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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of phd chemistry, Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. Industrial Essay? They vary greatly in phd chemistry, skill level, profession and cover letter ucsf format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to resume writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the your 2010, right format for you.
Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and phd chemistry resume lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and university essay contest expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Phd Chemistry Resume? Combination Resume - Combine the elements of english literature phd dissertation, chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Resume? Mini Resume - Everyone in pharmacist cover letter ucsf, your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to phd chemistry an online portfolio, discover how to create and rice university contest use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections.
Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and phd chemistry it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. English? Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions.
The following resumes are good examples for individuals in phd chemistry, management and executive positions. Essay? They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of resume, these resumes are the supervisory experience and industrial essay and answers business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and phd chemistry examples of your achievements. Industrial Questions? The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it.
The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in resume, the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. English Literature Phd Dissertation? You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know. Phd Chemistry? It gives your prospective employer the contribution essays, chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for phd chemistry Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to rice essay contest human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications.
Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the resume, workplace can have an impact in rice university essay contest, landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.
Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to resume healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Contest? If possible, include how you went above the phd chemistry resume, call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and contribution essays it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Phd Chemistry? Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to pharmacist cover letter ucsf technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on phd chemistry, paper.
There are many ways to approach these types of pharmacist letter, resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of phd chemistry, that ingenuity into writing the english phd dissertation, most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in phd chemistry, your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of total essay, these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.
Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the resume, employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to phd dissertation supplement your resume with other achievements.
Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Resume? Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2. 2. (25 POINTS) AlphaDog’s US patent has one claim: 1. A method of resume, paying a company executive comprising: Calculating a salary, wherein the salary is calculated by multiplying the cover letter ucsf, average non-executive company employee income by an X-factor, wherein the X-factor is between 10 and phd chemistry resume, 99; and. Paying the executive the salary. During examination, the claim was amended. As originally filed, the claimed X-factor range was between 10 and 120. AlphaDog had amended the claim to rice contest avoid a prior art reference that discussed paying executives over phd chemistry 100-times the average employee salary. AlphaDog had discovered that reference after filing the patent application. The company amended the claims, but did not tell the patent office of the your 2010, reference (believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention).
BetaDog has two employees – the CEO and her secretary. BetaDog’s CEO is paid 9-times the salary of the secretary. Although paid in US Dollars, BetaDog directly-deposits its CEO’s salary in an offshore bank located in Bermuda. AlphaDog sues BetaDog and its CEO for patent infringement. Explain the relevant legal issues, and figure out who wins and loses. Law Professor at the University of Missouri School of Law. View all posts by Dennis Crouch →
33 thoughts on phd chemistry resume “ Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2 ” Regardign the mouse/trackball, I heard the first mouse was invented by total effect essay flipping a trackball over and attaching a button to it. So a mouse inherently comprises a trackball. You could flip the resume, mouse over dance your 2010 and use the phd chemistry resume, trackball element without actuating the button. Or you could actuate the button. It’s still a trackball on the other side. Nobody123 wrote: “As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to dance dissertation 2010 use the phd chemistry resume, spec to reject the claim under 102. Total Essay? Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing.”
I disagree, a mouse that is also a trackball is supported by the spec. In the phd chemistry, English language the word “or” is not exclusive. Industrial Essay Questions And Answers? Although the “single input” limitation may limit the number of inputs to one, the input can still be characterized as both a mouse and a trackball. Under current US practises, this claim definitely fails the phd chemistry resume, “machine” prong of Bilski because there is no structure recited in essay, any step. You can argue that “Paying the executive the salary” amounts to a “transformation”, but this would be tough. “Which problem would this patent be solving? I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the phd chemistry resume, idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example). This one doesn’t seem to pharmacist cover ucsf be of resume, that kind.”
I’m not sure what you’re getting at. Other than statutory subject matter, utility is such a low bar that you can determine utility just by reading the title. Assuming that the issue is one of accidental anticipation, then EP enlarged boad decisions G1/02 and G2/03 allow you to exclude the “accidentally anticipated” values even if your new range 10-99 was not literally supported in the original specification. This allows the industrial questions, person drafting the application to phd chemistry resume avoid lists of the type “not more than 120, 119, 118, 117…” ad nauseum. In any case, such a claim probably can’t be patented in the EP because it might be considered to industrial revolution essay questions be lacking in phd chemistry, technical effect or to be a method for performing a mental act or doing business. Example I use for training: spec at filing: a computer with a single input, wherein the input may be a mouse or a trackball. pending claim: a computer with a mouse and university essay contest, a trackball.
Using the spec as originally filed, there are 2 disclosed embodiments: 2) pc w/ trackball. As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is phd chemistry resume, no way to use the spec to reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing. Even if it were obvious to pharmacist combine mouse and trackball into a single pc, the spec would still need modification to arrive at the claimed invention, and therefore constitutes new matter. Even if the spec at filing enabled Mr POSITA to make a pc w/ both mouse and phd chemistry, trackball, this also is not germane to effect essay the new matter because applicant was not in possession of the claimed embodiment at filing. I see several issues in resume, the comments.
Do we know the difference between written description and enablement? Written description = did applicant have possession of the claimed invention at the priority date? Enablement = did the specification at the priority date enable Mr POSITA to practise the contribution essays, claimed invention? The originally filed claim recites 10-120. At most, the specfication should be objected to resume for lacking written description support. It is the contest, rest of the spec, not the claim, that is phd chemistry, deficient. In my personal opinion, narrowing to ucsf 10-99 does not constitute new matter because these embodiments were supported in the original specification as filed. The question would be did applicant have possession of the 10-99 embodiments at the time of filing? If the applicant had possession of 10-120, I would think that he/she/it had possession of 10-99. When I was trained for 112 1st, the resume, test for new matter would be to use the spec available at your dissertation, the priority date to reject the claim. If you can write the rejection as a 102, then there is no new matter because the claimed embodiment would be fully supported as a single embodiment in the spec.
If you cannot write the rejecition as a 102, then the claimed embodiment is not supported in a single embodiment in the spec. Whether the modififications to the spec is obvious/enabled or not is not germane to new matter. If you cannot do a 102, then there is new matter. Even if the new matter is resume, obvious from the spec, it is still matter because applicant did not have possession of the claimed embodiment. The question then becomes would a reference disclosing 10-120 anticipate a claim reciting 10-99? If yes, then there is no new matter. If no, there is effect, new matter. It’s pretty clear that 10-120 anticipates 10-99, right?
As for phd chemistry enablement, if all embodiments between 10-120 were supported by the spec as originally filed, then all embodiments between 10-99 would be enabled as well. Anybody care to comment? David French writes: Hey! Isn’t amending to 10 to industrial revolution questions 99 new matter? I think it would be in Europe. The whole scenario just makes me weep inside. But anyway, claim invalid for non-statutory subject matter and/or lack of novelty/obviousness in resume, light of the real world, and dance your dissertation, not infringed because amending to 10-99 to avoid 100 should also exclude 9. Just a comment about the patent. Which problem would this patent be solving?
I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to phd chemistry resume explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example). Effect Essay? This one doesn’t seem to be of that kind. Anyone, please tell me why the X-factor being greater than or equal to 0, and less than infinity would or would not be obvious? You know what’s really sad? How is the US going to continue to lead the world in CEO pay if we can’t protect new and creative ways of paying CEOs? And if America can’t be competitive in paying CEOs, then those CEOs will just move to other countries and our businesses won’t be able to resume compete. Now more than we ever this country need new methods of determining CEO pay if we expect to remain competitive. /patent wanker off. “Glad I’m not in law school anymore.” So are your professors.
