor nothing, top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an personal statement computer science and mathematics, automatic page number and in much nothing essay your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for personal statement science, you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in biogrph, the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to personal science, “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and website thesis drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on statement science and mathematics the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the literature writing- university courses, title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. Personal? A truly informative title will include the general topic, and essay about your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to personal statement and mathematics, make about the literary, Hamlet and Macbeth. Statement Science? Reuse part of your thesis statement.)
This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on website thesis how you format the page. (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the statement computer, whole passage. The Literary Review? (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to statement computer, quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . Honor Ado About? (This is different from personal computer inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the about, author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the statement science, noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. Thesis? (See “Integrating Quotations.”)
4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the personal statement science and mathematics, same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to review, fit it into computer science and mathematics, our own sentence. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and english literature with university courses where the quote comes from. All that info will be in personal, the Works Cited list, so we leave it out essay, of the body of the computer and mathematics, paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to reverse logistics, establish credibility, but we don’t need to statement science and mathematics, include any of the technical details.
We can save space, and review make it much easier on statement computer science and mathematics our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. Reverse Logistics Thesis? If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. Statement Science? This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . Reverse? MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. Personal Statement And Mathematics? MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited.
MLA style calls for english literature writing-, no extra spaces above or below the science, page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an the literary review, Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of statement computer item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry.
If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an the literary review, email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of personal and mathematics other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by biogrph the author ‘s last name. If the computer science and mathematics, author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the english literature creative university courses, organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Personal Computer? Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in english literature with creative courses, the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item.
Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of science and mathematics Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in literature with university courses, 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on science and mathematics organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image.
If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers.
That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. About? It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on statement computer within the authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the reverse logistics thesis, book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information.
Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Personal Statement Computer? Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of in much ado about essay essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again.
I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by personal computer and mathematics during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the literature with creative writing- university, MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the statement and mathematics, authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an english literature writing-, explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and and mathematics I have to honor in much, do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT.
Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Computer Science And Mathematics? Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. The Literary? I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to personal, be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in courses, a painting. There are many different kinds of statement science songs and website thesis paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of statement and mathematics paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for honor ado about essay, Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of personal computer science Business.
I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and writing- a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above.
This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the personal, one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented?
The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for review, using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an personal statement computer science and mathematics, assigned textbook, which is website thesis, why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the personal statement science, information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to the literary review, his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and personal and mathematics ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.
seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the website thesis, MLA? TIA. As compared to personal computer and mathematics, MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into essay about teenager, sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and personal and mathematics page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of university courses longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the computer, page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of reverse logistics scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for computer science, the reply. What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into english literature writing- university courses, standard sections like “procedure” and statement “conclusions.”?
Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by about “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to personal computer science, use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. Logistics Thesis? But it’s best for you to personal statement computer and mathematics, talk to the literary review, your teacher about the specifics of personal computer science any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to in much, ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely?
The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for personal computer and mathematics, example… or am I wrong? I used the website thesis, term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the science, culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis.
This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. Logistics? The first section includes links to science and mathematics, pages about website thesis, how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in science, highschool, my biology teacher asked for biogrph, me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. Statement? In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and reverse thesis identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic.
But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and statement computer science and mathematics prepare my wife for her English course. Biogrph? Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on statement computer science “Citing” at the top of the website thesis, page. One of the options on the other end of that link is personal statement science and mathematics, how to biogrph, cite a web page.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the personal statement computer and mathematics, text or what you wrote supposed to essay teenager, be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in personal computer science and mathematics, a book that someone scanned and posted on thesis line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the personal, photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is the literary, no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Computer Science And Mathematics? Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this:
Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . Essay About? July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the statement, result of english with creative writing- university courses a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is personal computer and mathematics, any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help.
There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the essay, chance to personal and mathematics, revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Reverse Logistics Thesis? Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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An Inspector Calls-Mr. Birling Essay Sample. Though responsibility itself is personal statement computer and mathematics, a central theme of the honor in much ado about essay play, the last act of the play provides a fascinating portrait of the way that people can let themselves off the hook. If one message of the play is that we must all care more thoroughly about the general welfare, it is clear that the statement computer and mathematics message is not shared by all. By contrasting the older Birlings and Gerald with Sheila and Eric, Priestley explicitly draws out the difference between those who have accepted their responsibility and those who have not. An inspector calls is a murder mystery with a strong moral message set at the peak Edwardian era of hypocrisy, great wealth, misery, luxury and social debates. It was written in 1945, just after the end of the Second World War but set in 1912, the Edwardian period. This era was described as the Golden age. It was an extremely wealthy society, full of opulence with British power and wealth at essay, its zenith.
It was full of proud men and women, honoured to statement belong to what they thought of as `the best nation in the world#8217; and with four million people, was the world#8217;s biggest city. Proms, concerts, musicals and plays hosted the work of upcoming talent. The upper class lived a life of pure extravagant luxury. English Writing- University? J.B. Priestley uses a range of personal statement computer science and mathematics, effective devices in ?An Inspector Calls’ to promote his views on social responsibility including character and action, dramatic devices, language as well as historical and social setting. Written in 1945 and first produced in 1945, the play was set in essay about teenager, 1912 just before World War One where in Britain 5% of the population owned 87% of the wealth. Therefore, the majority of people were very poor and only a few individuals were affluent. Despite the play being set in 1912, it was produced in 1945 because Priestley wrote it to personal statement computer science and mathematics encourage people to the literary make a fresh start and to personal science and mathematics enable life never to be the same for the people of post-war Britain. One way of promoting his views is through characters.
Mr. Birling represents the website thesis stereotypical rich employer of the day, showing a disregard to the welfare of his employees as well as maintaining a capitalist view on his business and life generally. ?They were averaging about twenty -two and six, which was neither more nor less than is paid in our industry. Statement Computer And Mathematics? She wanted#8230;twenty-five shillings. I refused of course”, the two words ?of course’ show that Mr. Birling doesn’t think about the consequences of sacking Eva Smith and simply assumes that it is the obvious course of action. He doesn’t acknowledge the fact that Eva Smith may depend on her job and the money that accompanies it as a source of food. #8220;We are members of one body, we are responsible for each other#8221; This is the sentence taken from the Inspector#8217;s last speech and I think that it sums up exactly what Priestley was trying to logistics thesis get across about responsibility. Statement Computer Science? Priestley may have experienced difficulties during wartime; this may have led him to believe that in order to live in a peaceful world man must consider his responsibility to biogrph fellow men. In this play it points out the need for computer and mathematics a sense of personal responsibility in every member of society; responsibility not only for individual actions, but also for the way actions affect others. Priestley is very effective in using the Inspector to courses voice the statement computer view of responsibility most strongly. Priestley has created these characters so that they act as the communal conscience of the other characters. Priestley#8217;s belief in socialism which really comes across in the play- every person has a responsibility to help each other and reverse logistics thesis, that your actions can affect others.
Priestley emphasises the difference between the upper and lower classes very strongly throughout the statement science play. He uses the Birling family as a representative of the Upper Class and Eva Smith as a representative of the Lower Class. Priestley shows how in 1912, Upper Class citizens, such as the Birlings had no respect for Lower Class citizens. He uses this class divide to convey his message and to reverse show that the rigidity of the class system is incompatible with his views on community and statement and mathematics, responsibility. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order An Inspector Calls-Mr. Birling. essay editing for the literary review only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
Relevant essay suggestions for An Inspector Calls-Mr. Birling. The play tells of a wealthy family, who are themselves aristocratic, and above the rest of society. They live in a business-like atmosphere, mostly however, filled with lies, prejudice, and#8230; An Inspector Calls: A Play Of Contrast. Personal Statement Science? #8216;An Inspector Calls has been called a #8216;play of contrasts#8217; write about how Priestley presents some of the contrasts in the play#8217; Priestley presents the contrasts in the play #8216;An#8230; Responsibility in #8220;An Inspector Calls#8221; ‘We do not live alone. We are members of one body.’ How does this play highlight the theme of responsibility? ‘An Inspector Calls’ is a detective/drama play written in 1945#8230; An Inspector Calls: Lack of Equality Can Cause Ones Life. An inspector calls is set in 1912 but was written and perfomed in thesis, 1945/46 to science a post war generation.Setting the review play before the personal statement science first world war enables priestly to make#8230; The Inspector Calls.
Arthur Birling says: “If we were all responsible for english creative writing- university everything that happened to computer science everybody we’d had had anything to essay do with, it would be very awkward wouldn’t it?” Considering Act#8230; An Inspector Calls by J.B Priestly. Arthur Birling and InspectorGoole#8217;s philosophies on life and society contrast throughout the play. For most of the play Sheila, Eric and Mrs Birling are fully behind Mr Birling and his#8230;
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PERSONAL STATEMENT - Stanford University
Essay: The ‘teamwork’ concept – cause and effect. Man has enormous potentials. What individuals cannot accomplish alone is possible through organization. Human resource is the critical factor to achieve competitive advantage and strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) focuses on proactive management of people. Aligning physical and personal science, mental orientation of biogrph, employees towards common goals is best accomplished by creating conducive environment. Teamwork is an attribute which provides impetus and added traction to group of employees in its march towards excellence. Leadership improves individual and team focus and adds energy and passion to personal statement science pursuits. Virtually all stakeholders agree to need of about teenager, team work implying unanimity and complete agreement on intention. Statement Computer Science? But good teamwork is not common implying problems in action and not intention. There is no dearth of literature or knowhow on biogrph, teamwork and some lip service to personal teamwork is honor nothing essay common in most enterprises. While large number of factors is measured and tracked but there is no measure of statement, teamwork in website thesis CEOs dashboard of Key performance Indicators (KPIs).
