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Orhan Pamuk, The Art of research papers Fiction Essay. Orhan Pamuk was born in 1952 in Istanbul, where he continues to live. His family had made a fortune in railroad construction during the early days of the Turkish Republic and Pamuk attended Robert College, where the children of the city?s privileged elite received a secular, Western-style education. Master Proposal! Early in life he developed a passion for the visual arts, but after enrolling in college to study architecture he decided he wanted to write. He is economics research papers, now Turkey?s most widely read author. His first novel, CevdetBey and His Sons, was published in 1982 and was followed by The Silent House (1983), The White Castle (1985/1991 in English translation), The Black Book(1990/1994), and The New Life (1994/1997).

In 2003 Pamuk received the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award for My Name Is Red (1998/2001), a murder mystery set in sixteenth-century Istanbul and narrated by multiple voices. The novel explores themes central to crime and punishment essay his fiction: the intricacies of identity in a country that straddles East and West, sibling rivalry, the existence of doubles, the value of beauty and originality, and business economics research papers the anxiety of cultural influence. Snow (2002/2004), which focuses on religious and biology essay questions political radicalism, was the first of business his novels to confront political extremism in contemporary Turkey and it confirmed his standing abroad even as it divided opinion at home. Pamuk?s most recent book is Istanbul: Memories and the City (2003/2005), a double portrait of himself—in childhood and youth—and of the place he comes from. This interview with OrhanPamuk was conducted in two sustained sessions in biology essay London and by economics correspondence.

The first conversation occurred in May of 2004 at the time of the British publication of Snow. A special room had been booked for the meeting—a fluorescentlit, noisily air-conditioned corporate space in the hotel basement. Pamuk arrived, wearing a black corduroy jacket over a light-blue shirt and dark slacks, and observed, “We could die here and nobody would ever find us.” We retreated to a plush, quiet corner of the hotel lobby where we spoke for essay and answers three hours, pausing only for coffee and a chicken sandwich. In April of 2005 Pamuk returned to London for the publication of economics research Istanbul and we settled into the same corner of the hotel lobby to speak for two hours. At first he seemed quite strained, and with reason.

Two months earlier, in biology and answers an interview with the Swiss newspaper Der Tages-Anzeiger, he had said of Turkey, “thirty thousand Kurds and economics research papers a million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to australia talk about it.” This remark set off a relentless campaign against Pamuk in the Turkish nationalist press. After all, the Turkish government persists in denying the business economics research 1915 genocidal slaughter of a research Armenians in Turkey and has imposed laws severely restricting discussion of the ongoing Kurdish conflict. Pamuk declined to discuss the controversy for business papers the public record in the hope that it would soon fade. In August, however, Pamuk?s remarks in the Swiss paper resulted in statement integrity his being charged under Article 301/1 of the Turkish Penal Code with “public denigration” of Turkish identity—a crime punishable by up to three years in prison. Despite outraged international press coverage of papers his case, as well as vigorous protest to the Turkish government by members of the European Parliament and by International PEN, when this magazine went to press in midNovember Pamuk was still slated to stand trial on and china relationship essay, December 16, 2005. INTERVIEWER How do you feel about giving interviews? ORHAN PAMUK I sometimes feel nervous because I give stupid answers to certain pointless questions. Economics Papers! It happens in Turkish as much as in English. I speak bad Turkish and utter stupid sentences. I. OrhanPamuk, Interviewed by AngelGurria-Quintana.

have been attacked in Turkey more for my interviews than for my books. Political polemicists and columnists do not read novels there. INTERVIEWER You?ve generally received a positive response to your books in Europe and the United States. What is questions, your critical reception in Turkey? PAMUK The good years are over now. When I was publishing my first books, the previous generation of authors was fading away, so I was welcomed because I was a new author. INTERVIEWER When you say the research papers previous generation, whom do you have in mind? PAMUK The authors who felt a social responsibility, authors who felt that literature serves morality and politics. Poetry The Proper To Prose! They were flat realists, not experimental. Like authors in so many poor countries, they wasted their talent on trying to serve their nation.

I did not want to be like them, because even in my youth I had enjoyed Faulkner, Virginia Woolf, Proust—I had never aspired to the social-realist model of economics research Steinbeck and Gorky. The literature produced in the sixties and seventies was becoming outmoded, so I was welcomed as an author of the new generation. After the mid-nineties, when my books began to sell in amounts that no one in for academic Turkey had ever dreamed of, my honeymoon years with the Turkish press and intellectuals were over. From then on, critical reception was mostly a reaction to the publicity and sales, rather than the content of my books. Now, unfortunately, I am notorious for my political comments—most of which are picked up from international interviews and shamelessly manipulated by some Turkish nationalist journalists to make me look more radical and politically foolish than I really am. INTERVIEWER So there is a hostile reaction to your popularity? PAMUK My strong opinion is business research, that it?s a sort of a research paper punishment for my sales figures and political comments. Business Economics Research! But I don?t want to continue saying this, because I sound defensive. I may be misrepresenting the whole picture. INTERVIEWER Where do you write?

PAMUK I have always thought that the place where you sleep or the place you share with your partner should be separate from the biology questions place where you write. Economics Research! The domestic rituals and details somehow kill the statement integrity imagination. They kill the research papers demon in me. The domestic, tame daily routine makes the poetry the proper antithesis longing for the other world, which the imagination needs to operate, fade away. So for economics research years I always had an office or a little place outside the house to thesis .doc work in. I always had different flats. But once I spent half a semester in the U.S. while my ex-wife was taking her Ph.D. at business papers Columbia University.

We were living in an apartment for married students and didn?t have any space, so I had to sleep and australia relationship write in the same place. Reminders of family life were all around. Business Papers! This upset me. In the mornings I used to say goodbye to my wife like someone going to australia relationship work. I?d leave the business economics research papers house, walk around a few blocks, and come back like a person arriving at the office. Ten years ago I found a flat overlooking the Bosphorus with a view of the old city. It has, perhaps, one of the best views of relationship essay Istanbul. It is a twenty-five-minute walk from where I live. It is business economics research papers, full of books and my desk looks out onto the view. Every day I spend, on i need a research paper now, average, some ten hours there. OrhanPamuk, Interviewed by AngelGurria-Quintana.

INTERVIEWER Ten hours a day? PAMUK Yes, I?m a hard worker. I enjoy it. People say I?m ambitious, and maybe there?s truth in that too. But I?m in love with what I do. I enjoy sitting at my desk like a child playing with his toys. It?s work, essentially, but it?s fun and games also. Economics Papers! INTERVIEWER Orhan, your namesake and the narrator of master proposal .doc Snow, describes himself as a clerk who sits down at the same time every day. Do you have the same discipline for writing? PAMUK I was underlining the clerical nature of the novelist as opposed to that of the poet, who has an immensely prestigious tradition in economics papers Turkey.

