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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out job applications for engineering scholarship essays production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the same time. On one hand, the thought of landing cool production gigs and dialogique exemple generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. Maritime Engineering Essays! But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough? What if the producers laugh at the fact that you included student films on essay on choosing your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for a living, wrote up a list of the 7 most common mistakes that she sees from aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position. Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and don’t try to maritime scholarship, be a jack-of-all-trades either.
The rest of that saying is master of none. UPM’s on causes of climate essay real movies with real budgets, are looking for maritime engineering individuals to do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Don’t have position sought taking up space on the page. This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for my job a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and maritime scholarship essays you'll be well on dissertation exemple your way to crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and micro-budget projects on your resume for too long. Engineering Essays! I know we all have a lot of affection for our early work. However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in of climate change a festival, or the maritime scholarship essays low, low-budget film happens to writing+research+paper+database, have a name star because of some prior relationship. Most of the time, drop those projects off the maritime engineering scholarship bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to include.
It is better to point of the essay, have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of maritime engineering, how lowly the position - than to be listed as the Producer of an paper, unknown student short. Coburn is right on the money when she says that we all have affection for the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in maritime scholarship school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the fact is that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in film school, and producers want to see that you've worked professionally before. It's that simple. For folks who are just getting started in production and who are looking for ways to legitimately break into dialogique exemple the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable.
The film industry is maritime engineering essays, oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and french revolution essay resume mistakes, however small and seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an equally polished cover letter is also essential to scholarship essays, landing the job, but that's an article for another day. You can check out the exemple rest of maritime essays, Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on causes of climate essay Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and maritime engineering scholarship she has a website that has even more tips and information on her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.
Wow that sentence came out of climate essay paper poorly. Haha. November 2, 2013 at 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for the shout out Brady. Essays! I love helping people make their resumes and cover letters better. Now to return the favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. Essay Rome! November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.
Oh, and I'll be adding the Cover Letter tips to maritime scholarship, my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on point french doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and scholarship the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at writing+research+paper+database 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. I work freelance in TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in TV in London. More often than not, one of your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is going to want to see your CV. I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for before. They called me because on my CV it said that I'd worked on one of engineering scholarship essays, their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an office runner had stapled the the 2nd page of someone else's CV to on choosing, mine :) so people really rely on CVs.
Didn't get that job. bastards. November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of maritime essays, ten it means I didn't get the of climate change paper job. On one hand, you can look at it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is word of maritime engineering scholarship essays, mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to actually offend me, but I've let it go. recommendations from the right people are a pretty powerful filter and most productions rely on that (I work in the camera department and most of the time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the about my job phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder. November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.
February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays! These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at Studios, Networks and Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. That is why my website exists, and dissertation I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and Television Production. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS. December 28, 2016 at maritime engineering scholarship 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is turning point of the french essay, a guarantee of an essays, interview. Honoria! Pay a lot of attention to this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of engineering scholarship essays, resume makers. This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to writing+research+paper+database, choose the maritime scholarship essays best.
August 9, 2017 at 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the point french revolution eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on what you need to know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to receive the free PDF!
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Recording DJ Mixes: How To Do It Right and Why It Matters. You might be one of the maritime engineering scholarship essays top rising DJs in your town, but if you don’t have a portfolio of professional-sounding mixes, you’re just not going to dialogique, land the maritime engineering scholarship gigs you want. We’ve had a number of new DJs asking us to essay, go over the basics of recording a mix, so today we take a closer look at maritime scholarship, why recording great DJ mixes is extremely important. We’ve also put together some tips on how to make the process of recording those winning mixes simple and efficient. A few weeks ago in turning french our weekly email, we included a tip that strongly encouraged recording every single mix that passes through your DJ equipment. Maritime Essays. While it might sound like overkill, we live in an era of extremely cheap data storage (cheaper by dissertation dialogique, the minute), so there’s virtually zero cost associated with recording your mix session. What’s the scholarship value of pressing record on every single one of your mixes? Your intentions for recording mixes should be multifaceted – we’ve split up the potential uses for recording mixes into three tiers for easy dissection: 1) Review and critique: Forcing yourself to re-listen to your DJ practices and performances offers a unique opportunity to point of the french, make assessments as to your skill set from the scholarship essays viewpoint of a listener. Many different types of artists use this trick all the time (especially instrumentalists and dancers!) to see and hear exactly what the audience is experiencing.
Don’t be afraid in essay this process to take notes and maritime engineering essays, set goals for yourself. This especially comes in handy when you’re trying new techniques – from perfecting those basic transition styles to practicing new styles of buildups – and point of the french essay, want to assess how well those techniques worked in the mix. Maritime Engineering. You’ll sometimes be surprised, for better or for my job, worse, at what it sounds like when you’re not behind the decks. 2) Share the mix: Your fans and friends know that you’re a DJ, and in a media-saturated digital world full of essays, content creators, sharing new content is the best way to turning of the french, remind them that you’re still in the game (and available to play their next house party). Online mixes tend to stick best if you’re also breaking new tracks or revealing deep cuts on them – this is the time to maritime essays, show off your digging prowess. Not every mix makes it past the previous step of reviewing and critiquing – so use your good judgement here and only let quality favorites trickle down this list for you to dominate Soundcloud with. You never know where these mixes will get played – from long roadtrips to turning of the french, late-night work sessions, you want to makes sure the listener feels like rocking your mix was worth it.
3) Create an maritime online brand: For many DJs, mixes are the best equivalent to a resume and on choosing, portfolio for potential gigs. While DJTT has written plenty in engineering essays the past about writing+research+paper+database crafting your online DJ brand, the mixes are often the engineering scholarship essays core meat and potatoes that promoters and civility, potential clients look at. While we’ve all heard stories of the promoters who just look at Facebook likes when considering booking a DJ, but if you don’t have a solid catalog of maritime engineering essays, a few mixes, most club owners won’t even look twice at you. This is again an even higher level of quality of mix that should enter this tier – these are the mixes you’ll feature and dissertation, link to the most, so make sure only the most technically clean and solid mixes you make are used here. Let’s talk about how to maritime engineering scholarship essays, record your mixes.
If you’re like many DJs who don’t record regularly, during the actual mix it sounds amazing – but when you record them and listen back to essay honoria, them you find you sound worse than what you heard. Whether the maritime engineering recording is a low quality, levels are off or peaking, or even that you didn’t have the writing+research+paper+database right inputs selected, there’s nothing more frustrating than having a great session and not having the engineering taped version deliver the same level of quality. Having a solid and consistent technical solution to recording your sessions makes sure that you never have that experience. On Choosing. Here are the three common forms that recording mixes often take: To CD/Tape : These are archaic media, and we recommend not recording to these formats unless you’re an extreme purist.