1.1.1 CENTRAL IDEA. Absence of teamwork shall be a limiting factor inhibiting teams march towards excellence. The objective of this study is to develop a model or framework to evaluate perception about leadership and teamwork in target organization. Science? The aim of framework is to the literary review find out what is holding the team from personal computer continually improving and striving to be the best (from where it stands) as the the literary review, best can also improve. The diagnostic can help focus on finding out few vital factors effecting development of teamwork in statement computer science a given setting and require improvement. 1.1.2 TARGET AUDIENCE AND DATA COLLECTION. The report shall be of reverse logistics thesis, interest for Academicians, Leaders, managers and team members and other stake holders who understand high value and potential of computer science and mathematics, human resource (HR), with teamwork attributes, in essay teenager performance outcome of any organization. The study seeks to personal statement and mathematics explore avenues for improvement based on employee perception.
Problem is likely to be encountered in honor data collection as managers may disallow survey that may in anyway effect reputation and prestige of organization. Confidentiality and reputation of student undertaking study or OD specialists applying diagnostic is crucial for grant of access to statement computer science administer test. In Much Ado About? Leadership with high self esteem and self confidence shall not hesitate in exploring effectiveness of the tool and shall try to personal computer accrue benefit from it. Here we shall immediately see the difference in about approach of science and mathematics, a manager and a leader. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT. Many organizations are functioning in routine manner but the energy or spark has been lost while others are constantly exploring new methods to essay about teenager improve. The excitement of challenges and uncertainty has been replaced by bureaucratic entangle and passing the buck. Initiatives are non-starter due to personal statement science and mathematics vested interests and status quos is the order of the day. The zeal while creating the organization has gone missing and the huge loss is unnoticed. For organizations to become live again from robotic movements there is a need to infuse energy of team spirit. Leaders and professionals hold an array of divergent views about honor essay external challenges but ignore the problem within; importance of personal statement, involved and aligned manpower.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES. This research report will examine the ‘teamwork’ concept to gain improved understanding of cause and effect. English Creative Writing- University Courses? The leadership role will also be reviewed, as leader is responsible to personal statement computer science create the right environment. Based on the study, a framework shall be developed to examine employee’s perceptions about key areas effecting leadership and teamwork. While examining the teenager, selected areas in reasonable depth, the personal statement computer, framework shall briefly touch upon website thesis, other HR areas, which could impact teamwork including recruitment and selection, training and development, reward and compensation etc. This study focuses on personal statement, Leadership and Teamwork and might ignore some external factors that affect development of enabling environment. Future study may improve upon the framework as usage can bring out additional points. The research is quantitative.
Qualitative research is carried out to biogrph collect data on factors that impact teamwork. Other factors that affect organizations working are also included as these can cast effect on working of organization. The research has been made as quantitative by collecting employee perception on statement computer science and mathematics, the issues in logistics thesis the selected organization. The ease in collecting data through modern surveying and computer and mathematics, analysis software was not adopted as the forum does not provide sufficient data on logistics thesis, a particular organization. This tool cannot be easily applied on broader areas.
Traditionally teamwork is realized as a good and desirable attribute but what is hampering and helping develop teamwork is rarely addressed formally in and mathematics an organization. This research will attempt to develop framework and technique to explore the environment and find out impediments to team climate which shall lead to development and application of remedy. Leadership plays crucial role in setting the tone and determining the destiny of logistics, organization. A Leader is personal science and mathematics typically seen as a man with vibrant personality, charisma, stamina, energy, head, heart, and soul and what not. What qualities distinguish leader from common mortals is a subject of interest but literature on subject is often biased as the success of leader comes first and research on causes of success follows and attributes and tails get attached to it.
An example is an in much ado about, story attributed to Gandhi on about successfully advising a child to change his behavior is and mathematics attributed to biogrph other great leaders before Gandhi (Drea Zigrami and others; ‘The Leader Within, 2005). Brutal dictators try to science project soft image. With Creative Writing- Courses? Victors exert influence to paint a favorable picture to help their image in form of statement computer science, biographies or other means. For similar acts and dispositions the winner may be painted as man with strong self-belief, persistence and perseverance while the biogrph, looser may be termed as stubborn, obstinate and adamant. Jack Welch is highly acclaimed while Rick Wagoner, chairman and CEO, General Motors was shown the personal statement computer, door because of results and not the english with creative writing- university courses, leadership qualities. Personal Computer Science? The later got title of the worst CEO’s of the year with charges like corporate insensitivity, avarice and ado about, callousness and without regards to their past achievements.
An objective comparison of the two may be a good research on outcome bias or hindsight bias. Science? Never the the literary review, less hero worshipping and study of leadership shall continue to attract attention and personal statement computer science and mathematics, only the successful shall be acclaimed. 2.2 UNDERSTANDING LEADER AND LEADERSHIP. Historically muscles, horse riding skills, sword and marksmanship skills and public speaking skills were essential leadership traits but as more and more people start mastering these skills a leader had to have more than these to distinguish themselves to command followership and allegiance. Conventional leadership toolkit consists of website thesis, three categories namely 1) What they are [Be] (such as beliefs and character), ‘ 2) what they [know] (such as job, tasks, and human nature) and 3) what they [Do] (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction). US Army’s Be-Know-Do list is placed Appendix ‘A’ and comprehensive links to leadership dimensions are placed as Appendix ‘B’. Statement Computer Science? Many styles of leadership are practiced and work and english creative writing- university courses, are listed in literature including Autocratic Leadership, Bureaucratic Leadership, Charismatic Leadership, Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership, Laissez-Faire Leadership, People-Oriented Leadership or Relations-Oriented Leadership, Servant Leadership, Task-Oriented Leadership, Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership. The list is not exhaustive and some other types are also listed which includes Strategic Leadership, Team Leadership, Facilitative Leadership.
Leadership Influence Styles include Cross-Cultural Leadership, Coaching, Level 5 Leadership and Servant Leadership etc. Statement Computer Science? Situational leadership is about choosing the appropriate leadership style to match situation and subordinates skill and commitment level. ‘It makes no difference whether your organization is a corporation, a nonprofit, a school, or an biogrph, athletic team’: Heroic Leadership is crucial (Cohen, 2010). Attributes such as initiative, trust, openness, helpfulness, flexibility and support are ‘ desirable leadership traits, Micheal J Stevens and personal statement science and mathematics, Micheal A Campion cited (Kinlaw, 1991; Vainey, 1989). 2.2.1 NATURE OR NURTURE. Leadership is nature or nurture is website thesis often discussed and computer science and mathematics, while leaders are born (nature) they are also developed (nurtured) as per honor in much essay pre transformational leadership theory.
The Trait Theory explains that some personality traits may propel people gradually into leadership roles. Personal Statement Computer? The Great Events Theory explains that challenging situation or important event may cause an ordinary person to rise to the occasion and essay, respond in such a way that brings out extraordinary leadership qualities and instantaneously propel him to leadership position. Transformational or Process Leadership theory applies where people choose to become leaders by learning leadership skills. Supportive leadership is personal statement computer essential requirement for teamwork to exist and flourish. In organizational settings, leadership entails aligning and striking balance between organizational interests, followers interests and english creative writing-, leaders own interests and have to be based on solid principles and fairness (Transformational Leadership books.google.com.pk Bernard M. Bass, Ronald E. Riggio ‘ Table 8, page 198). 2.3 LEADER VERSUS MANAGER. While we need managers to maintain order, we need leaders to create future.
Dera Zegarmi and others in statement computer and mathematics ‘The Leader Within’ has done synthesis of literature on in much ado about, the difference between manager and computer and mathematics, leader (Table 6.1 Page 172) and summarized the difference into three major categories namely self orientation, follower’s orientation and organizations orientation (See Appendix ‘C’). While the manager is too involved in ‘doing the teenager, things right’, leader focuses on ‘doing the right things’. The manager is personal and mathematics focusing on improving bottom line while leader has eyes on horizon. Managers like us to be compliant and rob us of the essay teenager, excitement in facing challenges and innovating and statement computer science, experimenting. We surely need managers to run the show but we need leaders to lead the way to biogrph carve out future. When a person is a manager and statement computer science and mathematics, also leader then whenever he is trying to influence the behavior of someone he is website thesis putting on the leadership hat. Leadership has been defined as ‘the act of arousing, engaging, and personal computer science, satisfying the motives of followers’in an essay about, environment of conflict, competition, or change’that results in the follower taking a course of personal statement computer science, action toward a mutually shared vision'(Drea Zigrami et al, 2005-p174). Leadership is not about manipulating or exploiting followers.
It cannot be faked. It is not about oration and making a historic speech. Creative Courses? Such gimmicks can be short-lived and cannot provide durable and enduring relationship. Computer Science And Mathematics? Even rewards sharing are a single dimensional incentive which cannot be enduring. As W C H Prentice opined in his article articulates about longevity of such approach. (Understanding Leadership; W C H Prentice, 1964). 2.3.1 PERCEPTION ABOUT LEADER. ‘Human beings are not machines with a single set of review, push buttons. When their complex responses to love, prestige, independence, achievement and personal statement computer and mathematics, group membership are not recognized on the job, they perform at best as robots who bring far less than their maximum efficiency to the task, and at worst as rebellious slaves who consciously or unconsciously sabotage the activities they are supposed to the literary review be furthering” (ibid). Conventional managers lack skill or capacity to remove the deep-rooted mistrust between management and employees. Perceptions and suspicions are two-way and a serious baggage to personal statement carry.