To be a poet is a popular and respected thing. Most of the Ottoman sultans and essay statesmen were poets. But not in the way we understand poets now. For hundreds of economics research years it was a way of establishing yourself as an intellectual. Most of australia relationship these people used to research collect their poems in manuscripts called divans.

In fact, Ottoman court poetry is called divan poetry. Half of the Ottoman statesmen produced divans. It was a sophisticated and crime and punishment redemption essay educated way of writing things, with many rules and rituals. Very conventional and very repetitive. After Western ideas came to Turkey, this legacy was combined with the romantic and business papers modern idea of the poet as a person who burns for truth. It added extra weight to thesis statement integrity the prestige of the business economics poet. On the other hand, a novelist is essentially a person who covers distance through his patience, slowly, like an ant. A novelist impresses us not by crime redemption his demonic and romantic vision, but by business economics research papers his patience. INTERVIEWER Have you ever written poetry? PAMUK I am often asked that.

I did when I was eighteen and I published some poems in Turkey, but then I quit. Essay! My explanation is that I realized that a poet is someone through whom God is speaking. You have to be possessed by research poetry. And Punishment Redemption! I tried my hand at poetry, but I realized after some time that God was not speaking to business economics papers me. I was sorry about this and then I tried to old ap questions imagine—if God were speaking through me, what would he be saying? I began to write very meticulously, slowly, trying to figure this out. That is prose writing, fiction writing. So I worked like a clerk.

Some other writers consider this expression to be a bit of an insult. But I accept it; I work like a clerk. INTERVIEWER Would you say that writing prose has become easier for business economics research papers you over time? PAMUK Unfortunately not. Sometimes I feel my character should enter a room and I still don?t know how to make him enter. I may have more self-confidence, which sometimes can be unhelpful because then you?re not experimenting, you just write what comes to the tip of your pen. I?ve been writing fiction for the last thirty years, so I should think that I?ve improved a bit.

And yet I still sometimes come to a dead end where I thought there never would be one. A character cannot enter a room, and I don?t know what to do. Still! After thirty years. The division of a book into chapters is very important for my way of statement integrity thinking.

When writing a novel, if I know the whole story line in papers advance—and most of the time I do—I divide it into chapters and think up the details of what I?d like to and punishment redemption essay happen in each. I don?t necessarily start with the first chapter and write all the others in order. Economics Papers! When I?m blocked, which is and punishment redemption essay, not a grave thing for me, I continue with whatever takes my fancy. I may write from the business economics first to the fifth chapter, then if I?m not enjoying it I skip to number fifteen and continue from relationship essay there. INTERVIEWER 3. OrhanPamuk, Interviewed by AngelGurria-Quintana.

Do you mean that you map out the entire book in advance? PAMUK Everything. My Name Is Red, for instance, has many characters, and to each character I assigned a certain number of business economics chapters. When I was writing, sometimes I wanted to continue “being” one of the characters. So when I finished writing one of Shekure?s chapters, perhaps chapter seven, I skipped to chapter eleven, which is her again. I liked being Shekure. Skipping from one character or persona to another can be depressing. But the final chapter I always write at the end. That is biology essay and answers, definite. I like to tease myself, ask myself what the ending should be.

I can only execute the ending once. Towards the end, before finishing, I stop and rewrite most of the early chapters. INTERVIEWER Do you ever have a reader while you are working? PAMUK I always read my work to the person I share my life with. I?m always grateful if that person says, Show me more, or, Show me what you have done today. Not only does that provide a bit of necessary pressure, but it?s like having a mother or father pat you on the back and say, Well done. Occasionally, the person will say, Sorry, I don?t buy this. Which is good. I like that ritual. Papers! I?m always reminded of Thomas Mann, one of my role models.

He used to bring the whole family together, his six children and his wife. He used to read to all his gathered family. I like that. Daddy telling a story. And Punishment Redemption! INTERVIEWER When you were young you wanted to be a painter. When did your love of painting give way to business economics research your love of writing?

PAMUK At the age of twenty-two. Since I was seven I had wanted to be a painter, and statement integrity my family had accepted this. They all thought that I would be a famous painter. But then something happened in my head—I realized that a screw was loose—and I stopped painting and immediately began writing my first novel. INTERVIEWER A screw was loose? PAMUK I can?t say what my reasons were for business economics research doing this. I recently published a book calledIstanbul.

Half of it is my autobiography until that moment and the other half is an essay about Istanbul, or more precisely, a child?s vision of master thesis proposal .doc Istanbul. It?s a combination of business research papers thinking about images and landscapes and the chemistry of a city, and a child?s perception of that city, and that child?s autobiography. For Academic! The last sentence of the book reads, “„I don?t want to be an artist,? I said. Business! „I?m going to be a writer.?” And it?s not explained. Although reading the whole book may explain something. The Proper Antithesis! INTERVIEWER Was your family happy about this decision?

PAMUK My mother was upset. My father was somewhat more understanding because in his youth he wanted to be a poet and translated Valery into Turkish, but gave up when he was mocked by the upper-class circle to which he belonged. INTERVIEWER Your family accepted you being a painter, but not a novelist? PAMUK Yes, because they didn?t think I would be a full-time painter. The family tradition was in civil engineering. My grandfather was a civil engineer who made lots of business money building railroads. My uncles and my father lost the money, but they all went to the same engineering school, Istanbul Technical University. I was expected to to prose go there and I said, All right, I will go there. Business Economics Research! But since I was the australia and china artist in business research papers the family, the notion was that I should become an biology essay and answers, architect. It seemed to be a satisfying solution for everyone.

So I went to that university, but in the middle of architectural school I suddenly quit painting and began writing novels. INTERVIEWER Did you already have your first novel in mind when you decided to quit? Is that why you did it? PAMUK As far as I remember, I wanted to be a novelist before I knew what to business economics research write. In fact, when I did start writing I had two or three false starts. I still have the notebooks. But after about six months I started a major novel project that ultimately got published as CevdetBey and His Sons.

INTERVIEWER That hasn?t been translated into English. PAMUK It is essentially a family saga, like the Forsyte Saga or Thomas Mann?s Buddenbrooks. Not long after I finished it I began to regret having written something so outmoded, a very nineteenth-century novel. I regretted writing it because, around the age of twenty-five or twenty-six, I began to impose on myself the a research now idea that I should be a modern author. By the time the novel was finally published, when I was thirty, my writing had become much more experimental. INTERVIEWER When you say you wanted to be more modern, experimental, did you have a model in papers mind? PAMUK At that time, the great writers for me were no longer Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, Stendhal, or Thomas Mann. My heroes were Virginia Woolf and a research now Faulkner.

Now I would add Proust and Nabokov to that list. INTERVIEWER The opening line of The New Life is, “I read a book one day and business economics papers my whole life was changed.” Has any book had that effect on you? PAMUK The Sound and the Fury was very important to me when I was twenty-one or twentytwo. I bought a copy of the Penguin edition. It was hard to understand, especially with my poor English. But there was a wonderful translation of the book into australia and china essay Turkish, so I would to put the Turkish and papers the English together on the table and read half a paragraph from one and then go back to the other. Poetry Is Not The Proper Antithesis To Prose! That book left a mark on papers, me. Statement Integrity! The residue was the voice that I developed.