Even then, remember that you’ll have to essays, digitize these recordings – and seriously, who even owns a tape/CD recorder anymore? Digital Audio Recorder : These are typically found in higher end installations and studios, and there are portable versions that start at about $200 and allow you to dissertation dialogique, record to maritime engineering scholarship, an SD card and then extract the essay about digital recording from that. Maritime Engineering Essays. (We’re partial to the Zoom H4 recorders) After recording, you then copy your mix to your computer, run it through your audio editing software to trim any dead air and then dump it onto your favorite MP3 player or DJ mix sharing site. We find that using an causes change essay external recorder like this is ideal for maritime scholarship, recording shows where you don’t want to have anything else to worry about on your computer. Straight To Computer : Recording directly to your computer is the most sensible and simplest solution. This can be slightly more complicated to setup initially depending on your DJ workflow of choice, and provides you the flexibility to send your mixes anywhere and quicker. Let’s take a closer look at how to make a great recording into your computer. If you’re mixing externally, you’ll need to route the audio back into your computer before you can start recording your mix. Causes Change Paper. Your specific setup will cause this vary, but for most typical digital DJ setups a simple male/male RCA cable or male/male RCA to 1/8? cable will suffice. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. Check the dissertation exemple back of your mixer to choose the best output for these cables – on engineering scholarship essays, Pioneer and dissertation exemple, Allen and engineering scholarship, Heath mixers, you’ll want to dialogique exemple, choose the maritime scholarship Record Out.
On Rane mixers, you’ll often find a Session Out. For a number of newer and more expensive digital DJ mixers, like the Allen Heath DB series, you’re actually able to route a Record Out signal back through the built-in soundcard and into about my job your computer or DJ software. The reason you want to use a record out or equivalent signal is because the normal master output on many mixers sends line level output which is tied to scholarship, the output that you’re sending to turning of the, the speakers. You also might, in the course of a gig, make dramatic adjustments to this master gain, but record/session outs are independently controlled and will maintain a level signal. Case in point: the first time I tried to maritime, record my mix through a PC, it sounded horrible.
I plugged my master out into my sound card and started a test record using Audacity. When I played it back, I noticed that the sound was clipping. I reduced the master volume on my mixer and tried again. The sound continued to dissertation, clip, but not as drastically. I also tried reducing the record volume within Audacity to compensate, but no matter what setting I tried, the maritime scholarship essays sound was unusable. Rome. The source of the problem: the signal I was sending from my mixer was too much for my PC’s sound card to maritime engineering essays, handle. I was sending a powerful line-level output from my mixer into a a mic-level input on my soundcard and destroying the recording.
There’s only one way to make sure you’re capturing great recordings – testing and essay on choosing civility, checking your recordings. We’ll get to that in a minute. RECORDING INTERNALLY IN YOUR DJ SOFTWARE. For those of us who mix completely internally, great news! You’re probably already aware, but recording an engineering internal DJ set is significantly less work in terms of essay paper, wiring and getting everything sorted out.
Here’s the rule – as long as all of your audio goes through your DJ software and is output in one master channel, your DJ software will be able to maritime scholarship, record just final performance audio. Nothing fancy to worry about here – but you’ll still want to test the recording and on choosing civility, check your final audio and maritime essays, waveforms in Audacity (see below) to civility, make sure you’ve got all the levels right. TEST YOUR MIX WATCH THE WAVEFORMS. Taking a few seconds to test your recording setup and maritime essays, check how it sounds and what the recorded files looks like always pays off – especially when you’re first setting up your recording process. French Essay. One of the key tricks when setting up your recordings is to follow the signal path and make sure that nowhere along the line is your mix peaking – watch for maritime essays, your master signal in your DJ software, on your mixer, and in your audio input settings – and make sure that it’s not in the red or peaking at any step of the way. The image on the right shows what peaking looks like in many different forms, avoid it at all costs. Not everyone is aware of point revolution, what good-looking waveforms look like, so I’ve put together a series of screenshots from the above story for essays, a quick crash course in waveform analysis. The following graphics demonstrate what the essay about my job waveform looks like under different circumstances. Engineering Scholarship Essays. These graphics are copied out of Audacity and represent the +/- voltage strengths of the signal that was recorded, and on choosing, under each graphic is the scholarship essays recorded sound. Both right and left channels are shown.
Now let’s ask the question “if I use a computer in writing+research+paper+database any way in my DJ kit setup, do I need a second computer to scholarship essays, record my mixes?” This is a difficult question to answer because of a number of different variables. Can your computer handle the processing load of both playing and about, recording music? Do you have enough free USB ports for connecting your controller, USB hard drive (possibly) and an audio interface? Is there going to be contention for disk resources when you are reading MP3s for playback and writing the maritime recording of your set? For a lot of DJs who don’t necessarily have newer and better-performing computers, the dissertation exemple answer might sometimes be that your computer can’t handle both DJing and recording simultaneously.
For DJs and live performers who simply don’t want to have the risk or have additional computer-focused activities going on while performing (Mad Zach falls into this category), you might also avoid doing both. Scholarship. Instead of buying a second computer, this is where we would actually recommend purchasing a digital audio recorder . Of Climate Change. You would only need to maritime scholarship, maintain one computer and you’ll be able to have a standalone unit dedicated to just recording mixes. Handy! Finally, here’s one key tip that will make your future recordings a breeze every time: set up the honoria rome levels and inputs and outputs how you will have them when recording and take notes of where all of your levels are at. Maritime Scholarship Essays. Even consider writing them down, and make sure that you can easily duplicate this setup in very little time.
Getting set up to essay about, record should only take about two minutes tops – you want there to be as little barrier as possible to you being able to press the maritime essays record button and start making your next big mix-tape. How do you record your mixes? Experienced veterans, what tips do you have for the DJs who’ve never recorded a mix before? Hey guys, we got something that might interest you. Check out the first cloud connected, mobile app controlled recording solution : http://www.cloub.pro. Hi could someone help me out please, I’ve been trying to work this out for days. Dissertation Dialogique Exemple. So I have a DJM 900nx2 and a macbook pro using logic to record and a male/male RCA to 1/8? cable to connect the mixer and laptop. When I use the cable to engineering essays, connect the two, the mixer does not come up as a input option, instead only the built up micro phone displays as an option? Really confused would really appreciate it if someone could help me out. Thanks in advance!
I guess recording with an 8 track is out?? I just showed my age…damn. Such good advice this is exactly the my job type of information i need. I own a DB4 and can see i have a digital output however i am unsure and engineering scholarship, unclear exactly what soundcard i need to record digital into pc. I understand how to fit a pcie soundcard, and i even understand how to about, record analogue from my mixer to my pc. Maritime Engineering. However, as i said im unsure as to rome, what soundcard i need to buy. Record from the engineering scholarship essays REC OUT in the back of the dialogique exemple mixer..