While explaining pitfalls of perception W C H Prentice argues that ‘for followers to recognize their leader as he really is may be as difficult for essay teenager, him to understand them completely’ (ibid). 2.4 LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES AND ITS APPLICATION ON TEAMWORK. ‘Good leaders don’t ask more than their constituents can give, but they often ask’and get’more than their constituents intended to give or thought it was possible to give.’ (John W. Statement Computer? Gardner, Excellence, 1984). A good leader is aware of the background of essay, mutual suspicion between management and workers and recognizes need of regaining trust and is aware of ways of doing so. Leader is a promoter of the group’s aims and advocate of the values of the organization and is always exploring for ways of carving out better techniques for reaching organizational goals efficiently while encouraging and supporting others in similar pursuit. ‘Slick use of social or psychological tricks can indeed persuade others to do your bidding, but they are unfit for continuing relationship’ (ibid).
Leader has a task at hand. 2.4.1 COMPETENCIES MATRICES. Many organizations are drawing up competency matrices for the challenging position of personal statement computer science, leader. The Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) focuses on essay, leadership education and research on competencies essential for personal computer and mathematics, leaders and recommends 20 competencies for leaders (Appendix ‘B’). Leadership competencies are important to exploit organizations HR potentials. CCL leadership competency model is believed to be closely matching to the competencies uncovered by in much essay the worthy ‘Hay Group’ study of leadership values in personal science Indian leaders. While organizations are undertaking gap analysis to develop and biogrph, groom present and future leaders, skeptics are critical of the approach of breaking up of leadership into unmanageable list of statement and mathematics, leadership competencies.
The main objections of skeptics are that in trying to summarize leadership into distinct competencies the classic art of leadership loses its anchor as discussed below. 2.4.2 COMPETENCIES MATRICES CRITICIZED. While one can have a list of endless attributes for leader but leadership shall remain an art and shall not become a science. The auditor like approach is rightly criticized for being overly reductionist: An accountant’s style balance sheet approach is being applied to essay about leadership which is (not mathematics/science, but) human behavior issue. It has been extensively criticized for weaknesses in statement science and mathematics its ability to take into account occupations which are characterized by a ‘high degree of uncertainty, unpredictability and discretion, and it’s arguable tendency ‘ contrary to the aims of the model on which it is based to website thesis atomize work roles rather than represent them holistically’ Richard Bolden and computer science, Jonathan Gasling (2004) cited (Lester, 1994). Writing-? The main argument of the skeptics to this approach is that in trying to split the leadership role into constituent elements, it is losing the computer and mathematics, big picture of the integrated whole. It is essay about articulated that standards tend to personal and mathematics fragment the leaders role into its elements rather than representing it as a unique whole with overlapping effects of logistics, components not as tangible as being presented. While this simplification is science indeed the main beauty of the competency approach, the representation is not close to representing leader’s real time situation cited ibid, (Lester, 1994; Grugulis, 1997). 2.4.3 SIZE OF ORGANIZATION. Another objection pertains to the failure to distinguish between size of organization or position in the organization, or the variation in situations etc. ‘Standards are criticized for being overly universalistic’.
A quote from the reverse logistics, Management Standards Centre ‘whatever the size of personal and mathematics, your organization, you will find the standards have been written to meet your needs’ (MSC website, 2003), All issues individually seems OK but ‘manner in which standards may actually reinforce rather than challenge traditional ways of thinking about management or leadership’ cited ibid (Lester, 1994) is a cause of concern. The approach seems to reverse logistics be unpractical and is correlated as ‘driving using the rear view mirror’ cited ibid (Cullen, 1992). Personal Computer And Mathematics? Little discretion or flexibility is essay teenager available to adopt and adjust according to subtle differences in situations, individuals, impact of statement computer science, new technologies and globalization etc. The standards excessive focus on observable behaviors and indicators ‘to the exclusion of less overt aspects such as values, beliefs and relationships’ could be counterproductive and become a cause of discord, cited ibid (Bell et al., 2002). The warmth of relationships and spirit de corps, the common cause seems to be put on english creative university, back burner. 2.4.4 FUTURE OF COMPETENCY MATRICES.
The approach may one day combine emotional intelligence with artificial intelligence or other leadership models to improve current work to doable dimensions. A compassionate and statement, relationship based approach is considered more appropriate to unify team members from danger of falling into a bureaucratic tangle presently. The aim of this study is not to accept or reject the competency models but to the literary review search for a model that brings out the best in a team. Ideas of teamwork, synergy and science, continuous improvements cannot flourish under environment of suspicion and mistrust. Leadership must play a role to improve organizational climate and biogrph, trust and communication is important in this regards. The authority vested with leader is most potent when it is not used and statement, there is no obvious threat or intent of using the english creative courses, authority.
The workforce and management have to be on the same page to make a winning time. ‘A leader knows thyself’. As leader, we need to statement and mathematics appreciate that our values, beliefs, and literature with university, personality are driving our success — or our failure and we need to lead in ways that reflect our own values and personal science and mathematics, personality and we do not have to put an act. Thesis? We act relaxed and natural when and connect comfortably in group settings as well as one-to-one contexts. Computer Science? We discover and liberate personal qualities and energies we never knew we had. We can generate team’s spirit and honor in much, build stronger, more effective, more joyful organizations by liberating the leader inside us and not emulating someone or his set of rules. Only after knowing our inner self we can learn to truly know others and to be leader one has to know followers. 2.5 LEADER’S AWARENESS OF FOLLOWERS. ‘Leaders must know their followers well enough to coalesce the followers motives toward a common outcome. This cannot be done for any length of time, unless the follower is offered an opportunity to engage in value based activities. In other words the values and personal statement and mathematics, believes of those you wish to influence must be understood, verbalized, and coupled with organizations social purpose’ (Dera Zigrami; The Leader Within, 2005-p 174). What few crucial competencies or approach should leader have remains an important question needing answer.
2.6 ATTRIBUTES OF LEADER. Heroic Leadership, Leading with integrity and honor (William A Cohen, 2010) presents eight principles of leadership, 1) Maintain absolute integrity, 2) Know your stuff, 3) Declare your expectations, 4) Show uncommon commitment, 5) Expect positive results, 6) Take care of your people, 7) Put duty before self and 8) Get out in front. The author with tilt towards military leadership does present a set of traits equally applicable to corporate sector. Essay About? In the personal computer science, ‘The Leadership Challenge’, 4th Edition, (James M. Kouzes, 2010) has articulated the historically proven and still valid five practices of exemplary leadership namely 1). Model the way; dealing with leading by example, 2) Inspire a shared vision; involving everyone 3).
Challenge the process; innovating and exploring 4) Enable others to logistics thesis act; empowerment and involvement 5). Personal Statement And Mathematics? Encourage the reverse logistics thesis, heart; celebrating and statement computer science and mathematics, rewarding. 2.7 OUTCOME OF LEADERSHIP. The leader’s unique legacy is the creation of teenager, valued institutions that survive over time. The most significant contribution leaders make is not simply to today’s bottom line; it is to the long-term development of personal, people and institutions so they can adapt, change, prosper and grow. et al. The integrity or credibility of leader is the website thesis, sole basis on personal statement, which people are ready to be led voluntarily. Essay? Credibility is not measureable and science and mathematics, until proven guilty leaders integrity cannot be questioned. Subordinates perception about leader’s integrity is crucial and often it is also correct so those who fake can do so for little while. Ado About? Injustice has adverse effect on employee’s perception about organizational justice especially if the personal computer science, outcome has adverse effect on individual (Brockner and wiesenfield, 1996). English Literature With Creative University Courses? When organization treats leader with injustice it gets noticed by employees more so in statement science and mathematics cases where high quality relationship existed between leaders and followers (Cole and logistics thesis, Scott, 1998). Organizations dealing with leader fairly and leaders dealing with followers appropriately thus form important prerequisite for statement science, effective leadership.
People want to review be guided by those with integrity and a clear sense of direction. Leader must possess a clear sense of direction and articulate a strong vision of the personal statement computer science and mathematics, future. A person who fakes commitment to values may look good and get promoted but cannot inspire others. Self-serving leaders are less effective because their subordinates only obey them, and they do not follow them. But as the Hawthorne experiments confirmed, perception of genuine concern about biogrph workforce shall move team’s productivity graph in only one direction even when management takes opposite actions. 2.8 INTEGRITY OF MANAGERS. Integrity of statement computer, managers is literature university important to determine but is a tough ask as it is easy to and mathematics wear integrity on nothing essay, sleeve through deception. (Robert B. Personal Statement Computer Science And Mathematics? Kaiser and ado about, Robert Hogan, 2010) in research, ‘HOW TO (AND HOW NOT TO) ASSESS THE INTEGRITY OF MANAGERS’ also emphasizes integrity as a leadership competency for managers and cites previous research showing that subordinates performance gets affected due to low integrity of managers. Deceitful behavior of managers of personal statement computer science, Enron and Tyco in 2001was cited as cause of demise of firm but the discovery after the fact is of less value and there is need to preempt such events.
The research found that subordinates may not express their true reservations about integrity of managers while we know that their perception degrades their performance as already discussed. The low performing managers scored well on review, integrity issues along with high performing managers. Personal Science And Mathematics? The researchers then devised an alternative method and inquired on literature with university courses, subordinate expectations about the likelihood that their boss could behave unethically responded differently. This method suggested that a much larger segment of subordinates perceive their managers to be having integrity issues and this had correlation with low-performing managers. The manager with integrity is better placed to statement and mathematics get results from team members by literature with creative writing- university learning about team dynamics.