I soon began to write in the first person singular. Most of the time I feel better when I?m impersonating someone else rather than writing in business research papers the third person. INTERVIEWER You say it took years to get your first novel published? PAMUK In my twenties I did not have any literary friendships; I didn?t belong to crime essay any literary group in Istanbul. Economics Research Papers! The only old ap biology questions way to get my first book published was to submit it to a literary competition for unpublished manuscripts in Turkey. I did that and won the prize, which was to be published by research a big, good publisher. At the time, Turkey?s economy was in a bad state. Is Not Antithesis To Prose! They said, Yes, we?ll give you a contract, but they delayed the novel?s publication.

INTERVIEWER Did your second novel go more easily—more quickly? PAMUK The second book was a political book. Not propaganda. I was already writing it while I waited for the first book to appear. I had given that book some two and a half years. Suddenly, one night there was a military coup. This was in 1980. Business! The next day the would-be publisher of the first book, the CevdetBey book, said he wasn?t going to publish it, even though we had a contract. I realized that even if I finished my second book—the political book—that day, I would not be able to a research now publish it for five or six years because the business research papers military would not allow it.

So my thoughts ran as follows: At the age of twenty-two I said I was going to old ap be a novelist and business economics research wrote for seven years hoping to get something published in Turkey . . . and nothing. Now I?m almost thirty and there?s no possibility of publishing anything. I still have the two hundred and fifty pages of old ap biology essay questions that unfinished political novel in one of my drawers. Immediately after the military coup, because I didn?t want to get depressed, I started a third book—the book to research papers which you referred, The Silent House. And Answers! That?s what I was working on economics papers, in 1982 when the first book was finally published. And Answers! Cevdet was well received, which meant that I could publish the book I was then writing. So the third book I wrote was the second to be published. INTERVIEWER What made your novel unpublishable under the economics papers military regime?

PAMUK The characters were young upper-class Marxists. Their fathers and mothers would go to antithesis to prose summer resorts, and they had big spacious rich houses and enjoyed being Marxists. They would fight and business research papers be jealous of i need a research each other and plot to blow up the prime minister. INTERVIEWER Gilded revolutionary circles? PAMUK Upper-class youngsters with rich people?s habits, pretending to be ultraradical. But I was not making a moral judgment about that. Rather, I was romanticizing my youth, in a way. The idea of throwing a bomb at the prime minister would have been enough to get the book banned. So I didn?t finish it.

And you change as you write books. You cannot assume the same persona again. You cannot continue as before. Each book an author writes represents a period in his development. Business! One?s novels can be seen as the milestones in the development of one?s spirit. Questions! So you cannot go back.

Once the elasticity of fiction is dead, you cannot move it again. INTERVIEWER When you?re experimenting with ideas, how do you choose the form of your novels? Do you start with an image, with a first sentence? PAMUK There is no constant formula. Business Economics! But I make it my business not to write two novels in the same mode. I try to change everything. Poetry! This is business, why so many of my readers tell me, I liked this novel of yours, it?s a shame you didn?t write other novels like that, or, I never enjoyed one of your novels until you wrote that one—I?ve heard that especially about The Black Book. In fact I hate to hear this. It?s fun, and a challenge, to experiment with form and style, and language and crime redemption essay mood and persona, and to research papers think about each book differently.

The subject matter of a book may come to me from various sources. With My Name Is Red, I wanted to write about my ambition to become a painter. I had a false start; I began to write a monographic book focused on one painter. Then I turned the painter into various painters working together in an atelier. The point of view changed, because now there were other painters talking. Is Not The Proper! At first I was thinking of writing about business economics research, a contemporary painter, but then I thought this Turkish painter might be too derivative, too influenced by the West, so I went back in time to write about miniaturists. That was how I found my subject. Master Thesis Proposal! Some subjects also necessitate certain formal innovations or storytelling strategies. Sometimes, for business economics papers example, you?ve just seen something, or read something, or been to a movie, or read a newspaper article, and old ap essay questions and answers then you think, I?ll make a potato speak, or a dog, or a tree. Once you get the idea you start thinking about symmetry and continuity in the novel.

And you feel, Wonderful, no one?s done this before. Finally, I think of things for years. I may have ideas and then I tell them to my close friends. Business Economics Papers! I keep lots of notebooks for possible novels I may write.Sometimes I don?t write them, but if I open a notebook and begin taking notes for it, it is likely that I will write that novel. So when I?m finishing one novel my heart may be set on one of .doc these projects; and two months after finishing one I start writing the other. INTERVIEWER Many novelists will never discuss a work in business research papers progress. Do you also keep that a secret? PAMUK I never discuss the story. On formal occasions, when people ask what I?m writing, I have a one-sentence stock reply: A novel that takes place in contemporary Turkey. I open up to very few people and only when I know they won?t hurt me.

What I do is talk about the gimmicks—I?m going to make a cloud speak, for instance. Is Not Antithesis! I like to see how people react to economics research papers them. It is a childish thing. I did this a lot when writing Istanbul. My mind is old ap questions, like that of a little playful child, trying to show his daddy how clever he is. INTERVIEWER The word gimmick has a negative connotation. Business Economics Research! PAMUK You begin with a gimmick, but if you believe in its literary and moral seriousness, in the end it turns into serious literary invention.

It becomes a literary statement. And Punishment Essay! INTERVIEWER Critics often characterize your novels as postmodern. It seems to business papers me, however, that you draw your narrative tricks primarily from traditional sources. You quote, for instance, fromTheThousand and One Nights and other classic texts in the Eastern tradition. PAMUK That began with The Black Book, though I had read Borges and Calvino earlier.

I went with my wife to the United States in 1985, and there I first encountered the prominence and the immense richness of American culture. As a Turk coming from the Middle East, trying to establish himself as an the proper to prose, author, I felt intimidated. So I regressed, went back to my “roots.” I realized that my generation had to invent a modern national literature. Borges and Calvino liberated me. The connotation of traditional Islamic literature was so reactionary, so political, and used by economics research conservatives in such old-fashioned and foolish ways, that I never thought I could do anything with that material. But once I was in the United States, I realized I could go back to that material with a Calvinoesque or Borgesian mind frame. I had to begin by making a strong distinction between the religious and literary connotations of Islamic literature, so that I could easily appropriate its wealth of games, gimmicks, and parables. Thesis For Academic Integrity! Turkey had a sophisticated tradition of highly refined ornamental literature.

But then the business papers socially committed writers emptied our literature of its innovative content. There are lots of allegories that repeat themselves in the various oral storytelling traditions—of China, India, Persia. I decided to thesis integrity use them and economics papers set them in contemporary Istanbul. It?s an experiment—put everything together, like a Dadaist collage; The Black Bookhas this quality. Sometimes all these sources are fused together and something new emerges.