Especially if you really needed clarification on a patent law exam that you should limit your discussion to issues of patent law. Did anyone bring up the issue of contribution, whether the resume, CEO can be liable for infringement? Personal liability would generally require active inducement or some other specific intent on the part of the individual to infringe the patent. The claim against the CEO is probably dismissed on a MTD for failure to state a claim (unless there is some other evidence presented). Question possibly fails because we don’t know if the secretary is an dance your 2010, executive. If no executive, then no non-executive salary to compare. Cannot assume that secretary is not an executive. Where is betadog company? Is it in America? Is it on Earth?
So what if pay is in US dollars. By the way, does discuss all relevant legal issues include failure of betadog to disclose foreign bank account to IRS? Not to phd chemistry mention possible criminal laws? You should clarify location of betadog company or where there business is pharmacist cover letter, transacted. You should clarify that relevant legal issues should be limited to phd chemistry resume patent law. You should clarify that secretary is not executive (or maybe you did intend to industrial essay questions leave this as gray area??) By the way, 10*0=0 so any start up company in which the CEO and nonexecutives paid by stock probably anticipate the patent. Claim should say executive salary is greater than zero. Glad I’m not in phd chemistry, law school anymore.
You should prepare your students for phd dissertation dealing with the resume, USPTO by requiring them to use 14pt font and contribution, have a page limit of phd chemistry resume, 2 pages and total effect essay, then ignore all requests for reason. Phd Chemistry? haha. Nice question. Dance Your? If you can get it down to only a claim and “Discuss,” you’d be in the company of Currie. Here are the issues I see and how I might call them: Written Description or Alternately Enablement under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. It’s unclear where the basis is for the upper end of 99 for the range. I know there is resume, case law, such as In re Wertheim that might support such a narrowing, but I’m not sure it would apply here. My view is that Claim 1 goes down under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1.
Inequitable Conduct. The fact that the claim was amended to avoid the uncited reference is a real “red flag” here. Rice University Essay? For sure, this uncited reference is “material.” “Intent to deceive” is a bit more problematical, but given how “material” the uncited reference is resume, likely to effect be considered, there’s a good chance that “intent to deceive” will still be inferred. Phd Chemistry? Likely to be held invalid/unenforceable for inequitable conduct. Patentability under 35 USC 103. Given that the difference here is rice university, 1 for the multiplier, hard to believe that Claim 1 would be considered unobvious, without some sort of phd chemistry resume, “surprising” or “unexpected” result, which I don’t see here. Likely to be held unpatentable under 35 USC 103. Patentable Subject Matter under 35 USC 101. Claim 1 is too close in character to the one that went down in your, Bilski.
What we have defined here is resume, primarily a “calculation” step which won’t fly under Bilski’s “transformation” prong (the “machine” prong wouldn’t apply). Almost certainly invalid under 35 USC 101. Literal Infringement of Claim 1. Rice? Unlikely, especially as there is no “about” before the resume, lower limit of rice university essay, 10. DOE Infringement of Claim 1. Phd Chemistry? Possible, as the ucsf, end of the end of the range in play (10) isn’t the one that was amended to get around the art. This is similar to the situation in Warner-Jenkinson. Infringement under 35 USC 271(a) et al. Most likely, none, as one of the method steps requires paying the CEO which, in this case, happens outside the U.S.
In NTP v RIM the Federal Circuit made it clear that all steps of the phd chemistry resume, method must occur in the U.S., or there can be no infringement of the questions, method Claim under 35 USC 271(a). Just Visiting – that case involving pH ranges would be Hilton Davis. And you are correct in that estoppel for DOE can apply to just one end of the range. Just Visiting said: “I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the art would not affect the lower limit.” That case was decided by the Supremes in phd chemistry resume, 1997. See Warner-Jenkinson Co., Inc. Dissertation 2010? v. Phd Chemistry? Hilton Davis Chemical Co., 520 U.S.
17. Literature? You remember correctly. The principal holdings were that DOE must be applied on a claim-by-claim basis, and that DOE should be applied within the context of file wrapper estoppel. In Warner-Jenkinson, the record wasn’t clear on the patentee’s reasons for adding the lower limit (only the phd chemistry, upper was necessary to avoid the prior art), and so this issue was to be determined on remand. Good points Just. When the EPO objects that an intermediate limitation constitutes “new matter” I try to explain it to American clients as being “like your written description requirement”. As to ranges, I am always mystified why they should qualify under DoE for revolution and answers stretching.
I should have thought that the range claimed is already at the limit of the imagination of the inventor/attorney, at the filing date. Resume? It’s unconscionable, to demand yet more scope of protection, after the filing date. But, litigators, they have no shame, right? I don’t think anyone mentioned a possible written description issue regarding an upper limit of 99 not being supported in the specification as filed. Also, there is a fairly recent CAFC case regarding application of DOE to ranges.
9 is possibly equivalent to 10-100. Perhaps “10 or more” would be interpreted differently. I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the art would not affect the lower limit. Humorless, your name is rice university essay, truly ironic. Phd Chemistry? I laughed a lot, on literature reading your above contribution. Compliments of the season to you, Sir or Madam.
Frank H. Caligula, PhD, Esq? Hello Gopher, thanks for the kind seasonal greetings, in excellent German. In return, I would wish you a Happy Chr–tmas, except that it isn’t PC, right? Instead, Happy “holiday season” and a good “slide” into 2009. Anyway, I don’t know any US patent attorneys I would classify as “pesky”, only diligent ones, trying with all their honest their professional skills to advance the interests of their clients as best they can, in the difficult conditions that currently prevail in their jurisdiction. Or is “pesky” a designation of full measure of phd chemistry resume, professional competence attained, amongst your brother and sister attorneys at law (I’m here to english phd dissertation learn). No doubt this “hypothetical” was taken from a real case, in which plaintiff’s counsel’s last name is a homonym for a certain Roman Emperor… -5 for Dennis for naming this thread with the same starting letters past the abbreviation point on “Recent Comments”.
Now, when I want to make sure I see what’s new, I will have to visit each thread, “scroll down and hit next” repeatedly (still). … 1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues.2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that).Posted by: MaxDrei. On behalf of resume, all us pesky u.s. patent attorneys: Froehliche Weihnachten und ein glueckliches neues Jahr! On the dance your, IC issue, the test for phd chemistry IC is intent and materiality. Materiality is defined as anything that a reasonable Examiner would find important for examination.
I think materiality is certainly present for the 100X reference. You can make an argument that intent is not given that the patentee may have thought they had a good basis for not submitting the reference, but given the way that the CAFC hammers patentees and cover letter ucsf, the current case law, this one would be absolutely dead at resume, the CAFC. Also, it appears that the industrial revolution essay questions, 100X reference doesn’t teach quite the same thing as the claim requires. The 100X reference teaches 100-times the phd chemistry, average employee salary whereas the claim recites the essays, “average non-executive company employee income.” You have Festo estoppel for any range above 100.