DB4 has its own soundcard, no extra soundcard needed. my business partner needed a form this month and located a business with. an online forms library . If others need to fill out it also , here’s a https://goo.gl/Bbx9eB . Hi guys pls I wnt to essays, be a gud sound set man, pl pl ll I go abt i? I use a tablet with FL studio mobile. Should I be using I need to make my recordings digital again. Any ideas on dissertation dialogique, how I can get a clean sound? anyone know how to record longer than 1hour? like record a 3hour mix using some free sofwear online or someshit-tried to get soundcloud working but there sofwear is shit when it comes to that. Running Traktor S4 Controller, DJM 800 Mixer, Mac Book Pro, Have Audacity on MAC and also Audio Hijack on maritime, MAC, Also have Komplete Audio 6 but not connected to anything as a soundcard just lying around. Best way to record DJ Mixes of the best quality ? Rec out from Pioneer Mixer to Audacity ? S4 Controller to dialogique exemple, Line In on the MAC ? Advice please people. I record internally with an maritime engineering scholarship S4, and writing+research+paper+database, have found -0.3 db or -0.6 db avoids clipping most of the time when allowing traktor to set track gains automatically.
If you want to, you can play tracks and maritime scholarship essays, set the gains on your own, but auto-gain generally tends to turn out change essay paper, ok. Maritime Essays. You may have a few tracks that sound comparatively quiet to other tracks in the mix, but I believe that’s because traktor’s avoiding some high volume peaks (somewhere in the song). Before I go for causes change essay paper, a final recording of a mix, I’ll do a few trial recordings, just skipping ahead to engineering scholarship essays, transitions and play around with master gain, individual track gain etc to see which recording sounds the best. One issue to consider is essay my job what you’re going to maritime scholarship essays, do with the exemple mix after. For instance, I find sometimes that uploading higher quality files like WAV to soundcloud doesn’t always yield the best quality playback on scholarship essays, soundcloud (but enable downloads and let them have the original WAV file if they care about quality that much). I’ve found that one of my mixes uploaded in 320 mp3 sounds best when played back on soundcloud. I’ve never tried externally recording though, so would like to know how it can compare. Essay Rome. I haven’t really compared the RCA analog output sound quality of the S4 to my other beresford DAC that I hold in high esteem, so could be that external recording can sound better than internal with the right external recording equipment. I record my mixes with LP to MP3. Engineering Scholarship. It works great because it comes with a USB device with RCA inputs. Dissertation Exemple. Been quite happy with it.
But I’m wondering, is maritime there a DJ software out there can log the tracks I record? Is there a recording software that can automatically log the tracks I select in my DJ software? I’ve been recording my mixes through a RCA jack, but it would be nice if there was a DJ software that would keep track of the songs I select on my decks. does anyone know if there is anyway of getting round not having a record out writing+research+paper+database, port on your mixer so you can record a mix? My mate has a djm-250….thanks. Check out Reloop “Tape” Costs around 100ˆ so how can i record to audacity out of my pioneer mixer without the clipping, without having to maritime scholarship essays, turn all my levels down.
Hi, can anyone help, I’m running the old Torq and writing+research+paper+database, mac, mixes have always been fine, however recently I’ve noticed a slight click before the mix happens on recordings, like a pre-warning, very frustrating, anyone know why, I don’t remember this before, I did change the buffer rate a while ago would this have anything to do with it? I also have a lot of music on engineering scholarship essays, my laptop…? I’m recording straight from my Numark Mixdeck Quad to the basic sound recorder on my HP Envy laptop with Beats Audio. The sound is turning point of the revolution essay great, but the problem I’m having is that it’s picking up EVERYTHING meaning that when trying to beat match the song on scholarship, the speakers with the next song in my headphones, it picks up myself beat matching and turning point of the french, records it as well. Does that make any sense? I sure hope it does. Is there a way to stop this from happening?
Any feedback is maritime essays pure helpful and much appreciated. After researching the turning of the french revolution essay H4 recorder recommended by this article, I found several references stating that the engineering scholarship essays H4 doesn’t properly record line level signals, so I went w/ a Sony PCM-M10 and essay civility, have been really happy w/ it: Yeah, I have read something like that somewhere. DJTechTools guys, could you please confirm or not that thing? I have also heard that the Tascam DR-40 does have a line level input. I use a Tascam DR-100 because it’s portable, it has stereo TRS inputs, starting and stopping a recording is easy with minimal button pressing, and it records at essays, 192khz. The mixer mains output is almost always TRS, so TRS-in makes it easy to insert a pair of essay on choosing civility, TRS splitters to engineering scholarship, siphon off the master out.
We have a problem with recording our dj-set. We’ve done it before and everything sounded fine but recently our recording sound is really weird. It sounds like we’re under water and change essay, there is engineering scholarship essays almost no bass. First we thought it was our amplifier but we tried with a second one and we had the same problem.Then we tried using two computers but that didn’t help either. Now we were wondering if it could be the essay on choosing cable or is essays there anything else we are overlooking. Thanks, Greetz Kaesar Pingu. I just go from my DJM-900 mixer Record out essay about, through a Behringer Audio Interface connected through USB into my Mac and essays, then I either us Logic Pro 9 or Audacity to record the final mix…but yes make sure to check you levels on the mixer…the master, the individual channel gains and the input volume in your DAW.
Hi guys, can anyone help please… I recorded my mixes using Traktor Pro 2s internal recorder and of the french essay, controlling Traktor in HID mode with CDJ 900s and DJM 900 Nexus (using DJM as the sound card). However, I don’t understand what level meters and buttons/knobs to use. For example, do I use the UV meters and EQ on my actual mixer to solely record how the maritime scholarship essays mix sounds, or do I set the gains and causes change essay, master on Traktor and use just the EQ and volume faders on the mixer?? Also, when in the mix I can never seem to get the transition volumes right. For example, (after making sure the gains are the same volume)when the master track is playing at maritime engineering scholarship essays, volume level 10, when i bring the essay my job second track in up to 7, it sounds like they are at the same volume, but when fading out the maritime engineering scholarship master and when the second track kicks into the breakdown it sounds really low… how come? Also, if I continue to increase the volume on the second track to the same level or just under of the masters, it sounds far too loud on playback through speakers. How can i solve this problem?
Can this be ironed out when mastering? (if the second track seems too low when kicked in). Any help would be great guys. What to do if your using a cheap mixer with no rec out? Master is a given no no but splitting the booth turning it only essay half way and maritime engineering essays, usin a master speaker as your booth? Still sounds a little distorted what are my options? Its better to record the mix at turning revolution essay, a lower volume and the edit in in software to make it louder (amplify) than recording it loud and clipping. HI.
I am looking for maritime scholarship, advice. I have Ecler Nuo4, Old PC with EMU1212Card and honoria rome, I use Wave Lam currently for recording (best IMO). Now, I use booth out XLR to Jack in my PC sound card (balanced) to keep sound best possible. I have separate volume knobs for speakers and booth (booth out volume is at 80%). All levels are as they should be and everything look fine (no peaks). When I play back it sounds simply weak. Scholarship. I mean lifeless. Like radio or bad mp3. I tried to writing+research+paper+database, add more volume but I am just getting clipping sound.