So I set all these rewritten stories in Istanbul, added a detective plot, and out came The Black Book. But at its source was the full strength of American culture and my desire to be a serious experimental writer. I could not write a social commentary about master proposal .doc, Turkey?s problems—I was intimidated by them. So I had to business research papers try something else. INTERVIEWER Were you ever interested in essay doing social commentary through literature? PAMUK No. I was reacting to the older generation of novelists, especially in the eighties. I say this with all due respect, but their subject matter was very narrow and business parochial. INTERVIEWER Let?s go back to is not before The Black Book. What inspired you to business economics papers write The White Castle?

It?s the first book where you employ a theme that recurs throughout the rest of your novels—impersonation. Why do you think this idea of becoming somebody else crops up so often in your fiction? PAMUK It?s a very personal thing. I have a very competitive brother who is only eighteen months older than me. In a way, he was my father—my Freudian father, so to old ap questions and answers speak. It was he who became my alter ego, the representation of authority. On the other hand, we also had a competitive and research brotherly comradeship.

A very complicated relationship. I wrote extensively about crime and punishment redemption essay, this in Istanbul. Business Research! I was a typical Turkish boy, good at soccer and enthusiastic about all sorts of games and competitions. He was very successful in school, better than me. I felt jealousy towards him, and he was jealous of me too. He was the reasonable and responsible person, the a research now one our superiors addressed.

While I was paying attention to economics games, he paid attention to rules. We were competing all the time. And I fancied being him, that kind of thing. It set a model. Envy, jealousy—these are heartfelt themes for me. I always worry about how much my brother?s strength or his success might have influenced me.

This is an essential part of my spirit. I am aware of that, so I put some distance between me and those feelings. I know they are bad, so I have a civilized person?s determination to fight them. I?m not saying I?m a victim of jealousy. I Need A Research Now! But this is the galaxy of nerve points that I try to deal with all the time.

And of course, in the end, it becomes the subject matter of all my stories. In The White Castle, for business economics papers instance, the almost sadomasochistic relationship between the two main characters is based on crime redemption essay, my relationship with my brother. On the other hand, this theme of impersonation is reflected in business research the fragility Turkey feels when faced with Western culture. After writing The White Castle, I realized that this jealousy—the anxiety about being influenced by old ap essay someone else—resembles Turkey?s position when it looks west. Business Economics Research! You know, aspiring to the proper to prose become Westernized and business economics papers then being accused of not being authentic enough. Trying to statement integrity grab the spirit of Europe and then feeling guilty about the imitative drive. The ups and downs of this mood are reminiscent of the relationship between competitive brothers. INTERVIEWER Do you believe the constant confrontation between Turkey?s Eastern and Western impulses will ever be peacefully resolved?

PAMUK I?m an optimist. Turkey should not worry about having two spirits, belonging to two different cultures, having two souls. Schizophrenia makes you intelligent. You may lose your relation with reality—I?m a fiction writer, so I don?t think that?s such a bad thing—but you shouldn?t worry about your schizophrenia. Economics! If you worry too much about statement integrity, one part of you killing the other, you?ll be left with a single spirit. That is worse than having the research sickness. This is poetry the proper antithesis to prose, my theory. I try to propagate it in Turkish politics, among Turkish politicians who demand that the country should have one consistent soul—that it should belong to business research papers either the East or the West or be nationalistic. I?m critical of that monistic outlook.

INTERVIEWER How does that go down in Turkey? PAMUK The more the idea of a democratic, liberal Turkey is for academic integrity, established, the more my thinking is accepted. Turkey can join the European Union only business research papers with this vision. Thesis For Academic Integrity! It?s a way of business economics research papers fighting against nationalism, of fighting the rhetoric of Us against old ap essay Them. INTERVIEWER And yet in Istanbul, in the way you romanticize the city, you seem to mourn the research loss of the Ottoman Empire. PAMUK I?m not mourning the Ottoman Empire.

I?m a Westernizer. I?m pleased that the Westernization process took place. I?m just criticizing the limited way in which the ruling elite—meaning both the bureaucracy and the new rich—had conceived of Westernization. They lacked the confidence necessary to create a national culture rich in its own symbols and rituals. They did not strive to create an Istanbul culture that would be an organic combination of old ap essay East and West; they just put Western and research papers Eastern things together.

There was, of course, a strong local Ottoman culture, but that was fading away little by little. What they had to australia do, and could not possibly do enough, was invent a strong local culture, which would be a combination—not an imitation—of the Eastern past and the Western present. Business Economics! I try to do the same kind of thing in essay my books. Probably new generations will do it, and entering the European Union will not destroy Turkish identity but make it flourish and research papers give us more freedom and self-confidence to invent a new Turkish culture. Slavishly imitating the West or slavishly imitating the old dead Ottoman culture is antithesis to prose, not the solution. You have to do something with these things and shouldn?t have anxiety about belonging to one of them too much.

INTERVIEWER In Istanbul, however, you do seem to identify with the foreign, Western gaze over your own city. PAMUK But I also explain why a Westernized Turkish intellectual can identify with the Western gaze—the making of business papers Istanbul is a process of identification with the West. There is thesis statement integrity, always this dichotomy, and you can easily identify with the Eastern anger too. Everyone is sometimes a Westerner and economics research sometimes an Easterner—in fact a constant combination of the biology essay questions two. I like Edward Said?s idea of Orientalism, but since Turkey was never a colony, the romanticizing of Turkey was never a problem for Turks. Economics Papers! Western man did not humiliate the Turk in the same way he humiliated the Arab or Indian. Istanbul was invaded only for two years and statement for academic the enemy boats left as they came, so this did not leave a deep scar in the spirit of the nation. What left a deep scar was the loss of the Ottoman Empire, so I don?t have that anxiety, that feeling that Westerners look down on research, me. Though after the founding of the Republic, there was a sort of intimidation because Turks wanted to Westernize but couldn?t go far enough, which left a feeling of essay cultural inferiority that we have to address and that I occasionally may have. Economics Research Papers! On the other hand, the a research paper scars are not as deep as other nations that were occupied for two hundred years, colonized. Turks were never suppressed by Western powers.

The suppression that Turks suffered was self-inflicted; we erased our own history because it was practical. In that suppression there is a sense of fragility. Business Economics! But that self-imposed Westernization also brought isolation. Indians saw their oppressors face-to-face. Turks were strangely isolated from the Western world they emulated.

In the 1950s and even 1960s, when a foreigner came to thesis statement for academic integrity stay at the Istanbul Hilton it would be noted in all the economics newspapers. Do you believe that there is a canon or that one should even exist? We have heard of a Western canon, but what about a non-Western canon? PAMUK Yes, there is another canon. It should be explored, developed, shared, criticized, and then accepted. Right now the essay and answers so-called Eastern canon is in economics research ruins. The glorious texts are all around but there is no will to essay put them together. Business Economics Papers! From the Persian classics, through to thesis statement for academic all the business economics research Indian, Chinese, and Japanese texts, these things should be assessed critically. As it is master, now, the canon is in the hands of Western scholars.

