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avila reese resume Houston is marc-antoine said to view Liriano as a reliever for the remainder of the season. While the 33-year-old Liriano has had a poor season in the Toronto rotation, he#8217;s maintained his velocity and his effectiveness against left-handed opponents. That#8217;s led to plenty of speculation, both here and elsewhere, that the thesis statement for academic integrity veteran southpaw could emerge as a possible bullpen option for teams unwilling to meet the asking prices on laugier an essay on architecture the market#8217;s top relievers. Through 63 plate appearances this season, left-handed opponents are batting just .230/.254/.361 against foundation, Liriano. The lefty has a 17-to-1 K/BB ratio in those matchups and has averaged nearly 93 mph on his fastball this season. One would imagine that in moving to marc-antoine laugier on architecture, a short relief role, that velocity could tick upward a couple of notches. Liriano is a free agent at season#8217;s end and is earning $13MM in requirements the final campaign of a three-year, $39MM contract. He#8217;s still owed about $4.48MM of that sum. Aoki, 35, is earning $5.5MM in 2017 and is owed $1.89MM of that sum through the end of the year.
It#8217;s not clear if there#8217;s additional cash in the deal, but as it stands, the Jays will be saving about $2.59MM this this swap. Considering Houston is sending a minor leaguer as well, though, it wouldn#8217;t at all be a surprise for Toronto to pick up some of laugier on architecture all of the remaining tab on Liriano. Aoki has batted .272/.323/.371 through 224 plate appearances this season. While he#8217;s under club control through the 2018 campaign via arbitration, his age and autocad resume, lack of offensive output make him a non-tender candidate after the season, as he#8217;d likely be in line for a raise that would send his salary north of $6MM. The 24-year-old Hernandez ranked ninth among Houston farmhands on MLB.com#8217;s midseason top 30 list and is a more or less MLB-ready commodity. He#8217;s hitting .279/.369/.485 with a dozen homers and a dozen steals through 347 Triple-A plate appearances this year.
Hernandez hasn#8217;t exactly thrived in a small sample of marc-antoine laugier an essay 113 MLB plate appearances, but he#8217;s held his own with a .230/.304/.420 slash. The Astros likely deemed Hernandez somewhat superfluous, however, with George Springer , Josh Reddick and Derek Fisher all in the Majors, to say nothing of top prospect Kyle Tucker lurking in the upper minors. Autocad Resume! MLB Network#8217;s Ken Rosenthal reported that the two sides were in talks (via Twitter). USA Today#8217;s Bob Nightengale said the two sides were close to a deal (on Twitter). Shi Davidi of Sportsnet reported the agreement (on Twitter). Brian McTaggart of MLB.com reported that Aoki and a minor leaguer were going to Houston (Twitter link). Marc-antoine Laugier! Sportsnet#8217;s Shi Davidi (on Twitter) had Hernandez#8217;s inclusion. Hbs Essay! Photo courtesy of USA Today Sports Images.
What do you think? A salary dump or do you think Toronto will also get some low end prospects back too? Define Low end cause they#8217;ll get something back. Laugier On Architecture! Nothing in the org top 25 though. Wow great return for the jays. Spare part for the stros but that#8217;s a nice snag. Great! single player between 26-30 in marc-antoine an essay stros system. Bum Bum Babum. Should#8217;ve bid $1.
Salary dump if they do not have to send salary with the deal or they have to add prospects like the Pirates had to to rid themselves of Liriano. I can#8217;t imagine why the Blue Jays, one of the essay richest and laugier on architecture, highest attendance teams in baseball, would salary dump $6M. I mean that#8217;s not even the cost of an average everyday player or a good RP these days. But why waste money if you don#8217;t have to? I agree with Momus. Informative Requirements! it is not about a salary dump. Marc-antoine! If the Jays mgmt is smart they#8217;ll make it about propects. Besides, Liriano would be a great reliever. His slider is informative requirements awesome. Why not offer to pay all of his salary in exchange for marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, getting a good prospect? The money matters less in this situation than the prospect capital.
He MIGHT be a good reliever. All we can say for autocad resume, sure is that he has sucked this season, and marc-antoine an essay, that is foundation for critical press 2008 what any prospective trade partner is going to look at. Marc-antoine Laugier An Essay! I am sure the for critical thinking 2008 Jays want prospects, but you can be certain teams are not lining up to spend quality assets on a guy who may or may not actually contribute. His slider is awesome if he keeps it around the plate. Has been harder for him to get hitters to chase since 2015. 1 2/3 great innings in the WC win last year in extra innings. Agreed I think he could be dynamite in the bullpen even moreso if a team can match him primarily against LH batters. Marc-antoine! Depends what you mean by #8220;quality assets#8221;. Autocad Resume! I#8217;m not saying the Jays should be looking for a top 100 prospect here, just that they should be looking at 2019 and marc-antoine an essay on architecture, picking up lottery ticket guys close to the majors, potential relievers and thesis statement, anything that might turn into something in a couple of years as opposed to pointless salary relief. Worst trade ever , we would have been better off to laugier an essay on architecture, stand pat.
Overly dramatic much? I really like the idea of using Liriano as a reliever. Especially with his slider. I like the idea of foundation him walking every batter he faces so the M#8217;s can win a few games against the Astros. I like the marc-antoine an essay on architecture idea of the Astros being 16 games up on the M#8217;s. He only has 1 walk against 17 strikeouts against lefties. #LOOGY.
Yeah. Jays should have done that, only we don#8217;t have anyone to replace him in the lineup. Thanks, horrible farm system/Alex Anthopoulis. Great Thesis! The Alex Anthopolous that drafted Anthony Alford, signed Vladimir Guerrero II, traded Danny Norris for an essay on architecture, David Price (thus leading to the Jays#8217; first real meaningful late summer baseball in 20 plus years)? I know what you mean.
Such a drag watching the Jays play October baseball for two seasons. The Jays don#8217;t get a sniff of great thesis gatsby October baseball and the full Rogers Centre unless AA empties the upper levels of Jays prospects [and some MLB level] for marc-antoine, the likes of autocad resume Donaldson, Tulo, Ben Revere, Estrada, Travis, Saunders, Hawkins, Lowe, Pennington, Barney all of which contributed to the Jays in one of the past two playoff runs. We should thank Anthopoulous, it was great watching October baseball. #8230;although I really could#8217;ve done without that RA Dickey trade. That#8217;s the marc-antoine laugier on architecture only one I#8217;d really, really, like to statement, take back. With Shaprio and Atkins, it might be a while if ever before we see October baseball again, because they focus on draft and an essay, development and their history[Bourne, Swisher, Delliuci, Myers] shows their incapability of signing free agents needed to get a team over the top.
During Shaprios reign the statement Indians didn#8217;t reach the world series even once in 14 years, although they had a brief sniff at October baseball in 2007 and 2013. They should add Justin Verlander for the playoffs. The cost? Few second tier prospects and take on 60% of remaining contract. They will regret not trading for him for sure. Detroit reportedly will only pay his remaining salary for this year and wants real prospects in return. He#8217;s staying in Detroit, Al Avila is making sure of it. until verlander is replacement and below from 2018 on out, sure. Marc-antoine On Architecture! He has a high walk rate so he will definitely be a reliever. Hopefully better than Oliver Perez. Hopefully the jays get back Altuve.
Miguel Altuve, the assistant travel coordinator for the stros. #8230;or play a decent LF? It#8217;s actually Kosuke Altuve, Aoki#8217;s translator. Great Thesis Gatsby! (That isn#8217;t really his name, but my sources are saying he#8217;s been asking to be called Altuve which created some confusion in the Astros clubhouse.) Wow, I certainly hope this comment is tongue in cheek. If not, you are high. If that is the case, I request a sample of what you are smoking. Haha kinda laughed.
Maybe Preston Tucker going back. An outfielder is pretty non descriptive. Preston tucker sucks so maybe he is the laugier an essay guy. jays will need of help if they can pull a Bautista or Carrera deal as well. That could work out. Or it could end their season. You#8217;re really going out on autocad resume a limb here#8230; Honest question; has anyone asked if he is open to marc-antoine an essay on architecture, moving to the Pen?
It seems one of those things which should have happened a while ago. The fact it hasn#8217;t makes me wonder if he isn#8217;t the roadblock. If his mind won#8217;t be right out foundation for critical thinking of the marc-antoine Pen then this might not be a great move. Hbs Essay! Jays are short on Major League starters, nothing near ready on farm. What#8217;s the on architecture difference? They just traded him.
One less starter either way, WHen you pitch that poorly out of the rotation and want to stay in the majors you had best be willing to work out thesis of the laugier pen or you could find yourself pitching in AAA as a depth option soon enough. He has no problem going to the pen in a pennant chase situation. He did it last year for a short period of autocad resume time before the Jays moved him to starting. Arguably, the Jays may not have made it to marc-antoine an essay on architecture, the wild card game without him. He really upped his game during crunch time.
I think you will be surprised by how well he will pitch for the Astros. No surprise if Liriano pitches well for the Stros or another club. He will be a very good reliever. The Jays were 2-4 in Sept games he pitched last season, and one of those wins was a blowout of the autocad resume Yankees where anyone would have won. In his mere two 2016 Pen appearances he gave up 3 Runs (2 earned) and hitters hit 300/300/800 off him. Laugier An Essay! The Jays lost both of those games, although he was good in the second. Add in the fact he has a 1.00 higher ERA and autocad resume, .100 higher OPS-against over marc-antoine an essay his career as a reliever (granted, sss), and I just question if he is 2008 right out of the pen. Again, he probably should have been a reliever for marc-antoine an essay on architecture, years. He hasnt been though, and he#8217;s been overall poor in the few relief games he has thrown in his career. It leaves me wondering.
He was terrific as a starter for autocad resume, Toronto last year, so there was no need for that. As far as surface stats go, just one appearance with over 3 ER allowed a 52 K/16 BB (3.25 K to BB ratio). With a 1.557 WHIP, and specifically a .288/.355/.441/.796 line against as a reliever over career. The K/BB is nice, but#8230; Well the initial question about his openness to it remains. Looks like a outfielder is coming back. Springer please. So the Jays are sending the marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture Astros Stroman as well.
Jays are sending back Donaldson too for springer. Either Tucker and Springer for Liriano. All this Springer stuff is sarcasm, right? RIGHT?! there is no way the jays get Tucker. Questioning Library Neutrality Essays Librarians! Please DFA Tony Sipp should this trade go through. Don#8217;t worry. You#8217;re going to be ok. An Essay On Architecture! Aoki is informative requirements going back to Blue Jays. I wish they would of traded for marc-antoine, Happ instead, but at least looks like not giving much. Making permanent room for Fisher.
Jays apparently not interested in trading Happ, only pending FAs. Personally i think the Jays should be willing to trade literally everyone including Martin, Tulo, Smoak, Donaldson, Bautista, Liriano, Estrada, Happ, Osuna, Tepera, Loup, Smith, Leone, Biagini, etc if the price is right. The Jays need to retool and target contending in 2019 and onward. Holding on too long is just going to put them in the position Philadelphia had been in for years. I like your thinking, it is right on. Time will show you are correct.
Unless they sign some big free agents or do some big trades in the upcoming offseaon, the Jays will be much worse next year. Library Neutrality Essays From! Sadly I think this is true. Even if they aren#8217;t technically worse next year they will look worse as the Yankees and Red Sox continue to improve. Without drastic action this season (and off-season) I can foresee the Jays getting locked out of the marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture playoffs for the next 5 years. If Liriano can be traded, so can Holland, who has good splits against great thesis statement, lefties this year. Went from potentially getting a ring to marc-antoine on architecture, not making the playoffs. He will still get a ring if they win the WS.
Don#8217;t feel too bad. They will not make past the first round. Hmmm my guess on the prospect is Laureano cause Laureano for Lirianio is press 2008 just too good. A past his prime Aoki? Really? As part of a re-tool? I#8217;m confused. He#8217;s a financial component. Laugier On Architecture! The trade was to get Hernandez. Hbs Essay! Any word if the Jays are paying any of Liriano#8217;s salary too?
Most or all of it I assume. If not then they got an absolute steal from the Astros for 2 months of Liriano. I personally think Teoscar Hernandez is laugier an essay on architecture too steep a price for a guy that may or may not be good out of the bullpen, but we don#8217;t need Teoscar. Exactly my only thought is if he could of questioning library essays from been used to marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, get someone better instead of guys better than him. Teoscar is a solid pick up for Liriano, very decent prospect. Very strong return (paying Nori Aoki#8217;s salary factored in, obviously).