I tried Rec Out output from mixer but more less results are the engineering same. I record using 96KHz 24Bit and paper, I was expecting no difference between what I hear in engineering essays speakers (clear punchy sound). After playing playback sound is loud and all but like the life was sucked out of music. Essay Rome. Weird. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. Is is mastering issue or my setup is wrong? I am suspecting my sound card settings to be wrong (i am using default EMU settings for line record). I was planning actually set it up (record) for balanced recording on my EMU but this soft is way too complicated for me. Can anybody help me? Is it problems with my choice of essay, using booth out for recording or my EMU sound card settings?
Or simply sets just sound flatter after recording compered to playing mp3 form traktor and needs to be mastered after? PS My friend was recording his set in local radio station and sound was just amazing! I want that sound! How to maritime engineering scholarship, do it? Please help! plug into the blue input not the red. on the back of your soundcard u should have green red and blue plug it into essay about my job you blue thats you line input. the green is line out. Maritime Engineering Essays. That should sort out all the issues. Try using audacity aswell its a free recording program. You can set the essay about my job levels there, make sure you set them so that when you record the blue wave form doesn’t peak.
Traktor to Audacity via the rec out on the mixer. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. Loop the intro 16 or 32 beats for a cleaner, smoother mix. Some mixers kill eqs much broader than others, so get a feel for about my job, your bass kills, and scholarship essays, faders when mixing. jaja, i have got around 250 dj mixes in my computer…. trust me, is the most valuable thing I did for my DJing, could be confused in a while, specially if you record a lot (I mean 3 or 4 mixes per week) is normal to turning french revolution essay, make them quite alike, but this is something to pay attention to avoid monotony and engineering scholarship, of course, everything labeled, titled, dated, commented and on choosing civility, stuff. Hey y’all! This is scholarship my first post, long time reader. I am getting to the point that I want to start recording my mixes and have had very little luck with Audacity.
I tried using the Rec Out from the back of my Numark Mixdeck but got almost 0 volume even with the mic gain all the way up in audacity. I then tried the Booth Out with the writing+research+paper+database Booth gain turned down very low so as not to clip, but the sound is terrible. It sounds like a light phaser is being applied to maritime, the highs and the lows only just come through. This is leading me down the civility road of an external recording option. I know that the article recommends the Zoom H4n but I have been looking into the H1 (as it is maritime engineering scholarship essays a lower cost alternative). Causes Paper. Does anyone have any experience with this recorder?
Does anyone have any advise for my Audacity problems? HELP! i have a stupid Mix setup problem : traktor (last version), 2 cdj 900 as controller playing on the cdj’s soundcard and a audio8dj card for the recording. I playing wtih an external mixer. My problem is in scholarship essays the configuration : when I select cdj900 in honoria taktor for my sound card i can not select the second cart (audio8dj) for the recording. What is the solution ? if u are using an external mixer, just use the rec/line out of the mixer to the audio8dj.
Use what ever recording software is your fav. and test, test, test until you get the volume right. You should be able to use the CDJs as controllers even if you select audio 8 on traktor. Do you plug them directly to the computer through the USB? If you are using the MIDI interface as opposed to the control CDs it should work, at least it does for me with CDJ 400s. Then just plug the maritime engineering scholarship rec out from the mixer into one of the input channels on the soundcard… I used to honoria, mix live on a webcast years ago using Winamp’s shoutcast and plugins. The format of our broadcasting changed to a pre-recorded shows. To achieve this I recorded to my PC / hard disk using Soundforge. Engineering Scholarship Essays. I used to test all my levels using a combination of tools that came with my external sound card (creative audigy), the windows mixer and level meters within soundforge and of course the recording output levels on paper, my mixer (Pioneer DJM-600) until I had a consistent and audible level.
I used to use a Behringer Composer Pro compressor/limiter/expander gate but removed this from the equation as I could clean up the audio with soundforge. I’ve been finding it tough to engineering essays, come up with a system to record audio out of my S2 when paired with Maschine. Internal recorder only ever picks up what the S2 pumps out without the Maschine fills and loops, etc… http://soundcloud.com/odtoxd333/meth-n-redman-tear-da-roof-off i have just started using the remix decks on traktor and loving it still adjusting to new mapping but good advise record everything. In the past 4 years Iv’e recorded every single set Iv’e played live. Hey guys, some great comments, keep them coming! About the point of the revolution essay point nr 3. :onesheet.com will no longer be free…that sucks big time! First of all, thank you for this great article. It reminded me the importance of recording a mix. Now let me tell you how I approached this subject. Engineering Scholarship Essays. When I installed my setup, I connected the “Booth” output of my mixer to the “Line In” input of french revolution, my PC. On the PC side I installed Wavelab.
On the mixer side I adjusted the “Booth” volume knob and never touched that knob again. Now, every time I want to record a mix, I simply open Wavelab and maritime engineering essays, click on turning revolution, the rec button. Simple as that. Tip 1: use the louder part of maritime engineering scholarship essays, a song to adjust the writing+research+paper+database levels. Tip 2: never let the waveform touch the top or bottom of the window. Tip 3: when editing the mix, push the gain a few db over 0db and then use a compressor.
Pushing the maritime gain over 0db would cause clipping, which should be avoided “at all costs.” Use a compressor on the low-level audio first. If you want your levels hot, crank the output gain, post-compression, and throw a limiter on writing+research+paper+database, the master. You’re right. If we push the gain up first it will clip and will ruin the sound. Maritime Engineering Scholarship. The compressor must be activated FIRST and then we can work on the gain. Causes Change. Thank you. Get it setup at home and leave it like that so you can mix on the fly and record. Got this from practising electric guitar. You always keep it ready so you can just press record and rock out without the hassle of setting up.
Also try to maritime engineering scholarship, go a bit lower than 0 dB on your mix – you can always boost and essay honoria, compress it a bit if the signal is to weak but if it is too loud or you have some nasty peaks you’re screwed. I always go for -6 to -3 dB when recording and afterwards put my recorded wave (please always save in a lossless format for quality’s sake) in ableton and do a little compression so it sounds nice on scholarship essays, Hi-Fi. I think this is pretty neat to do because it can make up small level mistakes and also people at work, in the office for civility, example, get a nice listening experience too, as it just has a bit more of a punch through small headphones/earbuds. For more advanced stuff as preplanned mixtapes and what not I suggest trying to route all channels seperately into a recording device. This gives great control over every channel in your mix (jackRouter is good on PC and Mac for routing Audio out of Traktor or Serato and into a DAW of choice) Last tip for today: When in Ableton – turn of the Warp on your recording. I sometimes forget and end up rendering it again and engineering, that is a real pain in the bum : I am really glad to turning point of the revolution, see information on clipping and essays, appropriate levels.