That is the center of distribution and communication. Business Economics Research Papers! INTERVIEWER The novel is a very Western cultural form. Statement For Academic Integrity! Does it have any place in the Eastern tradition? PAMUK The modern novel, dissociated from the epic form, is essentially a non-Oriental thing. Because the research novelist is a person who does not belong to a community, who does not share the basic instincts of community, and poetry the proper antithesis to prose who is papers, thinking and judging with a different culture than the one he is biology essay, experiencing. Once his consciousness is different from that of the community he belongs to, he is an outsider, a loner.

And the richness of his text comes from that outsider?s voyeuristic vision. Once you develop the habit of looking at the world like that and writing about economics, it in this fashion, you have the desire to disassociate from the community. This is the model I was thinking about in Snow. INTERVIEWER Snow is your most political book yet published. How did you conceive of it? PAMUK When I started becoming famous in thesis statement for academic integrity Turkey in the mid-1990s, at a time when the war against business research Kurdish guerillas was strong, the old leftist authors and the new modern liberals wanted me to help them, to sign petitions—they began to ask me to do political things unrelated to biology essay my books. Soon the establishment counterattacked with a campaign of business economics character assassination. They began calling me names.

I was very angry. After a while I wondered, What if I wrote a political novel in which I explored my own spiritual dilemmas—coming from an uppermiddle-class family and feeling responsible for and punishment essay those who had no political representation? I believed in the art of the novel. Economics Research! It is a strange thing how that makes you an i need now, outsider. I told myself then, I will write a political novel. I started to write it as soon as I finished My Name Is Red. INTERVIEWER Why did you set it in the small town of Kars? PAMUK It is notoriously one of the business coldest towns in redemption essay Turkey. And one of the poorest. In the early eighties, the whole front page of one of the major newspapers was about the poverty of Kars. Someone had calculated that you could buy the entire town for around a million dollars.

The political climate was difficult when I wanted to go there. The vicinity of the town is mostly populated by Kurds, but the center is a combination of Kurds, people from Azerbaijan, Turks, and all other sorts. There used to business be Russians and the proper Germans too. There are religious differences as well, Shia and Sunni. Research Papers! The war the Turkish government was waging against the Kurdish guerillas was so fierce that it was impossible to go as a tourist. I knew I could not simply go there as a novelist, so I asked a newspaper editor with whom I?d been in touch for a press pass to and punishment essay visit the area. He is influential and he personally called the mayor and the police chief to let them know I was coming.

University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Orhan Pamuk, The Art of Fiction. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of research papers problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and i need professional success.

I strongly recommend that you work to business economics research eliminate any of biology essay and answers these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. Economics Research! James A. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions.

Unlike casual conversation or emails to essay friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is business economics research not just dictated conversation In general, it is and punishment inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for business economics research, clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. Old Ap Biology! As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis.

The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. The author's time and economics papers effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and now effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in economics research, the introduction and australia and china relationship conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the business research introductory section.

The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and and china essay finally sum up, tying everything back to business research the topic. At each level, you need to a research tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the business economics papers point that you promised. Stay on and punishment redemption essay topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to research your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to essay know about business economics research, your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to crime and punishment say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to economics papers bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about master thesis .doc, them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to economics research discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper.

For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and crime essay arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. Business Economics Research Papers! so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the i need paper preceding sentence, and business economics research each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an thesis, unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the economics research papers reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for proposal .doc, a reader to economics papers follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Essay And Answers! Without good transitions, the business economics research papers reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether.

One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and crime and punishment redemption essay paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of business economics papers how the paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is old ap and answers easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is business research very difficult. Old Ap Biology Essay And Answers! Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and business research actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . And Punishment Redemption Essay! , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the economics papers paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to master thesis proposal .doc group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and business economics research papers reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate.

For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to thesis those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of research your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to essay questions and answers avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty.

Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over economics research papers it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. Master Thesis! In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an economics research, essay of the i need a research paper now appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to business economics research avoid pejorative, insulting, and thesis for academic offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc.

If some of the economics essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. Australia Relationship Essay! At the very least, you would have made an business papers, enemy for crime essay, life, which is research papers rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the i need paper now author or implying that he or she is an papers, imbecile. Proposal .doc! And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. Economics Papers! It should be straightforward to for academic figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in business economics research, a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Crime And Punishment Essay! Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues.

Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of business your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for and china essay, a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Business Economics Research! Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of australia and china your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the business economics beginning of a thought.

Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and relationship essay a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. Research! However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an is not to prose, error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in papers, case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences.

Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. A Research Paper! In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an business economics, experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Essay Questions! if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about economics papers, what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and thesis proposal make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of research person likely to crime essay be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at business research, least skim the australia and china relationship essay introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections.

Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and economics research papers abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and paper now evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and economics research papers (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Biology And Answers! Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection.

Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to business economics research put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to biology and answers read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the business research main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. And Punishment Essay! Other journals and papers other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the thesis integrity main text.

Even in such cases, I myself prefer to economics papers put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the old ap biology essay import of the figure is clear. Business Economics Research! You are welcome to questions have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. Business! whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in poetry the proper, themselves, but in research papers, conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the for academic integrity intended meaning is business quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. Biology! many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for papers, this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the poetry the proper object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to business economics papers your reference. Crime! Often you will find that it or they refers to business papers something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is integrity explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring.

E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an business economics research papers, ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the thesis integrity type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by business papers a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. For Academic Integrity! As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in economics, word-processed text.

Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is poetry the proper surely not much of research papers a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to for academic avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges.

However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is business economics research not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is and punishment essay no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun.

Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to business research papers a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Australia And China Relationship Essay! Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. Economics! President Bush. When in to prose, doubt, use lower case.

Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to business papers group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. I Need! They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of research a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the statement integrity meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the research papers phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear.

Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in thesis, that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into economics, an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in relationship, adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Economics! An adverb explicitly modifies the poetry is not antithesis adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of economics research papers those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. Old Ap Biology Essay! a slightly longer dash than a hyphen.

For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the economics research papers hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to crime and punishment read. But in economics papers, such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to master proposal avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous.

In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the economics same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the old ap biology essay questions and answers hyphen is business economics papers not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in proposal, the sentence. American vs. Business Economics Research! British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by old ap questions default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the business economics same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to poetry is not the proper antithesis to prose use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the economics research document.

Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in thesis .doc, psychology and computer science generally follow the research APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is is not antithesis to prose now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional.

For instance, using a fancy cover and business economics research papers binding for thesis integrity, a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for business research papers, long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite biology questions, extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an business economics, acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. And China Essay! Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in business economics research papers, unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the paper now original founders of a field of research papers research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient.

Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the old ap essay key in a database lookup -- if the name is business economics research misspelled (e.g. Davis for master, Davies), your reader will not be able to business locate works by that author in the library or online. And Answers! Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. Business Research! So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and and china ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to research papers the authors.

If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to a research paper now other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text. Italics are reserved for business economics, books or other works of and china similar length. Business Research! Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of and china indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in business, italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc.

Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. Old Ap Essay! When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to research avoid the hard work of making your text flow into thesis statement, a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to business economics fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into .doc, a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the business economics papers precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is the proper so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the business economics research papers idea in the terms suitable for crime essay, your particular paper, focusing on economics research papers the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful.

There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the australia essay authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy. Economics Research! If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and poetry the proper antithesis vice versa. Business Papers! Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is biology your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done.

If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to business economics do. Unless you want to essay questions make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the business economics person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is i need paper a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to research yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is poetry the proper to prose a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and research no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to proposal .doc focus on business research papers and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is crime redemption essay not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the business discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the paper audience expected to see in economics research, the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is more likely to redemption essay assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant.

Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to business research papers address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to australia and china relationship think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is papers a vast array of australia and china different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to research papers fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and essay every conference paper must have the title of the business economics papers conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of old ap biology and answers who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing.

Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in business, a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in crime essay, an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of business research papers citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to thesis use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in economics papers, parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and and punishment redemption thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to economics omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. Master Thesis Proposal! or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and economics papers not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)).

I and biology essay questions we Writing standards disagree about whether to papers use I and i need paper we (and their various forms) in business economics research, academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and australia and china scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in business papers, awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is master proposal .doc being reported was an arbitrary and business specific choice made by a human being, or for old ap and answers, opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and business economics research thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the relationship essay human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in economics research, the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to statement for academic integrity follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. Papers! If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to statement for academic integrity fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation.

However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of economics research quotation, i.e. an and china, obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is economics papers hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an poetry the proper to prose, obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. Economics Papers! The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. Thesis .doc! However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the business economics papers dash. Without the spaces the is not the proper to prose dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the business economics research dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by and china putting spaces around the dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language.

Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at business research papers, the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and master thesis .doc awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the economics research papers comma is often omitted before an 'and' in statement, a list. Business Economics Papers! For instance, they will write of master ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. Papers! I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the australia sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry.

Again, this insistence on business research papers using appropriate syntax is poetry antithesis probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for economics papers, this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to thesis statement for academic integrity the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to business economics research for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the australia and china relationship essay sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to economics Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the and punishment redemption essay one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in economics papers, the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.

If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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Can Anyone Win in Architecture Criticism? An Appeal for a New Sincerity In the mid-1980s, after literature had long been held hostage by postmodernist irony and cynicism, a new wave of economics authors called for an end to thesis proposal negativity, promoting a new sincerity for fiction. Gaining momentum into the 1990s, the business research papers, movement reached a pinnacle in 1993 when, in his essay E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction , pop-culture seer David Foster Wallace, a proponent of this new sincerity, made the following call to action: “The next real literary ‘rebels’ in biology essay questions, this country might well emerge as some weird bunch of anti-rebels, born oglers who dare somehow to business research papers back away from ironic watching, who have the childish gall actually to endorse and instantiate single-entendre principles. Statement For Academic Integrity? These anti-rebels would be outdated, of course, before they even started. Dead on the page.

Too sincere. Clearly repressed. Backward, quaint, naive, anachronistic. Maybe that’ll be the point. Maybe that’s why they’ll be the next real rebels. Real rebels, as far as I can see, risk disapproval.

The old postmodern insurgents risked the gasp and business squeal: shock, disgust, outrage, censorship, accusations of socialism, anarchism, nihilism. Today’s risks are different. The new rebels might be artists willing to risk the i need paper, yawn, the rolled eyes, the cool smile, the nudged ribs, the parody of gifted ironists, the ‘Oh how banal.' Architecture, ever in debt to the styles and business economics research ideas of other art forms, could learn a thing or two now from the resuscitation of American fiction at the turn of the millennium. It too is enduring an identity crisis, mired by thesis pessimism and uncertainty - a reality made painfully clear this past January when a New York Times Op-Ed by Steven Bingler and Martin C. Pedersen, How to economics research papers Rebuild Architecture , divided camps and made the design world fume.

In the editorial, the master proposal .doc, authors spoke vehemently of an business economics architectural profession that has become mired by egos and been disconnected from public needs. Things quickly got ugly, critics wrestled with critics and subsequently the public got involved. Crime And Punishment? What no one seemed to take into account is that this type of hounding is at the core of the problem. In its current landscape the discipline has struggled with its past, been deferential to its present, and wrestled with the uncertainty of its future. Economics Papers? In a moment when we have become addicted to and punishment redemption despondency, can anyone win? In his essay, Wallace describes television as “a despicable instrument of cultural decay,” but all the economics, same, one that we cannot bear to live without. The Internet now holds the old reins of TV and poses similar problems. While we have all gorged on the excess of poetry is not the proper antithesis free and fast content online, we have been blinded or more likely are in denial of the tabloiding of digital media. That is to research papers say, flashy headlines and i need a research paper now obdurate opinions that ruffle feathers but have little hope of business economics papers generating a calm and enlightening discussion. Relationship Essay? While the web has added much gloss and economics research papers polish to the way we see and thesis statement integrity read the news, it has plagued architecture and design with the research papers, same irony and cynicism that fiction combated in the 1980s, and as the speed and plentitude of information increases at an exponential rate, there’s barely a moment to debate an issue before we are distracted by a newer and flashier headline.

In light of biology essay this, it becomes much easier to be sharp and cynical than to be soft and genuine. In creating a new sincerity for business papers architecture, we will need to master proposal replace pessimism with proactivity and replace irony with integrity. Of course, this does not mean that there will be a moratorium on negativity - to be a responsible critic one cannot have a phobia of criticism - but we need to become better at picking our battles rather than searching, always, for the negative critiques and ignoring the positive ones. Business? Realizing that the problem does not begin in one place nor end in another, is i need a research neither highbrow or lowbrow, can be simultaneously obscure and blatant, the real necessity is understanding that we – architects, designers, authors, readers, publishers, and commenters – are all held equally responsible, and that a solution to a problem of the masses can only be reached collectively. Lately there has been a fixation, what amounts to business a veritable witch hunt, on i need a research paper cutting down our most prominent architects. Subjects have ranged from the backlash over Frank Gehry’s involvement with the business papers, LA River revitalization, to the scorn directed at Zaha Hadid over several controversies, but in particular the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Stadium. In both these instances, what should have been small grievances escalated to all-out persecutions of the architects - so much so, that the real issues or potentials for thoughtful discussion were subsumed by backlashes to the individuals, which sidesteps the the proper antithesis, issue entirely. In Gehry’s case, we don’t even have so much as a written description of his intentions, only a summary of his pro-bono involvement in the project, and yet complaints arrived at a blistering pace after the business papers, Los Angeles Times leaked the australia essay, information of his involvement in early August. Even with careful scrutiny, it is difficult to understand exactly what people are objecting to, outside the fundamental issue of research papers a big shot like Gehry taking interest in a project that could have long-lasting implications for Los Angeles and and punishment redemption essay possibly add to the already rich legacy of the 86 year old architect. Poet Lewis MacAdams, co-founder of the Friends of the Los Angeles River spurned Gehry stating, “I don’t think it would be too much or too little to say that Frank Gehry has had nothing to do with the L.A.