I#8217;m impressed will be excited to autocad resume, see him in the near future. Marc-antoine An Essay! I was really hoping Reese Mcguire was going to the Astros in thie deal. Looks like Teoscar Hernandez. So in summary, the Jays get McGuire, Ramirez, Hernandez and Aoki, plus a year of thesis statement integrity Liriano in exchange for marc-antoine laugier, Drew Hutchison. Some pretty solid trade work. they had to pay a full year of Frankie#8217;s horrible contract for library essays, those players as well.
No word yet if they will be paying for the rest of his contract for him to go to Houston. Frankie#8217;s #8216;horrible#8217; contract wasn#8217;t that horrible for marc-antoine laugier on architecture, the Jays considering from the trade through the great great gatsby post-season Liriano ran an opponents slash line something like .200/.280/.350 with a 2.25 ERA and marc-antoine laugier an essay, was a pretty integral part of the team when they desperately needed pitching help. Yup, and pay all that cash out too. They essentially bought those prospects. #8230;which, to autocad resume, be clear, is exactly what they should be doing. Marc-antoine Laugier On Architecture! Buy all the prospects! You will never get cheaper players than by buying prospects.
Spend to hbs essay, the limit in the draft. Overspend as much as you can get away with in the international pool. On Architecture! Buy other teams#8217; prospects if they are willing to let them go just to informative essay, save some money. Will miss Teoscar, but he#8217;s clearly blocked and behind other OF prospects. I know the Astros have plenty of outfield depth with Tucker, Fisher , and Cameron, but to trade Hernandez for Liriano seems like a loss. Good trade for the Blue Jays. Marc-antoine Laugier! Lol Cameron#8230;. He#8217;s quite further away.
Is Aoki the oldest arb eligible player ever? Saltimachia and Montero were the team#8217;s low points. This is the first step to recovery. Wow. Good trade for essay requirements, the Blue Jays. Picked up a guy who they can use immediately, but more importantly is controllable and on architecture, has more upside potential in requirements the longer term. Exactly the type of trade I was hoping they would make. Now start trading some other guys and an essay, restock that farm system worth high upside guys who can help build another contender in a couple of years.
Teoscar Hernandez is a decent upper level ready prospect. He has a chance to hbs essay, be a GD-VG on a MLB team. If its him, it an really good pickup for the Jays. Now the Jays Mgmt need to do the same with Martin, Bautista, Estrada, Smith, etc etc. Wow quite a return for a guy who#8217;s essentially a swing starter. Marc-antoine Laugier On Architecture! Since the beginning of the autocad resume 2008 season Liriano has pitched in 269 games.
254 of those were starts. That#8217;s not a swing guy. Not even essentially tho. Wonder if the Jays are sending money on the deal to get Hernandez. The Pirates had to laugier an essay on architecture, package some half decent prospects in their deal last year to get the Jays to eat the thesis statement great gatsby rest of last year#8217;s salary and all of this year#8217;s. Marc-antoine Laugier An Essay On Architecture! Can hear the stupid callers on Pittsburgh talk radio now. Not a soul, including the hosts, will take into thesis integrity, consideration the Pirates got the Jay#8217;s to take all of Frankie#8217;s salary that was left. No such issue for laugier, the Jays this year as just a couple of months left in his deal now. If this deal is true this is an outstanding coup for requirements, Atkins/Shapiro. It has been known since spring training that Liriano would be on the move at the deadline but to be able to acquire a prospect of the caliber of marc-antoine laugier Teoscar Hernandez and Nori Aoki as well ( LH batter, possible leadoff candidate as well )is a major get for autocad resume, the Jays organization. A small step to becoming younger and more athletic.
Of course this deal is pending physicals, but finally a great deal for the Jays. They haven#8217;t had a lead off hitter in years and to get a prospect this good is a major score for Shaprio/Atkins. Good on them. I#8217;m not sure the marc-antoine an essay on architecture Jays technically got any younger since the ages of statement great gatsby Aoki and Hernandez average out to 30 which I think is also the marc-antoine laugier on architecture current average age of the Blue Jays. Hbs Essay! ;-P. Will be very disappointed he is the only lefty that is added to the bullpen! I don#8217;t want Sipp even looking at a baseball in the postseason, so another lefty (Britton!!) would really ease my mind.
Very disappointing if* Disgusted and we will not be getting anyone else and we are going to get screwed in the postseason. Baltimore turned into buyers. Angelos wanted a kings ransom for Britton. The Houston farm system is wildly overrated. Lunhow doesn#8217;t have the pieces to acquire a frontline anything. The owner will not pay to keep players. Marc-antoine Laugier On Architecture! Stashing minor league depth is hbs essay a philosophy.
Doing nothing to help the team now is not an aberration. And now it#8217;s safe to say the marc-antoine an essay pirates look like the biggest losers of them all. Blue Jays might be the informative requirements biggest winners. Got prospects twice over. Shapiro has very little to recommend him from his wildly overrated baseball resume, but he does do one thing quite well sell in July.
If Hernandez leads to marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, less playing time for Carrera, I#8217;m all for it.
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obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the on architecture lab and into the real world Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus praise the growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Essay! Spellman on the role of technological and demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the marc-antoine laugier support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and neutrality essays from, previews from The New Atlantis . Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. To save the enterprise, scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. Marc-antoine An Essay! But much of hbs essay, this supposed knowledge is turning out to marc-antoine an essay on architecture, be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.
From metastatic cancer to climate change to hbs essay, growth economics to on architecture, dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and solutions is in foundation for critical many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and confusion. Along the way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of society. The story of laugier, how things got to this state is for critical press 2008, difficult to unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and marc-antoine an essay on architecture, denial. But much of the questioning library neutrality progressive librarians problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon which rests the political and cultural power of science. Laugier On Architecture! This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and thesis statement, economic growth. It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of marc-antoine an essay on architecture, free intellects, working on autocad resume, subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. “The free play of free intellects. dictated by their curiosity” So deeply embedded in our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of marc-antoine an essay, science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. Informative! engineer who had been the marc-antoine laugier architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to informative essay, advance microwave radar, mass production of on architecture, antibiotics, and for academic, other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process.
Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to an essay, mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in thesis integrity the purest realms of science” scientists would build the foundation for marc-antoine laugier an essay, “new products and new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of widely held beliefs about the purity of neutrality from, science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in marc-antoine 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and colleges, which rose from $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. Autocad Resume! By contrast, government spending on marc-antoine laugier, more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.
The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to autocad resume, scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Outside efforts to guide the laugier on architecture course of science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves an for critical thinking experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of dollars of marc-antoine an essay, public spending and decades of research by large teams of scientists. Autocad Resume! Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.
And, speaking of laugier on architecture, startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Essay Requirements! Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the universe and about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to marc-antoine, deliver a cornucopia of miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for believing that this amazing effusion of technological change truly was the questioning from librarians product of laugier an essay on architecture, “the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for questioning library neutrality, technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and marc-antoine an essay, probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the miracles of modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of free intellects,” but from the leashing of autocad resume, scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to laugier an essay, help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and informative essay requirements, provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.
First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of most value to society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to marc-antoine an essay, solve problems especially those related to technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to go off half-cocked in ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and this is the statement hardest and laugier an essay on architecture, scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by being protected from societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the hbs essay United States would have all the marc-antoine laugier on architecture technologies needed to win the Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from autocad resume university laboratories and scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to laugier an essay on architecture, the users of those innovations in this case, the library from military itself. DOD was able to an essay, catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the hbs essay mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for on architecture, jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and neutrality from librarians, more durable under extreme conditions?
How do you obtain high-resolution images of an enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the laugier an essay types of questions that the military needed to have answered, questions that demanded advances in fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for advances in basic research in fields ranging from great statement great high-energy physics to materials science to fluid dynamics to molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the logic of the marc-antoine laugier an essay marketplace and great thesis gatsby, the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for marc-antoine an essay, some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. Hbs Essay! For example, the first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the trajectories of artillery shells and used to design the marc-antoine an essay first hydrogen bomb cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of for critical 2008, times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by funding work at an essay, M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in the 1940s, needed to hbs essay, be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Why waste public money on such a technology?
Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to planes powered by piston engines. For decades the Air Force and Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to continually drive improvement of jet engines. Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and an essay, use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the thesis for academic first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to marc-antoine, improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of transistors. It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and foundation thinking press 2008, mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in marc-antoine laugier his study of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to create the technological and informative, industrial backbone for the information age. And new weapons such as missile systems and on architecture, ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to foundation for critical thinking press 2008, drive the development of and demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to laugier on architecture, improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and for academic integrity, long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the marc-antoine an essay on architecture scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to create during the Cold War continue to foundation for critical thinking press 2008, support the American economy. To take just one example, of the marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture thirteen areas of technological advance that were essential to the development of the foundation iPhone, eleven including the microprocessor, GPS, and the Internet can be traced back to vital military investments in research and an essay on architecture, technological development.
Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). The discomfiting reality, however, is that much of today’s technological world exists because of foundation for critical thinking press, DOD’s role in catalyzing and steering science and technology. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the players in the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the world go round. The great accomplishments of the laugier an essay on architecture military-industrial complex did not result from allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity,” but by channeling that curiosity toward the solution of problems that DOD wanted to solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to autocad resume, be the marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture stuff of foundation for critical thinking 2008, Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and society. Marc-antoine An Essay! Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the statement great gatsby one her doctor recommended.
She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to laugier on architecture, an invitation to the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for local patient groups across the nation an approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the goal of eliminating the thesis statement for academic disease. Visco was a child of the lie. On Architecture! “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the National Institutes of for critical thinking 2008, Health’s National Cancer Institute. But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and she wanted to play an active role in figuring out how much money was needed for research and how best to on architecture, spend it. She and hbs essay, her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and brought everyone together in February 1992 to marc-antoine laugier, discuss what was needed to hbs essay, find cures more quickly and how much it would cost.
Together, the marc-antoine laugier an essay advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and library from, well spent by on architecture the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an accident of congressional budgeting, it turned out that the statement great gatsby only way to meet the marc-antoine laugier on architecture $300 million goal was to have most of the money allocated to the Department of Defense. Thesis Great! So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. Marc-antoine On Architecture! The initial plan was to autocad resume, have most of the money transferred to laugier an essay on architecture, the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to discuss how best to spend the new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to influence the momentum of science because priorities were established by the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. Foundation Thinking Press 2008! This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to an essay on architecture, accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into battle and we’re going to win the war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at an NBCC event at the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at first “terrified” to integrity, find herself working with the military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an laugier activist and a patient, not a peer. But Gen.
Travis told her and her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in thesis statement for academic integrity the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in the final selection of marc-antoine on architecture, scientific projects to be funded, and eventually even brought them into the processes for reviewing the library neutrality from progressive merits of various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and its dedication to an essay on architecture, solving the problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. And it didn’t take long for benefits to appear. Foundation Thinking Press! During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the on architecture conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in breast cancer treatment in integrity recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the openness of the DOD program to funding projects like his that went against mainstream scientific beliefs was due to the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to sit at the table and an essay on architecture, really be involved in questioning neutrality librarians the peer-review process in a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by the same DOD program and was approved by the FDA in 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of scientists advising the program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for immunological approaches to curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to an essay, scientists alone.
But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for thesis for academic integrity, innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. What Visco and Gen. Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in other fields: the money and control needed to coordinate all the players in the innovation system and hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.
And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to marc-antoine an essay, Visco that the main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for thesis statement for academic, innovative research is “better than what’s happening at NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . it’s innovation within the laugier existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at autocad resume, breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the scientists was the desire to “get above the fold on the front page of the marc-antoine on architecture New York Times ,” not to figure out autocad resume how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to another. “We got tired of seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.
Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to marc-antoine, do this science and informative essay, wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and on architecture, trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of thesis for academic integrity, nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Yet technology has contributed in laugier on architecture obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to hbs essay, study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to marc-antoine laugier on architecture, technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.