Some examiners would 112 “the average non-executive company employee income.” I won’t touch the rest of the issues. Festo kills DOE. The narrowing amendment was made for a reason of patentability. Possibly invalid for inequitable conduct for not pointing out the reference to resume the examiner. The reference was probably material for 103 reasons, even if the claim had been narrowed to avoid anticipation; but, if it wasn’t divulged because it really wasn’t considered relevant, the patentee might win on intent. “(believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention). ” Woodruff that range right out of town! And of course Bilski. Looks like the first poster beat me to em all anyway. But yes he touched most all I see.
I disagree with the pharmacist, DOE one though. 9 is not equivalent to 10 or more. Oh, and add that I would make a validity charge based on 103 and resume, google some art additional art. Also, 684 is right, there should be a page limit. Will keep my contributions short, Dennis, because:
1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues. 2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that). I hope there is a page limit for that one. maybe invalid (103-the 100x reference) unenforceable (inequitable conduct) noninfringement (no evidence that Beta’s CEO pay is calculated, it could be negotiated to pharmacist cover ucsf a value that happens to be 9x sec’s pay; no evidence that even if calculated, was calculated based on X factor, could be calculated based on phd chemistry resume current year times 1,000 which happens to be 9x sec. salary, etc.) infringement maybe under DOE (assuming salary is calc as 9x X factor, then need to english argue that 9 is equivalent to 10 or more. Resume? Didn’t give up that equiv when amended claims b/c only modifed the 120, not the 10) geographical issues: method must be performed in US. location of method = where all the steps are performed.
Whether all steps are performed in the US is rice university essay contest, key question –NTP–. Assume calculating was performed in US office. Phd Chemistry Resume? Where did paying occur? I’d argue it occured at site where order to DD the salary occured (i.e., from cover letter Beta’s US bank). Comments are closed. Dennis Crouch Associate Professor, University of Missouri School of Law SSRN Articles Jason Rantanen Professor, University of Iowa College of Law SSRN Articles Occasional guest posts by resume IP practitioners and industrial revolution and answers, academics. About 25,000 individuals now receive Patently-O via e-mail each morning. We regularly post top patent jobs from leading firms, corporations, and phd chemistry resume, government and educational institutions.
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A Kernel of Truth: Why Biofuels May Not Be Better. By Brian Barth on September 19, 2017. Larry Schwarm shot this photograph of phd chemistry, his parents, Pauline and Laurence, six years ago. Literature Phd Dissertation. In it, the couple clutches a framed 1912 image of their homestead. Resume. Laurence, who passed away in April, inherited the farm from his father. Twelve years ago, we believed corn held the key to dance your dissertation 2010, reduced dependence on foreign oil. Now, ethanol fuel faces hard questions. Wichita-based photographer Larry Schwarm regularly returns home to document rural Kansas’ changing agrarian landscape. Phd Chemistry. He took this self-portrait in your, July. LARRY SCHWARM, 73, grew up on 320 acres in Greensburg, Kansas. Back when he was still a kid, his parents farmed wheat to pay the bills and raised enough produce and livestock to feed their three sons. Phd Chemistry. “We had pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, geese, ducks, goats, you name it,” remembers Schwarm.
Things are different now. Fifteen years ago, the family began renting their land to a massive corn and grain outfit, a typical response to the Midwest’s increasingly industrialized agricultural economy. Contribution. Since Schwarm’s 1950s childhood, the number of farms in Kansas has decreased by half, while the average size of phd chemistry resume, each has doubled—a rate of consolidation that comes at the expense of community. Essays. “Small towns are dying,” says Schwarm, a photographer who currently lives in phd chemistry, Wichita. Yet he keeps coming home to contest, train his lens on phd chemistry, the ever-changing landscape of his youth. “Western Kansas,” he reports, “has become a giant deprivation chamber.” Any loyal reader of this magazine knows that corn is the most widely cultivated crop in your dissertation, the United States, and that very little of it is resume consumed by us (9 percent if you count beer and sweeteners). You might, however, be surprised to learn that nearly 40 percent of the industrial revolution harvest goes toward ethanol fuel. In 2005, Congress passed the Renewable Fuel Standard, mandating annual increases in gasoline’s biofuel content. At the time, the resume notion that our country’s thirst for foreign oil could be slaked with low-emission fuel made from homegrown corn and your 2010 other plants seemed like a win-win for everybody, except, perhaps, the oil and gas industry. American farmers reacted swiftly, devoting an additional 15 million acres to corn in the season following the legislation’s enactment, and within eight years, the price per bushel nearly quadrupled. Nearly 40 percent of our corn harvest goes toward ethanol fuel.
So just how eco-friendly is phd chemistry biofuel? Industry groups like Get Ethanol say that grain-based ethanol can reduce carbon emissions by at least 43 percent, on a unit-to-unit basis, compared with petroleum gasoline. These advocates downplay the fact that cars get fewer miles per gallon on E10 (the 10 percent ethanol blend widely sold today). Detractors counter that farming corn for fuel actually expands our nation’s carbon footprint, once you add up all the english phd dissertation tractor diesel, fertilizer, and electricity required to pump irrigation and phd chemistry power distillation plants. English Literature Phd Dissertation. While quantifying those factors isn’t an phd chemistry resume, exact calculus, Jeremy Martin, a senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists’ Clean Vehicles Program, considers a 20 percent reduction to be a reasonably accurate estimate of ethanol’s carbon savings. Total Essay. He also argues that the benefits must be weighed against the environmental assaults compounded by such a needy crop: massive soil erosion, loss of habitat and biodiversity, the ongoing depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer, and the giant “dead zone” in the Gulf of phd chemistry, Mexico resulting from fertilizer runoff. “Growing more corn intensifies these problems. There are better options,” says Martin. The policymakers who drafted the Renewable Fuel Standard understood as much, and hoped that incentivizing the industry with tax credits and total effect essay subsidies would pave the way for biofuels based on phd chemistry, less demanding plants, including algae and native switchgrass. Contribution. Turning these feedstocks into fuel presumed advancements in “cellulosic” biofuel technology.
The original legislation called for phd chemistry resume 3 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels to be produced annually by 2015, a standard that has been continually revised downward. At present, there are only two commercial-scale cellulosic plants in operation, with a combined capacity of about 50 million gallons per year. It’s tough to english literature, point a finger at the farmer. Lon Frahm, a Schwarm family friend, grows corn on nearly 80 percent of his 30,000 acres in Thomas County, Kansas. He wishes that weren’t the case. “I would love nothing more than to be able to rotate crops, but corn is the only way for me to make money here,” says Frahm, who already employs no-till practices. For him, monoculture holds a few obvious advantages: “I don’t have to change planting and harvesting equipment all the time. And I only need 10 employees to run the whole operation.” Schwarm’s father, Laurence, passed away in April at resume the age of 93. So the photographer headed to Greensburg to move his 91-year-old mother, Pauline, into a smaller house, and spent a few nights in his childhood bedroom. “I’d wake up at two in the morning, and I could hear engines going. The operation that rents our land buys diesel by the tanker truckload,” Schwarm says. Industrial Revolution Questions And Answers. “My dad was born in that house and he died in that house.
Farming was all he ever did, but he wouldn’t make it today on only 320 acres.” Larry Schwarm shot this photograph of his parents, Pauline and Laurence, six years ago. In it, the couple clutches a framed 1912 image of their homestead. Laurence, who passed away in April, inherited the farm from phd chemistry, his father. A 30-foot-high mountain of corn piles up at literature phd dissertation the ADM-Collingwood grain elevator in Cullison, KS. A supervisor examines equipment at the Oakley, KS, plant of Western Plains Energy, which produces 50 million gallons of phd chemistry, ethanol annually. Every morning, Lon Frahm (far left) sits down for breakfast with the team who helps him farm 30,000 acres in rice university essay, and around Colby, KS—80 percent of them devoted to corn.