River.” Yes, MacAdams has been involved with the business, waterway for decades, but it is irresponsible and antagonistic to besmirch Gehry as some outsider attempting to storm the river’s gate. Meanwhile, Mia Lehrer, a landscape architect involved in integrity, the 2007 river master plan, welcomed the publicity that Gehry’s name will bring, “He’s a creative dude,” said Lehrer, “So the answer is, ‘Why not?’” It is understandable to economics papers have reservations, and skepticism is thesis statement for academic integrity healthy, but to treat Gehry’s involvement as such a pointed affront without even a basic understanding of business economics research his intentions is australia essay just being contrarian. As the River revitalization is intended to be a public place for all, it would be more advantageous to consider how the economics research papers, profile and expertise of the architect might benefit these altruistic goals. With a revised design competition only now getting underway, there will certainly be more press regarding the stadium for the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, but that conversation will likely not include Zaha Hadid Architects. After mounting backlash to costs and biting criticism of its design, the firm’s involvement was officially scrapped in September.

New teams of architects and engineers will now vie for a stadium with a dramatically smaller budget and reduced requirement for seating. Statement? While it was easy to castigate Hadid’s design, one of the same parametric baroqueness that has become her signature, dissenters seemed to forget that the architect won this competition fairly and created a design with the required scale and occupancy called for research in the original brief. That being said, even in renderings (which should have idealized every angle of the proposal) the stadium came across as mountainous and outsized compared to its environment, a problem that was characteristic in many of the designs of the 11 finalists, viewable here on Bustler . Entrants fall into two camps: either they proposed a stadium that was awkwardly oversized, or they corrected this flaw by pushing the stadium underground, solving neither the issue of scale nor cost. The real misfortune of this scenario is that Hadid and architecture became the culprits for larger issues within the Olympics. The pomp and circumstance of the statement for academic integrity, Games has risen to an unsustainable level with ineffectual results. Business Economics? Many host-cities contend with a state of extreme atrophy after hosting, where facilities are closed or demolished due to lack of demand.

These stories must be known by the Japan Sports Council, making the original design brief for the stadium all the more peculiar. If a leaner and smarter approach the Games is the outcome of the scenario with Hadid, it will be the correct result wrought from the wrong battle. The controversy with the integrity, architect was a red herring for business economics research papers what should have immediately shifted to a larger discussion of the aims of Olympics and crime and punishment essay how we might be smarter about these goals in the future. This is but another instance of irony and cynicism taking hold in a situation that required thoughtful contemplation and sensitivity. Okay, You Can Build, But We’re Not Going to Like It At his Sugar Hill Development, which opened earlier this year in Upper Manhattan, David Adjaye was victim to the reverse of the criticisms landed by Hadid in Tokyo.

The Olympic Stadium was a project most heavily criticized for its program and purpose, while Sugar Hill has been rebuked exclusively for its design. The bulk of the research papers, scrutiny being directed at the building’s facade: gray squarish panels that looks slate but are actually precast concrete that has been impregnated with shards of quartz (the facade glitters in direct sunlight), and are imprinted with a rose motif (only visible at essay questions certain angles). The flowers are appropriated from moldings on adjacent structures, and the building’s serrated facade mimics the economics research papers, front profile of nearby rowhouses. Australia And China? All said and business research papers done, the building looks like two large blocks sitting precariously on top of a precipice. Critics have nonetheless demeaned Adjaye’s design with biting remarks like “Neo-Brutalist,” “a ruined bastion,” or simply, “a prison.” What’s especially vexing is that if this was just another run of the mill housing project there would scarcely be an objection, as if somehow by trying to elevate a unique program with a design to complement is more objectionable than allowing housing projects to continue languishing in a state of banality. It can seem easy to scoff at China’s denouncement of “weird architecture,” but the crime redemption essay, United States is hardly neutral or accommodating when similar issues are faced on our own turf. In a relief from the barrage of criticism, Mark Byrnes, writing for CityLab , quells savagery with wisdom: “The facade may take some getting used to, but what's happening inside should soon turn the place into a neighbor that's easy to love.” A more specific example of this formal backlash is the research, interminable saga of Peter Zumthor’s redesign of the essay, Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), for which proceedings began in 2009, when it was announced that museum director Michael Govan was in discussion with the famously ascetic Swiss architect.

Oliver Wainwright of The Guardian has characterized Zumthor as possessing “[a] mythic reputation as a reclusive mountain-dwelling hermit, a monk of materials, with standards so exacting that few clients have the patience, or deep enough pockets, to indulge his uncompromising approach.” This is a sentiment which, admittedly, doesn’t give much hope to LACMA’s cause, but it has actually been the responses of the critics and public that have generated the biggest headaches for the museum and architect. The low slung building designed by Zumthor, now in its third major revision, has maintained the economics papers, look of an oil slick demulsifying from the landscape, and in the last two versions has traversed Wiltshire Boulevard. This structure would replace a trio of thesis proposal .doc buildings designed by William Pereira for the museum’s opening in 1965. As would be true of any project of this scale and profile, criticism has been broad, with arguments ranging from preservation of the original structures, to questions of cost, land-use, and research papers color, but most pointedly, to the physical presence of the building itself. Zumthor's buildings are some of the most lauded of the past few decades, and include masterworks such as the Thermal Baths at Vals, the Kunsthaus Bregenz, and master thesis .doc the Bruder Klaus Field Chapel. Each different, all arresting, they add clarity to Zumthor’s careful balance of subtlety and research nuance mixed with sheer architectural force. In the case of antithesis Kunsthaus Bregenz, the architect “parried with locals for ages to get what he wanted,” said museum director Rudolf Sagmeister, in a 2011 profile of the research, architect for The New York Times . The architect’s ways are well known, and old ap biology essay and answers therefore it is somewhat surprising that critics and Angelenos would react with such negativity to economics research their receipt of is not antithesis to prose Zumthor’s rarefied attention. In what seems likely to be his masterpiece - or at least his most high-profile commission - it is mystifying that a city with such a storied past of architectural experimentation would have such reservations. Yes, it’s a gamble. But really when is architecture not?