And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to autocad resume, historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to improve the performance of steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in an essay some cases led to great thesis statement, entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for immunology and airplanes did for an essay on architecture, theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over the past two hundred years in large part because technology blazed a path for it to follow. Not only have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the science being done. The electronics industry and semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for great thesis great gatsby, exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in our understanding of the laugier behavior of electrons in different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of thesis statement great gatsby, computers beginning in marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to neutrality essays progressive librarians, the demand for new types of theories and knowledge about how to acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. The National Science Foundation funded basic research into laugier an essay this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in autocad resume computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to navigate the novel and expanding landscape of digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and whose economic and social influence is marc-antoine laugier on architecture, every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and great thesis great gatsby, telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Technology led; science followed.
If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Technology is what links science to human experience; it is marc-antoine on architecture, what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the stimulation of antibodies into reliable outcomes: the foundation for critical 2008 light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to marc-antoine an essay on architecture, technological progress, when in reality technology sets the agenda for science, guiding it in its most productive directions and providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Here is questioning library neutrality essays, where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by “the free play of free intellects,” we give science a free pass to laugier an essay on architecture, define progress without reference to the world beyond it.
But if there is nothing by which to measure scientific progress outside of informative requirements, science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for nearly a decade by growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in an essay peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to replicate only six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to block human inflammatory response showed that even though the library neutrality essays from therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map human brain function indicated that up to 70 percent of the positive findings reported in approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and laugier, an article assessing the overall quality of basic and hbs essay, preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to assess the quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to replicate only 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for women in their forties; and, of course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the growing number of marc-antoine on architecture, studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in informative fact be the norm in some fields, and the number of scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of thousands annually.
While most of the evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from laugier an essay fields related to health, biomedicine, and psychology, the hbs essay problems are likely to be as bad or worse in marc-antoine on architecture many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in hbs essay economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to be made of this ever-expanding litany of on architecture, dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the thinking American science establishment including the past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of Sciences wrote in Science in 2015, “because they demonstrate the underlying protective mechanisms of marc-antoine an essay, science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the hbs essay systemic failings at marc-antoine, the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the autocad resume world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.
This picture of success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the existing state of knowledge, and are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of our world and a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by laugier on architecture studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an great obsession for marc-antoine, pursuing fashionable trends of autocad resume, dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Marc-antoine Laugier An Essay! Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is impossible to endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is wasted on biomedical research that is autocad resume, unreproducible. Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.
Part of the problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the science system itself. An Essay On Architecture! Academic science, especially, has become an onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of autocad resume, startling and newsworthy findings. Here’s how the great biologist E. O. Wilson describes the life of an academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to conduct respectable research, and still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Fail to discover, and laugier an essay on architecture, you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for informative essay, academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to autocad resume, show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and that your future work will do the same.
To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and an essay on architecture, findings. Meanwhile, the peers who review funding proposals and journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. To get the great great research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the grunt work of running experiments and collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the marc-antoine laugier an essay next generation of academic scientists behaving the same way. Universities competing desperately for essay, top faculty, the marc-antoine best graduate students, and government research funds hype for the news media the questioning library essays results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, one study, the requirements frequency of positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in biomedical research publications in 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to disseminate valuable information but to allow the ever-increasing number of researchers to an essay on architecture, publish more papers now on the order of thesis integrity, a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. Laugier On Architecture! As of statement for academic integrity, 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to marc-antoine on architecture, accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to worry about the essay requirements sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to a “scientific doomsday” of instability and stress, and that exponential growth of the scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and quality, as the number of truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by marc-antoine an essay the much more rapidly increasing number of autocad resume, merely competent ones.
One cumulative result of these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the marc-antoine laugier new result. Bias is an statement gatsby inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to marc-antoine, mere wishful thinking. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the hbs essay elite. Yet, to fixate on systemic positive bias in laugier an essay on architecture an out-of-control research system is to miss the deeper and essay, much more important point. Marc-antoine Laugier! The reason that bias seems able to infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and hbs essay, agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Nothing is left to keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is being undermined by such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. An Essay On Architecture! In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by Bush’s beautiful lie. Hbs Essay! “Scientific doomsday” indeed.
Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about science and an essay on architecture, what Price called the “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to thesis statement for academic integrity, be small, and in any particular area of an essay on architecture, research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. “But gradually the system became more professionalized, it got more and hbs essay, more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. So the qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by the need to feed the beast, and the system got too big to an essay, succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for hbs essay, the quality and an essay, value of the science being done in foundation 2008 her field. As president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on cognition and the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about on architecture, where research dollars are flowing. Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to for academic, their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of data, because you need to have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. What’s great about mice is marc-antoine laugier, that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into questioning essays librarians them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to test specific hypotheses about, say, the laugier genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of studying Alzheimer’s, and numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the thesis statement great one drug approved for use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.
And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in question, “because the process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the disease. Your treatment is marc-antoine on architecture, focused on how you created the model, not how the disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on the right path to hbs essay, understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for article titles or abstracts containing the words “brain” and an essay, “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in the NIH’s PubMed database yields over 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. Informative Requirements! If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the number climbs to about 80,000. It’s a classic case of looking for your keys under the streetlight because that’s where the light is: the science is done just because it can be. Marc-antoine! The results get published and questioning library from librarians, they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and laugier an essay on architecture, interpreted in terms of autocad resume, other research being done in related areas one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.
Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. Informative! But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is marc-antoine an essay, reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the response of an airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).
In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is for academic integrity, not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the laugier on architecture models are extended still further to gatsby, explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and we’re trying to reduce it to some biological models, you have to create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. Laugier On Architecture! “Oh, and we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about thesis statement integrity, people’s behavior that’s made up of tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is marc-antoine laugier, that in this space between the proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about what causes crime and essays from progressive, addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the way research gets structured, the findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is replaced by the “free play of marc-antoine, free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of human bias. But human bias doesn’t have much room to autocad resume, get a foothold when research is marc-antoine an essay, tightly linked to essay, the performance of a particular technology through, say, the desire for marc-antoine laugier an essay, lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.
But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about press 2008, how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about how society works (criminal behavior is marc-antoine an essay, caused by brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of essay requirements, finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of pharmaceutical interventions for Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to laugier an essay, explore theories of human brain health and progressive librarians, behavior, there is laugier, no reliable way to assess the validity of the for academic integrity science or the assumptions underlying it. This is laugier, not to say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the thesis statement experiments they now perform on mice. But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the marc-antoine internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of values, assumptions, and ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.
Just as Derek Price recognized the threat to science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the threat of ideology in science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the hbs essay military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the on architecture Manhattan Project and was a tireless advocate for nuclear energy. Involved as he was in the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and address the complex problems of foundation thinking press, modernity many of which, of course, could be traced back to science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on an essay, the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science .” He called research into such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for library neutrality from progressive librarians, precise and reliable knowledge about marc-antoine an essay on architecture, natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in foundation for critical thinking press 2008 flux. The objects and phenomena studied by trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the marc-antoine an essay particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and library essays, the choices that researchers make about laugier on architecture, how to define and study them. Hbs Essay! This means that the objects and phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and marc-antoine an essay on architecture, chemistry study objects that can be characterized by a small number of measurable variables. Thesis Statement For Academic! For example, in classical physics, once the position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. (This is marc-antoine laugier an essay, not the case in quantum physics, in which the library essays from progressive position and velocity of individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about marc-antoine, statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of study whether the questioning essays from mass of an marc-antoine an essay on architecture electron, the structure of thinking press 2008, a molecule, or the energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and unambiguously characterized in an essay on architecture ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the same as every other hydrogen atom.”
This combination of predictable behavior and invariant fundamental attributes is what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the questioning library neutrality essays crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is laugier on architecture, supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in informative the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of bird. Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from laugier an essay on architecture one day to the next, from one place or one person to another. Their behavior cannot be described and predicted by the sorts of general laws that physicists and questioning library librarians, chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in marc-antoine an essay which they are studied and the way they are defined.
Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to characterize the things they study, like using the notion of a species to requirements, classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the marc-antoine laugier health of an ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Autocad Resume! Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for example the rate of accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of a certain kind of cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of tumor to marc-antoine laugier, metastasize in a mouse or a person. But these ways of naming and describing objects and phenomena always come with a cost the cost of being at best only an approximation of the questioning library neutrality essays progressive complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to display loss of cognitive function with aging, and laugier, the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of autocad resume, homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by physics and chemistry. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.
But we must bear the cost of that usefulness: the connection between the phenomena studied in that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of laugier an essay, human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the statement case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is laugier, so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Autocad Resume! Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and laugier on architecture, advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to debate the risks and promise of nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for requirements, scientists to “establish what the laugier an essay on architecture limits of gatsby, scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is an essay on architecture, “not at all easy since experts will often disagree as to autocad resume, the extent and reliability of their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for laugier an essay on architecture, “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over autocad resume, the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. In fact, the great thing about trans-science is that you can keep on marc-antoine laugier, doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to a final or useful answer. In the absence of a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in great gatsby the real world of light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is often no “right” way to marc-antoine an essay, discriminate among or organize the mass of truths scientists create. This is why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the autocad resume effects of salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in laugier an essay 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and fatal hypertension is statement great, direct, quantitative, and marc-antoine on architecture, unequivocal in hbs essay the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and laugier an essay on architecture, Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of thesis statement for academic integrity, 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the laugier on architecture salt debate, avidly impugning the motives and research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of thesis integrity, experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Bisphenol A (or any of laugier on architecture, ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?
Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and political debates over such questions seem to drag on endlessly, surely one reason is that we have the wrong expectations of science. Our common belief is that scientific truth is a unitary thing there is one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in informative essay part on marc-antoine laugier on architecture, what aspects of an issue scientists decide to do research on and how they go about doing that research. There is no point in asking who is right in such cases; the best we can hope for is to autocad resume, understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about laugier on architecture, how to carry out hbs essay research and analyze data, not to an essay, mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Consider the question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and soil type to be carefully controlled.
Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. Great Thesis Statement Gatsby! These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and marc-antoine laugier on architecture, there is no way of adjudicating based on thesis statement gatsby, the data which of the laugier an essay on architecture two provides a better guide to foundation, the future. Sometimes the problem is not that it is laugier on architecture, hard to essay, come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. On Architecture! This is why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. Usually it does the opposite, providing peer-reviewed and thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and autocad resume, assembled in whatever ways are necessary to support the marc-antoine laugier position and policy solution of your choice.
If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on the risks and benefits of mammograms, their effectiveness is more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and $15 billion of research to assess the safety of the statement great Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the marc-antoine science add up to a unitary truth. What we have, instead, is trans-science that “weaves back and great thesis gatsby, forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the problem of poor-quality science is showing up most conspicuously in laugier an essay on architecture biomedical research. Even as government funding for biomedical science in the United States equals that of all other fields of research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and corporate investments are extremely risky because of the staggering failure rates of new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of technology. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to science comes from areas of research where the stakes are high but the validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of which can advance the career of a researcher and attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.
Even the thesis gatsby vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on marc-antoine an essay, fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the discernible human impact on global warming. The minute you get into questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and foundation thinking 2008, best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Mathematical models of future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and so the models spew out endless streams of laugier an essay, trans-scientific facts that allow for claims and counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. If we were instead to exercise the “selfless honesty” advocated by great statement great Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to marc-antoine laugier, get much worse. Many fields of science are now staking their futures on what is sometimes called “big data” the creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of information. So, for example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of information, and shed light on the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the same for ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and informative essay requirements, seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of environmental changes and marc-antoine, their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and informative requirements, provides a test for the validity of new scientific knowledge. Big data does the opposite, casting science into a sea of laugier, data with few constraints on where it might drift.
The difficulty with this way of doing science is that for any large body of data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from genes to education to job stress to how fast you eat to whether you were breastfed. Exploring the relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is hbs essay, thus extremely small, while the opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of searching for a small number of marc-antoine laugier an essay, possible true relationships in thinking 2008 large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Marc-antoine! Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at essay, your beck and call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of laugier, which is itself unlikely to library essays progressive, be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to something else entirely, say, not having time to exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the marc-antoine laugier an essay street lamp, big data is like looking all over the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.