Irsik and Doll’s loading dock—sporting a Stars and Stripes mural—faces of phd chemistry resume, with a Dodge City Co-Op grain elevator in Cimarron, KS. This is what Saturday night looks like in Wilson, KS. The town has lost 25 percent of its population since 1980.
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essay on friendship But does Love and Friendship mix well? It can actually. Phd Chemistry! It all depends on the beholder. It depends on how he or she handles it and it also depends on his or her perception of the two simple but meaningful words. *Whenever you forgo activities you had planned with your buddies because of contribution, a man/woman, your relationship with them suffers. Resume! Even your best friendships will eventually suffer if you continue on this path. Sure, your friends will understand when you don’t always have the contribution essays, time for them. However.
Discusses the resume, True Meaning and Defining Factors of Friendship. Describes the Importance of Friendship and Personal Relationships. friend now. A second kind of friendship is a presumptuous. Some people can take advantage of others in their friendship. When they make friend with another person, they do not care anything about how he/she look like. They only care about his/her family rich or poor Even though, they know that it will not bring happy to them, but they just want to achieve their purpose which they dream of it for dance 2010 a long time.
For example, my girlfriend, Thanh, who learned English with me at DongKhoi language Center. Essay on Social Networking and Friendship. culture-the average Facebook user has 130-and friendship, of a diluted kind, is our most characteristic relationship: voluntary, flexible, a ‘lite’ alternative to the caloric meshugaas of family life” (Akst 25). This quote theorizes that today’s Internet-based relationships are a diluted alternative to phd chemistry, real friendships that are formed as a result of university contest, face to face interaction, or deep ties. The metaphor of low calorie “lite” food and the bland friendships we experience over resume, the internet is used to emphasize. things, they will accept and help us to make up those mistakes. On the other hand, most friends cannot accept us when we make a mistake. English Phd Dissertation! Especially, when we betray or do bad things for our friends. They will not forgive us.
It is hard to renew our friendship. A good example was two years ago, I read a news, which reported a man was caught by the police because of the graft and corruption. His friends was so surprised and disappointed in his action. Phd Chemistry Resume! Finally, his friends left him forever, but his family. Essay about Nobility of Friendship. not able to stand by myself. Whenever I needed her, she was always by contribution essays mi side, ready to provide me with moral support, advice, prompt into resume action or decision-making, and help in cover letter every sphere of life. I had not given consideration to the idea of friendship at that time.
However, there was one thing I knew for phd chemistry sure - all I needed to make in life was a friend like Sara. She made a great contribution to my life, and her absence is felt very harshly now, when she is gone. People that knew me before. The Controversy of Friendship Essay. Like the revolution essay, friendship of utility, this type of phd chemistry, relationship is fleeting and target of constant change. Lastly, perfect or true friendships exist between good men who are alike in their virtuousness. These types of people are hard to come by and it takes a lot of work to have a complete virtuous friendship regardless of utility or pleasure. However, “such a friendship is, as might be expected, permanent, since there meet in revolution it all the qualities that friends should have” (Aristotle 149).
By using Aristotle’s. Essay on Classifications of Types of Friendships. The comrade, a term most commonly associated with the military, is the sort of friendship that develops between individuals who have been soldiers together. Someone considered as a Comrade in phd chemistry resume arms, has the same sentiments associated with best friends, still coming from having a mutual respect and admiration for each other. A closeness that develops over having been in situations of war and having to have each other's back. Fair weather friends, are people who form a bond that is your dissertation 2010, sometimes based. Phenomenology of Friendship Essay. That time, I have close friends that I can be stupid with, we understand one another although we sometimes argue for small reasons but still we give effort to save the resume, friendship.
They accept me for who I am. From that day forward, I learned to trust them and that I realized that these are the people who are worth keeping. The people I can count on. The people I can trust and the people I can call my friends. Always remember that we are not exempted on the certain things that we don’t want to. asked to stay with him.
That night, Jenny went into Forrest’s room and fornicated. The next morning she was gone, leaving Forrest tired and alone. Pleasure was the dance your 2010, main focus on phd chemistry resume, Jenny’s relationship with Forrest. The third and industrial, final category of phd chemistry, friendship is goodness. Goodness is the most perfect type of attachment.
It’s based on the acceptance of each other for their strengths and weaknesses. These alliances last forever. Many years can go by and it will never be doubted. Questions And Answers! Lieutenant Dan and Forrest. neighbor who is near than a brother far away' (Pro 27:10). A GOOD FRIEND REBUKES US WHEN NECESSARY. There are things which may need to be said to a friend that are not easy to say. Phd Chemistry Resume! I am disappointed by the sentimentalism that pervades our friendships so that we flatter our friends when we need to frankly rebuke them. A true friend is the pharmacist cover letter, one who is honest enough to tell us what we need to hear, rather than what we want to hear. 'A man who flatters his neighbor is spreading a net for resume his steps' Essay on Public Speaking - Friends and Friendship. about everlasting friendship, I’m sure you want to know what’s next.) III.
Friendship will give us courage to go through life. English Phd Dissertation! A. Friends, they are the only source of phd chemistry resume, our brave hearts. 1. Friends will make us show more efforts and spirits when doing something that we can’t do before. 2. Friends will come to us to help us solve our problems. B. Friendship is one of our sources to become brave while making some activities that need more courage.
1. Friendship gives courage to. Friendship and university, The Boy in the Striped Pajamas Essay. question the righteousness of phd chemistry resume, his Commandant-father, resulting in consequences due to the “forbidden” friendship, not just for industrial revolution essay questions and answers the two boys but also for their families. We often do not realize how essential and powerful friendship is to our lives. Aristotle claims that no individual would chose to live without friends even if the individual had all the other good things in life. Phd Chemistry! He found that friendship is a virtue that is needed and desired by your 2010 humans in order to reach a peaceful state of mind (Aristotle. Development of Friendship Between Roommates Essay. negative outcomes on attraction. Berg conducted a study that examined the joint effects of social exchange processes in coordinance with the resume, processes of social penetration.
This study was constructed to discover satisfaction with a relationship/friendship of previously unacquainted roommates in a residence hall at literature phd dissertation, UCLA. The study consisted of 48 pairs of unacquainted roommates whom were examined during both the fall and spring quarters. Phd Chemistry! Through the study, the differences of all of the groups may. Essay on Julius Caesar - Theme of Friendship. So they decided to use their friendship with Caesar in a horribly deceptive manner, effectively, in order to revolution questions, kill him. Decius managed to start this off well by using flattery and quick wit in order to trick Caesar into going to the senate house, despite the fact that Caesars wife, Calpurnia had dreams of Caesars murder the night before. Decius was able to explain to Caesar that, This dream is all amiss interpreted; it was a vision fair and fortunate:(2.2. 83-84).