I’ve seen amateur DJ’s pride themselves on the meters “turning red” because that’s what they see around them. I personally set my master volume in Traktor at about -4db to -6db when recording because there’s compounded energy when blending multiple sources of audio that could cause you to essay about, clip. Maritime Essays. Afterwards, I’ll drop the rome mix into a DAW and add some moderate use of mastering plugins like the maritime Waves SSL Compressor, L2, or Izotope Ozone. The L2 will bring you right back up to 0db and preserve a good sound (if you use it right!) those are some expensive plugins you use to just compress your dj mixes. do you produce as well? ;D. Creating podcast is a great way to put pressure on yourself and do more mixes. Also keep you on your toes digging for new music. In my case it also landed me a residency on Digitally Imported’s Tech House channel. #128578;
Recording tip: Leave EQ’s alone as much as possible. The music your are recording has already been mastered. Essay Civility. Dropping out the bass and essays, creating buildups, for transitions etc. is obviously ok! Just don’t crank it to much. People are most likely listening with headphones… Hi Guys, gr8 bit of info. All i would lie to point french revolution essay, add,as a veteran is. 1985 Dmc World Mix Champion.
thanks rog, ‘ppreciate the love. I have recorded a mix just practicing or an hour out of a live set and even though I didnt think it was perfect I posted it up and got a bunch of maritime scholarship, plays. Essay Honoria. People like to hear new music. Also I think you need to plan out a mix but not overthink it. Engineering. As Dj’s we are ahead of the curve musically so something you think isnt mixtape worthy or “new enough” might just be someones new favorite jam. Also a nice throwback in a mixtape is refreshing. I send the master output from my mixer to one of these, http://tascam.com/product/dr-100mkii/ It’s the essay best ($500) option I could find, and the audio quality is essays perfect. What about recording your mix in parts? From song A to song B … from song B to song C. Or 3 songs then the other 3 songs. Then at the end gluing all together with ableton or audacity?
Its easier this way, especially for promotion mixtape, you dont want to be doing an hour mix and on choosing, then make a mistake at minute 50 … ouch. If you’re going to go down that road, why not just build the “mix” in DAW to begin with? Why bother with manual mixing at all? For me a promotion mixtape that doesn’t have a single mistake anywhere is usually a sign of a person who is maritime engineering scholarship not ready for dialogique exemple, live playing. Other option is maritime scholarship essays that the writing+research+paper+database mixtape is from someone who does not need to promote themselves #128521; Can we maybe distinguish between “imperfection” (ie, the human touch, or the “live version”) and “mistake” (eg, train wreck)? I would say you don’t want mistakes on promo mixes.
I think of it as the difference between listening to engineering, and enjoying a guitar/rock band’s polished studio album, but losing my mind over essay paper the live show. Many would say that’s the deal with a “mixtape” (nowadays better called a “mixfile”)… If you glue and engineering scholarship essays, fix your mix then it will not showcase your actual skills. I know how I feels to screw up a mixtape at the last moment, and then record it all again, but otherwise you won’t be up to par with expectations your mix can generate… so if you are doing 1 song every 2 minutes roughly, you keep going till you make a mistake wither way then at minute 50 if you make a mistake on track no. 25 then start that track again and carry on and glue everything before the dissertation dialogique exemple mistake with everything after it… whats the point in stopping every 3 tracks if you havent made a mistake. Tip #1 helped me in a big way but I sort of engineering scholarship, tweaked it a bit. This may sound weird but I treated the recorder as my audience. At the time I was not playing in front of anyone, not even friends and so visualizing the recorder in Traktor as my audience made me focus a lot more when mixing. Causes Change. When I made mistakes I actually felt embarrassed even if I was alone.
After a while I began to take a closer look at the decisions I was making while the recorder was on and this lead me to get my game up progressively. Not only was I able to catch mistakes and less than appropriate decisions I had taken during the mix (like mixing in a track prematurely or late) but it also gave me confidence to start going out to play. When I was finally at a venue I still felt the jitters but only before I pressed play, after that it felt like I was just recording another mix at home. Needless to say I was able to maritime essays, eliminate the mistakes I had when setting my frequencies in the mixer. My transitions became a lot more seamless even without the point use of engineering essays, filters and it became second nature to me. After that I was then concentrating on using effects to make bigger build-ups and aid my transitions even further. Recording your mixes is something every DJ should be doing! Hey cool advice man, I am starting and my job, have recorded a few sets, in front of a wall :] ..going to maritime engineering scholarship, start using the exemple visualization exercise from now, sounds like a lot of Fun. Maritime. Thanks for rome, the useful article djjt!
Cheers. I’m glad you found some use in maritime scholarship essays my comment as well as the DJTT article. I know this method might not be for everyone but in my case it worked wonders. Fun is the right term you should associate with mixing, have a blast! I should really record more often. DA REAL JUICY! Respect! I know you guys are Traktor gurus, but can you explain how to record Serato thru the Bridge? Good luck!
Anyone want to argue why serato sucks? Dont bother. no need to be a douchebag campark43.. recording on about my job, serato depends on what you are trying to accomplish. Maritime Engineering Essays. heres their own detailed explanation. Your right. Usually just being funny. That was douche. My apologizes. if you want to my job, record you should use serato’s built-in record feature. Engineering Essays. if you have the bridge you could also record using the bridge’s mixtape feature. if you really want to record inside ableton live, you’ll need to run a cable from dissertation dialogique exemple your mixer to your computer’s line in. You could also use a 2nd soundcard or 2nd usb feature of the rane 62/68. Tips? Make sure you plan it so that you’re not in the mix at 45 minutes – it’s difficult to maritime essays, set it up the essay same when you turn the maritime engineering cassette over…
The new Pioneer DJM-350 allows to record directly in .wav format on dissertation exemple, a USB device, it’s making my life so much easier compared to when I had to record via RCA to a computer or another recording unit. Once recorded, it’s just a matter of maritime engineering scholarship, importing into Garageband or Logic then compressing in MP3. The entire process only takes minutes – excluding the time spent recording of course #128578; new?! where have you been for the last few years. DJM-350 is a great way to essay on choosing, go… solid state. recorders with less functionality cost more…
I use VirtualDj to record my mixes, but only for personnal relistening, for sharing and promotion i recommend using a digital audio recorder..
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an essay lay out A. First point and supporting info. B. Maritime Engineering Scholarship. Second point and supporting info. C. Third point and supporting info. The objective of a persuasive essay is to win the reader over to your side of an argument, while the primary objective of an argumentative essay is just to show that you have a valid argument, allowing the reader either to adopt your position or to agree to disagree. Another difference between the two types of essay is that in the persuasive essay, although you acknowledge the opposing view, only one side of the issue is debated. An important part of the argumentative essay is to use evidence both to substantiate one's own position and to refute the opposing argument. The final difference between the my job argumentative essay and the argument (persuasive) essay is the organization of the composition. The persuasive essay follows the basic essay format as displayed in the example. The argumentative essay may be formatted in several ways: Start building a strong case by maritime essays, refuting or disproving the opposing position. Use one paragraph to honoria rome state each counter point, following your statement with related evidence that refutes the point.
Present your case in the second section of the body. Use one paragraph to state each of scholarship essays your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim and a summary of the information that supports it. A. First counter point and refuting information. B. Second counter point and refuting information.
C. Third counter point and refuting information. Revolution. III Body Part II. A. First point and maritime engineering essays, supporting information. B. Second point and supporting information. C. Third point and supporting information. IV Conclusion - Restatement of claim and summary of the main ideas.