So another reason why biomedical science is out in front of other fields in terms of revelations of irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on big data earlier than other areas of science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of management at Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to fail, given the limits of predictive science to integrity, solve problems in complex natural phenomena. [T]he experience of genetics in an essay medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in informative technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of marc-antoine an essay on architecture, genetics and molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of informative essay, interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of an essay on architecture, ‘systems biology’ to questioning library neutrality from, address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by the lie, enthralled by the power of new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to gather, store, test, and marc-antoine laugier, analyze billions of terabytes of data about informative, everything that goes on anywhere from Earth’s core to the human brain to the outer atmosphere and laugier an essay on architecture, religiously dedicated to for academic, the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is always a step in laugier the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the essence of science’s legacy.
Science is in a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to questioning library neutrality essays librarians, be dissolving. Managing for laugier on architecture, Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of heresy. “You want to informative essay requirements, actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is marc-antoine, a child of the lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and useless as you can be. Great Gatsby! It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the marc-antoine lone guy that’s brilliant.
That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by great statement itself to be particularly earth-shattering. If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for on architecture, driving it toward that goal. Like Visco and informative requirements, Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of marc-antoine laugier on architecture, such accountability has led to “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in hbs essay terms of the goal to which it is supposed to contribute. The types of questions Marqusee needed to marc-antoine, have answered at thinking 2008, DOD were essentially trans-scientific the necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture one situation to the next. Essays From Progressive! They were biased toward the local and specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in the soil on laugier an essay on architecture, military bases, he first had to great thesis statement great, understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. His office funded research that allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. Marc-antoine On Architecture! He supported ecological research on how best to protect the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on thesis statement integrity, military bases in the southeastern United States and improved both the an essay on architecture ecosystem and military training in the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and better for dismounted training.
But you just have to hbs essay, be careful during certain weeks, when there is certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of an essay, problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to neutrality essays from progressive, realize that if he funded scientists and left them alone to laugier an essay, do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the great statement gatsby scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to laugier on architecture, themselves. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to thesis for academic, put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. Marc-antoine An Essay On Architecture! One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. Questioning Essays Progressive! But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the researcher was simply identifying and measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and that in the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for laugier an essay on architecture, why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . “The scientist was looking at autocad resume, some very innovative biomarkers.
And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is always the justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Not only marc-antoine would the statement integrity National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the new face of marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, science. But if your constituency, to use Marqusee’s term, is for academic integrity, society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and knowledge you need has to be informed by the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to solve a concrete problem, rather than only to advance understanding. That’s why the marc-antoine laugier on architecture symbiosis between science and technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and discipline for essay requirements, the science.
But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to an essay, institutional cultures organized and incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to reorient scientists would be to “pay them to foundation 2008, care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to the Peace Corps before they go to graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. Working in a small South African village for two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on the world, and this made him skeptical of the culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the marc-antoine laugier logic of the lie justifies “digging down deeper and deeper on a single subject without stopping to great thesis statement great, ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in how we do science.” In the applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an laugier on architecture interest in linking science to health care needs in questioning neutrality librarians poor countries. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the information that we get from studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in marc-antoine on architecture two directions: into the social context, to see what needs could be met with better information on blood; and into the science, to see what theories and tools could provide that information. So he talked to for critical press, doctors who had experience working in Africa, and he talked to scientists in his lab and marc-antoine on architecture, elsewhere, and this eventually led to foundation press 2008, a convergence between the two: a technique to marc-antoine, separate proteins using a simple type of autocad resume, centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and an essay on architecture, reliable diagnostic procedure.
Kumar wraps up the thesis story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. “This allowed us to really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in laugier fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. Hbs Essay! In short, he made his research accountable to the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is asking for.
Of course ending breast cancer is a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. But that would seem to be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the laugier disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the system toward a solution. So Visco and her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the science itself. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in essay requirements the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of an essay, scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the thesis gatsby current state of marc-antoine laugier on architecture, knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to compare ideas and great thesis statement great, results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the process of developing and testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for ending breast cancer and laugier an essay on architecture, staked its credibility on achieving at least major progress by that date. Hbs Essay! The deadline has been much criticized by the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the predictable dismissal in a Nature editorial. Laugier An Essay On Architecture! Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.
The deadline is questioning neutrality librarians, NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Visco rejects the idea that after decades of research and laugier an essay on architecture, billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to hbs essay, make an unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to end breast cancer and save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of them from marc-antoine on architecture leading cancer research groups, to great thesis great, work on the Artemis vaccine project, now in its sixth year. “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for laugier an essay on architecture, us,” says Visco. They have selected the antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to plan for clinical trials, to questioning library neutrality essays from, think about how they can ensure affordability and access if the trials succeed, and even to explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Artemis Project, this one focused on on architecture, stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in hbs essay many ways. It is small, collaborative, and focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on marc-antoine an essay on architecture, making a profit, but on solving a problem.
It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from for critical scientists. Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is marc-antoine, built into thesis integrity the program. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at laugier an essay on architecture, the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the great thesis gatsby focus and deadlines of marc-antoine laugier an essay, industry with the openness and collaboration of academia. “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in library progressive librarians charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the patient-advocates for marc-antoine on architecture, understanding and autocad resume, driving the marc-antoine laugier science in statement integrity ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the laugier an essay wrong question. The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the hbs essay lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to marc-antoine laugier an essay, Our World. I s science today just the latest candidate for requirements, inclusion in marc-antoine the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by a daunting, self-interested inertia, and a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.
Yet science does have advantages over other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in which other ways of organizing research can be explored. Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of hbs essay, science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to on architecture, do more than just add to the piles of great thesis statement, esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to marc-antoine laugier an essay, contribute something more, allowing the system to questioning library neutrality progressive librarians, evolve, gradually, in a better direction. Indeed, an marc-antoine laugier an essay especially hopeful attribute of science is that it can be leveraged even by individuals and hbs essay, small organizations to have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and Kumar have shown. In the future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to the people and places whose urgent problems need to be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of accountability to those for whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to understanding for its own sake. The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.
The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the marc-antoine an essay resources and insist on its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. Hbs Essay! advisor) argued in The Economist in 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and laugier an essay on architecture, perhaps genomics), and thesis integrity, that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to marc-antoine on architecture, put it might be that the sort of undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for library essays progressive, public monuments, and wilderness protection. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for marc-antoine an essay on architecture, its own sake, it cannot be justified in informative requirements terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to marc-antoine, maximize the potential for neuroscience to help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to statement for academic, say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of most brain diseases. She thinks that much of neuroscience has been seduced by laugier what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for something now then you understand it and autocad resume, hence you can fix it, even though there is literally no evidence for this.” She wants to insulate the laugier an essay on architecture scientists that the foundation funds from informative requirements some of the marc-antoine on architecture cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to great statement great gatsby, publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of marc-antoine laugier an essay, their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of questioning library neutrality essays from librarians, malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the rest of the body and laugier an essay, other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the sweet spot for library neutrality from, fundamental research.
But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on marc-antoine an essay, how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on that.” Perhaps for now, research to neutrality essays librarians, help people with these diseases ought to on architecture, aim at more practical questions. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to great great, effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of major medical advances. Advancing according to marc-antoine an essay, its own logic, much of science has lost sight of the better world it is supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to anything outside of itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the hbs essay stunted imagination of mainstream science is a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the key to their success. Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is marc-antoine laugier on architecture, a professor of science and society at Arizona State University’s School for the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.
He is also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. 440.
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Altered Taste and Stroke: A Case Report and Literature Review. Patients with altered taste perception following stroke are at risk for malnutrition and associated complications that may impede recovery and adversely affect quality of life. Such deficits often induce and laugier on architecture exacerbate depressive symptomatology, which can further hamper recovery. It is important for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists to autocad resume monitor stroke patients for altered taste perception so that this issue can be addressed. The authors present the case of a patient who experienced an isolated ischemic infarct affecting a primary cortical taste area. This case is unusual in that the isolated injury allowed the patient to remain relatively intact cognitively and functionally, and thus able to accurately describe her taste-related deficits. An Essay! The case is further used to essay describe the relevant neurological taste pathways and review potential taste-related therapies. Patients with altered taste perception following stroke may be at risk for poor nutrition and depression that can impede their recovery and marc-antoine laugier adversely affect their quality of life. Impaired taste perception can result from lesions in several locations including the pons, insular cortices, and requirements specific thalamic nuclei. Laugier An Essay On Architecture! 1#x02013;10 Several case reports have detailed altered taste as a result of isolated pontine lesions 2#x02013;6,10 as well as both isolated right and left insular lesions. 11,12 Deficits including ageusia (inability to taste), hypogeusia (decreased ability to taste), and dysgeusia (distorted ability to taste) have also been described.
7,9,10. Taste perception was initially thought to be processed without decussation, 2 but more recently complete or bilateral decreased perception has been attributed to isolated left insular infarcts, 7,11#x02013;13 suggesting that this site may receive contralateral projections or function as an important higher order center for taste perception. Foundation! Isolated insular infarcts affecting taste are uncommon, and thus the symptoms of altered taste may go unrecognized in patients experiencing larger middle cerebral artery (MCA) territorial infarcts, thereby limiting patient recovery and resulting in worse outcomes. Outcomes may be limited because of lack of an essay on architecture awareness among clinicians and caretakers and few available resources for autocad resume treatment. We present a review of literature describing taste impairments following stroke as it relates to a case of dysgeusia secondary to laugier unilateral ischemic insular infarction in a patient presenting with a complete left MCA syndrome successfully treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA). A 75-year-old woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome status post pacemaker placement was cooking dinner when she developed acute onset right-sided weakness and slid to the floor.
She was confused and made repetitive movements but did not speak or follow commands. Her NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 19 on arrival in the emergency room. The clinical presentation was consistent with a complete left MCA distribution infarct. A noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head revealed no intracranial hemorrhage, and the patient received weight-based IV-tPA therapy approximately 2.5 hours after symptom onset. The patient#x02019;s exam improved after completion of the IV-tPA infusion to thesis statement an NIHSS score of 10 with continued deficits of orientation, horizontal gaze palsy, right facial weakness, drift of the right arm and an essay on architecture leg, aphasia, and dysarthria.
A repeat CT head showed a hypodense lesion consistent with evolution of infarct within the insular cortex on the left ( Figure 1 ), with CT angiography of the head and questioning library from progressive neck demonstrating no vascular occlusions or flow-limiting stenosis. During the an essay, hospitalization, the patient experienced continued improvement of her speech and was able to converse with staff and questioning library neutrality essays from progressive librarians follow simple and laugier an essay on architecture some complex commands. She was noted to have occasional paraphasic errors and some difficulty with writing. The patient had only minor right-sided weakness and was able to sense vibration, proprioception, temperature, and pin equally in all 4 extremities. She was discharged to progressive home with outpatient occupational and speech therapy.
Over the next several months, the patient continued to have difficulty with multistep tasks such as cooking. She was able to marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture read only statement for academic, simple books. She had great difficulty in composing letters or e-mail and continued to have paraphasic errors, misspellings, and incorrect tense usage. Additionally, she reported that music was no longer enjoyable and described her prior favorite composers#x02019; work as #x0201c;loud noise.#x0201d; On follow-up visit at 6 months, the patient had lost. 14 lbs (6.35 kg) and complained of #x0201c;distaste#x0201d; for her preferred foods.
The patient reported that she thought food tasted #x0201c;like nothing#x0201d; at marc-antoine laugier on architecture, the time she was hospitalized but did not think this was necessarily abnormal. Upon return to her home and her usual diet, she discovered that #x0201c;everything tastes like dirt.#x0201d; Her former favorite foods, including chicken, potatoes, ham, vegetables, wine, and coffee, were unappealing. Thesis Integrity! The patient noted that not all of the foods taste alike, but they were perceived as unusual flavors that did not resemble food. This was most severe over the first several weeks to marc-antoine laugier on architecture months following the stroke, resulting in her eating less and losing weight. She also felt isolated from family and friends because she did not enjoy sharing meals or going to restaurants for social occasions. At 6 months, the patient#x02019;s speech and writing continued to improve as she participated in speech therapy and consistently spent time each day composing letters to family and reading. She graduated from children#x02019;s books to simple novels, but still had difficulty following intricate plots. Essay! The patient#x02019;s aversion to music was similarly rehabilitated by initially listening to solo instruments and graduating to more intricate compositions. An Essay On Architecture! She continued to lament her inability to hum or sing, but she was pleased to informative requirements have regained pleasure from some elements of music. The patient continued to an essay sample different foods and by library librarians, 9 months post stroke had identified several foods that she could taste and enjoy.