He then continues on phd chemistry, to explain. Essay about contribution From Inclusion to Friendship. special educator might serve as a consultant or mentor for the regular classroom teacher. It is through communication and collaboration that teachers, parents and support providers can develop strategies and create a climate where true inclusion and phd chemistry resume, friendship can occur. One of the university essay, most common strategies for facilitating inclusion of students with disabilities in traditional classes is the use of one-on-one paraprofessionals. Resume! These paraprofessionals often stay with a student for all or a portion. Unless you are taking the TOEIC® Test of Spoken English, the pharmacist cover ucsf, TOEIC® is an exam which tests your language recognition skills rather than your language production skills. However, if you familiarize yourself with the vocabulary in the book by reviewing it and then trying to use it in your written and spoken English on phd chemistry resume, a regular basis, you will be in a better position to recognize it if and when it comes up in the exam.
No vocabulary book can possibly contain all of the words and expressions that you. of the english, United Nations. Phd Chemistry! One impact of the growth of English has been to reduce native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world, and its influence continues to play an important role in language attrition. Conversely the natural internal variety of English along with creoles and pidgins have the potential to produce new distinct languages from English over university essay, time.  History Main article: History of the English language English is a West Germanic language that originated from the. This results later as Hank goes along with his wife's plan of tricking Lou into confessing falsely that he is the one that killed Stevenson, even though this is resume, equivalent to betraying Lou's trust and their friendship. Likewise, in Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is an important character as she supports her husband step by english step in the process of becoming king, which includes, murdering Duncan. Furthermore, in order to phd chemistry, persuade Macbeth do the great crime, she keeps hitting on his manlyhood.
When you durst. then Kip and Carvaggio, she started the story searching for english death. Kip?s job was by itself a way to face closely death, but he did not care about resume this. Essays! And finally, Carvaggio who was looking for a reason to phd chemistry, live: vengeance, old friend?s matters or friendship. At the end the university essay contest, characters begin a whole new life, the patient dies, Kip abandoned Hana and phd chemistry, starts again with a new family, she keeps sending to him letter, but as there is rice, no answer from him, she gives up. Resume! So, the most important point is that. that it is industrial revolution essay, improper to begin a sentence with And, but this prohibition has been cheerfully ignored by standard authors from AngloSaxon times onwards. Phd Chemistry! An initial And is a useful aid to writers as the narrative continues. from The New Fowler's Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford,
Faux Friendship by William Deresiewicz Article Analysis Essay. to parent while bosses are there to boss. Deresiewicz claims that the classical ideal [of friendship] has faded [ (Deresiewicz) ]. Essays! This apparent truth has slowly descended upon the nation but is not evident to be official for the globe. The word friend has become a loose term in America but is still an honorable title in other cultures. Phd Chemistry! Friendship is hard to come by in Germany and Russia where friendship is a difficult hurdle to overcome but once it is initiated, they are true and long lasting. Developing Friendships as a First Year Student Essay.
This was so that the answers received, from each interview, provide vital information related to the research question. As the research is exploring the topic of friendship at rice essay, university, it was decided that the participants would be chosen from The University of phd chemistry, Northampton and are currently in their second year because they have personally gone through the pharmacist, experience of making friends. The three participants were: John is a 21 year old male and has moved to Northampton without knowing the phd chemistry resume, area. The Power of Female Friendship in The Color Purple by Alice Walker. desire for something better, and the acceptance of one another. By the end of the novel, these women are no longer powerless; they have joined forces a ‘’sisteract’’ and are forging their own lives. Walker illustrates the significance of female friendship a lot through the actions of the characters a great deal. For example on page 51 , yet again Celie takes the role of being a mother to another female taking care of Shug Avery, washing and combing her short, knotty hair, swooning over her reedy.
Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln - An Unlikely Friendship. the other man’s opinion. It seemed as if both of the self-made men weren’t going to give up on their opinion. Dance Your Dissertation! They couldn’t seem to phd chemistry, gather up a logical strategy either. In the 1800s, the letter, friendship of a black man and a white man wasn’t common at all. So nothing would have even made them consider their friendship they would have later on, when the war came to an end. Since Lincoln was elected president, the eleven states that seceded formed a new nation called the Confederate States of America.
And. Friendship Essay on Aristotle#x27;s Books 8-9. problem or not is always up to us to do it. “If they are capable of being reformed one should rather come to the assistance of phd chemistry, their character or their property, in as much as this is better and more characteristic of friendship. But a man who breaks off such a friendship would seem to be doing nothing strange; for it was not to a man of industrial revolution, this sort that he was a friend; when his friend changed, therefore, as he is unable to save him, he gives him up” (226). The statement that he made was a very. By January of 1999, just six months after the program began, immigrant children appeared to be absorbing English at a astonishing pace (Sahagun). Sylvia Harris, a teacher in South Central stated, 'the kids are doing very well.
We're very happy campers' (Sahagun). At this same time, some teachers worried that their children might simply be imitating them rather than thinking in English or that many were falling behind in their studies. Still other teachers lament having to phd chemistry, water down core subjects. Dictionary of English Grammar by Trask (2000), It is important to realize that standard English is in no way intrinsically superior to any other variety of English: in pharmacist ucsf particular, it is not 'more logical,' 'more grammatical,' or 'more expressive.' It is, at bottom, a convenience: the use of a single agreed standard form, learned by speakers everywhere, minimizes uncertainty, confusion, misunderstanding and communicative difficulty generally. It can be seen that Standard English is phd chemistry resume, used widely. Elizabeth 1 in English History Essay examples. illegitimate by King Henry. She faded into industrial essay the backdrop of English politics for much of phd chemistry resume, her young life, pursuing her education and maintaining a safe distance from the political endeavors of her father and the English court. Under the care of contribution, several noble houses in her childhood, Elizabeth dedicated much of her time to the pursuit of education. Under the direction of her tutor, William Grindal, Elizabeth became fluent in written and spoken English, Latin, and Italian; she was also knowledgeable in Greek. Sounds considered from the phonological point of view are put between slashes. Phd Chemistry! Sentence stress is the music of essay, spoken English.
Like word stress, sentence stress can help us to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or beat. Word stress is phd chemistry, accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is contribution, accent on phd chemistry, certain words within a sentence. University Essay Contest! Most sentences have two types of word: content words and structure words. Content words are. Essay on The Development of English. primarily written to appease the upper class/educated class within society (men of the court or nobility). During the time when The Miller’s Tale was written, English had re-emerged as the language of the court (a concoction of ancient French and English); the language spoken by phd chemistry resume the court previously was French (post Norman invasion). 2010! French and English were now two distinct languages.
This tale regarding the carpenter is interpreted by the upper class as comedic poem. A modern comparison to the way in which. who was the greatest representative of the resume, Benedictine monastery of Jarrow. He wrote many works of general scientific interest and is the revolution questions, first English church historian. The most notable scholar after Bede is Alcuin (735-804) who favored contacts with the continent and helped to prevent the English church of the time from becoming isolated. Phd Chemistry Resume! Old English, sometimes called Anglo-Saxon, was the language. English, the Dominant Language? Essay. Straits Times, most of the world’s top 30 leading universities are located in countries where English is spoken as an official language, for example, Australia, the USA and the UK. Also, many global organisations such as the United Nations, the World Bank and the OPEC have adopted English is one of their official languages for their general meetings (Crystal, 1997).
As a result, the increasing use of English can narrow the gap between people with different languages and rice, also assist in interchanging. Essay on English Language Learners. individual student presents a profile of aptitudes and phd chemistry, abilities in essays subject areas and skills, and that this is true for students who are learning English as much as for resume native English speakers. However, the student who is learning English will have more trouble in expressing his or her level of understanding and capabilities in the second language, English. Contest! All children bring unique backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives to the classroom. ELL students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Essay on phd chemistry, Arguments for English Immersion. that 81% of Latino parents wanted their children to be taught in English (Herger, 1998).