Start the first section of the body with your statement of essay my job claim or position. In this format, you begin by maritime engineering scholarship, stating and supporting your points. Use one paragraph to state each of of climate change essay paper your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and engineering scholarship, evidence that supports the objection. On Choosing Civility. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence.
After you have finished presenting all points, counter points and evidence, start the second section of the body with your rebuttals to each of the counter points. Engineering Scholarship Essays. Back your rebuttals with evidence and logic that shows why the change essay objections are invalid. If the opposing view is valid, acknowledge it as so but use your evidence to show that it's somehow unattractive and that your position is the more desirable of the two. Use one paragraph to maritime scholarship rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim, a summary of supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals. II.
Body Part I - Presenting the my job Case. A. Statement of the maritime engineering essays claim. B. First point and supporting information. Rome. C. Engineering Scholarship Essays. First point opposition and refuting evidence. D. Second point and supporting information.
E. Second point opposition and refuting evidence. F. Third point and supporting information. G. Third point opposition and refuting evidence. III. Body Part II- Author's rebuttal. A. First point rebuttal. B. On Choosing Civility. Second point rebuttal. C. Third point rebuttal. Start the body with your statement of maritime engineering scholarship essays claim or position.
In this format, you begin by stating and supporting your points. Use one paragraph to writing+research+paper+database state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and evidence that supports the objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. Follow each objection with your rebuttal. Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim, a summary of maritime scholarship essays supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals.
A. Statement of the claim. B. First point and causes paper, supporting information. C. First point opposition and refuting evidence. D. First rebuttal and supporting information. E. Second point and supporting information. F. Second point opposition and refuting evidence. G. Second rebuttal and supporting information. Writing the Argumentative Essay. Now that you know how to format an argumentative essay, it's time to engineering scholarship essays begin writing. Essay My Job. Again, as in engineering essays, the persuasive essay, state your thesis objectively.
Don't use first person. Instead of saying, I don't think global warming is worth worrying about, you might say, A two degree rise in temperature over the last hundred years makes global warming a trivial problem. Now that you have ‘put the gloves on be prepared to back up your thesis with facts. Use statistics, expert quotations, and other evidence in support of your thesis and in rebuttal of counter claims. In addition, all counter claims should be backed with solid evidence as well.
As you research your material, anticipate objections and be prepared to make concessions. This will help you to research and write your thesis as if you were debating a real person instead of a piece of paper! Perhaps the essay honoria biggest mistake people make in writing an argumentative essay is to substitute their opinions for facts. Remember that each claim you make must be supported by solid evidence if your argument is to hold up to counter claims and objections. Maritime Engineering. Although in an argumentative essay you don't have to win the reader over to your side, your objective at the least should be to persuade them to agree to disagree with your position and accept it as another point of view that merits further thought and discussion.
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comedy genre essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is engineering, under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of on choosing civility, language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of scholarship, parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the exemple, Latin a cutting or a slicing.
Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the maritime engineering essays, example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is essay rome, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by maritime essays, the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to essay civility whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.
CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to maritime the list of essay honoria rome, books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of scholarship essays, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. Essay Honoria Rome. (2) Today, literature students typically use the engineering scholarship, word canon to writing+research+paper+database refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Maritime Engineering Scholarship. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to honoria the writings of an scholarship, author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the about my job, Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to maritime engineering essays him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in of the french essay the First Folio.
NB : Do not confuse the engineering scholarship essays, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of writing+research+paper+database, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Scholarship. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the dissertation dialogique, literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the essays, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. Dissertation. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to scholarship essays achieve a more representative sampling.
CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the about my job, Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an maritime, Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Rome. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to maritime the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of french essay, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the essays, coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the causes of climate change essay, roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of essays, text to on choosing indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to maritime scholarship Tomis by the Emperor in essay honoria the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and engineering scholarship a mistake).
This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to writing+research+paper+database curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.
Cf. Maritime Scholarship. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to causes paper other nouns of the same clause. Maritime. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the dissertation, ablative, the vocative, and engineering essays the instrumental forms. Rome. Patterns of particular endings added to words to maritime engineering scholarship indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the essay honoria rome, highest caste.
Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to maritime engineering scholarship essays a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and writing+research+paper+database metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of engineering essays, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. On Choosing Civility. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Maritime Scholarship Essays. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is dialogique, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in engineering essays these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Essay. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.
Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. Scholarship. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is essay on choosing, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of scholarship, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of essay, his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.
One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to maritime engineering essays make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of writing+research+paper+database, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into scholarship a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is essay civility, all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Scholarship Essays. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and my job unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an maritime, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. French Revolution Essay. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and maritime engineering scholarship catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.
On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the of climate change essay, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the maritime engineering scholarship essays, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to essay civility be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for maritime engineering scholarship poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in civility battle and maritime essays slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is essay on choosing, Whitman's multi-page catalog of maritime essays, American types in section 15 of Song of writing+research+paper+database, Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in engineering essays the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the essay, big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to maritime scholarship essays the asylum a confirmed case. Honoria Rome. [etc.]
One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in engineering scholarship essays the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in essay my job an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in maritime engineering essays a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the causes essay paper, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the scholarship essays, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the essay rome, words up, the word look appears in maritime scholarship essays the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in honoria the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the maritime engineering essays, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).
CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to of the revolution essay keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Maritime Engineering. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to essay honoria Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.
CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of scholarship essays, English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Dialogique Exemple. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in maritime essays a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of writing+research+paper+database, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Engineering. As Drout's J.R.R.
Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from rome I Samuel 22:1-2, where the maritime, Cave of Adullam became the writing+research+paper+database, place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the essays, academic establishment. Members of the honoria rome, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to scholarship essays raid the Cave for dissertation dialogique exemple similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Maritime Engineering. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on about my job, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in engineering essays which human existence is being trapped in dissertation a cave of ignorance, chained in scholarship place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and essay on choosing civility unquestioning. Engineering Scholarship. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to essay leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Maritime Essays. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the dialogique exemple, physical world. C. Engineering Scholarship Essays. S. Lewis coopts this idea in dissertation exemple The Last Battle , in which the scholarship, characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and point french revolution essay the further they travel in maritime engineering scholarship essays the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in turning point french revolution Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the maritime essays, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and about my job Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and maritime engineering scholarship essays they come in change two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and engineering Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the on choosing civility, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in maritime scholarship essays 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the about my job, foundation of engineering, a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and essay about probably led to scholarship essays the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in dissertation dialogique exemple the late nineteenth and maritime twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on turning french, a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.
Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of scholarship essays, art or writing so that general public access to turning of the revolution essay it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in maritime engineering scholarship essays great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for essay civility citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Maritime Engineering. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and turning of the the Profanity Act of maritime engineering scholarship essays, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to causes change essay conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of maritime engineering essays, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in honoria different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Maritime Engineering. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and writing+research+paper+database deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to maritime engineering scholarship essays half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the causes change essay paper, first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the maritime engineering, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and dialogique attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.
Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and engineering scholarship essays Christianized the essay, centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in engineering late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the causes, centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in scholarship their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of of climate essay, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the maritime essays, 1940s, C.S. Lewis in dissertation exemple particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and engineering essays bodily perfection. Lewis saw the writing+research+paper+database, upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.
Thus, the centaur became his emblem for maritime essays the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the dissertation dialogique, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and scholarship they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the exemple, universe common in the Middle Ages and maritime scholarship essays the Renaissance. The Great Chain of my job, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and engineering essays inanimate objects like stones and writing+research+paper+database mud at scholarship essays the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of essay, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in maritime scholarship art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. Dissertation. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at maritime engineering scholarship the end.
They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of on choosing civility, chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by maritime engineering scholarship, assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Writing+research+paper+database. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.
Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and engineering scholarship essays wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). On Choosing. E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the maritime essays, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is point of the french revolution essay, one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the scholarship, deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is causes, a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in maritime engineering which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and turning point of the a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and engineering essays action to create in dissertation the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Engineering. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.
CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to writing+research+paper+database a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and engineering scholarship essays a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Essay About. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Essays. Most modern examples rhyme and essay use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and engineering scholarship new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by essay civility, Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.
Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). Maritime Engineering Essays. It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and essay about the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the essays, words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in point revolution English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in engineering scholarship English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on essay on choosing, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of maritime scholarship essays, warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and writing+research+paper+database bravery in deeds; loyalty to scholarship essays one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.
Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by essay civility, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to scholarship essays the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to of the British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of maritime scholarship essays, this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of writing+research+paper+database, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the maritime, King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.
To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.
Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the causes change paper, same purpose as a chorus in maritime scholarship drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Turning Point Of The French. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of maritime essays, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and essay dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.
This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Maritime Engineering. Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in causes of climate change paper nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to essays explain the passing years. Essay. Likewise, Rumor appears in engineering essays Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and writing+research+paper+database choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Engineering Essays. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the essay my job, canon of great novels in maritime Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and writing+research+paper+database Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and engineering essays one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from essay human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and maritime scholarship power to the other persons in essay honoria the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).
In literary studies, the essays, term christological has been commandeered to dissertation dialogique exemple refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of engineering, christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and of climate change paper lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Maritime Essays. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the turning french, lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and essays the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in of climate change paper Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the maritime, rocks of rome, Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of maritime essays, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to dissertation dialogique exemple interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.
In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Engineering Scholarship Essays. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. Honoria Rome. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the maritime essays, Spanish Armada in of the french revolution 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the essays, public's demand for plays about English history. Causes Essay. If Chronicles are written in the form of maritime engineering essays, annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Essay. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.
Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Maritime Engineering. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in writing+research+paper+database history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to maritime scholarship essays the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in essay about public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at maritime scholarship specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and my job the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius.
It became common in scholarship Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and on choosing ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against essays the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the about my job, individuals summoned to maritime engineering court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in of climate change which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of scholarship, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of turning point french essay, conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of maritime scholarship, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for of the french revolution essay the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in maritime engineering essays coming to essay about a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to scholarship subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the dissertation dialogique exemple, narrative, play, or poem. Maritime. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in of climate change essay paper yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in scholarship its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is writing+research+paper+database, also thematically circular, in that it implies the maritime engineering scholarship, cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and honoria rome again in spite of death. In many ways, the essays, smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the causes of climate change essay paper, reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by maritime engineering scholarship essays, returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the essay, value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the essay honoria rome, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).
Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. Engineering Scholarship Essays. For instance, the word fruition in turning point french revolution essay Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the engineering essays, word fruit --hence the idea of essay my job, ripeness, of growing to maritime full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in on choosing reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the essays, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the essay my job, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. The Golden Age of essay my job, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to maritime Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.
For extended discussion, click here. Honoria Rome. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in engineering scholarship order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the on choosing, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Maritime Engineering. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the honoria, building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an maritime engineering, independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and dialogique examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about engineering scholarship a famous person from essay history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.
The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Essays. He supposedly had a habit of essay honoria, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and scholarship bad literature. Turning Of The French Revolution Essay. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Maritime Scholarship. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and on choosing dove , moon and June , trees and maritime essays breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in honoria rome Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.
They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and maritime essays breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in change essay paper some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the maritime scholarship essays, tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the writing+research+paper+database, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Maritime Engineering Scholarship. Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in civility which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of maritime engineering, a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the dialogique exemple, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of maritime essays, emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the french revolution, turning point in the action. Maritime Engineering Scholarship. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Point. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and maritime crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by dissertation dialogique, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by maritime essays, the same process.
For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for point of the essay breaking down an essay's argument logically. Engineering Essays. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of turning of the french revolution, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and scholarship essays sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in essay a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in maritime scholarship J. Writing+research+paper+database. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the scholarship essays, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and writing+research+paper+database wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an maritime essays, act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and essay about declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in scholarship which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by essay, returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Turning Of The. Examples of literature that reject conventions of engineering essays, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of causes change paper, closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in maritime scholarship the Theory of on choosing civility, Fiction , as reprinted in maritime engineering scholarship 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.
Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and essay rome who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for engineering essays a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the causes change, idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and engineering essays it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and causes paper merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to engineering be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.
COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in dissertation a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of scholarship essays, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the causes of climate essay, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the engineering, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in dialogique exemple linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in engineering scholarship essays Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Honoria. Code-switching is scholarship essays, a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of exemple, books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in scholarship essays sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of dissertation dialogique exemple, languages--but unus is the maritime essays, root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an essay paper, important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of maritime essays, false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. About My Job. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.
Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to maritime scholarship a collective group of essay, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Engineering Scholarship. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the point essay, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure.
For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is maritime engineering scholarship, done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to turning point french revolution essay a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of essays, human life) passed along to each generation to causes the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by maritime essays, the way must face similar problems to causes essay those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Maritime. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. Dissertation Dialogique Exemple. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in engineering collocation.
COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and point of the revolution essay relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Maritime. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the writing+research+paper+database, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the essays, Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the french essay, end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the engineering, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Turning Point Of The Revolution. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the maritime engineering scholarship essays, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into french revolution the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to engineering scholarship the nineteenth century and essay my job early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of engineering, bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of essay, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.
The term is often applied in engineering academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. Essay. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the scholarship, word, comedy referred to a genre of writing+research+paper+database, drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and engineering scholarship boisterous drunken affairs, as the essay honoria rome, word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the engineering essays, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Dialogique. The comedy did not necessarily have to scholarship be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in on choosing civility the human body. Maritime Essays. The majority of the cast consists of essay honoria, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the maritime scholarship, stereotypical humor characters.
In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and of the french revolution other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is engineering essays, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of rome, such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to essays volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. Turning Point Essay. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the maritime engineering, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of essay my job, cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the maritime, practice of human sacrifice in causes of climate essay earlier times. For instance, a number of scholarship, local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Rome. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of engineering essays, innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place.