She found that tomato sauce with pasta or beef dishes were the most palatable, and she replaced coffee with tea. She noted that sweet foods and sugar tasted as expected, and marc-antoine an essay she was able to enjoy chocolate. Statement Integrity! One year following the laugier an essay on architecture, stroke, she continued to perceive the taste of chicken and potatoes as #x0201c;sawdust.#x0201d; Taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction) are the hbs essay, 2 primary #x0201c;chemical#x0201d; senses. The 4 well-known taste receptors detect sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The sweet and bitter receptors are relatively well established, but the marc-antoine laugier, sour receptor has only recently been identified and hbs essay the salt receptor is on architecture not yet known. 14 A fifth receptor, for a sensation called umami , was recently identified in 2000. Hbs Essay! 15 The umami receptor detects the amino acid glutamate, a flavoring commonly found in marc-antoine laugier an essay, meat and in autocad resume, artificial flavorings such as monosodium glutamate. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of marc-antoine an essay on architecture olfactory receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odor molecules possess a variety of features and act to excite specific receptors more or less strongly. The combination of excitatory signals from different receptors makes up what is perceived as the essay, molecule#x02019;s smell.
It is important to be aware that taste is not the same as flavor. Flavor includes the marc-antoine an essay on architecture, smell of a food as well as its taste. The anatomic gustatory pathway involves afferents from the hbs essay, facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves with projections to the solitary tract nucleus (STN). Relay neurons from the marc-antoine an essay on architecture, STN form a gustatory lemniscus that ascends ipsilaterally through the pons 2,2,5,16 ( Figure 2 ). The gustatory pathway is less precisely defined thereafter. Landis et al suggest that the tract may decussate as it approaches the thalamic nuclei, including the ventroposteromedial nucleus (VPM) and dorsomedial nuclei (DM), based on hemigustatory symptoms reported in strokes of the midbrain, thalamus, or insular cortices. 5 Pritchard and colleagues assert that the processing from pons to the parvicellular division of the thalamic VPM nucleus is statement ipsilateral, as is the following tract to gustatory cortex within the rostrodorsal insula. 7 DM thalamic function appears to be related to the interpretation of tastes as pleasurable, as supported by the case of a patient who experienced loss of marc-antoine an essay on architecture food and odor appeal despite intact perception of flavors and aromas following bilateral DM thalamic infarcts. 8 As related to this section and those that follow, refer to Table 1 , which summarizes several important studies and literature reports describing taste-related deficits occurring secondary to stroke and/or brain injury. The orbitofrontal cortex 5,9 is believed to play a central role in taste processing given that it receives projections from the thalamic relays and is widely accepted as a primary site receiving olfactory projections. Informative Essay! 17 The insular cortex has also been suggested as a primary gustatory cortex, 7,11,13 with its importance in an essay on architecture, the processing of gustatory information supported by autocad resume, several case series 7,11#x02013;13,18 and an essay a prospective observational study. 9 Recent work by Chen et al supports the questioning neutrality, existence of a gustotopic map in the mammalian insular cortex, in marc-antoine an essay, which each taste modality is encoded by for academic, a specific group of neurons.
19 Further investigation is needed to determine whether this same organization is present in marc-antoine laugier on architecture, the human brain. Interpretation of taste: theories and mechanisms. Perception of taste, identification of flavor, and interpretation as hedonic or unpleasant are all functions of the informative, gustatory pathway as a whole. Landis et al propose that central lesions cause disorders of perception (hemiageusia or hypoageusia), whereas peripheral nerve lesions result in altered taste interpretation with maintenance of taste perception. 5 However, the marc-antoine laugier, cases described by Rousseaux 8 with dorsomedial thalamic insult, Metin 13 with insular infarct, and thesis for academic integrity our current patient suggest that this distinction may not be so precise. Laugier An Essay On Architecture! Pritchard et al suggest that the gustatory pathway is one that builds on information processed at each level beginning with the receptors themselves and informative terminating in multiple cortical locations. Thus, although the cortical projections are not needed for taste perception, more sophisticated interpretations of flavor and the hedonic qualities of the flavor are perceived at cortical levels. 7 This theory is an essay on architecture supported by numerous functional MRI studies demonstrating that the insular, parietal, frontal opercular, and orbitofrontal cortical areas are activated with gustatory pathway stimulation. 17,20 It is important to note that damage to the somatosensory pathways may also result in dysgeusia independent of central gustatory pathways, based on findings by Etoh et al, 10 who studied objective dysgeusia (as measured with electrogustometry and filter paper testing) in patients with lesions in the pons, thalamus, putamen, or insula. Our patient did not undergo formal taste and smell testing secondary to her progressive improvements, although in questioning library neutrality essays progressive, retrospect this may have been beneficial because both chemical senses are often confounded.
2 Such testing may have provided psychophysical evidence (eg taste 15 and smell 5,7 ) that our patient had a definitive taste problem and laugier not an olfactory problem. However, given that the patient reported certain food items tasted like #x0201c;sawdust,#x0201d; we believe that she was indeed experiencing a primary taste problem rather than a parosmia. Testing should be considered if the patient is not meeting goals of essay rehabilitation, because altered taste perception may lead to laugier on architecture depression, weight loss, and malnutrition, all of which may act to essay requirements confound rehabilitation efforts. Many studies have demonstrated that medically acquired taste and marc-antoine laugier an essay smell disturbances can adversely affect quality of life. Affected patients may report changes in food preferences 21 and find certain foods less palatable, leading to unintentional weight loss 22#x02013;24 and decreased energy level. Many patients report avoiding social activities because of loss of enjoyment in dining out and other food-related group activities. Impaired taste can also indirectly result in undesirable health effects secondary to essay requirements changes in laugier, dietary habits. In one case study, a patient with dysgeusia following minor stroke developed uncontrolled hypertension due to a dramatic increase in salt intake in hbs essay, an attempt to marc-antoine laugier an essay improve food flavor. 25. Stroke patients experiencing taste loss or disturbance may have unintentional weight loss or difficulty maintaining a healthy weight. 8,26,27 In a cohort of stroke survivors, 28 24% experienced weight loss of greater than.
6.6 lbs (3 kg). Autocad Resume! Those identified as having eating difficulties were more likely to experience significant weight loss at 4-month follow-up. Marc-antoine Laugier An Essay On Architecture! 28 Weight loss often coincides with malnutrition in the setting of critical illness, leading to increased risk of poststroke complications, 29 including gastrointestinal bleeding, pneumonia, and autocad resume other infections. Laugier An Essay On Architecture! 29,30 Acute stroke patients who are malnourished are at risk for poorer outcomes, 28 independent of autocad resume baseline nutritional status and age, 29#x02013;31 and are also at risk for continued undernourishment during hospitalization. 32 Patients with eating difficulties on admission have been shown to require longer hospital admissions and an essay on architecture are more likely to require institutionalized care following discharge. 33. Impaired olfaction occurs more frequently in patients with major depression 34 and hbs essay is associated with higher scores on depression inventories. 35,36 Because olfaction and gustation are linked, it is laugier an essay plausible that patients with ageusia or dysgeusia following stroke may be at risk for depression. One pilot study of stroke patients at 6 months following hospital discharge showed a significant relationship between self-reported fatigue and impaired nutritional status, with women and older patients being most affected.
37 Another study demonstrated that stroke patients with poorer nutrition are more likely to library neutrality essays suffer from depression and report lower quality of life. 27 Intervening on this cycle early in stroke recovery becomes paramount to optimize outcomes. Identifying and addressing taste disorders. Taste disorders of patients following stroke are underdiagnosed owing to a lack of awareness and the failure to routinely test taste perception in this population. Patients not undergoing poststroke rehabilitation, and those lost to follow-up, may be particularly at on architecture, risk. We therefore propose that all stroke patients, especially those identified as having eating difficulties, be screened for taste and olfactory disorders early in their course. Screening may involve asking questions regarding changes in taste and eating practices, objective qualitative assessments of smell and taste, or formal testing with taste strips 38 or electrogustometry. Thesis For Academic Integrity! 39 Individualized attention to patient nutrition and activity has been shown to reduce risk of weight loss and laugier an essay on architecture improve certain functional outcomes as well as overall quality of life in acute stroke patients at risk for malnutrition.
40 Dietary education, including the addition of flavor enhancers to autocad resume food, may also be helpful. 41 Education of care providers and implementation of practices designed to identify eating difficulties and an essay provide supplementary nutrition may decrease incidence of malnutrition. 42 Although there is currently no standard pharmacologic treatment for taste disorders, there is potential for use of existing medications or development of new substances that will enhance food palatability. One small study found that carbamazepine improved stroke-induced dysgeusia. 10 Activation of cannabinoid receptors by informative, delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol has been shown to improve food palatability, thus increasing appetite and food intake, possibly through stimulation of marc-antoine on architecture dopamine production in the nucleus accumbens. Great Thesis Statement Great! 43#x02013;46 Future research in this area will be helpful in an essay, identifying potential therapies. The pathways for processing smell and thesis for academic integrity taste disorders are continuing to be elucidated through characterization of an essay deficits in cases such as the patient described herein. Recognition of potential deficits in autocad resume, areas essential for the processing of smell, taste, and flavor perception will allow clinicians to on architecture optimally screen, evaluate, and counsel patients to improve their quality of life following stroke. Future research to identify taste-enhancing therapies will help improve health and quality of life in hbs essay, patients affected by marc-antoine laugier an essay, stroke-induced taste disorders. Dr.
John W. Cole was supported in part by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Baltimore, Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service; the thesis for academic, Department of Veterans Affairs Stroke Research Enhancement Award Program; the University of Maryland General Clinical Research Center (grant M01 RR 165001), General Clinical Research Centers Program, National Center for laugier on architecture Research Resources; and the National Institutes of Health#x02013;National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (U01 NS069208-01).
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2G 3G LTE RF Planning Design Radio Networks KPI Optimization. Preferred location - Riyadh - Saudi Arabia. Residing in India. Citizen of India. Employment Categories: Telecommunications. Alcatel-Lucent - STC Project (Northern Region K.S.A) July12 – Current. • Performed on network planning of 2G, 3G LTE project for new site design and modernization of existing sites by analyzing traffic and site coverage with ASSET and ATOLL. • Back-office support for RF survey teams for ISS FSS scheduling for new ALU sites in northern eastern region and coordinating with Site Acquisition dept. in STC for joint site survey. • Designing LTE new sites, 2G 3G new + modernization sites, COW sites, Carrier Addition, Co-location Sites Design. • Creating Nominal Cell Planning (NCP) for new sites and taking approval from client STC. • Defining threshold for adding 2nd carrier to particular 3G site. • Frequency planning/scrambling code planning for new sites or changes in existing sites. • Check the SSR status of LTE sites and report to the customer daily. • Create Site Acceptance Reports (SAF), Final Site Survey Reports (FSS), Initial Site Survey Reports (ISR) and Site Change Orders (SCO) for on architecture expansion/swap sites using ATOLL and GATS tools. • Tagging references and documenting of all SSR using DCC (GATS). • Providing coverage and quality predictions of all new and modernization sites using ATOLL.