Likewise, a poll conducted in revolution essay questions and answers early 2003 by phd chemistry a “nonpartisan opinion-research group” called Public Agenda which is based in New York City showed that 1/3, or about 32%, of immigrants stated that students should receive some instruction and take some courses in their native language while 63% of immigrants said that students should be taught in English only. While Mexicans and Caribbean people are more supportive of. There are some reasons why English is so important and many people attempt to learn it. I'd like to share the dance your dissertation, reasons in resume my point of view. Sri Lanka is a developing country and everyone has to learn English because today everything seems to be English. When we consider about education in Sri Lanka, children are forced to learn English starting at preschool in order to make their English better. English is added as a compulsory subject in O Level examination and in A Level examination in SL. Sri. This is excruciatingly English: over-formality is embarrassing, but so is an inappropriate degree of informality (that problem with extremes again).
The No-name Rule In purely social situations, the difficulties are even more acute. There is no universal prescription of handshakes on initial introduction – indeed, they may be regarded as too ‘businesslike’ – and questions and answers, the normal business practice of giving one’s name at this point is also regarded as inappropriate. You do not go up to someone at a party. thought-provoking competition with the aim to improve their self-confidence and speaking abilities. The anxious feeling and resume, excitement continued to the following day. The morning of day three started with the debate competition, the dance your 2010, signature event of English Week. Four teams comprising the Form 4 and 5 students competed in phd chemistry resume this event.
Everyone was amazed at the language of the debaters. However, the contribution essays, audience was more spellbound by Mohd Hakim Ramlan, the most eloquent speaker in the competition. After. English as a Global Language Essay. the language affect its structure. It is commonly said that a language of a country equals its identity. Moreover, fluency in English has become important in business world because investors prefer negotiating and closing deals in English which leads to unfair treatment to non-speaking English companies who need hiring interpreters. Internet communication is mainly in phd chemistry English because Internet was born in the USA so that is not surprising. What is surprising is the fact that some of the most successful. assimilated. English has borrowed from languages in contribution essays the past.
In fact, English is phd chemistry, almost completely made up of other, older languages. Words were cherry-picked and essay, assimilated into the lexicon. Phd Chemistry! It is contribution, only logical to assume that countries with more people will have more and phd chemistry, more influence on the English language as time goes on. One such country is China. The population of China is numbered in the billions. Essay Contest! As it is the most populated, its words are the most likely to be integrated into the English lexicon. in rhyming of the English sonnet is not the main difference between it and its predecessor. What is more important is the storyline and phd chemistry resume, treatment of subject-matter because of the specific line arrangement. Also, the English sonnet uses more logical development by contrast between the first and second quatrains and by dance dissertation example between the phd chemistry resume, second and third. The Petrarchan sonnet on the other hand, struggles to use its second quatrain for constructive development.
The English sonnet set itself apart. To understand the plain English rules fully, you must read the proposing and adopting releases: • the proposing release—Release no. 2010! 33-7380; and phd chemistry resume, • the adopting release—Release no. 33-7497. Both releases are available from the SEC’s Public Reference Room and our web site at www.sec.gov. We collected many filings from the Division’s plain English pilot in one book. You can get a photocopy of. for chairman, police officer for policeman, firefighter for industrial questions and answers fireman, and postal worker for postman.
Old habits die hard, though, so it will perhaps take several more years for resume English-language users to fully accept and essays, comfortably use these gender-neutral words. On the other hand, current English usage still looks at the major professions as essentially male preserves. When the gender is not specified, a doctor, engineer, architect, accountant, dentist, nutritionist, biologist. Objective of the Study: * To identify the causes of failure in resume English at HSC level * To recommend solutions to dance dissertation, solve the problems * To identify the differences of the English Education achievement between rural and phd chemistry resume, urban area of Bangladesh * To find out the teachers demand to the government for improving the students English achievement at the higher secondary level Research Question: Students find the grammar part and comprehension part very difficult due to some. speaking skill. English Phd Dissertation! The main aim is to find out the factors affecting the students’ confidence when they speak English in TP Speaking class and the methods to phd chemistry resume, enhance their self-confidence in learning speaking English. 3. Results As can be seen from the pie chart, lack of practicing makes up the largest proportion (62%) in reasons that lead to contribution, lack of confidence when students speak English. Phd Chemistry Resume! Poor sense of self-study stands in the second with 25% and dance, the smallest percentage belongs to teaching methods. Periods of English Literature Essay. Apostles, by phd chemistry writing poetry such as “Cinewulf”, “The Dream of the Rood” and essay, “Elene”.
It was a monk, in fact, who wrote down the phd chemistry resume, tale of “Beowulf”, the most celebrated tale of the letter, period. “Beowulf” is a folk epic that is representative of the Old English period, in both life and character. “Beowulf” can be summarized as the tale of phd chemistry resume, a brave and heroic warrior, who has superhuman strength and all the important values of english literature phd dissertation, a fighter. Phd Chemistry Resume! He saves King Hrothgar’s people from two evil creatures, Grendel and. English Heritage in Policing Essays. assistants to the constables and walked the effect, streets removing vagrants. The impact of the magistrates, constables and beadles was minimal, and they were mostly corrupt. In the resume, seventeenth-century English policing system also used a form of individual, private police called thief-takers. Thief takers were private English citizens with no official status who were paid by the king for every criminal they arrested; they were similar to the bounty hunter of the American West (Dempsey Forst, 2010, p 4-9) second thula contains the names of the peoples the narrator visited, and, finally, in the third and final thula, the narrator lists the heroes of myth and legend that he has visited 3. Lament Of Deor – Deor’s Lament is an Old English poem found in the Exeter Book, a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late 10th century. The poem consists of the lament of the scop Deor, who lends his name to the poem, which was given no formal title. Contest! The poem consists of 42 alliterative lines.
In the poem, Deor's. - His real career begins, however, with Edward III's Norman campaign of 1346. On landing at La Hogue he was knighted by his father, and took a prominent part in the whole of the campaign. He commanded the right wing of the English forces at phd chemistry resume, Crecy, and, though hard pressed for a time by the French, took his full share in gaining the your, victory. Next year he was at the siege of Calais, and returned to England in October 1347 with his father - The character Pyle in Graham. English as a Global Language Essay. small linguistic groups have to change to a language of a higher rank in the language hierarchy. Because that way they are more flexible and phd chemistry resume, the chances in world-wide competition are bigger.
In Australia parents even force their children to speak English instead of their own indigenous mother tongue, because they want to provide them better chances for their future. Shortly, you can say that by surviving in a capitalistic system of competition many peoples are forced to support a process which. Sociolinguistics of Australian English Essay. Books such as A Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms and dance your dissertation, the national Macquarie Dictionary contain thousands upon thousands of examples of jargon not found in resume any other English-speaking nation. Industrial Essay! However, the linguistic properties of AE are much more profound than vocabulary.
In order to examine this issue more thoroughly, this study poses questions including the resume, following: · How and when did AE originate? · What are AE’s unique characteristics, and of what are they.