Simply stated teamwork is about splitting task into constituents and hiring individuals to undertake individual constituents for the task to statement computer science and mathematics be completed with leader undertaking function of coordination and control. Studies reveal those effective and essay, efficient teams are rare and minor problems can cause dysfunction to teamwork. Leaders play an important role in personal statement computer and mathematics the establishment of a teamwork. Website Thesis? The leadership role is comprehensive and apart from creating a vision and computer science, engaging employees, leaders have to ensure that systems are effectively implemented and opportunities are created for employees to actively get involved and deliver. Leaders need to biogrph set a positive example and encourage teamwork by rewarding enabling behavior.. Common goal is statement best achieved when individual contributions are synchronized. Logistics? Delivery of a letter by post-office involves separate actions by various players like acquiring postage stamps, dropping and collection from science and mathematics letterbox, sorting, dispatch to destinations and delivery. The actions are undertaken by individuals separately but failure of one component effects outcome while individual is not dependent on support of others in accomplishing individual role or task. While a surgeon is undertaking a complex surgery or a manufacturing plant is making a complex part, underperformance of one casts effect on effectiveness of others. The interdependence augments need of teamwork which requires understanding how my part of job effects the person and the ultimate goal.
Individuals have to look beyond their unique activities and biogrph, understand the bigger picture for organizational effectiveness. Team and teamwork is no panacea for all ills. Teamwork is personal statement computer no guarantee for biogrph, success and statement science, ‘social scientists have found it much easier to prove process losses rather than synergy gains due to teamwork’ and limits its size to biogrph 20 with smaller the better. (Teamwork’ By C. Personal Statement Computer? H. Antoni, ABO-Psychologie, Fachbereich I) Cooperation, coordination, and satisfied employees are essential teamwork requirements, including some conditions given as Appendix ‘E’. ‘ 3.1.1 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TEAMWORK. While autonomy or participation in decision making has long been discussed from ado about nothing a motivational perspective’ only its more useful benefits include ‘advantages of and mathematics, shared mental model and reverse thesis, broader input base’ at statement computer and mathematics the time of honor nothing essay, planning. Science And Mathematics? The Pfeiffer Book of Successful Team-Building Tools: Best of the Annuals by Elaine and http://www.scribd.com/doc/52916324/1/What-Is-Teamwork list 12 disadvantages of Teamwork alongside 12 advantages of teamwork produced at Appendix ‘F’. The list depicts how complexity increases due to increased need of coordination, communication and cooperation.
Advantages occur due to more brains and physical resources. To make Team successful, environment may be made conducive to exploit the advantages and safeguards be erected against disadvantages. This shall require individual members to be trained looking forward to contribute towards group objectives. Intrinsically satisfied employees can think and english writing- courses, act in this direction and managements must focus on statement, having satisfied employees. 3.1.2 COMPETENCIES FOR TEAMWORK.
Literature is littered with competencies required for teamwork as well as Leadership .Like Be-Know-Do model for the literary, leadership (App ‘A’), a Think-Do-Feel model is presented by statement computer J A Canon-Bowers and english with creative courses, E Salas (2010) reflecting ‘what team members’ Think-Do-Feel. The competencies required are broken down into Knowledge, Skills and Attitude or KSA. While discussing leadership competencies and Hay groups 75 or CCL’s 20 leadership competencies we cited critics questioning the wisdom of breaking down into constituents as overly simplistic. And Mathematics? As leadership is part of teamwork, 130 competencies list are drawn for effective teamwork, and divided these into literature with writing- courses, 8 skill dimensions including adaptability, shared situational awareness, interpersonal skills, and communication skills, citing Cannon-Bowers (1995) in personal computer science Team Effectiveness and Competencies (2010). 188.8.131.52 KNOWLEDGE, SKILL AND ABILITIES FOR TEAMWORK. Attitude of members and leader is important for teamwork. Website Thesis? Winston Churchill said ‘Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference’. Computer Science? Mutual respect and trust creates cohesion which is important for Teamwork.
Skills required for team members may broadly be integrated into three categories namely 1) Job specific KSAs; beyond scope of this study, 2) Team Interpersonal KSAs which include conflict management KSAs, Collaborative problem solving KSAs and writing- university courses, Communication KSAs 3) Self Management KSAs which include Goal setting and Performance Management KSAs and Planning and personal computer science and mathematics, Task Coordination KSAs. People bring individual needs, requirements and aspirations to an organization where the teenager, leader helps individuals in their pursuits and align these with organizational objectives. Some characteristic like interpersonal skills play crucial role in science team development and team functioning. Review? When people join to computer accomplish common goals team is formed. Congenial interpersonal relations foster in effective teams where member are freed from problem of having to deal with complicated conflict and process issues ibid cited (Hackman and Morris, 1975, Lawler 1986; Sears 1989-p506). These also lead to active, willing and productive participation on the part of all team members. In the essay, team environment, interpersonal demands are much greater than in personal individual based environment, Lawler, (1986).
3.1.3 CONFLICT IN TEAMWORK. Team effectiveness depends upon ability of individual members to successfully manage interpersonal relations with one another Perkins and Abramis, (1990-p506). Essay About Teenager? Interpersonal relation strikes balance between destructive conflict or extremely warm relations, both prohibiting objective communication ibid cited (hackman and Oldham, (1980 P 199). Interpersonal skills do not evade or ignore conflicts. Skills are required to statement science reach optimum solution from divergent views emerging during day to day functioning. Reverse? Realization that conflict is personal statement important for improvement is well recognized yet not extensively practiced.
The ability to effectively manage and ado about nothing essay, resolve conflicts has been recognized by many authors as an important interpersonal attribute for team members, Micheal J Stevens and personal computer and mathematics, Micheal A Campion cites (Gladstien, 1984; and the literary, many more Page 507). Early organizational thinkers felt all conflicts was negative ibid cite Derr (1972) and saw it as managements failure to streamline processes and personal statement computer, went about improving job descriptions and procedures. ‘Conflict is essential ingredient of teamwork’. It leads to improvements. Micheal J Stevens and Micheal A Campion cited Mcgregor (1960) who suggested that conflict is something more effective teams welcome. Ignoring or avoiding confronting conflict to project false sense of harmony contributes to unease, frustration and stress. Positive effects from website thesis conflicts include airing opinions and personal computer, dissatisfactions, reducing stress, fostering innovations and in much, stabilizing relationships by statement computer science removing discord. Feedbacks must always be given and the literary, accepted objectively and positively and timely information sharing must be ensured. Computer Science? Conflicts can have negative as well as positive outcome, depending upon its nature and amount and how it is addressed ibid cites Gersick and Davis-Sacks (1990).
Members must contribute in creating environment of trust, appreciating differences and conflicts as legitimate and natural occurrence and encourage dialogue and seek to about teenager explore reaching best solution from organizational perspective. Individual team members must see conflict as a natural and personal computer science and mathematics, positive outcome and encourage positive conflict and discourage negative conflict. Sources of ado about nothing, conflict include simple misunderstanding or miscommunication, structural or situational factors, incompatible performance goals or rewards, requirements of joint decision making, differences in values, orientations, or objectives, or physical design of workplace area ibid cites Thomas (1977). Understanding of differences is necessary to apply correct remedy. Conflict originating from misunderstanding and miscommunication requires questioning and listening techniques while conflict arising due to members feeling of discrimination due to distasteful task can be resolved through rotating task assignment schedule (Deutsch et al, 1973-p 508). 3.1.4 DECISIONMAKING IN TEAMWORK. Similarly joint decision making has roots in computer science and mathematics differences between member’s objectives, needs and review, perceptions. Personal? There must be tolerance to allow members to express feelings and ideas. Reverse Logistics? Before decision making, it should be ensured that everyone participates, including the passive ones. ‘Leadership must show that speaking up is statement science not just safe but mandatory.’ People do not speak because they think it is waste of time. Website Thesis? They think decision has been made and meetings are a show. It is personal statement computer science and mathematics not suggested that all decisions have to undergo same process of in much nothing essay, deliberations.
Decisions could be made on personal statement, the run but then in reverse logistics thesis meetings we brief how decision was reached and examine pros and cons of the decision instead of faking a discussion to ratify decision. The importance of hearing critical information must be reiterated over and over again to remove misconceptions and misperceptions. Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman and James O’Toole ‘Transparency: How Leaders Create a Culture of statement and mathematics, Candor’. Individuals shall be biased towards solutions that serve their respective goals better than the organizational goals and they have to acquire skills of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills Team members require skills to ‘plan, design and execute a project or task’ with shared objectives. They need to literature writing- university understand that plans rarely work as envisaged and they must also plan to seek feedbacks to personal statement computer science and mathematics test and revise plans while implementing and adhering to ‘agreed quality standards and specifications’. Members require ability to ‘select and about teenager, use appropriate tools and technology’ and quickly ‘adapt to changing requirements and information’. This requires continuous monitoring the progress of project or task and identifying ways to improve.
Encouraging participation and feeling good about participation increases employee buy-in. Besides professional job skills members need to develop Thinking and personal computer and mathematics, problem solving skills to aptly ‘assess situations and identify problems’ and elicit different points of view and biogrph, undertake fact based unbiased analysis. This requires skills to distinguish and differentiate between ‘human, interpersonal, technical, scientific and mathematical dimensions of problem’ and ‘identifying its root cause’. Identifying actual root cause and computer science and mathematics, not symptoms require deep pondering and thesis, devising solution may require out of personal science, box thinking along with use of biogrph, conventional tools. To examine, observe and ‘share knowledge, solve problems’ and select probable options or solutions. Finally decide in favor of most feasible option by progressively rejecting other options and implementing the and mathematics, selected option and seeking continual improvements. 3.2 COMMUNICATION OBSTACLES IN TEAMWORK. All these appear good in books and lectures but in real time there are barriers to essay about open and and mathematics, frank exchange of views. There are coalitions, sub-teams lobbying for website thesis, favorable decisions and objectivity is personal statement science compromised. About? The situation calls for personal computer science and mathematics, special Team Communication Skills where issue is debated on merits. A strange phenomenon is said to exist that ‘higher the leaders rise, the less honest feedback they get from followers about website thesis their leadership, due to this group think of limiting information.
Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman and personal statement computer science and mathematics, James O’Toole (2008); Transparency: How Leaders Create a Culture of Candor. Bottom up communication is like moving against gravity and a high power motor of trust and support is required to encourage flow of information upwards. Pre-requisite of correct decision making is smooth upwards flow of information. Lack of candor can be very disastrous. The book recalls the the literary, ill-fated Challenger which exploded in mid-air in 1987. NASA did not learn its lesson: In 2003, the events were recreated in shape of the Columbia shuttle disaster. The authors lament NASA’s organizational culture where engineers were afraid to raise safety concerns with managers who were obsessed about meeting flight schedules. The book is emphasizing on personal science and mathematics, need to nurturing the review, culture of candor.
3.3 MEDIA AGE AND ITS IMPACT ON TEAMWORK. Transparency is enhanced when an statement computer science and mathematics, organization’s leaders are committed to it. Actually, the authors cited a sobering fact: ‘Even when leaders resist it, transparency is inescapable in the digital age.’ Google has it impossible for any candidate to deny past actions or statements. YouTube has changed America’s political discourse. Biogrph? In this idea-packed book, leaders and managers will have a roadmap toward transparency’or culture of candor.
They speak of three elements to achieve this: Transparency, trust, and personal statement computer, speaking truth to power. ‘Speaking truth to power’ is a new phrase in our leadership vocabulary. It means speaking the truth to your superior even if he is ‘ to literature with creative shoot the messenger’meaning, you. Communication hinges upon mutual trust between team members. Communication plays crucial role in team effectiveness and lack of communication appears as a frequently emerging factor contributing to deviation and non-compliance. Team communication skills are built on basic communication skills like ability to personal statement computer and mathematics ‘read and understand information presented’. Importance of listening is logistics often lost and statement computer science and mathematics, seniors find it appropriate to be reading while listening to a reportee. Not only biogrph, this is discourteous but it discourages the speaker and listener also looses in grasping content and intentions. Interactive two way communication with active listening increases communication effectiveness. Active listening includes attention to non-verbal communication and helps in grasping the intent and intensity of situation along with content.
Ability to computer science gain attention of website thesis, team members, by undertaking coordinated speaking and writing, while asking questions and statement computer science, listening to answers and appreciating unexpected and opposing points of view of honor in much ado about essay, others is important. Encouraging silent members to participate can be achieved by seeking to hear about agreements or expression of their reservations. This requires intelligent handling of situation and it is important to see that members are not embarrassed while seeking their involvement. Statement Science? People do not openly oppose popular views and privately share their disagreements with selected course of action. 3.4 MUTUAL TRUST AND ITS IMPACT ON TEAMWORK. Team Formation and Functioning hinges and sustains on trusting. For team members to trust in logistics thesis the team, they must feel that (a) the team is competent enough to accomplish their task and (b) that the team will not harm the individual or his or her interests (Daniel R. Ilgen, John R. Hollenbeck, Michael Johnson and personal statement computer, Dustin Jundt, 2005). Team formation often follows the literature writing- university, sequence of storming, norming and computer and mathematics, performing. A team is essay about made up of individuals who have required professional skills to computer and mathematics undertake variety of jobs to honor in much be undertaken like in a surgery procedure we have surgeon, anesthetist, nurses and etc who all contribute to effective and efficient outcome.
While individual responsibilities vary, every member is committed to contribute to group goal of personal statement science, successful procedure and biogrph, is willing to support and help each other. The group may have a leader appointed or mutually selected who coordinates and leads as required. There is enabling culture where members openly discuss ideas and personal statement science and mathematics, express their views in a positive and supportive manner. This includes expressing disagreements and ability to resolve conflicts in review constructive fashion. Everyone actively participates in decision making process by computer giving their inputs and carefully listening to inputs of others. The team critically reviews and essay about, monitors its performance and explores new avenues for improvements to continually learn and improve. Personal Science And Mathematics? Members do not hesitate to website thesis challenge or question each other’s actions in pursuit of personal computer science, team goals maintaining positivity, (http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/leadership.htm). 3.5 INDICATORS OF DYSFUNCTIONAL TEAMTEAMWORK. Indicators and symptoms of website thesis, dysfunctional team must be known to team leaders and science, members so that they can apply remedy and treat the teenager, team. Some common symptoms include every member not participating and computer science, few members dominating agenda leading others to the literary review withdraw into oblivion or silence.
Member’s participation gets reduced and only few people contribute ideas because attention is not given to statement computer and mathematics all members. Majority passively participates and do not contribute and could be ‘indifferent, bored or afraid to contribute’. They may have faced discouragement when their or other member’s ideas were ignored or even ridiculed by laughing it off. Seniors fail to protect minority view to encouraging and appreciating the value of the idea. The Literary? Members lack the skills to constructively resolve difference of computer and mathematics, opinion through objective analysis and end up personalizing differences. Ideas may not get be accepted or rejected on merit or those whose ideas get rejected often may get feeling of failure.
Members may fake consensus and privately complain about literature with writing- university decisions and actions. Instead of undertaking thorough examination of pros and cons of alternative options, voting may be done to reach decisions, leaving members discontented and uncommitted. Deadlines may get flouted and members focus about personal statement and mathematics their tasks, roles and goals get blurred everyone feeling helpless and members evade discussing how the groups working can be improved. To be able to treat such teams we need to develop Understanding of root causes of Dysfunctions of Team. The issue is explained nicely in fable; five dysfunctions of biogrph, a team, where problem stems from science lack of trust among team members. When team members have hidden agenda and prefer individual goals over team goals they find it difficult to openly discuss their own difficulties, mistakes and weaknesses and are busy justifying their actions and contributions.
This defensive framework makes it impossible to built trust which leads to second dysfunction which is fear of conflict. The fear of conflict prohibits members from getting into meaningful and passionate discussion over biogrph differences and personal statement, presenting new and meetings and discussions produce little outcome. Avoidance of conflict gives birth to logistics third dysfunction: lack of commitment. When decision making, performance review etc are conducted with fear of and mathematics, conflict and members do not participate openly, they intrinsically do not buy-in to the decisions on team goals and focus on individual goal. This lack of commitment to team goal lead to fourth dysfunction: avoidance of accountability. Website Thesis? When team is not passionately committed to organizational goal or to personal statement computer science and mathematics a clear action plan it lacks the ability of thorough introspection and specially it lacks the ability to examine behaviors and actions of peers.
Only through strong commitment can one get rid of avoidance of accountability by english with creative writing- courses thrashing all avenues including challenging peers disregarding fears of conflict. The avoidance of accountability leads to fifth dysfunction: Inattention to results. Team members forge their departments, divisions or personal agenda and while pretending to participate in science and mathematics deliberations they remain reserved and committed to about teenager their personal goals. From planning to execution stage individual goals get undeclared preference and key parameters for organizational goals get obscured. The five dysfunctions can be avoided when team goals have clear preference over individual goals and members trust each other. They shun fear of conflict and communicate objectively exploring all options to before committing to the appropriate one. Decisions made after such deliberations are accepted whole heartedly by members and they hold each other accountable to deliver against the promises made. The members focus on achieving group goals over sub-groups goals and keep monitoring results/outcomes. An understanding of teams functioning and personal statement science, dysfunction can help in diagnosing problems and improving team efficiency and logistics thesis, effectiveness.
Leaders play an important role in the establishment of a safety culture. Statement Computer Science And Mathematics? The leadership role is comprehensive and apart from creating a vision and about, engaging employees, leaders have to computer ensure that systems are effectively implemented and opportunities created for employees to actively participate. Review? Leaders need to set a positive example and not engage in behaviour that may deteriorate trust and adversely affect their credibility. DIOGNOSTIC TOOL FRAMEWORK. Teamwork is not limited to domain of particular school like HRM or SHRM. Team is formed when at personal statement computer science least two (or) at least three people join hands for a purpose. The union brings into honor nothing essay, interaction a number of sciences, approaches and theories into play including followings. Personal Computer Science? (http://web.mit.edu/16.459/www/Salas.pdf): ‘Social psychological approach’: ‘Human resource approach’: ‘Coalition forming approach’: ‘Functional (taxonomic) or task-oriented approach’: Teamwork being multi-school specialty and applying universal principles or rules is difficult. The Literary Review? Inhibitions and perceptions shall impact effectiveness but diagnosing and treating problem is complex in personal statement and mathematics the absence of english with, agreement on fundamentals including shared goals and mutual trust. The scope is personal statement computer science and mathematics limited to perception of team members on fundamentals, essentials, and english literature with creative writing- university courses, as many desirables as appropriate. Teamwork and leadership are intertwined as team cannot function without effective leader.
Members find it hard to express feelings about leader but how they feel about leader impacts their contribution to team. ‘ Trust is paramount between leader to members, members to leader, and personal statement, members to members. ‘ Individual’s goals must be aligned to Team goals and every individual must value team goals over individual goals. ‘ Core values are important and leader must be reiterating core values and reward should be value based. ‘ Team members are interdependent in achievement of team goals as well as their personal goals. ‘ Self esteem and inner feelings and biogrph, perception about leader are important. Team members feeling good being in team and desire to personal remain part of team. ‘ Comprehensive review of functions and dysfunctions can help evaluate a team’s effectiveness. ‘ Degree of involvement and participation during reviews, meetings through communication, conflict resolution with focus on vitals and goals.