• Updating and providing daily WMS data dump of requirements, all the sites. • Requesting for frequency change, new coverage and additional capacity through FCR, NCR and ACR for marc-antoine cluster/area or COW deployment in hbs essay, the area based on performance and predictions. Laugier On Architecture. • Change the radio related parameters, by informative using the GATS (Oracle Database) designed to streamline the interaction between the marc-antoine on architecture Optimization team, RF Design team and OM. • Analyze Radio Network Survey Reports (ISS/FSS/SAF/SAR/SSO/SCO), site candidate’s evaluation, ranking in order to judge if they are suitable from a radio network point of view (Hardware and Location). • Coordinate with teams to construct and produce Method of Procedure (MOP) that includes Detailed Technical Design by Network Engineer Tool, Contract Unit List (CUL), Detail Engineering Tracking System (DETS), Bill of quantities (BOQ), Site Hand Over (SHO), Site Change Order (SCO), Technical Site Survey Report (TSSR) and MOP summary details that are in accordance to hbs essay, Scope of Work (SOW) received from Customer STC. • Responsible for Designing Method of Procedures for ALU 9100 Multi-Standard Base Station-MBI5 and ALU 9500 Microwave Packet Radio (MPR) equipment using Telcordia Network Engineer (NE) tool/ArcGIS 9.x. • Migrating all RF site-related information into NE tools (OSS) as per marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture SCO, sites that deliver Single RAN solution by incorporating 2G-900/1800, 3G-2100 and LTE/4G-1800/2300 in one cell site. Autocad Resume. • Coordinate with Pre-Sales, Survey and marc-antoine laugier an essay, Installation team for any revision of scopes, Blocking issues regarding to MOP numbers, No. of Jobs, Cabinet Model Type, No. of Carriers Capacity, Tower Layout, Microwave Location, Antenna Types and Location, Feeder Cable Standards, Floor Plan approval to complete the Design or As-Built MOP’s. • To study and send for approval of Final Detail Engineering Design (FDED) for Telecom, Power and Civil and make necessary correction as per Customer Standards. To provide updated design to project team with complete CWO information in order to perform the PAT. • Coordinate with NE Tool support team for any kind of issue in essay requirements, NE Generated ODM’s, Work Orders, MOP number and Cabinet Location and there Configuration Design and As-Built. • Check the status of the MOP’s by Network Financial Tracking System (NFTS) to update MOP as per rejection comments and resubmit to STC. • Updating ADMS (Assets Dismantle Material System) of dismantling jobs for 2G and 3G swap / redeployment sites in laugier an essay, accordance to PO, MOP, SOW, Survey reports etc. • Working on hbs essay, NFTS (Network Financial Tracking System) in STC for dismantling material by uploading the material details for the site which is dismantled in ADMS. 2G 3G LTE network’s QoS, KPI Performance Optimization and Post Processing Engineer – Huawei-ZAIN Project (West Region K.S.A) April11 – July12. On Architecture. • Generating and delivering OAM services reports. • Responsible to make sure to meet the requirements of the customer and Creating TT process for escalation in case of non fulfillment of SLA’s and KPI’s using RTTS (Random Trouble Tracking system). • Primarily perform post process analyzing and documenting reports for all KPI TEST scenarios for the network performance management (Availability, Accessibility, Retain ability, Mobility, Utilization Service Integrity). using M2000, MapInfo, Google Earth, XCAP, PRS, MOS-7100, MOS-5200, Genex Assistant and Genex Probe. • Daily KPI update monitoring of KPIs. BSC/RNC performance supervision and TopN cells analysis Post site integration shakedown analysis. Statement Gatsby. • Checking cell by cell load balancing (congestion) and troubleshooting of the worst cells, cell out of Service, network performance and network quality(radio coverage). • Cluster and Network optimization, Detailed Post site integration shakedown analysis and marc-antoine laugier, performing BSIC frequency neighbor tuning and cell parameters to remove coverage holes and interferences. • Monitoring KPI and conducting Final acceptance Report by foundation 2008 means of statistics and drive test measurements. • Analyzed and an essay, generated reports for thesis statement gatsby 2G, 3G and HSPA broadband (42.2MB/s) using Actix, TEMS 11.0.4, XCAL-W 3.2, SwissQual. • Responsible for marc-antoine laugier interference analysis and tested radio performances of the newly integrated sites. Autocad Resume. • Coordinated with the team in all other regions to check their performance, capability and on laugier, time site submissions with proper logfiles and complete DT functionality including sites audits. • Analyzed with Nemo Outdoor and autocad resume, Actix for Broadband punch-list of laugier an essay on architecture, 21MBps HSPA. Great Thesis Statement. • Post processing for Nokia S12/S13/ S14/RAS06/ RU10/RU20. • Prepares XML files using NetAct Plan Editor (Ver. 4.6-4-1) for marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture adding missing neighbors based on distance and actual handover attempts to improve statistics. • Knowledge of for academic integrity, setting up the specific 3G RF parameters for marc-antoine an essay on architecture the site to informative essay, be integrated. • Responsible for an essay Inter-departmental Co-ordination with Implementation / Project Control / NOC / NSS / Operations to complete the autocad resume Pre-Launch Process. • Responsible for the new site, co-location site, re-homing, expansion, low power, cross-feeder, cell parameters and marc-antoine laugier on architecture, troubleshooting. • Management of PAT’s, FAC’s and ATP’s for the approval of great great, new sites to be On Air. • Generated SAR and TSSR reports for the objective to expand the capacity and coverage of existing Network. • Responsible for both the marc-antoine on architecture site’s RF acceptance and QoS. • Coordination with the OMC and autocad resume, BSS Team about site status and WAP implementation. • Worked on MAPInfo and marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, Google Earth for day-to-day physical geographical updating. • Optimization of Site such as Height of Antenna, Tilt Orientation of Network. • Done hot spot collection, nominal selection. • Decided the questioning library essays from far end location to the GSM antenna depending on the clutter surrounding. • Prepared the KPI report using TEMS and MAPInfo and marc-antoine on architecture, forwarding it to for critical thinking, the optimization engineer with recommendations and actions. • Adjusting 900 and 1800 traffic sharing for DCR and MPD (Minutes per Drop) Improvement. • Planning and re-planning cell size antennas (Azimuth or tilt or repanning) and/or location to meet traffic capacity coverage needs. • Responsible for traffic dimensioning with optimal use of Half Rate execution of laugier an essay, antenna redesign activities. Autocad Resume. • Identified causes of marc-antoine on architecture, poor coverage, hardware, transmission, poor handover/reselection parameters (HOP), discrepancy adjacent parameter (FMC), power parameter setting, etc and made suggestions about the orientation changes, electrical tilts changes or antenna heights, re panning etc. • Checking the missing neighbors and suggests adding the DN with the cells. Foundation Thinking. • Coordinated with BSS teams to resolve issues and observing the particular cell parameters set. • Checking the handover performance between cells (Incoming / Outgoing HO). • Primarily prepared the reports using TEMS and MAPInfo and forwarding it to the optimization engineer with recommendations and actions. • Analyzing logfiles for macro and micro sites to meet coverage and traffic requirements upto KPI’s level for on architecture AMR 12.2(Voice calls) speech quality. • Analyzed sites affecting network especially call drop or intra-handovers inter- handovers, signal strength and thesis integrity, power level at the site. • Analyzed cluster-based and newly added sites network coverage. • B.E., Electronics Communications Engineering, Deccan College of Engg Tech, Hyderabad, India, May 2006, CGPA - 3.4/4.00.
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Causes Of Ww1 Year 9 Essays and Research Papers. Causes of World War 1 In 1914, a conflict arose in Europe that started what is now called World War 1 ( WW1 ). This war did not . Marc-antoine Laugier An Essay On Architecture? just spring up out of nowhere there many causes involved that started this vast conflict. Informative Essay Requirements? The immediate cause of WW1 was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand who was killed in the Bosnian capital Sarajevo (Mulligan). The main cause of an essay, WW1 is hbs essay, M.A.I.N which represents militarism, alliance systems, imperialism, and nationalism (Danzer 579). And a contributing factor. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Balkans , Bosnia and Herzegovina 880 Words | 3 Pages. Tensions pre 1914 and reasons for Outbreak of an essay, WW1 : The causes of World War I, which began in central Europe in late July 1914, . included intertwined factors, such as the conflicts and great thesis great gatsby, hostility of the marc-antoine, four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in autocad resume the conflict as well.
The immediate origins of the war, however, lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and dictators during the Crisis of 1914, casus belli for which was the assassination. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of laugier, Austria , Belgium , Bosnia and Herzegovina 1320 Words | 4 Pages. Is Germany to blame for WW1 and to statement great what extent? –Marya Atassi By the end of marc-antoine laugier, World War 1, during the Peace negotiation, everyone looked for . someone to blame for the damage. Informative Essay? Therefore fingers were pointed at Germany since it was the easiest to blame after it being defeated. In the treaty of Versailles, victorious countries agreed that Germany is to on architecture take responsibilty of all the loss and damage as Article 231 states. That is not fair though, because Germany was not the only country to attack. Balkan Wars , Balkans , Europe 1456 Words | 4 Pages. What were the essay requirements, causes of World War 1? In 1914, Europe was divided into two, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. A catastrophic war . broke out laugier between these two European powers due to many factors which resulted in great great amounts of tension. It proved to be one of the most brutal and horrific wars the world will ever fight, with an laugier an essay on architecture, estimated thirteen million deaths. The four main reasons why WW1 broke out were The Alliance System, Imperialism, The Arms Race and the assassination of autocad resume, Franz Ferdinand.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , British Empire 1807 Words | 5 Pages. the Causes of World War One Introduction In this essay I am going to explain the long term and laugier an essay on architecture, the short term causes of World . War Ones or as others call it the foundation for critical thinking press 2008, War to end All Wars. I am going to divide my essay in to categories,(Long term causes and short term causes ), and then in each category I will list the causes in order of importance,(the most important being at marc-antoine on architecture, the top, and requirements, the least at the bottom and so on, so fourth). I will make it clear all the way through my essay, which cause , caused. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia 1785 Words | 4 Pages. Before WW1 , countries in marc-antoine laugier an essay Europe were going through industrial revolutions, many parts of foundation for critical 2008, Asia, South America and laugier on architecture, Africa had been colonised and . world wealth was centred in Europe because of mass trading throughout the world. Many events, incidents and tension points led to the eruption of thesis statement for academic, our very first world war.
But the main trigger was the marc-antoine laugier, assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the throne of the Empire of Austria-Hungary) on the 28 June 1914. One of the thesis for academic integrity, many causes of on architecture, WW1 was. Allies of World War I , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina 902 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of World War One Isaiah Puryear Mr. Noble 4th 3-25-13 World War One had many key players, countries and empires being Great . Essay Requirements? Britain, France, German, Austria-Hungary and Russia. Laugier An Essay? Some of the key battles of WW1 were the battle of Marne 1914-1918, battle of Ypres 1914,1915 and 1917,the battle of Somme 1916, battle of Cambria and the famous battle of hbs essay, Verdun 1916. The two sides of the war were the triple Alliance consisting of the central European empires being Germany, Austria-Hungary. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Austria–Hungary , German Empire 1052 Words | 3 Pages. alliances were the most important cause of the First World War?
World War One also known as the “great war” was one of the deadliest wars . ever. It included countries like Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany and an essay on architecture, Italy. There are many causes as too be a war of such great magnitude there has to thinking press 2008 be many factors leading to marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture its starting. Some of the main causes are Militarism, Nationalism, Imperialism and Alliances. Thesis Statement For Academic Integrity? Many people say that alliances were the most important cause and I agree with this statement. Allies of World War I , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of marc-antoine on architecture, Austria , Central Powers 871 Words | 3 Pages. ?Analyse the Causes of WW1 There were a number of causes that played a key role for WW1 ; however the . most significant was The Alliance System due to the fact that it had the most direct impact on the war.
In this essay I will explain how this specific historical event was the autocad resume, main cause of WW1 . On top of that I will talk about how the other causes effected the decisions made and their impact at the time. Marc-antoine An Essay? The Alliance System was the questioning neutrality from progressive librarians, most significant cause of WW1 due to the fact that all the great. Alsace-Lorraine , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , British Empire 952 Words | 3 Pages. Causes , Practices, and Effects of War Guide: World War 1 Type of War: • Total War: War that includes entire resources and marc-antoine, population of autocad resume, a . nation used to fight. The entire population is contributing towards the marc-antoine on architecture, war using military, political, economic and cultural. Cause of War: • Short: Austria-Hungary declares war on statement great Serbia, Germany declares war on Russia, Germany declares war on France, Britain declares war on Germany, Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. • Immediate: Assassination. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of marc-antoine an essay on architecture, Austria , German Empire , League of Nations 1684 Words | 5 Pages. assassination provided an autocad resume, excuse for war, ease of Balkan tensions, Russia also wanted this * Was this “just another Balkan war”? * Increasing . competition and desire for great power led to an increase in marc-antoine an essay on architecture confrontation that helped push the war into ww1 by hardening alliances…. * Prime Minister Tisza was aware of the possibility that a war with Serbia could rapidly escalate into a general European conflict as a consequence of the treaty system Increase in nationalism, demonstrated by Increased. Balkan Wars , Balkans , Bosnia and Herzegovina 1335 Words | 6 Pages. ?What were the causes of WW1 ? In 1914, World War I broke out.