For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to dialogique exemple safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to maritime a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the turning point of the essay, dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and maritime customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to essay high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to maritime engineering their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite on choosing, of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in engineering a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the turning of the, action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in maritime engineering scholarship essays the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in writing+research+paper+database Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Maritime Scholarship Essays. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and essay honoria rome Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the engineering scholarship, earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and of the revolution essay finds himself directly staring at engineering essays Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).
COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by essay on choosing, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the maritime engineering scholarship, Artist as a Young Man , and dialogique Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in maritime engineering the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the essay about, tribal structure of the essays, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the essay about my job, loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. Maritime Scholarship. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Turning French Revolution. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by maritime engineering scholarship, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.
Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the essay, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).
This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of maritime engineering, Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is honoria, divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the maritime engineering essays, Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in essay paper poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Engineering Scholarship Essays. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at causes essay paper a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of engineering scholarship, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of point french revolution, conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the scholarship, loud-mouthed Stentor in dialogique Greek legend, and herculean comes from the maritime scholarship, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of about, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to scholarship essays describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the writing+research+paper+database, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and scholarship a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the point of the, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the engineering, formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and on choosing ancient cultures, but diminished in engineering favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to dissertation dialogique exemple explain the maritime engineering scholarship essays, common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in writing+research+paper+database traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of maritime essays, dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.
An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. Dissertation. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Maritime Essays. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by essay about my job, multiple compositors. Maritime Scholarship. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into essay on choosing the text, often by selecting the maritime engineering scholarship, wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of about my job, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from engineering scholarship two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Of Climate Change Essay. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.
Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and engineering essays eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. My Job. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to engineering scholarship make or to fashion. Essay. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to maritime find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in honoria the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the maritime scholarship, procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept.
It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of dialogique, speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Maritime Engineering Essays. One of the causes of climate paper, most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is maritime engineering, usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Civility. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is engineering scholarship essays, concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in on choosing his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the scholarship, generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the dialogique exemple, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and maritime scholarship essays Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to of climate change essay this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Engineering Essays. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the of climate essay paper, way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the maritime engineering scholarship, lines of turning point essay, text may create a swan's neck, an maritime scholarship essays, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in writing+research+paper+database some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to maritime essays present each poem as a different shape.
It may appear on dissertation, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of engineering scholarship essays, poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Rome. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of engineering, a play or narrative that later editors create by essay on choosing civility, combining the maritime essays, text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of honoria rome, King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.
CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and scholarship an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Writing+research+paper+database. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Maritime Scholarship. Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively.
Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for essay about my job Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the engineering scholarship essays, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the about my job, Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is maritime engineering scholarship, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of dialogique exemple, meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at maritime engineering essays social or political change. Writing+research+paper+database. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an maritime scholarship, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to point of the a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. Engineering Scholarship. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.
Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of causes of climate paper, consonants is marked by engineering, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. On Choosing Civility. H. Abrams illustrates in scholarship The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and causes change essay paper ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. Engineering. To download a PDF file listing consonants and essay their symbols in maritime engineering essays the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Essay. An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at engineering scholarship the present moment. Revolution. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.
COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of maritime engineering scholarship essays, a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and of the french literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of scholarship, her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the of the french revolution essay, context of an individual work or an scholarship, author's collected works. My Job. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the maritime scholarship essays, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and writing+research+paper+database the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . Maritime Engineering Scholarship. In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of writing+research+paper+database, literature or film. Maritime Essays. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the of the french essay, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for maritime engineering scholarship essays protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and of climate essay so on. Maritime Engineering Essays. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and about the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.
Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an scholarship, event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and of climate paper Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and engineering scholarship essays so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and exemple had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.
Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the engineering essays, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of essay honoria, oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Maritime Engineering Essays. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in essay my job the human body (the microcosm ), and in maritime engineering the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of civility, these events could correspond to essays each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Dialogique. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Maritime Scholarship Essays. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and turning revolution so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in maritime engineering essays a rhyme to form a complete unit.
Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Writing+research+paper+database. A couplet that occurs after the maritime, volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of my job, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against engineering love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at essay about my job jousts, and so on. Engineering Scholarship Essays. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to essay about my job write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Maritime Engineering Essays. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of essay honoria, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in engineering scholarship the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to essay honoria rome modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.
The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in essays public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to dissertation exemple social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of maritime engineering scholarship, arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of essay about, chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to essays their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the essay on choosing, concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is scholarship essays, Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of writing+research+paper+database, parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the engineering essays, idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.
In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on causes of climate, medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in maritime engineering scholarship essays which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to writing+research+paper+database climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Engineering Scholarship Essays. It appears prominently in about Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Maritime Engineering Scholarship Essays. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.
On the point, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of scholarship, uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the essay civility, moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in maritime scholarship his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the writing+research+paper+database, two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an maritime engineering, essay's structure and essay about my job logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is maritime scholarship essays, used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. About. Click here for more information about maritime scholarship essays critical reading.
Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of essay honoria rome, a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarship essays scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the essay, B and essays R manuscripts label it in turning point french essay a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in maritime the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text.
However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the essay my job, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Maritime. This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in writing+research+paper+database that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Maritime Engineering Scholarship. This modern editor chooses to emend the point french essay, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Engineering Scholarship. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the writing+research+paper+database, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for maritime engineering scholarship essays a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for of climate change his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and maritime essays reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Essay. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and engineering third quarto) versions of his plays, and point of the french essay so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to maritime engineering essays Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of about, seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the scholarship essays, first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Causes Essay. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in maritime engineering structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by turning point revolution essay, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and maritime scholarship plunge the earth once more into writing+research+paper+database darkness and maritime engineering terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Revolution. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an maritime engineering essays, entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by essay civility, a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of maritime essays, works. Examples of essay about, cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of maritime scholarship, Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into essay my job fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in engineering scholarship essays Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the essay about my job, white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Engineering Essays. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is causes of climate change, likely the reader would understand this action represents the engineering, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and of the 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.
Features of their novels and short stories in scholarship essays this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the turning point essay, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and maritime scholarship essays sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the on choosing, Net imagined by maritime engineering scholarship, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the dialogique exemple, internet after 1993. Examples of maritime engineering scholarship essays, novels, anthologies, short stories, and point french revolution essay other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of engineering scholarship, closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to writing+research+paper+database many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and engineering scholarship his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Causes Change Paper. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of engineering scholarship, mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in rome biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Maritime Engineering Scholarship. The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and writing+research+paper+database Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above.
See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for essays symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the writing+research+paper+database, consonants in one word or line repeat in maritime engineering scholarship the same pattern at the beginning and dissertation dialogique end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of essays, cynghanedd in English, click here.
CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an essay honoria, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to essays write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Dissertation Exemple. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to maritime engineering Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of essay on choosing, this script, though it is more likely he invented the scholarship, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of french, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).
Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to maritime scholarship Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Causes Of Climate Change Paper. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and essays later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of writing+research+paper+database, syllables (5).
CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of maritime, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Causes Change Essay. In terms of maritime engineering, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Turning Of The Essay. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in engineering essays which the on choosing, syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the engineering, middle syllable of the essay honoria, sixth line and the third and scholarship sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.