‘ Team skills to built enabling environment to improve team functioning. ‘ Goals and essay teenager, roles clarity. ‘ Communication and information flow. ‘ Team skills to statement computer built enabling environment to improve team functioning. ‘ Innovation and the literary, creativity. ‘ Equity in personal statement and mathematics Reward and website thesis, Compensation. ‘ Training and Development. RESULT: DIAGNOSTIC INSTRUMENT TESTING. 5.1 INTRODUCTION: The sample from the personal statement computer science, selected organization who responded are given below: S. Biogrph? No Deptt Name Total Respondents Total Employees Sample. 1 Operations 11 218 5.05.
2 Cargo 10 212 4.72. 3 Ramp 8 194 4.12. 4 Admin 4 83 4.82. 5 Accounts 5 59 8.47. TOTAL 40 770 5.19. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE: PART I. Q. No Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total.
1 6 17 4 9 2 38. 2 3 18 6 8 3 38. 3 4 21 8 4 1 38. 4 8 24 6 1 0 39. 5 12 24 2 0 0 38. 6 14 20 2 2 0 38. 7 4 17 13 1 1 36. 8 6 21 4 3 3 37. 9 4 10 10 6 5 35. 10 1 11 7 7 9 35. 11 3 11 9 5 7 35.
12 8 20 6 0 1 35. 13 4 18 4 5 4 35. 14 1 6 20 4 1 32. Leadership Questions: Part II. Q. No Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total. 1 2 22 5 5 2 36. 2 2 10 11 6 0 29. 3 4 22 6 2 1 35. 4 4 19 10 2 0 35. 5 2 16 11 4 1 34. 6 7 15 8 4 1 35.
7 3 14 9 5 2 33. 9 1 14 8 6 1 30. 10 2 15 5 5 2 29. 11 8 6 3 7 7 31. 12 4 16 5 5 1 31. Part III: Teamwork. Q. No Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total.
1 15 14 4 4 0 37. 2 7 20 7 3 0 37. 3 9 20 7 2 0 38. 4 3 17 11 6 0 37. 5 1 17 12 6 1 37. 6 1 15 13 5 2 36. 7 9 8 13 3 2 35. 8 9 18 6 1 1 35. 9 9 15 10 2 0 36. 10 7 18 5 6 0 36.
11 5 21 6 3 2 37. 12 12 21 2 2 0 37. 13 5 13 11 6 1 36. 14 9 17 8 2 0 36. 15 4 3 6 14 10 37. 16 1 15 10 10 0 36. 17 8 12 5 10 0 35. PART I (experience and response. AGE Question SA A N DA SDA.
0-5 YEARS 1 1 2 1 0 0 4 36. 6-10 YEARS 1 0 2 0 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 1 0 3 0 2 1 6. 16-20 YEARS 1 1 3 0 0 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 1 4 5 3 6 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 2 0 2 1 1 0 4 36. 6-10 YEARS 2 0 1 1 0 1 3. 11-15 YEARS 2 1 3 1 1 0 6. 16-20 YEARS 2 1 2 0 1 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 2 1 9 3 4 1 18. 0-5 YEARS 3 0 2 2 0 0 4 36.
6-10 YEARS 3 0 2 0 0 1 3. 11-15 YEARS 3 0 4 1 1 0 6. 16-20 YEARS 3 0 4 1 0 0 5. 21-265 YEARS 3 4 8 3 3 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 4 1 3 2 0 0 6 39. 6-10 YEARS 4 0 2 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 4 1 4 0 1 0 6. 16-20 YEARS 4 1 5 0 0 0 6.
21-265 YEARS 4 5 9 4 0 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 5 1 3 0 0 0 4 36. 6-10 YEARS 5 0 2 0 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 5 1 5 0 0 0 6. 16-20 YEARS 5 3 3 0 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 5 7 9 2 0 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 6 1 2 1 0 0 4 37. 6-10 YEARS 6 1 1 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 6 3 2 0 1 0 6.
16-20 YEARS 6 3 3 0 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 6 6 11 0 1 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 7 1 3 0 0 0 4 34. 6-10 YEARS 7 0 0 2 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 7 0 4 2 0 0 6. 16-20 YEARS 7 1 2 3 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 7 2 7 5 1 1 16. 0-5 YEARS 8 0 4 0 0 0 4 35.
6-10 YEARS 8 0 2 0 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 8 0 3 1 0 1 5. 16-20 YEARS 8 0 4 0 1 1 6. 21-265 YEARS 8 6 7 2 2 1 18. 0-5 YEARS 9 0 1 1 0 0 2 33. 6-10 YEARS 9 0 1 1 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 9 1 2 2 0 1 6. 16-20 YEARS 9 2 2 1 1 0 6.
21-265 YEARS 9 1 4 4 4 3 16. 0-5 YEARS 10 0 1 1 0 1 3 34. 6-10 YEARS 10 0 2 0 0 1 3. 11-15 YEARS 10 0 1 2 0 3 6. 16-20 YEARS 10 1 1 1 3 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 10 0 6 3 3 4 16. 0-5 YEARS 11 0 2 1 0 0 3 34.
6-10 YEARS 11 0 2 0 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 11 0 2 2 1 1 6. 16-20 YEARS 11 1 0 1 1 3 6. 21-265 YEARS 11 2 4 5 2 3 16. 0-5 YEARS 12 0 2 1 0 0 3 34. 6-10 YEARS 12 0 2 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 12 1 5 0 0 0 6.
16-20 YEARS 12 3 2 1 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 12 4 8 3 0 1 16. 0-5 YEARS 13 0 2 1 0 0 3 34. 6-10 YEARS 13 0 2 0 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 13 1 2 1 2 0 6. 16-20 YEARS 13 0 4 1 0 1 6.
21-265 YEARS 13 3 8 1 1 3 16. 0-5 YEARS 14 0 1 2 0 0 3 31. 6-10 YEARS 14 0 0 2 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 14 0 1 3 1 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 14 0 2 4 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 14 1 1 9 3 1 15. PART II (experience and response) AGE Question SA A N DA SDA. 0-5 YEARS 1 1 1 2 0 0 4 34.
6-10 YEARS 1 0 2 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 1 0 3 0 2 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 1 0 3 0 1 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 1 1 11 2 2 1 17. 0-5 YEARS 2 0 3 0 0 0 3 27. 6-10 YEARS 2 0 1 1 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 2 0 0 2 3 0 5.
16-20 YEARS 2 0 1 2 1 0 4. 21-265 YEARS 2 2 6 3 2 0 13. 0-5 YEARS 3 0 4 0 0 0 4 33. 6-10 YEARS 3 0 2 0 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 3 0 5 0 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 3 1 2 0 1 0 4. 21-265 YEARS 3 3 8 5 0 1 17. 0-5 YEARS 4 0 2 1 0 0 3 33. 6-10 YEARS 4 0 1 1 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 4 1 1 3 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 4 1 2 1 1 0 5.
21-265 YEARS 4 2 12 3 0 0 17. 0-5 YEARS 5 0 2 1 0 0 3 32. 6-10 YEARS 5 0 2 0 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 5 0 2 3 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 5 2 1 1 1 0 5. 21-265 YEARS 5 0 7 6 2 1 16.
0-5 YEARS 6 0 3 0 0 0 3 33. 6-10 YEARS 6 0 1 1 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 6 0 2 3 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 6 2 2 0 1 0 5. 21-265 YEARS 6 4 6 4 2 1 17. 0-5 YEARS 7 0 2 1 0 0 3 31. 6-10 YEARS 7 1 0 0 1 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 7 0 0 1 4 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 7 1 2 2 0 0 5. 21-265 YEARS 7 1 8 5 0 2 16. 0-5 YEARS 8 0 3 0 0 0 3 32.
6-10 YEARS 8 0 2 0 0 1 3. 11-15 YEARS 8 0 0 1 2 2 5. 16-20 YEARS 8 0 2 0 2 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 8 5 1 3 4 3 16. 0-5 YEARS 9 0 2 0 1 0 3 29. 6-10 YEARS 9 0 3 0 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 9 0 0 2 3 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 9 0 2 3 0 0 5. 21-265 YEARS 9 1 6 3 2 1 13.
0-5 YEARS 10 0 1 0 1 0 2 28. 6-10 YEARS 10 0 3 0 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 10 0 0 2 3 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 10 0 3 1 0 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 10 2 7 2 1 1 13. 0-5 YEARS 11 1 1 0 0 0 2 30.
6-10 YEARS 11 0 1 1 0 1 3. 11-15 YEARS 11 0 1 1 1 2 5. 16-20 YEARS 11 1 1 0 2 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 11 5 2 1 4 3 15. 0-5 YEARS 12 0 2 0 0 0 2 30. 6-10 YEARS 12 1 1 0 1 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 12 0 3 0 2 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 12 0 3 0 1 1 5.
21-265 YEARS 12 3 8 3 0 1 15. PART III (experience and response) AGE Question SA A N DA SDA. 0-5 YEARS 1 0 3 0 0 0 3 35. 6-10 YEARS 1 0 3 0 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 1 5 0 0 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 1 3 3 0 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 1 7 3 4 4 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 2 0 1 2 0 0 3 35.
6-10 YEARS 2 0 3 0 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 2 2 2 1 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 2 1 5 0 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 2 4 7 4 3 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 3 1 3 0 0 0 4 36. 6-10 YEARS 3 0 2 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 3 2 2 1 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 3 2 4 0 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 3 4 7 5 2 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 4 0 0 2 1 0 3 35. 6-10 YEARS 4 0 3 0 0 0 3.
11-15 YEARS 4 0 3 1 1 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 4 0 3 2 1 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 4 2 8 6 2 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 5 0 2 1 0 0 3 35. 6-10 YEARS 5 0 2 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 5 0 2 3 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 5 0 3 1 2 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 5 0 8 6 3 1 18. 0-5 YEARS 6 0 1 2 0 0 3 34. 6-10 YEARS 6 0 3 0 0 0 3.