It involved around 100 countries around the world. Between . 1914 and 1918, over 59 million troops were used, over 8 million died and over 29 million were injured. This is the biggest war anyone has any witnessed yet; this is library essays, why WW1 is also known as the Great War. The main reasons why WW1 broke out were the Alliance System, Imperialism, the arms race, the Schlieffen Plan, and the trigger of this war was the assassination of Franz. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Belgium , Gavrilo Princip 994 Words | 2 Pages. what did WW1 break out in 1914? And what was the main cause? most important cause ? The World War 1 ( WW1 ) breaks out the 28 June 1914 and laugier on architecture, ended on the 11 November 1918. The WW1 . opposed the Triple Entente; France, Russia and Britain to for critical thinking press 2008 the Central Powers; Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. During the marc-antoine, 4 years of war other countries joined the war such as; America, Turkey, Serbia…With all the countries who joined the WW1 c, it had caused about statement great, 8.5 million deaths and about 21 million wounded. The essay is going to show what the break out of the WW1 was and what.
Alfred von Schlieffen , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Belgium 1044 Words | 5 Pages. Who or what was to blame for World War One: Did two bullets lead to twenty million deaths When one talks about the World Wars Germany often springs to . mind and is was supposedly the root cause for marc-antoine an essay on architecture, the First World War and thesis for academic integrity, even The Second World War, but was it the sole force of Germany alone or was some larger being behind this whole “setup” in marc-antoine which at least 20 million deaths. Library Neutrality Essays? Let me set the scene for you and let us embark on marc-antoine an essay a journey that will reach into the realm of hbs essay, horrific torture, an marc-antoine, accidental. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Bulgaria 1663 Words | 5 Pages. underlying causes of essay, ww1 dbq answers. underlying causes of marc-antoine laugier on architecture, ww1 dbq answers.pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD NOW.
Source #2: underlying causes of . ww1 dbq answers.pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD DBQ aˆ“ Underlying Causes of WWI The underlying causes of . pastebin.com/Aa32CLG3 Apr 18, 2012 · An underlying cause of World War I was the membership of European countries in two large, opposing alliances (3, 4). These documents can be grouped . Informative Requirements? [PDF] 10 Causes of World War I - Hofstra University people.hofstra.edu/alan_j_singer/DBQs/DBQ10-CausesofWorldWarI. American Battle Monuments Commission , Austria–Hungary , German Empire 435 Words | 2 Pages. Long and short term causes of WW1. ?Long and Short Term Causes of World War 1 – Essay The quote embodied within the name Woodrow Wilson (U.S. President 1913-21) is that World . War 1 ( WW1 - 1914-1918) was ‘the war to end all war’. Indeed in its time, WW1 seemed as the war of the century. As a war felt throughout Europe and with the marc-antoine laugier an essay, intervention of other non-European countries, it had various causes . These sparks that let off up to the start of the war are nationalism, imperialism, militarism, the autocad resume, alliances at the time and an essay, the murder. Army , Empire , German Empire 1444 Words | 3 Pages. of lives were lost nearly a thousand miles from here. But the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were an hbs essay, attack on the heart of America” . (Newman).
For every cause there is an effect, and unfortunately the effects of 9 /11 are disturbing. I like to say that everything happens for a reason, and the reasons of 9 /11 still continue to puzzle the people today. The attacks on laugier an essay on architecture world trade center and pentagon on September 11 2001 were tragic and library neutrality essays progressive, devastating not only for the victims, but all. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Osama bin Laden 1295 Words | 4 Pages. ?The 3 main causes of World War 1 World war one, also known as the Great War, began in marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture 1914 due to feuds between European countries. It . was one of the worst wars of its time and had a huge effect on the people of the world.
There are many different reasons argued for the cause of world war one and whilst there were many different reasons that contributed to the outbreak of the essay requirements, war, such as significant individuals or militarism, there were 3 main reasons for the start of World War 1, these reasons. Austria–Hungary , British Empire , Europe 1176 Words | 4 Pages. The Causes of WW1 * WW1 is known as the great war * There were preexisting tensions between France and . Germany * 1 of the main causes of WW1 Nationalism, Nationalism is defined as the desire of people with similar cultures to have their own independent countries it is identified by laugier on architecture, intense devotion to one’s culture or nation. Do not confuse nationalism with patriotism. * Militarism, Militarism means the development of armed forces and using them as a tool of diplomacy * 1914 protest. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Fascism , League of Nations 383 Words | 2 Pages. Francis Ferdinand’s assassination had sparked the beginning of the autocad resume, war, this however was not the on architecture, main cause . Thesis Statement? The four major roles that played . in the cause of World War I were Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, and the Alliance System.
Nationalism: a philosophy that is purely focused on patriotism, loyalty to one’s nation and seeing it as the superior nation. In example of a nationalistic cause in the war, Austria-Hungary was getting apprehensive when the Slavs in northern part of their empire. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Balkans , Bosnia and Herzegovina 1180 Words | 3 Pages. Causes Of WW1 Essay Outline Recovered. Causes of laugier an essay on architecture, WW1 essay outline Hook: Mr. Frip is advising that we use our specialized impact categories to highlight . some of the longterm effects of the Great War. Example: World War 1 was the cataclysmic event which would end the lives of 10 million young european men, therefore destroying an entire generation of great thesis gatsby, Europeans. It would end the empires of Russia, Germany, and marc-antoine laugier an essay, AustriaHungary. Russia would resort to communism, which would promptly outlaw religion and impose a totalitarian . British Empire , Europe , Franco-Prussian War 1815 Words | 6 Pages. the outbreak of informative essay, this war. Mainly, it was the expansion form of laugier an essay, nationalism the alliances system. Other issues played a major part too, such as imperialism, . the industrial revolution, naval race and domestic factors.
One of the autocad resume, main long term causes as I said before is Nationalism. Nationalism is the marc-antoine on architecture, patriotic feeling when people believe passionately for hbs essay, their countries. The extreme feeling of laugier an essay on architecture, nationalism is called ethnocentrism and it leads to fascism. Nationalism also, promoted the war because. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of autocad resume, Austria , Europe , Fascism 925 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History Unit 9 Test: WW1 to the Great Depression 1) What caused American entry into an essay on architecture, World War I, and how did Wilson . turn the hbs essay, war into an ideological crusade? A: Although America did not want to enter WW1 , once German submarines sunk the an essay, American ship Lusetania, it killed American sailors. Instead of his original idea to spread peace, Wilson now wanted revenge. In his war message to Congress, he said that if America did not act quickly, the Western hemisphere's ideals would be destroyed.
Great Depression , League of autocad resume, Nations , New Deal 734 Words | 3 Pages. In What Ways Did the Causes of Ww1 Differ from marc-antoine an essay on architecture Those of Ww2? The causes of hbs essay, World War One and World War Two shared both differences and similarities, but I believe that overall there were more differences . between the two. The social, political, and economic circumstances of the times varied, though at times correlated with each other, but there are extreme differences that help create a different atmosphere for each war. The assassination of on architecture, Franz Ferdinand on the 28th June, 1914, precipitated WW1 . He was shot by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand. Adolf Hitler , Great Depression , League of Nations 862 Words | 3 Pages. ?Science C.A.T Year 9 2014 Advanced by hbs essay, Sara Hamilton 9H Testing Vinegar – Acid Base Titration Aim The aim of this practical . experiment was to pair up and measure the concentration of the marc-antoine laugier on architecture, acid in three different brands of vinegar. We added a base liquid, to the three different brands of thesis statement great, vinegar until a neutralization reaction occurred.
We conducted the experiment using the titration method. Hypothesis My hypothesis is on architecture, that the vinegar that will have the highest acidic level will be Cornwell’s. Acid , Base , Sodium hydroxide 751 Words | 2 Pages. Causes of WW1 World War I, fought in the years 1914-1919, had several causes . One main event . Thesis For Academic Integrity? leading up to the war, was the assassination of Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. While some major events led to marc-antoine the war, these events go much deeper. The four causes are: nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and alliances. All of these causes contributed to the start of the war equal-handedly.
The first cause that led to the outbreak of war was nationalism. Nationalism defines as the questioning library neutrality from progressive librarians, belief. Europe , Louis XIV of marc-antoine, France , Nation 604 Words | 2 Pages. Causes of the hbs essay, First World War Europe in 1914 was a dangerous place. The five Great Powers were divided into two strong and powerful alliances. Marc-antoine An Essay? . They were about to fight each other in the most awful war the world has ever known. To understand how this happened, we must go back to hbs essay 1879. In 1879 Germany quarrelled with Russia.
Germany was worried that Russia would attack, and so agreed with Austria that the two countries would help each other if either were attacked. Three years later, Italy joined. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Balkans , Bosnia and marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, Herzegovina 574 Words | 2 Pages. ?Science C.A.T Year 9 2014 Advanced by Sara Hamilton 9H Testing Vinegar – Acid Base Titration Aim The aim of great statement great, this practical . experiment was to an essay pair up and measure the concentration of the acid in three different brands of vinegar. We added a base liquid, to the three different brands of vinegar until a neutralization reaction occurred.
We conducted the experiment using the titration method. Autocad Resume? Hypothesis My hypothesis is that the vinegar that will have the laugier on architecture, highest acidic level will be Cornwell’s. Acid , Base , Sodium hydroxide 751 Words | 2 Pages. Ww1 Causes and Life on the Home Front. Zina Patel Period 4 World History World War I Questions 1. Causes of World War I: - Militarism – The arms race of the early . 1900s was a key precipitating factor in the outbreak of World War I. Starting in 1870, Germany and hbs essay, France doubled their armies, and Germany and Britain entered into a naval arms race, each strengthening its fleet to keep up with the other. When the British Royal Navy introduced the Dreadnought in an essay 1906, Germany introduced a number of autocad resume, its own battle ships in. Allies , Allies of marc-antoine laugier, World War I , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria 1650 Words | 5 Pages. WW1 and WWI redirect here. Autocad Resume? For the album by White Whale, see WWI (album).
Page semi-protected World War I WW1 TitlePicture . For Wikipedia Article.jpg Clockwise from top: trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes Date 28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice) Treaty of Versailles. Allies of on architecture, World War I , Archduke Franz Ferdinand of hbs essay, Austria , Central Powers 690 Words | 4 Pages. civilians alike were killed, and marc-antoine laugier, with no one great end-result for any of the central powers, it goes to show the uselessness of war. It is unmistakable to . see these facts after reading All Quiet On the Western Front, a novel labeling the horrors of essay, WW1 for what they are. Marc-antoine Laugier? The book is of a young soldiers experience in the trenches, and the indignities he suffered for for academic, the illusion of glory in an essay battle. Overall, what can be said about the foundation thinking press 2008, dismay, the terror that is evident in not just this war, but any. English-language films , Iraq War , Ottoman Empire 963 Words | 3 Pages. GERMANY LOSE WW1 Germany lost WW1 due to a variety of military, socio-economic amp; political, and strategic reasons.
The war . itself continued for 4 years , inflicting various casualties and economic hardships on Germany. The most important reason why Germany lost WW1 were its incompetence to carry out it’s various strategies – originating from the first strategic failure, the failure of the Schlieffen Plan. The military incompetence of Germany on marc-antoine land and in great thesis sea was also an important cause leading. Belgium , German Empire , Joseph Joffre 609 Words | 3 Pages. Geography Study Notes Chapter 9 : The Changing Nature of the World • Every person in the world is part of the on architecture, global village • . Globalisation brings people together from all over the world through the free flow of goods, services, money and information. Informative Essay Requirements? • The physical size of the world has not changed, but due to globalisation the world has “become a smaller place”. • Globalisation is the breakdown of barriers that has allowed for changes in laugier the way we trade and communicate. • People. Africa , Culture , Economic globalization 983 Words | 4 Pages. Was Germany solely to blame for WW1. Germany was solely to Blame for WW1 – How Far do You Agree? World War 1 was fought from for critical thinking press 1914 to 1918, in which Great Britain, France, . Russia, Belgium, Japan, the an essay, United States, and other allies defeated Germany, Austria-Hungary, The Ottoman Empire, Italy, and foundation press, Bulgaria. Laugier On Architecture? World War 1 began as a small regional conflict in the Balkans (South-East Europe).
The Ottoman Empire had lost many states in this part of the world so political power in this area was very unstable. Later Austria-Hungary annexed. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Belgium , Bosnia and neutrality essays from progressive librarians, Herzegovina 1441 Words | 2 Pages. Causes and marc-antoine laugier an essay, Consequences of World War I. Causes 1.Nationalism It was an library essays, important factor in IR after the French revolution. It resulted in german and italian reunification. Laugier? And . contrastingly, led to the dissolution of the turkish empire and demands for independence in the balkans and 2008, other east european countries. The notion of being superior than the marc-antoine laugier on architecture, rest(Britain's white man burden and germany's supremacy of the aryan race) led to tension and essay requirements, conflict and ultimately the race for supremacy.
2. Imperialism It was the direct outcome. Adolf Hitler , Germany , League of Nations 1824 Words | 6 Pages. Two Major Military Alliances By Shannai Sloan The real cause of world war one was the existence of two major military alliances. Laugier On Architecture? An alliance . is a union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organisations. As all the foundation press, major European countries were apart of one of the marc-antoine an essay, two alliances, any conflict between countries could cause an outbreak in war between them all. Firstly, with Europe being split in half with the hbs essay, two alliances it caused suspicion and laugier, fear between. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and questioning progressive librarians, Herzegovina , Croatia 639 Words | 2 Pages. and Italy but was later expanded into France, Germany, and the South of marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, Turkey.
The causes of World War 1 are still debatable today. However, . Questioning Essays From Progressive? some points of the War are more important to note than others. Likewise, not only did the Serbians assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand, but the development of militarism also proves to be a main cause as well. The struggle of marc-antoine laugier, imperialism was correspondingly apart of the cause too because it set up the scene for other wars to take place. This is thesis, why imperialism.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of laugier an essay, Austria , Central Powers , League of Nations 615 Words | 2 Pages. ? Causes of World War 1 Vocab Term Definition Significance 1. Kaiser William II He was the emperor of essay, Germany. He became emperor . after his father died in March 1880, dismissing Bismarck from being chancellor of Germany. Kaiser William II is laugier an essay on architecture, significant because he played a big role in the causes of WW1 . He was very into making Germany powerful and to have Germany in “its rightful place in the sun”. Because of his very pro-Germany actions, it caused the other European powers to worry that. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Bulgaria 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Impacts of foundation for critical 2008, WW1 on America Impacts of World War one on America The total number of . casualties in WW1 which lasted only from 1914 to 1919 came to a terrifying height of 37,508,686 of laugier, that number only 323,018 belonged to the U.S.
World war one had many effects on the United States including weapons advancement, change in the workforce and economy, and women’s rights. The first and one of the most important impacts of hbs essay, ww1 on America is the. Suffrage , Suffragette , Tank 1339 Words | 4 Pages. Causes of World War One The First World War was one of the marc-antoine an essay, most immense conflicts of European History. Autocad Resume? As Woodrow Wilson said, World War 1 . Marc-antoine Laugier On Architecture? would be the war to end all wars. Between 1914 - 1918, over autocad resume 100 countries from Africa, America, Asia, Australasia and marc-antoine an essay, Europe were part of the conflict. (Wilde) The reasons for the declaration of war were varied and related back to the uprising of hbs essay, different ideologies before 1914. Some historians, like Joachim Remak, say that WW1 was simply the Third Balkan.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , British Empire 1531 Words | 4 Pages. Causes of World War 1 There were many causes of World War I. A big cause was the alliances between many European . Thesis Integrity? countries. An Essay? There was the Triple Entente which consisted of Russia, France, and Britain against Germany. The Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy, and thinking press 2008, Austria- Hungary against Russia. These two alliances were made to counteract each other. The Alliance of the Three Emperors was an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. Marc-antoine On Architecture? This alliance was created by Bismark, and was very. Central Powers , David Lloyd George , Ferdinand Foch 405 Words | 2 Pages. Writing To Argue And Persuade Year 9. Rhetorical/Not rhetorical 8. Do we deserve to live in luxury when others live in thesis statement integrity poverty? . Rhetorical/Not rhetorical 9 . Marc-antoine On Architecture? How many people here cycle to school?
Rhetorical/Not rhetorical 10. Are humans destroying the natural world? Rhetorical/Not. Credit card , Credit cards , Credit history 785 Words | 5 Pages. Underlying Causes of autocad resume, WW1 With 2 shots fired the Archduke of Austria was dead, causing World War 1, yet the true . cause was much deeper. World War 1 lasted four years from 1914 to 1918. It was the bloodiest war the world had ever seen and to this day is the deadliest war with 10,000,000 dead in twice that wounded. What were the underlying causes of World War 1? First of all what does underlying mean underline is the marc-antoine an essay on architecture, unseen cause or bases of something. Questioning Essays From Librarians? The three underlying causes of marc-antoine laugier an essay, World War 1 were. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Croatia , Europe 597 Words | 2 Pages.
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Battle of the Somme , Chemical warfare , Chlorine 1444 Words | 4 Pages. The First World War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on July 28 1914 and lasted until the 11th of November in 1918. Laugier An Essay? More than 9 . Questioning Library Neutrality Essays From Progressive? million soldiers were killed. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in laugier an essay many of the integrity, nations involved. Marc-antoine Laugier On Architecture? None of this though would have never happened if not for for academic integrity, the ideologies of the 19th century.With nationalism, militarism and alliances came pride, fear and chaos which eventually. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , British Empire , German Empire 649 Words | 2 Pages. CAUSES OF BY NATHAN BECK World War 1 was the first war in history that had most of the world dragged into conflict against one another. There . were many causes of laugier an essay on architecture, WW1 the main one that actually started it was a short term cause , the assassination of the statement great, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austria-Hungary Empire. But there were a lot of long term causes that were building up to war like the arms race with military sections such as navy being built up especially between Britain and marc-antoine, Germany. Hbs Essay? Also Imperialism. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of marc-antoine on architecture, Austria , Croatia , German Empire 1823 Words | 6 Pages.
? Contents 1. Equipment and autocad resume, kit 2. Food 3. Daily routine in the trenches 4. Dirt and marc-antoine laugier on architecture, disease and dangers 5. Fighting and thesis statement for academic integrity, combat 6. Keeping in . touch 7. Laugier An Essay? Important events in ww1 8. Bibliography Equipment and kit Gasmask-these were used to protect soldiers form gas attacks Bayonet- a long blade that fits onto the end of a rifle Haversack- a type of questioning neutrality from progressive librarians, backpack used to carry essential Helmet- a hat to protect the soldiers. Artillery , Chemical warfare , Chlorine 879 Words | 15 Pages. sided with one another against each other. There were many causes to this conflict that started all the fighting between the nations. Each . country has their own view on laugier an essay on architecture who's fault it was and if it was handled correctly. For Academic Integrity? This war only caused many casualties and economic problems for countries which could of easily been avoided. Laugier? 1st paragraph - Alliances were a major cause of the conflicts between countries in WW1 The original disagreement was between Serbia and thesis great, Austria-Hungry. Allies of marc-antoine an essay on architecture, World War I , League of informative essay, Nations , Paris Peace Conference, 1919 1217 Words | 4 Pages. ?What do you need to revise? 1. Causes of World War 1 a) What were the two alliances in Europe in 1914? b) What effect did the Moroccan . Crises of 1905 and 1911 and the Bosnian Crisis 1908–1909 have on marc-antoine laugier the on the alliances? c) Why was there an arms race at the start of the 20th Century? d) Why was Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in 1914? e) How did this shooting trigger a World War? f) What was the Schieffen plan and how did this lead to War? g) Who was to blame for World.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of questioning library neutrality from progressive librarians, Austria , Central Powers , East Prussia 1105 Words | 6 Pages. ? Weapons: There were different kinds of weapons used in WW1 . Firstly, there was the rifle and it was a bolt-action rifle. Laugier? It was the . most used gun by the soldiers in the trenches. 15 rounds altogether could be fired in a minute and autocad resume, a person that was standing 1400-1500 metres away could possibly be killed by it so this shows how powerful it was. Also, another weapon that was frequently used was machine guns. A disadvantage to them was that they needed 4-6 men to use them so this. Barbed wire , Battle of the Somme , Chemical warfare 1298 Words | 2 Pages. conflicts (Norman 571). Sadly in marc-antoine an essay this case, nationalism was a negative act that played a part in ass the assassination. National tensions had risen so high . Library Neutrality Librarians? that even the slightest wrong doing of a nation's rights by another might be considered a cause for war.
Serbians wanted to expand the marc-antoine, size of their country to include places outside Serbia that had ethnic Serbian populations living in autocad resume them, what they want is a bigger country they will call 'Greater Serbia' this will include places like Croatia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Central Powers , Croatia 910 Words | 3 Pages. place the Remembrance Day to remember soldiers who have fallen on laugier an essay battlefield. This date also mark the end of World war One, one of the bloodiest war of XX . th century. Numerous causes have trained country to this horrifying war as the competition between European powers, the alliances and the rise of nationalism. Informative Essay? Before WW1 , the competition between the main European powers increased with the militarism’s and imperialism’s factors. The imperialism trained countries into competition to the conquest.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of laugier on architecture, Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia 371 Words | 2 Pages. Aaron Carlson Period 2 – History III 3/29/10 WWI Essay – Causes of War Even today, the autocad resume, causes of World War one is still . being debated and the great war started 96 years ago and ended 92 years ago. Yet today after so much time the main cause of the war still remains unexposed to marc-antoine laugier an essay this day. What triggered the whole war was the hbs essay, assassination of the marc-antoine laugier an essay, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie of Austria-Hungary on June 28th 1914 by The Black Hand. The assassination happened because of feelings.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Army , Central Powers 916 Words | 3 Pages. Factors of WW1 The First World War, was a war centred in Europe that began on 28 July, 1914 and lasted until and ended on 11 November, . 1918. One of the major event in the human history which was fought mostly by soldiers in trenches but later introduced the machine gun, poison gas, tanks and other weapons into battle which also helped humans to advance the technology for destruction of thesis for academic integrity, each other. Human curiosity and creatives ideas that helped us to be more civilized like industrialization. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Fascism 774 Words | 3 Pages. Would you kill someone for it? Terrorism is defined as an act of violence intended to instill fear in the minds of people and is organized to achieve a . political, religious or ideological goal.
The number of assassinations and bombings in the recent years has increasingly gone up that even a 4th grader knows what a terrorist attack is. Due to an essay the actions of a few groups of people terrorists have received a stereotype all over the world. Terrorism is often a result of oppression or is a due to views. Aircraft hijacking , Domestic terrorism in the United States , Federal Bureau of Investigation 971 Words | 4 Pages. History Essay There were few valid reasons for the start of WW1 . The reasons I am about to explain to you are IMPERIALISM, MILITARISM and . ALLIANCES. WW1 started because the greed of other countries. Imperialism started to be a big factor in 1848 because a new, very big and very strong country called Germany was made. It was made up of Prussia, Oldenburg, Schaunburg-Lippe, Mecklenburg-sterhitz, Hessen, Hohenzollern and Waldeck. Statement? A few days after they became Germany, they attacked France.
Central Powers , Empire , Europe 451 Words | 2 Pages. cause and effect draft week 9 Revised Version. ?Assignment 3.2: Determining Causes and Effects-Revised Version Diane M. Hall Evanita Wallace-Lewis English 115 March 7, 2015 . Assignment 3.1: Determining Causes and Effects-Draft Version Attending College for on architecture, many students is an exciting time in life. Students are on the edge of adult-hood and ready to start their new careers after graduation while others are well into adult hood and continuing their education. College life is autocad resume, a newfound freedom of being away from family and being able. Anxiety , Education , Homework help service 1303 Words | 7 Pages. How prosperous and stable was the Weimar republic in on architecture the years 1924-9? One could argue that the Weimar Republic was very much a prosperous and stable country from the years 1924- 9 . After all, these . were called Germany’s “Golden Years ”. Autocad Resume? Heavy industry was back to the same production levels as it was before the marc-antoine laugier an essay on architecture, Great War, which attracted lots of foreign investment. However, One could also argue that the Weimar Republic wasn’t as stable and prosperous as it seemed. Germany was still incredibly reliant on US loans and unemployment never fell below 1.3 million. 1923, Germany.
Adolf Hitler , Germany , Nazi Germany 874 Words | 3 Pages. Nationalism and State Hood in Europe After Ww1. Sources suggest that Europe's ideas towards statehood and nationalism changed throughout and after WW1 , I personally agree with this statement. . Nationalism is defined as loyalty or devotion to ones country followed by the belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals. There was a large impact on Europe post WW1 and library neutrality essays, this term “nationalism” had a lot to do with the situation. It was also often, the belief that.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori , League of Nations 1278 Words | 4 Pages.
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