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Essay on phd chemistry resume, Road Transport System of India. In this essay we will discuss about Road Transport System of India. English? After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Road Transport System in India 2. Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy 3. Scenario 4. Phd Chemistry Resume? Problems 5. Suggestions for Improvement. Essay on Road Transport System in India Essay on the Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy Essay on pharmacist letter, the Scenario of Road Transport System in India Essay on the Problems of Road Transport System in India Essay on resume, the Suggestions for Improvement of ucsf Road Transport System in India. Essay # 1. Introduction to Road Transport System in India : Road transport is the second important mode of phd chemistry resume transport in India.
It covers every corner of the country which the railway transport even could not cover. Road transport provides the basic infrastructural facilities to dance your dissertation both the agricultural and industrial sector of the country. Moreover, construction and maintenance of phd chemistry resume roads can generate huge employment opportunities as it is twice as labour intensive as agriculture or housing. Indian roads carry 85 per cent of the passengers and 70 per cent of the freight traffic of the country. The highways, make up only 2 per cent of the dance 2010 road network by length, but carry 40 per cent of phd chemistry resume this traffic. Indian roads are classified broadly into following four categories: National Highways are considered as main arterial routes as it connects big cities, industrial centres, major ports and different states of the country. Total length of National Highways is nearly 79.1 thousand kms in 2012-13 and caters to about 45 per cent of the total road transport demand. The construction and maintenance of dance your national highways of the country are the responsibility of the central government.
State highways are the phd chemistry important roads which are connecting district headquarter and important towns and cities with the capital and contribution essays, National Highways. Phd Chemistry Resume? Construction and contribution, the maintenance of state highways are the responsibility of the State Government. Total length of State Highways in 2012-13 was 168.3 thousand kms. District roads connect production centres and markets. It also connects main roads to the interior places of each and every district. Major portion of resume this road is unmetalled and are, therefore, un-motor able during the rice rainy season. Total length of major district roads was 470.0 thousand km in 2004-05. Village roads of resume India are connecting villages with one another and also connect the village roads with the nearest district roads, highway, railway stations or river ghat. Village roads may be broadly of two types—Classified and Unclassified. Revolution Essay Questions And Answers? Unclassified Village roads are normally non-metalled roads. Total length of rural roads was 2,650.0 thousand km in 2004-05.
In India, total length of roads has increased from 4 lakh kms in 1950-51 to nearly 49.49 lakh kms in 2012-13 out of which 27.42 lakh kms is surfaced and the rest 22.07 lakhs kms is un-surfaced. This shows that annual growth rate of this increase in phd chemistry road length was 4.5 per cent. National Highways which have a total length of nearly 66,800 kms constitute only 1.6 per cent of the total road system of the country. About 64 per cent of the industrial villages of the country have a rural road network and the rest 36 per cent have no road connections. Moreover, over 65 per cent of our villages do not have an all weather roads.
At present, India has a total road network covering 4.69 million kilometers which makes it one of the largest road networks in the world. The country’s road network consists of National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads, Other District Roads and Village Roads. The road network comprises 79,100 km of National Highways, 1,68,300 km. of phd chemistry State Highways 4,70,000 km of dance dissertation Major District Roads and about 26,50,000 km of other District and Rural Roads. Out of the total length of National Highways, about 24 per cent is single lane / intermediate lane, about 51 per cent is standard 2- lane and phd chemistry resume, balance 25 per cent is 4-lane width or more. Though National Highways account for only 2 per cent of the pharmacist cover total length of resume roads, they account for about 40 per cover ucsf cent of the total traffic. It is estimated that road traffic in India accounts for 80 per cent of passenger traffic and 60 per cent of goods traffic in the country. In future, 87 per cent of the passenger traffic and 65 per cent of the goods traffic is expected to resume be met through road transport system. In our Five Year Plans, a good amount of fund was allocated for the development of your dissertation roads.
During the first three plans and the Annual Plans, nearly Rs 1,104 crore was spent on the heads of road development. Again the resume Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Plan had allocated funds worth Rs 862 crore, Rs 1,348 crore, Rs 3,439 crore and revolution questions and answers, Rs 5,200 crore respectively for the development of roads in the country. Road construction is a capital intensive project. Current estimate suggest that the cost of a four-lane highway works out to roughly Rs 4.5 crore per kilometer and the cost of a protected access, six-lane expressway works out to roughly Rs 8.5 crore per kilometer. Under the present situation, the resume experiences with tolling suggest that there is contribution limited scope for obtaining user charges through tolls. A key innovation in recent years was the resume creation of a major new source of funding for national, state and contribution, rural roads: the Central Road Fund (CRF) created under the Central Road Fund Act, 2000. This was a major milestone in obtaining user charges to fund road construction. The following are the details of the Central Road Fund: 1. Additional excise duty of Re. 1 per litre on petrol levied since September 2, 1998 and Re.
1 per litre on high speed diesel since March 1999 accrue to the Central Road Fund (CRF). An amount of Rs 6,030 crore is resume collected during 2002-03 under the CRF. Recently, the cess is raised to Rs 2.00 per litre on the sale of petrol and diesel. 2. The allocation of questions and answers cess among various categories is made in the following manner: (a) 50 per cent of cess on HSD for phd chemistry resume development of effect rural roads: (b) Out of the remaining 50 per cent of HSD cess plus 100 per phd chemistry resume cent of pharmacist cover ucsf petrol cess—57.5 per cent will be utilised for development and maintenance of national highways; 12.5 per cent will be utilised for development and resume, maintenance of contribution essays road bridges, under/over railway lines/safety work for unmanned railway crossing; and the remaining 30 per cent for the development and maintenance of state roads other than rural roads. This CRF is the financial foundation of the important project, the National Highway Development Project (NHDP). Thus, the National Highways are considered as prime arterial route.
Total length of National Highways in India as on March 2005 was 66,800 kilometers. The National Highways Authority of India which was constituted under the National Highway Authority of India Act, 1988 was made operational in February, 1995. Initially, it was entrusted with the task of implementing five externally aided National Highways (NH) improvement projects. Subsequently, it was mandated to implement the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) comprising 4/6 laning of 14,279 km of national highways having two components, i.e., (i) The Golden Quadrilateral connecting four metropolitan cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata (5,846 km.), (ii) North-South and East-West corridors (7,300 km) connecting Srinagar to Kanyakumari and Silchar to Saurashtra respectively and Salem to Cochin. (iii) Port Connectivity and other projects (1,157 kms) and. (iv) NHDP Phase-III-A: four laning of 4,035 km of BOT in the year 2005 approved at an estimated cost of Rs 22,207 crore. The Government has also taken action for preparation of DPRs for the balance length of 7,028 kms under Phase III B.
(v) Government has approved six-laning of phd chemistry resume 6,500 kms under NHDP Phase-V at a cost of Rs 41,210 crore; and. (vi) Government approved the construction of 1,000 kms of expressways at a cost of Rs 16,680 crore under NHDP-Phase VI. A task force headed by Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission is monitoring the progress. NHDP is estimated to cost Rs 87,000 crore. The Golden Quadrilateral part is completed by 2006 and North-South and your, East-West corridor by 2016. Essay # 2. Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy: Road transport system in phd chemistry India is having a special importance in the process of economic development of the country. Let us now discuss these importance: 1. Road Transport can open up backward and interior remote areas of the country.
In India a huge area still remains totally unconnected either through railways or water transport. Under such circumstances road transport can easily open up those remote areas where railways cannot penetrate. 2. Road transport in India is contributing significantly towards the growth of gross domestic product of the country. Dance Your Dissertation 2010? But in this regard, road transport in India still remains much backward. 3. Phd Chemistry Resume? In comparison to railways, road transport is more convenient, quicker and more flexible.
For short distance travel and traffic, motor transport is the ideal mode of transport as it can collect and drop passenger and questions, goods at any place. Phd Chemistry Resume? Motor transport can also render door to door service which railway cannot provide. 4. Road transport is complementary to railway and other modes of pharmacist letter ucsf transport. It is only through feeder roads railways can collect its passengers and goods easily. Railways cannot connect villages of the country but through feeder roads, road transport can easily connect railway stations with distant villages. 5. Road transport is very much helpful to phd chemistry agricultural sector of the country as it provides easy and quick transportation facilities for the marketing of agricultural produce especially the perishable products like vegetables, fruits etc. It is the road transport system which helps the farmers to bring inputs like seeds, fertilizers etc. to the agricultural field along with providing a steady and ready market for essay their produce.
6. Road transport is very important for the industrial development of the country. Establishments of modern and giant industries have become possible due to the construction of well developed network of roads in the country. 7. Road transport system is generating huge number of employment in the country. Construction of roads is creating a huge scope for employment as it can create a good number of man-days of work to resume ordinary workers. 8. Road transport is very important with reference to defence of the country. A sound defence system can only be maintained with the well developed network of roads throughout the country. Construction of roads in inaccessible areas enables the defence force of the country to take control of such areas. Regarding the importance of english literature roads, the Seventh Plan document has rightly observed, “Since the country’s economy is phd chemistry resume largely agrarian in character and cover, the settlement pattern is rural-oriented, roads constitute a critical element of the transportation infrastructure. Road construction and maintenance generate sizeable employment opportunities, a factor that has assumed considerable importance with demographic expansion and growth of the labour force. Resume? Better roads also achieve fuel economy and phd dissertation, improve the overall productivity of the road transport sector. Road development will thus continue to play an resume important role in the Seventh Plan.”
Essay # 3. Scenario of Road Transport System in India : In India, road transport system is contribution rendering a valuable service to the general people in various directions of their life. Road transport in phd chemistry resume India may be classified as traditional and mechanised transport. Traditional transport includes non-mechanised transport like bullock carts, thelas, rickshaws etc. About 25 per cent of India’s trade is industrial essay questions carried through this traditional mode of transport which directly employed nearly 2 crores of people. Further, mechanised road transport includes all those transport facilities carried through motor vehicles whose numbers are increasing at a very fast rate. Total number of vehicles on road increased from 0.3 million in 1950-51 to 89.61 million in 2005-2006. Total number of buses has gone up from 34,000 to phd chemistry resume 9,92,000 and contribution essays, total number of trucks has increased from 82,000 to 44,36,000 during the same above mentioned period. Thus the annual rate of growth of this transport was 5.4 per cent. At present, there are 66 State Road Transport Undertakings which have a total fleet of over 1.2 lakh buses on March, 1993 carrying 6.8 crore passengers daily.
Moreover, to develop inter-state routes, a Transport Development Council and resume, Inter-State Transport Commission were established. National permit scheme was also introduced for total essay a smooth flow of inter-State routes. Essay # 4. Problems of Road Transport System in India: Road transport system in India is suffering from numerous problem, as mentioned below: The road transport system in India is also suffering from unfavorable road conditions. Existing roads in India are not at resume all conducive to operate a smooth and efficient road transport system. Moreover, a large number of rural areas do not have any road linkage. In the absence of all weather roads, road transport system are facing a setback condition particularly during monsoons.
Road transport system in India is in total essay the hands of private sector as nearly 48,000 operators are running their vehicles for this purpose. Phd Chemistry? Under such a situation it becomes very difficult to regulate and control such a huge number of operators leading to inefficiency and irregularity in the system. Road Transport in India is all along subjected to heavy and industrial questions, innumerable taxes like—Sales Tax, Import Duty, Vehicle Tax, Registration Fees etc. Resume? All these have led to excessive Tax burden in the road transport system of the country. Unit cost of operation of road transport has been increasing day by day due to heavy taxes and duties, rise in price of fuel and spare parts and partially due to pharmacist ucsf bad road conditions. Bad road conditions have been resulting heavy wear and tear of tyres and resume, other spare parts, high fuel consumption etc. (v) Rail-Road Competition and Co-ordination: Rail road competition in India is a quite serious problem which affects both these two modes of transport. Such competition causes unnecessary wastage of resources. Instead of evil competition there should be proper rail-road co-ordination for making these two modes of cover ucsf transport complementary rather than a competitive one. These two modes of transport should be developed simultaneously to have a good co-ordination between the two.
Thus there should be a balanced growth of both these two modes of transport. But in India Railways are facing increasing competition from road transports. As for example, the share of road transport in respect of freight has increased from 11 per cent in 1950-51 to 58 per cent in 1985-86 and then to 40 per cent in 1992. But the share of railways in respect of freight has come down from 89 per cent in 1950-51 to 42 per cent in 1985-86 and resume, then to 60 per cent in industrial revolution essay and answers 1992. Same is also the case in respect of passenger traffic. Phd Chemistry Resume? Thus through evil competition road transport in India is expanding its network over railway transport. Thus to remove such a wasteful competition there should be proper rail-road co-ordination in the country so that one can supplement the other services accordingly. Essay # 5. Suggestions for Improvement of Road Transport System in India: Following are some of the suggestions for revolution questions the improvement of road transport system in India: (i) Development of Expressways, Bypasses and Four-Laning of Congested Corridors: Considering the huge problem of congestion in phd chemistry the existing national highways, it is quite important that more national highways, expressways, bypasses and four-laning of congested corridors be constructed throughout the country for maintaining an improved road network.
The Government should design a definite financial policy for the improvement of road sector. Sufficient amount of fund should he earmarked for the construction and pharmacist cover letter ucsf, maintenance of resume roads. An Expert Group recent estimate suggests to create a fund worth Rs 40,000 crore for the construction and maintenance of roads. The imposition of toll tax and special cess may be imposed for pharmacist letter ucsf collecting necessary funds for the purpose. The budget of 1999-2000 proposed Rs 1 per litre cess on diesel which will raise nearly Rs 5,000 crore for the infrastructure development fund. (iii) Private Sector Participation on BOT Scheme: As per the amendment of the National Highway Act in 1995, private sector participation in road construction project on Build-Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis should be encouraged to develop a sound road network throughout the country. Phd Chemistry Resume? A recent study observed that about 10,000 kms expressways is required to be built by the year 2015 to your meet the demand adequately. This would cost about Rs 80,000 crore to Rs 1,00,000 crore.
Another Rs 52,000 crore would be required to remove deficiencies in the existing network. Considering the present requirement, private sector participation in the road sector on phd chemistry resume, BOT basis should be encouraged. Considering the poor condition of existing road network, steps be taken for proper maintenance of the existing roads within the shortest possible time. Contribution Essays? The Government should earmark definite fund for phd chemistry proper maintenance of existing road network of the revolution questions country. Steps be taken for technical improvement of the road transport sector. The means of road transport such as motor vehicles, trucks, bus, cars etc. should adopt fuel efficient technology through technical improvement leading to fall in the unit cost of road transport. (vi) Autonomous State Transport Corporation: The State Transport Corporation should be made autonomous so that they can manage their affairs freely without any interference from the Government. The activities of the Corporation should be managed on profit oriented basis. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!
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