11-15 YEARS 6 1 3 1 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 6 0 1 2 1 1 5. 21-265 YEARS 6 0 7 7 3 1 18. 0-5 YEARS 7 0 0 3 0 0 3 33. 6-10 YEARS 7 0 1 0 1 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 7 2 0 2 0 0 4. 16-20 YEARS 7 2 1 3 0 0 6.
21-265 YEARS 7 5 5 5 1 2 18. 0-5 YEARS 8 0 2 1 0 0 3 34. 6-10 YEARS 8 0 3 0 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 8 1 3 0 0 0 4. 16-20 YEARS 8 1 4 0 0 1 6. 21-265 YEARS 8 7 6 5 0 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 9 0 1 2 0 0 3 33. 6-10 YEARS 9 0 2 0 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 9 0 2 1 1 0 4.
16-20 YEARS 9 1 2 3 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 9 6 7 4 1 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 10 2 1 1 0 0 4 34. 6-10 YEARS 10 0 2 0 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 10 1 3 0 0 0 4. 16-20 YEARS 10 1 4 0 1 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 10 3 7 3 5 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 11 0 3 0 0 0 3 35. 6-10 YEARS 11 0 2 1 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 11 0 4 0 0 1 5. 16-20 YEARS 11 1 5 0 0 0 6.
21-265 YEARS 11 4 6 5 2 1 18. 0-5 YEARS 12 0 2 1 0 0 3 35. 6-10 YEARS 12 1 2 0 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 12 1 4 0 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 12 3 3 0 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 12 7 8 1 2 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 13 0 1 2 0 0 3 34.
6-10 YEARS 13 0 1 1 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 13 1 1 1 2 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 13 2 2 2 0 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 13 2 7 5 3 1 18. 0-5 YEARS 14 0 3 0 0 0 3 34. 6-10 YEARS 14 0 1 1 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 14 2 2 1 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 14 1 3 1 1 0 6.
21-265 YEARS 14 6 8 3 1 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 15 0 0 1 1 1 3 35. 6-10 YEARS 15 0 0 0 3 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 15 1 1 0 1 2 5. 16-20 YEARS 15 2 1 0 2 1 6. 21-265 YEARS 15 1 1 4 6 6 18. 0-5 YEARS 16 0 0 1 1 0 2 33. 6-10 YEARS 16 0 1 2 0 0 3. 11-15 YEARS 16 0 2 1 2 0 5.
16-20 YEARS 16 1 3 1 0 0 5. 21-265 YEARS 16 0 9 4 5 0 18. 0-5 YEARS 17 0 0 1 1 0 2 33. 6-10 YEARS 17 0 2 0 0 0 2. 11-15 YEARS 17 2 1 2 0 0 5. 16-20 YEARS 17 2 2 0 2 0 6. 21-265 YEARS 17 4 6 4 4 0 18. RESULT: ANALYSIS OF RESULT. Doing Great or just ordinary (Organization) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DESIGN EXECUTION. Teamwork appeared to be a novel idea and it was expected that flocks of interested parties would be eager to benefit from the study.
What appeared to be a great idea soon hit a difficulty. Personal Science And Mathematics? Teamwork cannot be examined in isolation as leadership is literature with university courses integral part of the episode. Leadership cannot be tested in isolation and has to be seen in context of organizational approach towards human resource. Personal Computer And Mathematics? The methodology of testing leadership and teamwork or standard HR issues attracted inhibitions and fear. The organization that initially welcomed the idea and was insisting that test be applied on the most crucial department suddenly backed out and refused to support the biogrph, research. The fallout of adverse finding was fearsome and inability to collect data could derail the personal statement computer science, project.. The biggest question was, how do I get access to the data that was crucial to essay about teenager test the idea and concept.
Credibility of researcher was not an issue. Science? In fact established credibility and the literary, interest in topic was the cause of initial encouragement and support. The organization valued the need of research but and personal statement computer and mathematics, also believed in capability of researcher but was skeptical of biogrph, fall out of adverse finding and its impact. Seeking a new organization to support research became difficult. The diagnostic framework was liked by professionals but like venereal disease there was sensitivity involved and one cannot allow published research. Faced with this dilemma this researcher chooses a quasi unethical course. An organization was selected where a fair deal of goodwill was enjoyed. The designed instrument was administered on top management who filled the questionnaire. This was treated as tacit approval and the quietly administered on a set of employees of various departments. The process highlighted the importance of personal computer, finalizing data collection methodology and degree os access required. Creative University? Perfectly good idea may get bogged down for reasons of sensitivity or interest of statement computer and mathematics, other party.
6.2 EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION. Teamwork essentials and reverse thesis, desirables are intangible and how can these be measured was the first question. Perception of employees was the statement and mathematics, answer but is the the literary, perception of employees about leadership issues correct. Employees are biased and do not have ability to see leaders actions objectively. How can a study be dependent on such perception was the personal statement science and mathematics, next question. Creative Writing-? The answer was that perception is statement science more important than reality and its part of leadership responsibility to maintain employee perception.
Having decided to collect data about employee perception the next question was how to persuade employees to respond objectively and thesis, not in a manner where they form expectations of management decisions on the basis of research and feed tainted information. This part was attempted by correctly briefing them that this is not a management sponsored activity but a project of an individual and of pure academic consequence. It is believed that employees accepted this truth on face value. Convenience sample was chosen and test was dispensed in single sitting and successfully we obtained result from 5 % of organization employees. 6.3 INSTRUMENT VERSATILITY AND APPLICATION. The instrument was designed to personal statement computer and mathematics cover various types of industries, types of organizations like government or private and also various department and experience level. Despite the ease in survey due to internet based launch and ease associated with calculations, such methodology was rejected as there has to be focus on the literary, sufficient input from personal computer science same organization. At some stage the study scope may be increased to cover issues of reverse logistics thesis, industry but teamwork itself is such delicate variable likely to statement science and mathematics get effected by intangibles, so the temptation was curbed and conventional data collection and analysis was undertaken. Only one organization was covered and just over the literary 5 % employees responded.
Fortunately all departments got adequate representation. 6.3.1 MORE ON VERSATILITY. The questions about department and statement computer and mathematics, years of service brackets gave us ability to examine difference in response in terms of various strata of the biogrph, organization. Such analysis shall allow OD initiative to be focused and prudent instead of being generalized. While formulating action plan the department or experience level and personal statement and mathematics, perception is revealing and immensely valuable. 5 point scale was selected for its ease, popularity and english literature, power to express outcome in statistically viable term. Personal Statement And Mathematics? Instead of limiting research to in much ado about nothing its scope of leadership and teamwork, other HR attributes like equity, training and development and etc were included as defective basic structure cannot be expected to personal computer and mathematics yield true teamwork fruits. PART I questions are focused on biogrph, HR issues that effects organizations structure while Part II and personal computer and mathematics, Part III focuses on leadership and Teamwork areas. 6.4 RESEARCH SETTING.
Faced with the dilemma of refusal from initially agreed participant, this researcher was confused and about, disillusioned. Importance of confidentiality now became important as it would be inappropriate to name the personal statement science and mathematics, organization that initially approved access but just before start of dispensing refused access for english with university courses, reason that its reputation and/or prestige may get effected. Where do you find another organization? I saw a CEO and gave him the test; they obliged and also helped me improve the form. Statement Computer Science? I also gave the form to few senior officers of the organization to which the biogrph, CEO did not object.
This was treated as tacit approval and I dispensed convenience sample to science a mix of people who represented over 5 % of the honor ado about nothing essay, population. Participants were gathered in various departments and requested to express their views, who believed CEO has consented to pure academic study and not a management initiative. Desperate times require desperate measures. The time constraint of researcher did not allow practice of higher level of ethics. The lesson learned was that method of data collection has to be discussed in greater detail at start of project, It is statement and mathematics duty of biogrph, researcher to personal science analyze potential areas of sensitivity and carefully design project which remain attractive to organization, The disguise I practiced was to arrange a class size of about 30 students and gave a lecture on methods of having a documented Quality Management System and also administered the test to the class which duly represented all departments. The mandate was unethically exceeded. The important question remains; Have you considered fully the extent and nature of the biogrph, access that you will require in order to be able to answer your research question and meet your objectives? The answer is computer science and mathematics yes. The sample does represent the population as given in the literary table below as all departments are duly represented.
More importantly, the research question has been addressed to answer the research question. Why teamwork is so rare in statement and mathematics real world is better understood after the study and shall be discussed in the coming chapter. S. No Deptt Name Total Respondents Total Employees Sample. 1 Operations 11 218 5.05. 2 Cargo 10 212 4.72. 3 Ramp 8 194 4.12. 4 Admin 4 83 4.82. 5 Accounts 5 59 8.47. TOTAL 40 770 5.19.
6.4.1 Few respondents were hesitant in addressing all questions while few did not want to participate. Those willing to omit any question were allowed to do so and those who were reluctant to participate were given the paper with request to honor in much return filled questionnaire if they had a change of heart. Personal Computer And Mathematics? None reappeared to return blank or filled sheet. The questionnaire was based on the methodology developed to essay about assess the fundamentals, essentials and desirables of teamwork and statement computer and mathematics, leadership. The scope was increased to literature with creative writing- courses include Strategic Human Resource essentials to assess that pre-requisites or ground work for team work exists or not. The Part I of instrument focused on basic policies and essentials of personal computer science, modern organization. Website Thesis? Without satisfactory compliance to Part I the question of having good leadership and teamwork will be premature to answer. Computer Science And Mathematics? An organization having failed to address basics may first address the more important issues before going for teamwork excellence. Literature University? Leadership and Teamwork may fail due to functional factors or dysfunctional elements as given in template. Response is depicted as shown below and five point responses were awarded -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2 for statement computer and mathematics, responses of honor in much essay, strongly agreed to strongly disagree. The response is multiplied by frequency of each response to calculate average the response is also reflected in pie chart and mean is computer reflected in pie chart.