The Los Angeles Review of Books critic Joseph Giovannini denounced Zumthor’s design as “Modernist” describing it as “a warmed-over vision, stuck in economics research papers, caution, camouflaged as artistic sensitivity, it even threatens to reverse LACMA’s newly forged charisma: the design is dragging the museum toward mediocrity, sliding it into a yawn.” But if we are to follow the guidance of old ap essay and answers David Foster Wallace, a “yawn” is the economics research, telltale sign of a new sincerity and poetry is not the proper antithesis to prose perhaps not the economics research, drudgery that so many have foreseen. Speaking retroactively, Zumthor has been something of an anomaly all along, promoting a sincerity through subtlety long before it was so desperately needed. And for this reason, Giovannini’s concern with “sensitivity camouflaging caution” seems misplaced, presumptuous, and questions a discount to Zumthor’s achievements. On the topic of business papers museum expansions, the redemption, Museum of Modern Art’s newest foray has also generated its share of negative press. Many have been outraged by the museum’s demolition of its neighbor, the American Folk Art Museum, designed by Tod Williams and business economics Billie Tsien in 2001, purchased by MoMA 2011, and demolished in 2014. In Delirious New York , among his many poignant remarks, Koolhaas pontificates that “in Manhattan’s Culture of Congestion, destruction is i need a research another word for economics papers preservation.” Although oxymoronic, the thesis integrity, underlying idea is surprisingly clear and prophetic. What Koolhaas means, is business research that in paper, a culture so obsessed with newness and reinvention, a building that dies is able to live on as the legend and spirit of what originally made it special. Writing for Architect Magazine , critic Aaron Betsky confirmed that preservation would have left the Folk Art Museum as a “relic” unable to achieve a new harmony with the existing MoMA, and would have been a maligned obstacle to new patterns of movement.

Diller Scofidio + Renfro are responsible for the Folk Art Museum’s replacement, mainly circulation space and new venues for performance, but part of a larger overhaul that will link existing galleries with their expanded footprints in Jean Nouvel’s neighboring Tower Verre, now under construction. While it is unfortunate that a location chosen for its proximity to another museum ultimately made the Folk Art Museum a target for economics demolition, attacking MoMA as a heartless culprit seems misguided. Denouncing the demolition plans in Metropolis , Martin C. Pedersen spoke of the old ap biology questions, Folk Art Museum as “a stand-in for research papers much larger issues: the and china, future of New York, MoMA's turn away from cultural preservation, the colonization of Manhattan by the ultra rich, the widening gap between them and business economics papers everyone else.” These are all pressing issues, but it seems reactionary to a research link them specifically to the Folk Art Museum, especially when the economics papers, outcome is another museum space and not some playground for plutocrats. In other recent and notable preservation battles – Paul Rudolph’s Orange County Government Center, Bertrand Goldberg’s Prentice Women’s Hospital – the (decidedly more measured) conversation was one of adversity and architectural loss, not a blame game. But in the case of the Folk Art Museum, MoMA has been unfairly labeled as being big and .doc bad enough to economics papers take the criticism, and therefore deserving of thesis proposal .doc any and every piece of blame people can find to level at economics research papers them. It Must Look Exactly Like The Rendering. Developing strong opinions of projects before they are finished is crime redemption essay one of the most pernicious problems of the contemporary design discourse. Renderings have made it easy to be seduced by false interpretations, akin to convincing yourself that a piece of clothing as seen on a model in a catalog or advertisement is going to look as good in your mirror at business research home. Renderings, like any form of publicity, are a kind of advertising, they are the cereal box image that has been “enlarged to master thesis proposal show texture.” Thus it can be frustrating when critics and readers use this propaganda as a faultless barometer for outcomes in built works.

It usually comes across like a scapegoat, as if some less-than-clever critic standing with nose raised and making light of the schism between reality and rendering is business economics papers some kind of profound observation. Most recently this adversity was directed towards The Broad Museum in master thesis .doc, Los Angeles, specifically the building’s facade, and business research papers how disappointingly less-parametric it looks in real life when compared to the renderings created by architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro. A Curbed Los Angeles article from last December by Benjamin Gross was titled “Broad Museum Reveals Its Newly Disappointing Facade;” others made comparisons to a cheesegrater, the “Eye of Sauron” from Lord of the Rings, and and china relationship the Death Star, as well as some unmentionables (collected here on Hyperallergic). The facade’s patterning was simplified when feasibility and cost concerns forced a redesign, but this hasn’t seemed to affect the business papers, skin’s purpose of being a sun shield to bring indirect light into the galleries. Reviewing the building for master The Atlantic , Katharine Schwab affirmed, “The honeycomb facade diffuses natural light inside the building and compliments the skylights on the roof while keeping the Broad’s considerable collection of post-war art safe from overexposure.” So, crisis averted, no? A building’s renderings should be used as little more than a guide or frame of reference; anything more is papers all but guaranteed to poetry is not antithesis yield disappointment. As a relative of food photography and fashion editorials, renderings are a world unto themselves.

So much pent up hostility makes it seem difficult to operate successfully in the world of design. In light of this, what guidelines might we suggest to reduce this barrage of criticism that makes every move seem like some form of checkmate? Give ample reasoning and justification for key design decisions. Develop a sense of empathy in order to understand which of your design decisions most need explaining. Whenever possible, publish plenty of renderings, graphics and business economics research drawings even in the development phase so there is design clarity right from the initial design reveal. Defend your designs, but don’t get mired in controversy. Don’t make unsubstantiated comments or claims until we know all the facts. A Research Paper Now? If designs are yet to be revealed, don’t judge the business economics research, success of a design based solely on the previous success of its architect. If designs have already been revealed, an i need paper now architect’s previous successes or failures are irrelevant to judging the design’s worth. Business Economics Papers? Show a sensitivity to and engagement with the role of shaping the design discourse.

Don’t think that being negative makes you or your comments superior. Don’t think that being negative makes you or your comments superior. Don’t trust everything you read, or assume that one source is giving you the and china essay, full picture. When in doubt, seek out the balanced opinion - it’s more likely to take into economics research papers, account all the facts. Thankfully, there are instances where these guidelines and the larger goals of a new sincerity are already being achieved.

Firms like Steven Holl Architects, BIG, and MVRDV provide diverse and thorough packages of graphics, renderings and drawings in essay, the concept stage; adding clarity to design philosophies. Others like Studio Gang, MASS Design Group, and Michael Maltzan Architecture have made adaptability, localism, and business economics research papers humanitarian concerns their top priorities. In the spring, Renzo Piano’s new building for the Whitney Museum opened to positive reviews from the proper antithesis, critics, with most taking solace in the gallery design, layout, and amenities, even while they were unphased by economics research papers the exterior skin and master cladding. Business Economics Research? Michael Kimmelman’s landmark review of the museum for The New York Times , was a triumph of still and moving images accompanied by text; it can and should be the new standard by which future building reviews are judged. Thoughtful criticism need not always be positive, but it should aspire to be clear, informed, and respectful. Simple changes as advocated above will remove frictions from the old ap biology questions, design process that are some of business papers today’s core issues and one of the main barriers to progress.

This is easier said than done, and not always an absolute possibility, but progress in these areas will be a boon to integrity the achievement of business economics a new sincerity for architecture.