For comparison of departments response pie chart has been used and experience response is represented by mean. Three prong analysis of single question, overall response, then response by the literary three major departments to statement computer and mathematics the same question besides experience 1-15 and website thesis, more than 15 years response provide a multi-dimensional view of research question. Question:1 Perception about personal and mathematics Organizations performance. strongly Agree Agree disagree strongly Disagree. QNO Great Good Neutral not good bad Total. 1 6 17 4 9 2 38. % 15.8 44.7 10.5 23.7 5.3 100.0.
CODE ‘X” -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 SUM FxX. (F)x(X) -12.0 -17.0 0.0 9.0 4.0 -16.0. VERY HIGH HIGH AVERAGE VERY LOW. This division of overall response into responses from three major departments like Operations, Ramp and Cargo and then the response has been viewed against experience of website thesis, respondents from 0-5 years, 6-10 years, 11-15 years, 16-29 years and more than 20 years. The information was rearranged into personal computer and mathematics, responses of employees with less than 15 years experience and more than 15 years experience for simplicity. Looking at research question from departments stand point and experience stand point along with total response give a fair insight into the research question and also indicative of target audience to administer OD solutions. Five respondents were selected to reappear in the test to measure reliability of instrument. The reliability varied between 78-88 % which is considered good. Validity of the instrument was assessed by english literature creative writing- university courses randomly including or excluding part of data and overall change in result was not substantial. Personal Computer Science? With more sample population the reliability shall improve. Teamwork comes from shared goals and objectives and leadership creates the website thesis, environment of personal computer science and mathematics, goal and/or resource sharing.
What appeared to be a great idea soon hit a difficulty as sponsors were looking for outcome that would glorify them and adverse findings would be kept under wrap? Organizations like to thesis avoid addressing concepts of personal and mathematics, strategic human resource management (SHRM) without being on record. Essential functions like recruitment or selection, training and development or maintaining equity, most principles are violated on the pretext of contingency (or expediency). An organization that does not view its human capital as resource and honor, treats it as expense shall find it difficult to promote team environment. Where HR is not a business partner but an expense, albeit, to save organization from litigation alone cannot hope to personal and mathematics be great in teamwork or leadership. So before going into teamwork we have to assess the logistics thesis, level of personal statement computer science and mathematics, management awareness and adherence to modern practice of exploiting human potentials. Part I of instrument was designed to assess SHRM essentials as a prerequisite for leadership and teamwork. 7.2 Leadership is review not about vibrant personality, charisma, and some oratory. Leadership has been defined as ‘the act of arousing, engaging, and personal statement and mathematics, satisfying the motives of biogrph, followers’in an environment of conflict, competition, or change’that results in the follower taking a course of action toward a mutually shared vision'(Drea Zigrami et al, 2005-p174).
Leadership is not about manipulating or exploiting followers. It cannot be faked. ‘Good leaders don’t ask more than their constituents can give, but they often ask’and get’more than their constituents intended to personal computer science and mathematics give or thought it was possible to give.’ The leadership role is comprehensive and apart from creating a vision and engaging employees, leaders have to the literary ensure that systems are effectively implemented and opportunities are created for employees to actively get involved and personal statement computer science, deliver. Leaders need to the literary review set a positive example and encourage teamwork by rewarding enabling behavior. Statement Computer Science? Employee perception on about leadership matters has direct bearing on organizations environment and outcome. 7.3 The interdependence with conflicting individual goals and common team goals create a situation of tension.
Teamwork requires understanding how my part of job affects other person and the ultimate goal. Individuals have to look beyond their unique activities and understand the website thesis, bigger picture for organizational effectiveness. Communication, mutual trust, decision making and conflict resolution are some essential traits of personal computer and mathematics, effective team. The Literary Review? To this day I know of no one who disagrees with benefits of teamwork; not even the contrarian’s. Personal Statement Computer Science? There is unanimity of views on benefits and importance of teamwork but few achieve desired goal. Teamwork and leadership are intertwined as team cannot function without effective leader. Leader unifies team for shared goal and thesis, cause.
Trust is paramount between leader and science and mathematics, member’s goals are aligned. Perception about leader is managed and involvement and participation is maximized through inclusive leadership. The study develops a three part framework to gather employees perception about biogrph SHRM issues in personal science Part I, Leadership issues in reverse thesis Part II and Teamwork issues in Part III. Statistical analysis quantifies the result. Multi-view of same parameter is possible by computer science and mathematics viewing it from various angles like response of department and response by website thesis experience level. Multi-dimensional view allows better understanding of demography effect on perception and allows for personal statement computer and mathematics, targeted solution for perception alteration/management. Study has brought forward employee perception on important issues which are generally considered intangibles. Jumping to conclusion and applying remedy without root cause analysis and honor, carefully devised strategy is statement computer science not fraught without danger. Things have to change.
Top management is review too focused on bottom line and on statement and mathematics, external customer. English? The roots of success can be traced to satisfied internal customer commonly called employees. Employee’s perception about terms of science and mathematics, contract, leadership and teamwork variables must find inclusion in leader’s dashboard as most results emanate from these intangibles. This study has developed a framework to literature with university courses address the issues of importance but more research is required on unearthing root cause of such perception through interviews, focus groups or exit interviews etc. Personal Statement Computer? Most perceptions could have roots in mistrust and lack of involvement and inadequate communication. OD practitioners and scientists are invited to take the website thesis, study forward. The diagnostic may be applied as a starting point and statement computer science and mathematics, then research be undertaken to diagnose underlying cause. Remedy shall of course follow.
Search our thousands of teenager, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Personal Computer Science? Each of us is qualified to honor ado about nothing essay a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in personal science as little as 3 hours. This Management essay was submitted to us by a student in biogrph order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The ‘teamwork’ concept – cause and personal science, effect. . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/management/essay-the-teamwork-concept-cause-and-effect/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of website thesis, this content and no longer wish to statement computer science have it published on our website then please click on the literary review, the link below to request removal: 21-12-16 - Public relations 06-11-16 - Total safety management 05-11-16 - Public Relations and Crisis Management in Tertiary Institutions 03-11-16 - Talent management 26-08-16 - Internal and external factors that can affect the supply chain management - Cultism in tertiary institution 28-07-16 - Organisational Behaviour 29-06-16 - Logistics survey 05-03-16 - Differences between leaders and managers 04-03-16 - Mass production of goods and work flow.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on personal statement their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of essay about, paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. Personal Computer! The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.
It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the essay about words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the personal science title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to website thesis insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of personal and mathematics, method, results, and english literature with creative writing- university, discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write.
A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and personal statement computer and mathematics, critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and the literary, why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and personal statement computer, gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in website thesis by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read.
Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. Statement Computer And Mathematics! One way to english literature creative university begin (but not the statement science and mathematics only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the about information you will present next. Statement Computer Science And Mathematics! Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.
Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in thesis your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about personal statement science, how you want to transition between ideas. Biogrph! When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to personal statement computer and mathematics use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of with writing- university, everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies.
Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by computer stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is website thesis, relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. Personal Computer Science And Mathematics! DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual).
Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the biogrph articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in personal and mathematics your reference section. In Much! Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in statement computer science and mathematics your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the in much complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the statement science and mathematics most straightforward to in much nothing write, but requires precision. Your goal is to statement computer science and mathematics describe the details of english creative, your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in statement science and mathematics a factorial experiment, for essay about example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and computer, Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the website thesis Procedure section prior to statement science and mathematics the. Materials section rather than after it.
(labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for about age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in personal statement computer and mathematics Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.
(labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the ado about data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and personal statement science and mathematics, so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on review the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for statement computer science your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to english with creative courses judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to computer science separate different types of website thesis, stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .”
(labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for science and mathematics your study (e.g., the honor in much essay eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and and mathematics, concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere?
If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to website thesis test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to personal statement report results in APA style. A t-test, for the literary review example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of personal statement computer science and mathematics, freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of english with creative courses, freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to computer and mathematics show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to thesis two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of personal, APA manual).
However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the honor presentation of statement, all the statistics and numbers, be sure to reverse logistics thesis state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Science And Mathematics! Be sure to thesis refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is personal science, not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text.
However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.
A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the reverse logistics thesis specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Some points to science consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the nothing essay hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the statement science broader behavior under investigation?
Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the reverse logistics study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research?
Whenever you present an personal and mathematics, idea for logistics a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on personal computer a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of biogrph, human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the personal statement science question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to in much nothing essay sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Computer! Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by in much ado about nothing essay last name of first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references.
The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). Statement Science And Mathematics! See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is logistics thesis, capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized.
If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Personal Statement Science! Ecological momentary assessment of honor nothing, mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. Science! doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. Reverse Thesis! G. Personal Statement Computer Science! (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol.
2, pp. 599-658). The Literary Review! New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for statement computer science tables, depending upon the information you wish to about include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and statement and mathematics, table title (the latter is italicized).
Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Reverse Logistics Thesis! Be sure to personal computer science label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the website thesis units of measurement of the personal computer DV. English Literature Creative Writing-! Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of statement science and mathematics, job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and reverse thesis, the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and personal science, note what the website thesis bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual)
When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and personal statement science, Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in literature creative writing- parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in statement computer science parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the in much essay authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. Personal Computer Science And Mathematics! For example: “Klein et al. Website Thesis! (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to personal statement describe material that is cited in biogrph another source.
If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and computer science and mathematics, read it before citing it in your own work. Reverse Thesis! If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in and mathematics the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts.
The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at english with creative university courses the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .