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The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare#039;s King John - Essay. Steve Longstaffe, S. Martin's College Lancaster. Deborah Curren-Aquino, summing up fifty years of critical engagement with Shakespeare's King John, identifies a radical break with earlier views of the play in the tendency in post 1940 scholarship to research describe John as ambivalent, ambiguous, suspicious, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive. 1 The form and application scholarships, tone of John, in other words, are recognisably modern. Few critics have gone as far as Sigurd Burckhardt, who in the 1960s asserted that the play documented Shakespeare's own modernity, defined as the recognition that order, or justice and truth at the heart of things, was of human, rather than divine, origin. 2 Burckhardt's position, though not his confidence that he could show that when he wrote King John, or quite possibly in writing it, Shakespeare became a 'modern', is echoed in abstract, Virginia Vaughan's claim of 1989 that the play like Shakespeare's other history plays depicts a crucial point in the inauguration of the relativism of the modern age. 3 But for the most part, writers on John have avoided such grand narratives of epistemological shifts, and found the play's modernity to be historically produced in a much more local way: as part of a Shakespearian negotiation with chronicle, source play, or the no essay, history play genre. What John is sceptical about, in other words, is other historical accounts of research papers, John's reign, especially regarding their relationship to what might still be termed Tudor ideology. For many critics, Shakespeare's John is in antagonistic relation to such sources as the anonymous Queen's Men's play The Troublesome Reign of King John and the 1587 Holinshed, interrogating the writing of history of which these two texts, and the history play as a genre, were part.
Such a John appears our contemporary, teasing out aporias and contradictions in Renaissance writings of legitimacy, faith, or patriotism. Thesis. For Phyllis Rackin, it is algebra, a 'problem history' where the audience has no sure guide through the ideological ambiguities. 4 Larry Champion identifies it as an scholarships, open-ended chronicle play with historical process transformed into human process, stripped bare of Tudor providentialism and reduced to an individual self-interest that only in its best moments might be communally enlightened. 5 Guy Hamel argues that Shakespeare's assault on formulas [ . . . ] reveals itself in almost every departure from The Troublesome Reign. Algebra Research Papers. 6 To situate Shakespeare's play in a sceptical relation to ideology or generic formulas is, of course, profoundly unsubversive of the for college, continuing critical imperative to speak with the Bard. The modern Shakespeare, as Stephen Greenblatt has pointed out, must subvert only that which is no longer subversive. The John worthy of modern critics' engagement is produced by research papers a common critical strategy, which is application, most clearly visible in the conclusion of abstract algebra, one of the play's editors that it would be a crippling limitation of the power of King John to tie it too closely to the situation of the 1590s. 7 It is in buy papers for college, its implication in the religious politics of the period of the Spanish war that John is most clearly un-modern; it is part of the abstract research, wartime anti-Catholic polemic, something which has been played down in order to produce a modernity which legitimates a continual critical return to the play, and to a lesser extent, to Shakespeare. It is not surprising that there has been relatively little interest in John's brand of Protestant nationalism of buy papers for college, late, for, as David Aers has pointed out, many influential contemporary critics of early modern writing display a marked lack of interest in Christian traditions, Christian practices and Christian institutions. 8 Mid-century critics, following E. Research. M. W. Buy Papers For College. Tillyard's characterisation of the play as but Mildly Protestant in tone, stressed the moderation of the play's anti-Catholic sentiments, whilst identifying an assertion of Protestant nationalism.
9 Recent critics have gone further, identifying a play-world where all religious utterances are just further examples of abstract algebra research, debased political rhetoric in a world with no consistent values, not even Protestant nationalism. 10. But how debased is benefits thesis, this rhetoric? Specifically, did the kind of language with which John defies the Papal legate Pandulph on his first encounter with him circulate in post-Armada London as a somehow debased version of earlier, more sincere, Tudor coinages? To stretch the 1980s monetary rhetoric further, I suggest that, on the contrary, play rhetoric directed against foreign Catholics wishing to overthrow an English monarch was on the gold standard during this period of war with Spain. John's words themselves are direct as he responds to Pandulph's demands in the name of the Pope: Thou canst not, cardinal, devise a name. So slight, unworthy and ridiculous, To charge me to an answer, as the pope.
Tell him this tale; and papers, from the mouth of England. Add thus more, that no Italian priest. Shall tithe or toll in essay intro, our dominions; But as we, under God, are supreme head, So under Him that great supremacy, Where we do reign, we will alone uphold. Without th' assistance of a mortal hand: So tell the pope, all reverence set apart. To him and his usurp'd authority.
11. And on being accused of blasphemy by the French king, John amplifies his declaration with a piece of Foxean anti-Catholicism: Though you and all the kings of Christendom. Are led so grossly by this meddling priest, Dreading the curse that money may buy out; And by the merit of vild gold, dross, dust, Purchase corrupted pardon of a man, Who in that sale sells pardon from himself, Though you and abstract research, all the rest so grossly led. This juggling witchcraft with revenue cherish,
Yet I alone, alone do me oppose. Against the pope, and count his friends my foes. This speech is immediately followed by John's excommunication, and by Pandulph encouraging both rebellion and assassination. As Lily Campbell has pointed out, John is presented here as standing in the same relationship to the Catholic church as Elizabeth, even appropriating her own title of supreme governor in buy papers, his use of Henry VIII's formulation supreme head. The clarity of John's position here is momentary, however; he does not reach these vituperative heights again. Research. Indeed, he resigns his crown to Pandulph later on. But it is application scholarships, important not to underrate the legitimating power of John's rhetoric. Research Papers. Such defiance, in the post-Armada period, places John firmly as a properly patriotic Englishman engaged in the same struggle as Elizabeth. The Protestant nationalism that supported Elizabeth's land and sea campaigns against the Spanish would thus have been engaged in John's case. Furthermore, it could have been so powerfully engaged as decisively to essay narration affect interpretation of the play. In the post-Armada context, John is abstract algebra research, a true English king primarily because of the 'true' rhetoric he employs; his anti-Catholicism is central to the play's politics.
King John is persuasive essay tips, consensually dated to the period between 1587, when the second edition of Holinshed appeared, and abstract, 1598, when Francis Meres mentioned in print a Shakespearian King John, though it is impossible to know whether that play was the one first printed in 1623. 13 It thus belongs within the causes, core years of the Spanish war, and probably to the post-Armada period. After 1588, however, the national mood was certainly not conducive to a relaxed and sceptical investigation of the possible hypocrisy of religious nationalism. The defeat of the Armada, far from engendering a lasting sense of abstract algebra papers, invulnerability to foreign Catholic invasion, fed a sometimes apocalyptic wartime paranoia. 14 Even in essay narration, 1588, the official London festivities to celebrate the victory were subsumed into the queen's thirtieth anniversary shows.
Elsewhere in the country, David Cressy informs us, the Armada celebrations in research papers, 1588 were more solemn than jubilant [ . . . ] the festivities were conducted in a minor key. 15 London, though its strategic importance meant that it was carefully governed, had its share of no essay, hardship, and abstract algebra, had to essay cope with returning soldiers threatening to loot Bartholomew Fair in abstract algebra research, 1589, and of writing an undergraduate, with royal demands for men, ships, and money at a time when the capital was also struggling with plague and dearth. 16 Thousands were conscripted in the early 1590s, and City trained bands were often mustered. 17 In southern England there were general anti-invasion musters in 1590 and 1596. In the latter year, the Spanish cannon besieging Calais could be heard in Greenwich, the capture of which prompted Sir Henry Knyvett to write his civil defence tract The Defence of the Realm. The Spanish raided Cornwall in 1595, and sent another Armada in 1597. 18.
Although English Catholics protested their loyalty, and towards the end of Elizabeth's reign did so vociferously, Cardinal Allen's assurance to Philip II that they would rise to support an invasion was impossible for the authorities to ignore. 19 The early 1590s saw the final addition to Elizabeth's anti-Catholic laws. After the legislation of 1593 obstinate recusants were not permitted to travel more than five miles from their homes without severe penalties. New anti-Jesuit provisions were also added to research the 1581 Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in their true obedience. 20 Though these measures were moderated in committee, and were not applied completely rigorously, they do indicate that the government were worried about of writing an undergraduate, Catholic invasion preparations. The church, naturally, was hardly irenic at this time. Even before the war, anti-Catholic rhetoric proliferated as a discourse which structured, by way of reappropriations, most of the controversies that developed [ . . . ] between contending positions in the English church itself, especially those between Puritan radicals and the church establishment.
21 For the Protestant divine, anti-Roman polemic was at once an expression of Protestant zeal and an implicit gesture of loyalty to a national church, the Protestantism of whose doctrine was generally acknowledged. Algebra. 22 Anti-Catholicism seems to have been one of the media through which the English church talked to itself; it functioned at least partly to legitimate what was being said. War against a Catholic enemy, and benefits of writing, the anti-Catholicism of the English church, both would have both provided a context for interpreting John's defiance of Pandulph. Abstract Algebra. In addition, anyone familiar with recent historical accounts of John's reign would have expected to no essay scholarships see him presented as a legitimate king undermined by circumstances and Catholic conspiracy. John's use in this context by anti-Catholic polemicists has been well documented.
23 Foxe's account in abstract algebra papers, the Acts and of unhappiness, Monuments limits itself to religious matters, and places John within the perspective of the struggle between the true church and antichrist. Holinshed's account emphasises that the papers, contemporary sources are Catholic and therefore biased, scarselle can they afoord him a good word [ . . . ] the occasion whereof [ . . . ] was, that he was no great freend to the clergie, before criticising John for his great crueltie, and unreasonable avarice. Of Unhappiness. 24 But Holinshed's John, like Foxe's, is a worthy pre-Protestant religious patriot. Even those not well versed in the chronicles would have heard of John, and algebra research, how after his submission to Pandulph most miserable tyrannie, raveny and spoyle of the most greedie Romish wolves ensued, through the deployment of this reign in the 1571 Homily against Disobedience. 25 Anyone aware of these versions of the historical John would have come to the play expecting to see a proleptically Protestant king subverted by the Roman church. Though Polydore Vergil and essay, John Stow did not write within this representative tradition, their impact on research papers public opinion was likely during the immediate post-Armada period to in nigeria essay have been negligible. John does appear in the Huntington plays of the later 1590s as a wicked tyrant, but in these plays there is no attempt to address the abstract algebra, political agenda of King John. There is no indication that a Protestant nationalist audience would have taken such plays seriously as historical accounts directly addressing the political concerns of the for college, early-to-mid 1590s. Significantly, the Huntington plays were first performed in algebra, 1598, and thus may well have post-dated a realisation that the crucial phase of the struggle for western Europe was to all intents and purposes over. 26. The repertory in the post-Armada years was dominated by serious matters with an immediate gut appeal to [. . . ] militarism, in the words of Andrew Gurr.
27 The growth of the English history play was due, according to David Bevington, to a need for relevant, but indirect, appeals to war fever. 28 Anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiments were common across a range of plays. John's resistance to Pandulph in of unhappiness, Shakespeare's drama would have functioned metonymically to link him to contemporary anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, and to the Protestant histories and other polemical deployments of the historical John's reign. The ubiquity and strength of anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic sentiment, furthermore, could well have operated so as to algebra produce a strong cathexis for these sentiments and their utterer in buy papers for college, the play, conditioning responses to, and interpretations of, it. In other words, the intellectual or emotional reactions to abstract algebra research John's religious nationalism would not be qualified by elements elsewhere in the play; John's words in 3.1 would themselves qualify the pursuit, responses to the rest of the play, including some of its ambiguities, suspicions, scepticisms and questions. Recent critics read John's rhetoric very differently. For many, the religious nationalism of his speeches function not to mobilise anti-Catholic and papers, anti-Spanish sentiment, but to essay narration indicate that such a rhetoric, and such a mobilisation, is abstract research, more fully present elsewhere, in the The Troublesome Reign. The fact that this play has more anti-Catholic material than King John has often been taken to mean that the latter play fails to cross some (qualitative? quantitative?) threshold whereby it might be deemed to mobilise popular religious xenophobia. Thus, Phyllis Rackin sees the play compressing and marginalizing John's dispute with Rome. Persuasive Intro Tips. 29 For M. M. Reese, Shakespeare's play eliminates the crude anti-Catholic bias of the research papers, anonymous play. 30 Robert Ornstein explains that Shakespeare lacked the temperament to exploit religious prejudices and essay, hysterias [ . Research. . . ] the religious issue very nearly disappears in King John, and John completely loses his stature as a 'reformation' hero.
31 John Blanpied agrees that Shakespeare neutralises the anti-Papal material, leaving John without a polemical base from which to borrow his authority. 32. For many, the result of this compression, and no essay application scholarships, consequent neutralisation and marginalization, is a play which, in the words of Virginia Vaughan, presents politics, not polemics. Research Papers. 33 As long ago as 1962 Geoffrey Bullough drew this distinction, stating that Shakespeare turned away from [ . . . ] sectarian propaganda to emphasise more purely political motives. 34 Such a construction of of unhappiness, Shakespeare's John (and, of course, John's Shakespeare) as drawing a distinction between real politics and un-sophisticated (and explicitly anti-Catholic) rabble-rousing has received much critical support, though earlier writers attribute it to research a Shakespearian distaste for bias or rant, or a preference for complexity over simplicity, and later ones more to a textual refusal of the easy closure which a more foregrounded religious element would have allowed or perhaps necessitated. Thesis. 35 The dominance of abstract, Christianity in pursuit, Renaissance England is perhaps the algebra research papers, most effective reminder of Renaissance difference; conveniently, Shakespeare manages to play down that difference and intro tips, provide a transcendent scepticism for our age of suspicious reading. As can be seen from Blanpied and Ornstein, the playing down of the religious element also means a John robbed of the legitimating power of religious nationalism.
John's words to Pandulph are read as attenuated by John's compromised moral or legal status. Deborah Kehler states that in the light of his false claim, John's use of divinity to serve his own ends is transparent, while for Philip Edwards what seems an admirable quality of sturdy national courage is questioned by the moral quality of the speaker, and by his eventual fate in the play. 36 Responses to algebra papers John's words are conditioned not by their deployment of causes in nigeria, a powerfully cathected sentiment, but by character. Even those critics recognising the power of John's words conclude that they are an abstract, isolated and anomalous moment, occasional choric greatness, or an affect of efficiency, not magnanimity. 37 At best, for Larry Champion, the anti-Catholic John is just one of the equally persuasive views of the usurper, the wouldbe murderer, the terror-stricken capitulator, the sufferer, the pursuit, patriot, and the kingly defender of abstract algebra, his nation. 38 Without a rousing crudely religious centre, the play's politics are nicely modern: for character within the play, there is no clear royal authority. For the essay, audience watching it, there is no unblemished cause and no unquestioned authority to algebra claim their allegiance, in no essay application, Phyllis Rackin's formulation. David Womersley, though he sees the play as clearly conservative in its conclusions, agrees that it confronts the question of how one lives in abstract research papers, a world without value.
39 Without wishing to buy papers play down the algebra papers, play's contradictions, I think that there is at least one value discernible. The play is clearly dialectical, with many causes and claims directly challenged. 40 Falconbridge has long been read as a sceptical outsider, who has a complex relationship to the politics of commodity he describes, and perhaps practises. Causes Of Conflict Essay. 41 More recently, readings of the play as oppositional and enquiring have been strengthened by algebra research feminist revaluations of Eleanor and Constance as subversive voices. 42 Equally clearly, John's involvement in Arthur's death may be perceived as moral weakness, just as Hubert's refusal to do the no essay, deed shows moral strength. 43 None of this, however, directly undermines John's unblemished cause of resisting Pandulph. Although he is algebra research papers, criticised for much else within the play, the only voices raised against John's defiance are Pandulph's and those foreign kings' loyal to him, which is only to essay narration be expected, as they are the abstract algebra research, targets of benefits, John's ire. The main reasons for research papers, the widespread critical perception of the play as modern in its politics are mentioned by Kehler and Edwards above: that John is illegitimate, that he is no essay scholarships, lacking in moral quality, and that he later gives his crown, effectively, to the Pope. Of these, the moral argument is least persuasive.
Machiavellianism does not preclude sincerity, especially with such an affective topic. Renaissance history plays often portray monarchs as complex, and attempt to manipulate audience responses via this complexity. Abstract Algebra Papers. Holinshed recognises John's faults, but does not allow them to reflect on his status as proto-Protestant martyr. William Camden, writing in 1605 of the Tudor bugbear Richard III, recognised that albeit hee lived wickedly, yet made good laws. 44 The other two points require more detailed engagement. John's submission to the Papacy at the end of the no essay, play could well have cancelled his earlier robust anti-Papalism. Through an analysis of the abstract algebra, representative strategies used for buy papers for college, John's cession I will argue that it may not have done so. If he is not a legitimate king, then he is employing anti-Catholic rhetoric to abstract algebra papers bolster his position. He need not be shown to believe his own words.
If this were so, John's use of religious rhetoric is on a par as a cynical manipulation of language with Richard Ill's political use of witchcraft accusations in Shakespeare's play and the anonymous True Tragedy of benefits thesis, Richard III. John is not illegitimate just because his opponents say he is. The challenges of Constance or the Dauphin have no particular power on their own. Yet for many critics, whether or not they engage with John's modernity, it is axiomatic that John is an illegitimate king, that he is a usurper in possession of the papers, crown when the right lies with Arthur (and, some have added, the true kingliness with Falconbridge). 45 There are two cruces commonly adduced to essay narration support John's illegitimacy. Both can be read differently. The first is a critical exchange in the play's first scene, where John and algebra research papers, Eleanor discuss the implications of the French challenge just made on Arthur's behalf. Eleanor reproaches John for scholarships, not dealing with the abstract research, question sooner, as This might have been prevented and made whole/With very easy arguments of love,/Which now the manage of two kingdoms must/With fearful-bloody issue arbitrate (1.1.35-8). For College. John replies Our strong possession and abstract algebra research, our right for pursuit essay, us, to which Eleanor retorts, Your strong possession much more than your right,/Or else it must go wrong with you and me./So much my conscience whispers in your ear/Which none but heaven, and you and I, shall hear (1.1.39-43). Algebra Research Papers. Most critics follow Reese's conclusion that this shows that John is king de facto and possession is his only of writing 'right' , though Edna Zwick Boris points out that Eleanor is not denying John's right but emphasising the practical aspect of his advantage over Arthur. Abstract Research Papers. 46 Nothing in buy papers for college, Eleanor's speech indicates that John has no right, or that he is a usurper.
Eleanor's qualification of algebra papers, John's assertion merely draws attention to the relative usefulness of possession, and buy papers, the military strength it brings, in the fighting to come. Given he is up against French and other armies, it is obvious that his right alone is algebra papers, insufficient. Buy Papers. The use of conscience similarly does not have to imply a guilty recognition of the facts. Even within Shakespearian usage, the word at this time could simply mean inner knowledge. 47 Eleanor does not wish others to hear because a public acknowledgement of the research, relative uselessness of John's right is inappropriate to the dignity of his court, especially just after he has been challenged by Chatillon. Her subsequent words and of writing thesis, actions are consistent with her holding the opinion that John's legitimate rule must be buttressed with her diplomatic sense. She refers to the will of Richard I, which in Holinshed plainly entitles John to abstract algebra the throne, in her confrontation with Arthur's mother: I can produce/A will that bars the title of essay narration, thy son (2.1.470-1). Just as the fact that The Troublesome Reign is more anti-Catholic than John seems to license the claim that John is not anti-Catholic, so Eleanor's words that John's possession is abstract papers, more important than his right have led to the claim that he therefore has no right. The other key moment for John's illegitimacy, and for the play's exploration of the consequent instability of political legitimacy, is Falconbridge's reaction to Arthur's corpse at causes, the end of the fourth act. Research. Modern editors have been so sure that he accepts Arthur's claim that they have punctuated a potentially ambiguous speech so that only one interpretation is possible.
In order to no essay suggest an alternative reading which supports John's legitimacy, I will quote from the First Folio: Bast. Go, beare him in thine armes: I am amaz'd me thinkes, and loose my way. Among the thornes, and dangers of this world. How easie dost thou take all England vp,
From forth this morcell of dead Royaltie? The life, the right, and truth of all this Realme. Is fled to abstract heauen: and England now is left. To tug and scamble, and to part by th teeth. The vn-owed interest of proud swelling State: Now for the bare-pickt bone of Maiesty. Doth dogged warre bristle his angry crest, And snarleth in the gentle eyes of peace: Now Powers from pursuit, home, and discontents at abstract research, home. Meet in one line: and vast confusion waites. As doth a Rauen on a sicke-falne beast,
The iminent decay of wrested pompe. Now happy he, whose cloake and center can. Hold out this tempest. Beare away that childe, And follow me with speed: Ile to the King: A thousand businesses are briefe in hand, And heaven it selfe doth frowne vpon the Land. 48.
Editors of the recent Penguin, Oxford and thesis, Cambridge editions concur in seeing the fourth line as addressed to Hubert, who has now picked up Arthur as Falconbridge commanded, and in punctuating the passage so that From forth . . . begins a new sentence. Abstract Algebra. 49 The clear interpretation is that, ironically, Hubert can lift all England as he lifts Arthur's corpse. For College. Arthur is referred to papers as England at 2.1.91 and 202 by Philip of essay, France. All the life, truth and right of England, which resided in abstract research, Arthur, has fled (like Astraea) to heaven, and all that remains for the country left behind is a dogfight over the remaining in of unhappiness essay, bones of power. Algebra Research Papers. Arthur is both England, and dead royalty, and pursuit, with his death dies political legitimacy. No one speaks of Arthur's right more eloquently than the Bastard son of research, Coeur de Lion, according to essay Marie Axton. 50 For others, John's illegitimacy authorises views of the abstract algebra, play's modernity, and Falconbridge's speech marks the point where he chooses to support a king whom he has just recognised as a usurper, making his own political meaning in causes, a world where there is no guarantor of algebra, legitimate rule. His decision to follow John must be an existential one, choosing a way despite his own awareness that whatever 'rightness' he invests it with is not inherent in it. No Essay Application. 51. It is possible, however, to read the speech differently.
If the algebra, thou of the fourth line is buy papers, not Hubert, but the heaven to which Arthur's soul has presumably fled, Arthur need not be acknowledged as rightful monarch at all. Arthur's soul is imagined both as actively fleeing and papers, passively being taken up. Arthur's body, in essay narration, a familiar metaphor, is a realme from abstract algebra research, which the for college, ruler (England, as Arthur is English) has gone. Alternatively, the abstract papers, England that has left the body just suggests life, in conjunction with Englishness. Either way, Arthur's right is to the realm of his own body. Falconbridge then shifts to the larger realm, also lacking a ruler, but for the different reason that powers from for college, home, and discontents at home are in conflict. Papers. The crucial point is no essay application, whether this realm refers both to abstract algebra research Arthur's body and to tips England. A simple gesture could make clear that the reference is to Arthur's body alone. Falconbridge is critical of abstract algebra, John, but this need not impugn his legitimacy, as the causes, terms he uses recall those used by the nobles disapproving of abstract, John's recrowning in 4.2. Each reference to John can be read as critical of the sumptuousness of the ceremony, and of the new clothing associated with it, much remarked on of writing an undergraduate thesis by the nobles at the time. Abstract Algebra Papers. His first reference ironically situates John's majesty as bare-pickt rather than clothed with flesh.
Proud swelling state refers back critically to the wasteful excess of the recrowning, as does wrested pomp (that is, pomp employed in the improper context of John's ceremony, rather than wrested from Arthur). The final reference ironically characterises John's clothing as simple (cloak and center) and unlikely to last the no essay scholarships, tempest of algebra, disorder in the realm. Thus, although the whole speech is clearly critical of John, and persuasive intro tips, registers Arthur's loss, Falconbridge is not necessarily affirming Arthur's right to abstract algebra research the crown. Of Writing An Undergraduate Thesis. Falconbridge's words are difficult to understand, but an research papers, audience accepting John's legitimacy need not have understood him to challenge this right, and of writing thesis, it is possible to imagine a performance which makes clear that John is research, legitimate King. His legitimacy is further buttressed by the qualifications of Arthur's right implicit in the words and actions of those supporting it. For College. A claim supported by a man who carries on his back the abstract algebra, spoils of a dead Richard I is not likely to buy papers for college have impressed an Elizabethan audience, even if they responded positively to the bemused and passive boy who at one point states I would that I were laid low in abstract algebra, my grave./I am not worth this coil that's made for me (2.1.164-5). John's legitimacy, however, raises the question of his cession of the essay narration, crown to Pandulph, which happens just after the Falconbridge speech quoted above. If John is not legitimate king, then his act is robbed of political or constitutional authority, and is unlikely to bind his successors.
In the 1960s John Sibly pointed out abstract research, that papal claims for supremacy in England utilised historical as well as spiritual arguments, and suggests that John's illegitimacy was introduced precisely to counter these arguments. He begins from the premise that technically, John was not a usurper until Arthur's death, as he could still have resigned the crown when Arthur reached his majority, and sees Falconbridge's words before the recrowning as recognising that John is now a usurper: it is immediately after the 'flight to heaven' of any 'right' John may have had in the realm, that he 'surrenders' his crown. Causes Of Conflict Essay. To an Elizabethan audience, this must very forcibly have demonstrated that John had just given up what he no right to give at all; and Pandulph had 'restored' what he had no right to receive in the first place. Abstract Research. 52. The cession of the pursuit, crown is merely an index of the current balance of research papers, power, and for a Protestant audience devalues a morally bankrupt and/or illegitimate John still further. 53 If a legitimate John is posited, the status of this humiliating submission, to essay narration the very man John had so strongly defied earlier, needs to abstract algebra be addressed. The mere representation of of unhappiness essay, John's submission need not have functioned simply to condemn him, despite the commonsense appeal of this position. The Homily Against Rebellion draws different conclusions. Abstract Research. Here John's submission to Pandulph is the clearest example, in its awfulness, of the chaos into which rebellion throws the country.
The details of causes of conflict in nigeria, John's contract with the Papacy are spelt out to indicate the extremity of the situation when Englishmen [ . Research Papers. . . Thesis. ] brought their soveraigne lorde and naturall countrey into papers, this thraldome and subjection to a false forraigne usurper. 54 John's legitimacy emphasises the indignity of his submission. Holinshed reproduces John's charter of submission and his words of fealtie, but does not criticise him, as he does on other matters. Essay Narration. Foxe is slightly more difficult to research papers interpret. Essay Narration. A paragraph of the 1563 edition, omitted from the 1583 second edition, explains John's reasons for submitting as fear of the French king, and the perception that nothing else could be found to avoid the present destruction both of his person and research papers, the realm also. As a sorry subject of the sinful seat of Rome he was sure, not without shame, that being under his protection, no foreign potentate throughout the whole empire was able to subdue him.
55 The negativity of shame here may be Foxe's judgement on John, or John's own opinion of himself. But the causes of conflict, 1583 edition reproduces John's Letter Obligatory to the Pope, and is unequivocal in its identification of John as a hapless victim of that execrable monster and research, antichrist of Rome. Thus, though an audience may well have simply cathected John's earlier anti-Papalism, the reverse is essay narration, not necessarily true when considering responses to his submission. The signification of John's cession of the crown depended on abstract papers its context, so that within a Foxean narrative it might simply indicate the effectiveness of the Papacy in persecuting and humbling its opponents. It is also important to recognise that John's cession of the of unhappiness essay, crown in Shakespeare's play employs different dramatic strategies to his earlier confrontation, and that these strategies may well have directed an audience towards a response the final result of which would be to confirm John as legitimate. The representation of English kings losing crowns on the London stage of the 1590s shows signs of having been subject to careful and subtle theatrical negotiations. Though recent critics have retreated from the once-commonplace conclusion that because the 1608 quarto of abstract papers, Shakespeare's Richard II was the for college, first to feature his deposition it must have been censored, there is abstract research papers, still the no essay scholarships, possibility that the first quarto of 1597, or the play as performed, was cut, or that Richard's abdication/deposition was somehow 'unwritable' at abstract research, this period. 56 This 'unrepresented' 1590s deposition can be compared to causes in nigeria essay those represented in Shakespeare's Richard III and 3 Henry VI. The 1595 quarto of the latter presents Henry's resignation of his throne to the joint protectors Warwick and Clarence in abstract algebra papers, a scene half the length of its 1623 First Folio equivalent, in which Henry accepts the arrangement so that the people of an undergraduate thesis, this blessed land/May not be punished with my thwarting stars (4.6.21-2).
The 1590s quarto underrepresents, rather than omits, Henry's deposition In Richard III deposition is directly represented only in a stage direction in which Richard fights Richmond and is slain. Although the visitations Richard receives in his sleep before the battle can be argued to research papers be a displaced representation of a deposing tribunal, to whose conclusions Richard involuntarily assents, the death of the king in pursuit essay, this instance is underrepresented in that it is a fait accompli. 'Underrepresentation' was not the only strategy used in abstract algebra research, the history plays of the 1590s. The 1591 quarto of The Troublesome Reign of King John, which covers much of the same ground as Shakespeare's play, follows Foxe and the Homily in of conflict essay, representing John's recrowning at Pandulph's hands. As with the two earlier texts, its principal strategy is to attempt to limit interpretation by presenting the deposition/abdication as primarily signifying John's helplessness in the face of research papers, Popish prelates' persecutions, the final wrong turning in a Troublesome Reign.
The preface identifies John as a kind of English Tamburlaine, a warlike Christian and your Countreyman; For Christs true faith indur'd he many a storme,/And set himselfe against the Man of Rome. Persuasive Essay Intro Tips. 57 This John, as in abstract algebra, Shakespeare's play, defies Pandulph on their first meeting, and orders Falconbridge to ransack the abbeys, though The Troublesome Reign shows the action where Shakespeare only alludes to it. John recrowns himself in front of his nobles, explaining that he does this not because he has been deposed, but because he is checking the assured witnes of your loves in a ceremony to benefits an undergraduate thesis bind the nobles to algebra research papers him, (Troublesome Reign, 1555). The play deals with such potentially difficult moments by essay narration providing a clear cause for research, events, and this applies also to application scholarships John's recrowning by Pandulph. Abstract Algebra. He prepares to meet the legate by assessing his situation under the Papal interdict, recognising that his sins are too great for him successfully to banish Popery (though he looks forward to it happening), and resolving to finely dissemble with the Pope (2 Troublesome Reign, 275) as the realm's chaos is caused by Papal interference.
He ends by resolving equivocation: Dissemble thou, and whatsoere thou saist,/Yet with thy heart wish their confusion (283-4). On meeting Pandulph, John offers submission, penance, and crusade, and is rejected. His first impulse is to benefits an undergraduate kill Pandulph, but he again submits, to be informed that surrendering his crown is the only acceptable course. John resolves to fight rather than do so. At that moment a messenger enters, telling that a large French fleet has put the country into abstract, mutiny. On hearing this, John's resistance collapses. He later receives his crown back as tenaunt to the Pope (637), berates himself (Shame be my share for yeelding to application scholarships the Priest), and in his last speech traces this act as increasing his troubles: Since John did yeeld unto the algebra research papers, Priest of Rome/Nor he nor his have prospred on the earth (707, 1075-6). The dramatic strategy of application scholarships, The Troublesome Reign is to try to abstract research contain the implications of John's submission to the Pope by inserting it into a master narrative, the course of the ancient struggle between Roman and native Christianity (Protestantism). It provides a full account of how and why John yielded, and what John perceived the consequences to have been. By this strategy, the play attempts to contain the implications of John's act for posterity.
Because the benefits an undergraduate, causes of the deposition easily fit into the Foxean picture of the embattled proto-Protestant subverted by abstract research papers Papal wiles, to represent the deposition itself is not necessarily to provide a subversive undoing of John's status as proto-Protestant hero. This strategy might be called directive representation: the deposition is shown, but attempts are made to limit an audience's perception of persuasive, its meaning. A third strategy is at abstract algebra research papers, work in Marlowe's Edward II, which was published twice during the 1590s also with a deposition/abdication scene. This third strategy might be characterised as overrepresentation, here defined as the representation of an action or event so that a conclusive meaning is persuasive essay intro tips, difficult to abstract algebra research papers draw from it. It is essay, not clear, for example, from algebra research, Edward's abdication/deposition scene why he has given up the crown, whether he has a choice, or whether he is in a fit state to understand what he is doing. This ambiguity is foregrounded when Edward begins by comparing himself to a shadow now regiment is gone. 58 He then asks if he must resign his crown as Mortimer will take it, is told that it will rather pass to his son, denies this, is asked again whether he will resign, gives his crown to Leicester, takes it back just until night, is asked again for it, refuses, gives it back to protect his son's right on application scholarships a reminder from Leicester, calls upon another to take it from him, hands it over, and algebra research, sends a handkerchief wet with his tears to queen Isabel. The switches of intent, and the complexity of Edward's emotional state make a mockery of Winchester's bland comment in of conflict in nigeria, the next scene that The king hath willingly resigned his crown (5.2.28). Abstract Research. Moreover, Edward remains alive to worry at the contradiction of his status as king without a crown or regiment. Edward's abdication/deposition is shown, but what it signifies, other than that Edward no longer has the military or emotional resources to resist, is unclear.
The deposition scene in the later quartos of Richard II works in of conflict in nigeria, a similar fashion. King John clearly underrepresents John's sensitive submission to the church. Algebra Papers. Where The Troublesome Reign attempts to direct attention from the constitutional consequences by focusing on pursuit essay John's reasons for, and reactions to, his swearing fealty, King John takes only algebra 65 lines (during which John also hears of the effects of Arthur's death upon the rebels) to cover the period between the first mention of the idea and Falconbridge's rejection of it as an inglorious league. John is not shown reflecting upon his tactics before he meets Pandulph, or on the submission's consequences. Although the play underrepresents this episode in comparison to The Troublesome Reign, what happens is still clear.
John states he has yielded his crown, and Pandulph gives it back, as holding of the pope/Your sovereign greatness and authority (5.1.3-4). Underrepresentation is not, however, non-representation, though Barbara Hodgdon has recently pointed out that the play seeks to causes essay suppress precisely those events that might divide or fracture audience response. 59 But the play can be read as recognising the problems even in underrepresenting John's submission, and that it attempts to contain the negative implications of this via overrepresentation. Abstract Algebra Papers. It does not follow the Foxean strategy of presenting the recrowning with minimal comment and leaving the reader to benefits of writing an undergraduate thesis point the moral; rather, it makes it difficult to understand, and thus subject to recuperative qualification by John's easily intelligible speeches in 3.1. Overrepresenting sensitive events and topics was common in Tudor histories.
A. R. Braunmuller has identified dramatist and chronicler as sharing the problem of avoiding both censorship and charges of partisanship, and as having two choices: leave out causal explanations as Fabyan did, or include too many causes (Hall's 'double grace') and avoid choosing among them. Abstract Research. Shakespeare and Holinshed wrote confusing texts because each believed that confusion was not sedition. 60 Braunmuller's useful formulation of the of conflict in nigeria, available strategies is confirmed in Holinshed's preface to abstract the reader: I have in essay tips, things doubtfull rather chosen to shew the diversitie of abstract, their writings, than by scholarships over-ruling them, and using a peremptory censure, to frame them to agree to my liking: leaving it nevertheless to each mans judgement, to controll them as he seeth cause. 61. It is abstract algebra research, perhaps misleading to pursuit characterise historical writing as primarily concerned with avoiding sedition, rather than as attempting to make orthodox sense out of unpromising material. Shakespeare may have attempted a different, though still orthodox, treatment of John's reign as compared to that in his sources, rather than avoided or covered up heterodoxy. In the present context, Holinshed's crucial point centres on the notion of controlling the interpretation of abstract algebra, things doubtful. Where two straightforwardly represented events contradict one another such controll would be likely to depend heavily on extra-textual factors such as previous expectations. Thus, in the case of John, an audience might compare his submission with his defiance, and conclude that no conclusion was possible.
But if the defiance was straightforward, and the submission confusing, an audience is less likely to have seen the defiance as cancelled or invalidated by the submission. The defiance would be central to a response to the play, and the submission marginal. Though John underrepresents John's submission in comparison with other texts, the issues upon which an interpretation depend are overrepresented: the benefits thesis, validity of a recrowning, whether John can give away his crown, and what significance such an abstract papers, action has. A parallel to this dramatic strategy can be seen in another text dealing peripherally with John. Thomas Wilson, writing in no essay, 1600 of the state of England, states that it is an absolute Imperiall Monarchy held neither of abstract research, Pope, Emperor, nor any but of God alone, and so hath bene ever since the year of the essay, World 2855, which was 1108 years before Christ. 62 Wilson then engages with the supposed donation of Britain to the Papacy by the emperor Constantine, which he rebuts by pointing out that subsequent conquests extinguished Rome's right. The only algebra research papers other threat to this independent England is essay narration, John's submission: after this, K John did resign the algebra papers, Crowne to Pandolphus, the of writing an undergraduate, Pope's legate, and did receive it againe from him, to hold it of the Pope, paying yearly a certain Tribute; but then is easily answered (though it be the abstract algebra research papers, Pops strongest clayme) that King John was but an application, usurper, and being distressed besides with the Barons' Warres, he was forced to do yt to abstract algebra have the Pope's help, but his act was never confirmed by the States of the Country and therefore frivolous.
63. This passage, written for private circulation and not printed until 1936, stresses the constitutional importance of an engagement with John's submission, though this is not a question Holinshed, Foxe or the Homily addressed. Wilson overrepresents the arguments against in nigeria, Papal sovereignty; John is algebra papers, not merely a usurper, but a distressed, enforced and no essay application scholarships, frivolous usurper. The tactic here is not to abstract algebra research provide one conclusive refutation, but to essay narration produce the impression that the cumulative force of all explanations is strong enough to show John's submission as irrelevant to the current situation. Abstract Research Papers. A similar process is at work in John, whereby a variety of qualifications are introduced to make a simple interpretation of the recrowning difficult to arrive at. In the play John does not explicitly challenge Pandulph's commentary on the submission's significance, but after Pandulph has left he introduces an odd qualification.
Remembering the prophecy that he would this day give off his crown, he comments I did suppose it should be made on constraint;/Heaven be thanked, it is but voluntary (5.1.28-9). Given that one of the foci of The Homily's treatment of essay narration, John's recrowning is on the indignity of the English king being forced to submit, this statement can be seen as an attempt by John to reiterate his independence of Pandulph, so that the recrowning is a tactic, a piece of equivocation meaning nothing to John. At the least, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary uncrowning implies that this kind of algebra research, recrowning is not as bad as its alternative. This muddle can be read as either denoting John's personal muddle (he has lost the crown but tries to of unhappiness persuade himself he hasn't) or as a piece of obliquity for abstract algebra research papers, which there is no clear interpretation (though the implication is that the recrowning is not what Pandulph thinks it is). Essay Narration. Falconbridge's prompt criticism of John's inglorious league (5.1.65) further confuses matters, suggesting John has made a military bargain.
In the following scene, Pandulph is shown to be unable to papers honour his contract with John. Lewis, whom Pandulph has encouraged to invade, is one of the benefits thesis, threats John fears. His first words after the truncated recrowning ceremony are to enjoin Pandulph to go to meet the abstract, French/And from his holiness use all your power/To stop their marches 'fore we are inflamed (5.1.5-7). Not only is Pandulph unable to provide what John needs; he is also met with a forceful declaration of application scholarships, royal independence of the Papacy: I am too highborn to be propertied,/To be a secondary at control,/Or useful serving-man and instrument/To any sovereign state throughout the world/[ . . . ] must I back/Because that John hath made his peace with Rome?/Am I Rome's slave? (5.2.79-82, 95-7). Thus, although Pandulph clearly presents the recrowning as signifying John's subservience to papers the Pope, it is followed by an obscure distinction drawn by John, Falconbridge's perception that a purely political league has been made, and Lewis' declaration that he (and by implication, John) is essay intro tips, royal and research, thus nobody's slave. Later, in braving Lewis, Falconbridge stresses that John's submission was voluntary, referring to Pandulph as this halting legate here/Whom he hath us'd rather for sport than need (5.2.174-5). King John can thus be seen to use the same tactics as Wilson's State, presenting several arguments against the seriousness of John's recrowning, which have a cumulative as well as an individual effect. It might even be said that much of the last third of the benefits, play is constructed to contradict Pandulph's claims of the significance of the recrowning, for only two scenes before John receives the crown back from Pandulph, he recrowns himself, and is criticised for so doing. Research Papers. In Act 4 John enters once again crowned (4.2.1). Essay Narration. Though his nobles defer to John's right to do as he likes, the algebra papers, ceremony is presented, in the words of Pembroke as superfluous: you were crowned before/And that high royalty was ne'er plucked off,/The faiths of men ne'er stained with revolt/Fresh expectation troubled not the land/With any longed-for change or better state (4.2.4-8). Salisbury is essay narration, more blunt, stating Therefore, to be possessed with double pomp,/To guard a title that was rich before,/To gild refined gold, to paint the lily/[ . . Algebra Research. . ] or with taper-light/To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,/Is wasteful and ridiculous excess (4.2.9-11, 14-16).
The nobles' criticisms emphasise John's sumptuous excess, as well as his political overcompensating: In this the antique and well-noted face/Of plain old form is disfigured, so new a fashion'd robe startles and frights consideration (4.2.21-22, 27, 25). The physical excess of John's coronation will later be criticised in the Bastard's soliloquy over Arthur's corpse. But just as prominent are the political arguments. John's new coronation cannot strengthen his title, as that was already refined gold. He is trying to increase the light of the sun (himself) with a candle. Pembroke implies that the ceremony of essay intro tips, recrowning might have some point in papers, the context of of conflict, a domestic rebellion as a reassertion of the proper relationship between king and algebra, nobles, but this does not validate the later recrowning, as no nobles are present.
The overall impression is that as John is legitimate, he cannot make himself more or less legitimate with ceremonies; that a recrowning can be a political miscalculation; and that such a ceremony does not materially alter John's supremacy. The five lines exchanged between Pandulph and John two scenes later must be read in buy papers, this context. The play's overrepresentation of the issues surrounding John's recrowning works in tandem with the actual recrowning's underrepresentation. The play gives little space to this traumatic event, but contextualises it so as to suggest that, whatever it is, is algebra, not a cession of sovereignty to the Pope by the Moses of the Reformation. A post-Armada audience interpreting King John would undoubtedly have had to controll and reconcile the anti-Papal John with the essay narration, submissive John, and to negotiate the play's contestations of his authority. Algebra Research. However, the text does allow a construction of John as legitimate monarch, and thus sincere in essay narration, his anti-Catholicism.
This presentation of John would also have accorded with those in Holinshed, Foxe, the Homily and The Troublesome Reign, and abstract papers, would not have offended contemporary anti-Spanish or anti-Catholic nationalism. The model offered by critics identifying the play as modern, in contrast, situates the play as against the grain of most influential historical accounts, the predominant war fever of the benefits of writing thesis, theatrical repertory, and the likely mood of wartime London. Papers. At such a time, a play's religious politics are likely to be powerfully inflected towards orthodoxy in at least the most uncontroversial of areas: John's legitimacy as an opponent of the Papacy. To recognise this historical reading as possible, perhaps even likely, goes against the grain of post-Tillyard approaches to the history plays, which David Womersley characterises by critics' unwillingness to believe that Shakespeare might have written in support of doctrines they find repugnant or risible and a consequent locating of a remarkable dramatic complexity 64 in the plays. The reinvention of the history plays described from a different perspective by Womersley and Curren-Aquino has helped to continue Shakespeare's dominance of the Renaissance canon as continually relevant politically, something which happens surprisingly frequently by the traditional critical/polemical tactic of presenting Shakespeare, or his texts, as rising above the for college, simplicity and abstract research, polemic of contemporary sources. I have attempted to pursuit essay show how it is possible to read King John as irrelevant to modern political concerns, and that in at least one important respect Shakespeare is not our ambivalent, ambiguous, sceptical, questioning and ideologically subversive contemporary. 1 Deborah Curren-Aquino, King John: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Garland, 1994), p. xxvi.
2 Sigurd Burckhardt, King John: The Ordering of this Present Time, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 133. 3 Burckhardt, 134; Virginia Vaughan, King John: A Study in Subversion and Containment, in King John; New Perspectives, ed. Deborah Curren-Aquino (London and abstract algebra research papers, Toronto: Associated UP, 1989), p. 62. 4 Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History: Shakespeare's English Chronicles (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 66. 5 Larry Champion, The Noise of Threatening Drum: Dramatic Strategy and Political Ideology in Shakespeare and the English Chronicle Plays (London and application scholarships, Toronto: Associated UP, 1990), p. 98.
6 Guy Hamel, King John and The Troublesome Reign: A Reexamination, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 54. 7 Stephen Greenblatt, Invisible Bullets, in abstract papers, Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism, ed. Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1985), p. 29; King John, ed. Robert Smallwood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 12. 8 David Aers, A Whisper in the Ear of Early Modernists, Culture and History 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing, ed.
David Aers (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992), pp. 195-6. 9 E.M.W. Application. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London, 1944; repr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), p. 220; see also M.M. Reese, The Cease of research, Majesty (London: Arnold, 1961), p. 270; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957: rev. edn, London: Methuen, 1965), pp.
121-2; David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968), p. 200. 10 This argument is developed thoroughly in of conflict in nigeria, Deborah Kehler, 'So Jest With Heaven': Deity in abstract research, King John, in Curren-Aquino (1989) p. 101. 11 King John ed E.A.J. Honigmann (London: Methuen, 1954), 3.1.75-86. Unless otherwise specified all references to Shakespeare's plays are from the Arden editions. 12 Lily Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Publications, 1947;3rd edn, London: Methuen, 1964), p. 154. 13 C.W.
Heiatt, Dating King John, NQ, xxxv (1988), p. 463 dates the play to 1593/4; Roslyn Knutson, The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company 1594-1613 (Fayetteville: Arkansas UP, 1991), p. 75 suggests 1596-97; L.A. Beaurline's edition of King John (Cambridge UP, 1990), p. 210 plumps for 1590; A.R. Braunmuller's edition (Oxford UP, 1989), p. 15 chooses 1595-96; Smallwood, p. 10 also supports 1593/4, and Honigmann, p. lviii 1590/1. 14 Carol Wiener, The Beleagured Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism, Past Present, LV (1971), pp. Essay Narration. 52-3; R.B. Wernham, After the Armada (Oxford: OUP, 1984), pp. 453-60. 15 David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in algebra, Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1989), p. 119. 16 Peter Clark, A Crisis Contained? The Condition of English Towns in the 1590s, in The European Crisis of the 1590s ed. Peter Clark (London: Allen Unwin, 1985), p. 55.
18 R.B. Benefits Of Writing Thesis. Outhwaite, Dearth, the English Crown and the 'Crisis of the 1590s', in Clark (1985), p. 25; Henry Knyvett, The Defence of the abstract research papers, Realm (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906). 19 A. Pritchard, Catholic Loyalism in Elizabethan England (London: Scolar Press, 1979), pp. 6-8, 12. 20 T.E. Hartley, Elizabeth's Parliaments: Queen, Lords and application scholarships, Commons 1559-1601 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992), pp. 98-101.
21 Donna Hamilton, Shakespeare and the Poetics of Protestant England (Lexington: Kentucky UP, 1992), p. 4. 22 Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982), p. 6. 23 See Carole Levin, Propaganda in the English Reformation: Heroic and Villainous Images of King John (Lewiston/Queenston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988). 24 Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, Vol. II (London, 1807; repr.
New York: AMS Press, 1965), pp. 339, 319. 25 Certain Sermons or Homilies (1547) and algebra papers, A Homily Against Disobedience And Wilful Rebellion (1570): A Critical Edition, ed. Ronald Bond (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1987), p. 243. 26 Wernham, p. 555. 27 Andrew Gurr, Play going in buy papers for college, Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), p. 135. 28 Bevington, p. Research. 195.
29 Rackin, p. 187. 31 Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1972), p. 88. 32 John Blanpied, Time and the Artist in Shakespeare's English Histories (London and Toronto: Associated UP, 1983), pp. 100-101. See also William Hawley, Critical Hermeneutics and Shakespeare's History Plays (New York and Bern: Lang, 1992), p. 70. 33 Vaughan, 1989, p. Benefits Of Writing Thesis. 70; see also James Bryant's odd conclusion that John's antipapal remarks can be seen [ . . . ] not as being derogatory to abstract research papers the Roman Catholic Church but as an expression of the Reformation position, Tudor Drama and Religious Controversy (Macon, GA: Mercer UP, 1984), p. 133. 34 Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1962), Vol.
IV, p. 22. 35 For the former stance, in persuasive intro, addition to Bullough, Reece and Ornstein cited above, see Marie Axton, The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession (London: Royal Historical Society, 1977), p. 108; Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979), p. Abstract. 115, and Bevington, p. 198. For the latter position, see Hawley, p. Scholarships. 70; Champion, p. 96; Hamel, p. 55. 36 Kehler, p. 103; see also Edward Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's English Histories (Charlottesville: Virginia UP, 1975), p. 115. 37 Reese, p. 275; Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. 239. 38 Champion, p. Research. 96. 39 Rackin, p. 184; David Womersley, The Politics of Shakespeare's King John, RES, XI (1989), p. 502. See also Robert Jones, Those Valiant Dead: Renewing the Past in pursuit essay, Shakespeare's Histories (Iowa City: Iowa UP, 1991), p. 60 and abstract research, Beaurline, p. 51. 40 Douglas Wixson, 'Calm words folded up in smoke': Propaganda and Spectator Response in Shakespeare's King John, Shakespeare Studies, 14 (1981), pp. 111-27 and Michael Manheim, The Weak King Dilemma in the Shakespearian History Play (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1973), pp. 116-60.
41 Since at least James Calderwood's Commodity and Honour in King John, UTQ, XXIX (1960), pp. 341-56. 42 Juliet Dusinberre, King John and embarrassing women, Shakespeare Survey, 43 (1989), pp. 37-52; Carole Levin, 'I trust I may not trust thee': Women's Visions of the World in Shakespeare's King John, in no essay application scholarships, Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Abstract Algebra Research Papers. Carole Levin and J. Watson (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1987), pp. 219-34; Rackin, pp.
146-200. 43 A topic of interest since at least Adrien Bonjour's The Road to Swinstead Abbey: A Study of the Sense and Structure of King John, ELH, XVIII (1951), pp. 253-74. 44 William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain, ed. R. Dunn (Toronto and London: Toronto UP, 1984), p. 246. 45 See John Elliott, Shakespeare and the Double Image of King John, Shakespeare Studies, I (1965), p. 72; R Burkhart, Obedience and essay, Rebellion in Shakespeare's Early History Plays, English Studies, LV (1971); Kristian Smidt, Unconformities in Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Macmillan, 1982), p. Abstract Papers. 73; John Loftis, Renaissance Drama in England and pursuit of unhappiness essay, Spain (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987), p. 74; Bonjour, p. 257; Reese, p. 263; Manheim, p. 131; Edwards, p. 115, Levin, 1987, p. 221; Hamilton, p. Algebra Research. 43; Berry, p. No Essay Scholarships. 115; Bevington, p. Abstract Algebra. 243; Honigmann, p. xxvii; Beaurline, p. 47; Hawley, p. 64; Hodgdon, p. Of Writing An Undergraduate. 27; Robert Jones, p. 48; Rackin, p. 162; Kehler, p. 103; Dusinberre, p. 44. 46 Reese, p. Research. 272; Edna Zwick Boris, Shakespeare's English Kings, the People and the Law (London: Associated Press, 1978), p. 133.
48 Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies, facsimile prepared by benefits thesis H. Kokeritz (New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1954), pp. 17-18. 49 Honigmann's Arden edition is closest to the First Folio, substituting an algebra, exclamation mark for its question mark; his notes indicate that the 'England' of the fourth line refers to both Arthur and the country. 51 Robert Jones, p. 60; see also Womersley, p. 502 and Smallwood, p. 38. 52 John Sibly, The Anomalous case of King John, ELH, XXXIII (1966), p. 421. 53 Emrys Jones, p. Essay Narration. 256; Robert Jones, p. 57; Calderwood, p. Algebra Papers. 97; Bonjour, p. Essay Narration. 264; Champion, p. 92. 55 Acts and Monuments, Vol. II (London: Seeley Burnside Seeley, 1843), p. Abstract Algebra Research. 332.
I have checked that this passage is not present in the 1583 edition. 56 J. Leeds Barroll, A New History for Shakespeare and His Time, SQ, XXIX (1988), pp. 441-64. 57 The Troublesome Reign of King John, ed. Bullough, To the Gentlemen Readers, p. 72.
All quotations from of writing thesis, The Troublesome Reign are from this edition. 58 Edward the Second, ed. W Moelwyn Merchant (London: Benn, 1967), 5.1.26. 59 Hodgdon, p. 30. 60 A.R. Braunmuller, King John and Historiography, ELH, LV (1988), p. 318. 61 Holinshed, Preface to the Reader. [Chronicles, Vol. II]. 62 Thomas Wilson, The State of England Anno Dom 1600, ed. F. Research. Fisher, Camden Miscellany, XVI (London, 1936), p. 1.
64 Womersley, p. 499. Source: The Limits of Modernity in Shakespeare's King John, in Shakespeare and History, edited by Holger Klein and Rowland Wymer, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996, pp. Of Conflict In Nigeria Essay. 91-118.
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A History of Abstract Algebra | …
2017 MBA Essay Questions: MIT Sloan. 2017 MIT Sloan Full-Time MBA Application Class of 2020. Algebra Research Papers! As expected, MIT has retained their cover letter for the 2017 MBA application #8212; and they#8217;ve also added a video component! It has a prescribed question and no essay scholarships they#8217;re calling it a #8220;video statement#8221; #8212; you have to record your video and upload it to the app like another essay, as part of the submission. The question is deceivingly simple: Please introduce yourself to abstract algebra research your future classmates via a brief video statement. This one is going to require some introspection and essay narration self-examination in algebra papers, order to answer well!
You#8217;ll want to treat this more like a second essay not to the extent that you#8217;ll literally write out your answer, since that would seriously backfire on you if you were to persuasive essay sit there and read it while you were being filmed. Instead, you#8217;ll outline and algebra research papers prepare your content for both the video statement, and the cover letter, and the optional essay if you need it. Then, you#8217;ll write the cover letter (and write it again the revision process is critical) and review and adjust your ideas for the video statement. After the cover letter and resume (and optional essay) are all done, when you submit the app, then you#8217;ll also record your video statement too. Essay Intro Tips! You need to know how you#8217;re going to handle it before you send it all in! This requires a concentrated approach. For the cover letter, which is another assignment that Brave Supplicants have found challenging, they#8217;ve thankfully given you BSers a break this year by expanding the max length of that cover letter by 50 words. Abstract Research! You may not think that 50 words is very much but believe the #8216;Snark, 300 words is essay, WAY more than 250. This is abstract algebra research papers, still going to persuasive intro tips be an exceedingly challenging essay to write (mostly because it#8217;s really not an essay) however you won#8217;t have quite as tough a time as last year#8217;s crop of applicants did.
Here are the algebra research papers full instructions for buy papers the written components these also have been greatly expanded and further explained so you know what you#8217;re getting int. Algebra Research! They are helping you significantly here! MIT Sloan seeks students whose personal characteristics demonstrate that they will make the most of the incredible opportunities at MIT, both academic and non-academic. Buy Papers! We are on abstract a quest to find those whose presence will enhance the experience of other students. We seek thoughtful leaders with exceptional intellectual abilities and pursuit of unhappiness essay the drive and algebra research determination to put their stamp on causes in nigeria essay the world. We welcome people who are independent, authentic, and fearlessly creative — true doers. Research Papers! We want people who can redefine solutions to conventional problems, and strive to preempt unconventional dilemmas with cutting-edge ideas. We demand integrity and respect passion. Of Conflict In Nigeria! Taking the above into consideration, please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program.
Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence, include one or more examples that illustrate why you meet the desired criteria above, and research papers be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions (300 words or fewer, excluding address and salutation). Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order. Persuasive Essay Intro Tips! Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. Algebra Research! (no more than 1 page in length) The cover letter at essay narration, MIT is abstract research, actually a long-standing tradition that they resuscitated last year, after previously having it as recently as 2012 (when it was but one of a suite of essays).
Well offer you this from Twitter#8217;s Professor Snarky (no relation): Dear student: A job cover letter needs to say what they#39;ll get out of hiring you, not what you#39;ll get out of being hired. Causes Of Conflict! Because of the abstract research papers video question, which is benefits thesis, pretty open-ended, then the Additional Information submission for MIT has moved back to text only; it can now be up to 200 words, which means you should use it as you would any other school#8217;s optional essay (meaning, only if specifically needed to abstract algebra research explain something that you can#8217;t otherwise explain elsewhere in essay intro, the application, like low GPA, gaps in abstract papers, employment, etc.). Please note: For several years, it was highly recommended to do the Additional Info submission for Sloan!! That has now changed. You will need to evaluate your circumstances very carefully and see what you#8217;re conveying with the causes cover letter + resume + video statement! Do NOT include the Additional Info only abstract papers because you think you should or you read somewhere that everyone should do it for persuasive Sloan! That advice is now outdated. If you#8217;re researching posts here on the blahg about your app strategy for MIT, please pay careful attention to the date; anything that does not say 2017 is not likely to be accurate with this year#8217;s application instructions. But wait!
There#8217;s more! #128578; MIT has a unique element to their process: If you get invited to interview then you#8217;ll need to submit a separate essay as part of that process. The essence of this question is that they#8217;re asking for abstract research papers a story where you#8217;ve being successful in some capacity in no essay application scholarships, your career that demonstrates how you#8217;re in sync with their mission (note that as of 7/31/17 we#8217;ve been informed by a sharp-eyed BSer that it#8217;s a change to the actual prompt from what they had before): The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the research papers world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. We believe that a commitment to diversity, inclusion, equity, and well-being is a key component of both principled leadership and sound management practice. In 250 words or less, please describe how you, as a member of the essay narration MIT Sloan community, would work to algebra papers create a campus that is application scholarships, welcoming, inclusive and increasingly diverse. This is now in line with many other schools that are not just focusing on algebra papers their own culture but also on how each applicant will actually contribute to it in a civil way, to foster growth and change productively (in contrast with the polarized politics a lot of people are fostering in the #8220;real world#8221; right now). Persuasive Intro! This is not an easy question! There#8217;s a lot to research parse here and you could go in many different directions with it #8212; which is both a grand opportunity and also a very big challenge. Most people don#8217;t do so well in articulating how they feel they#8217;re a fit through this (it is NOT asking you for the standard info of #8220;I want to take this course or be in this club#8221; stuff that so many applicants use in other essays). This one needs to be part of your full strategy.
We actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter. Our essay guide explains why, and how). One advance tip: Often BSers start with Story A in the CL and Story B in the Mission essay, and after tearing their hair out for a week or so, finally realize that the two stories should be swapped. Which is yet another reason why it#8217;s so strategic to essay work on them together. Be open to totally juggling around your ideas as you go through this. Algebra! Dang, lots of changes again this year, Sloan! The recommenders#8217; requirements also have been changed! And they shifted their Round 1 deadline out till later in of conflict, September, which takes the pressure off when you#8217;re scrambling to get other top schools done earlier in the month. And yes there#8217;s more! they now have two rounds for LGO, instead of just one which was a tough process for many BSers. These are all awesome improvements; they#8217;re streamlining, clarifying, and otherwise changing for the better. Algebra Research Papers! Yet Sloan is still Sloan!
You will not be able to essay narration reuse anything you#8217;ve done for any other school (except for the parts that capture YOU; those parts won#8217;t need to be changed!). We have revised our MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of algebra this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2020 MBA applicant. Buy Papers For College! There#8217;s also been a number of posts on the EssaySnark blahg about the MIT Sloan cover letter and resume this year see the Snark Info on Sloan section below for some highlights. Papers! We also definitely recommend getting up to Boston to experience Sloan for yourself, and if not, then be sure to get in front of the adcom in one of their traveling sessions if at all possible. This really will help you quite a bit. For some additional insights into essay narration, MIT Sloan, we live-tweeted an MIT admissions chat in algebra, late August 2015. From @MITSloanAdcom: Common mistake is people who don#39;t follow instructions-seems like common sense but happens more often then you think. Causes Of Conflict! From @MITSloanAdcom: It can certainly be a challenge for intl student to work in the US but many of our intl grads work abroad for US cos.
Someone asked how recent is recent for essay: the choice is yours but we typically recommend that the experience be w/in the last 3 yrs. Here#39;s a good Q: Do you expect managerial experience from candidates or will demonstrated leadership experience in other roles suffice ? The @MITSloanAdcom#39;s answer: Leadership in other roles is algebra research, perfectly fine. The average work experience is typically 5 years. At least they#39;re still consistent on this! We would prefer a one page resume. All schools do BTW. From @MITSloanAdcom: The only advice I have for interview is to print your application and think of new examples to talk about! Confirming what we#39;ve been saying for years now: From @MITSloanAdcom: I always encourage people to apply in round 1 if possible.
Pick up the 2017 MIT essay guide to benefits learn how to approach the algebra papers app! It#8217;s been completely revised for this year#8217;s requirements. Causes Of Conflict In Nigeria! Your approach for MIT must be different they evaluate your application based on specific criteria that are unique to them. If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the abstract algebra research papers SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs. MIT 2017 FULL-TIME MBA Dates and Deadlines. Regular MBA and LGO Round 1: September 25, 2017 More applicant-friendliness from MIT this year! First, they moved their Rd 1 date out so that deadlines are going to be more staggered for many of you in September. Essay Narration! Big win! Second, they#8217;re now letting you apply to LGO in Round 1, too! Used to be, LGO apps were due in algebra research papers, December and there was only buy papers for college one deadline, and it was definitely not optimized if you were trying for other schools in Round 1. Algebra Research! This is way better. Remember that while Rd 1 is always recommended, it is REALLY recommended at essay, MIT based on how they manage their process.
Rd 1 interview invitations will start going out on October 5th and then come on abstract algebra every Thursday until November 2nd, when applicants they won#8217;t be moving forward with will be released. No Essay! For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in abstract, mid December like other top schools. LGO Round 2: December 4, 2017 if you#8217;re interested in buy papers for college, LGO then this can work too but for most of you, Round 1 will be better due to abstract algebra research timing of decisions with other schools. Scholarships! (LGO is a joint degree with MIT Engineering, you can find out abstract algebra more here .) Regular MBA Round 2: January 17, 2018 yay thank you also MIT for keeping your Round 2 date later. OMG jumping up and down you make the #8216;Snark happy on behalf of buy papers all future BSers everywhere. We expect Round 2 interview invitations will go out in waves starting February 21, with Round 2 release to happen on March 3. Algebra Research Papers! Interviews will be conducted by the adcom in international locations from February 27 to March 27. Please note that MIT had only two rounds for admission up through the 2015-2016 application cycle, so it#8217;s very possible that you could read posts from the #8216;Snarchives that are outdated in how they talk about timing of an application strategy for this school. Always check to see that the information you#8217;re consuming here and elsewhere is essay narration, current and applicable to abstract algebra research the current year!
There are a lot of changes with the MIT admissions requirements! The 2017 MIT Application Guide is essay intro, now available, with a full discussion of what to do and how to algebra papers maximize your chances in light of the new application. For Reference: MIT#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what Sloan asked before. Pursuit Of Unhappiness Essay! Click to view last year's questions.
2016 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. They are officially going retro! MIT has restored their classic #8220;cover letter#8221; question, which was the very first form of an #8220;introduce yourself#8221; type essay that any school ever instituted. Good news: We#8217;ve got lots of experience in helping successful applicants work through this important deliverable! Cover Letter: Please submit a cover letter seeking a place in abstract papers, the MIT Sloan MBA Program.
Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence and be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. Essay! (250 words or fewer for the body of the letter) Resume: Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order. Abstract Algebra Research Papers! Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. Persuasive! (no more than 1 page in length) Thankfully they#8217;ve clarified now that the 250 words is the abstract research papers body of the cover letter only! On each of of unhappiness essay these EssaySnark school essay question and info pages, we always retain our commentary from past seasons#8217; app requirements at the bottom and in abstract algebra papers, the case of MIT Sloan, we#8217;re going to tips recommend you actually go through and read all of that.
The info on last year#8217;s app can give some context into the changes that the adcom has been making. Algebra Research! Also, to fill you in, the essay narration cover letter requirement was a staple of the MIT app through 2012 when it was but one of a suite of abstract algebra essays. This 2016 MIT Sloan MBA application is a hybrid of tried-and-true requirements that have been updated to the modern era of MBA applications. As an example of the modern era, they#8217;ve again kept their #8220;Additional Information#8221; optional submission, which we actually say is not optional this is one of the very few schools where you really do want to submit something for this: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to buy papers for college share additional information about yourself, in any format. If you choose a multimedia format, please host the information on abstract a website and provide us with the no essay URL. Please keep all videos and media limited to 2:00 minutes total in length. Please keep all written essays to 500 words or less. If hosting your submission on a website, please ensure you provide an unprotected link (no password required). Instead of this being a traditional #8220;optional essay#8221; which we typically suggest you DON#8217;T submit unless you have to in order to explain something, in abstract research papers, this case, for scholarships MIT, we suggest you DO come up with something to include here particularly this year when there#8217;s only the single essay for papers the app. Our MIT essay guide goes into pursuit of unhappiness, all the strategy behind this suggestion. We have revised our comprehensive MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and algebra research papers how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2019 MBA applicant.
We do NOT recommend buying any previous season version of of unhappiness essay this school#8217;s guide; it will NOT help you with the algebra research core application and the details involved with this year#8217;s strategy. They#8217;ve also kept their post-interview-invite essay where they want you to tell a story about being successful in the context of application their mission a classic #8220;culture#8221; type question: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the abstract algebra papers world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer). Only those who are lucky enough to get invited to the interview stage will need to of writing an undergraduate thesis do this additional essay (we actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter though! our essay guide explains why, and how). How long and in abstract algebra research, what capacity have you known the applicant? How does the persuasive tips applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an example of the applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization.
Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? If you are an academic/technical recommender, please tell us how well the applicant mastered the subject you taught or supervised and in what ways did the abstract research papers applicant demonstrate this mastery. (LGO only?) Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant. Our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets can be especially useful for this school! [end discussion of essay narration MIT#8217;s last-year questions] 2015 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Update 3/9/16: MIT says that 5% of the class will be admitted in algebra papers, Round 3, but they’re discouraging international applicants due to potential visa timing issues. MIT WAS PICKY IN ROUND 1. In Nigeria! They#8217;re clearly going for an improvement to their rankings based on abstract papers a strengthening of the class profile. Application Scholarships! We expect average GMAT score to abstract go up even further at MIT for no essay scholarships the Class of abstract algebra 2018, based on the outcomes we#8217;re seeing from causes in nigeria essay, them so far this season. (We did predict that, back in May#8230;) Thankfully (. ) MIT has modified its application this year. Their essay questions the past two cycles were straight-up awful for BSers to deal with. This year they#8217;ve gone down to ONE main question which normally we#8217;d be rather unhappy about, except that they#8217;re also introducing a system sort of similar to HBS, where you submit a second essay if you#8217;re invited to research papers interview. (Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection is not the same, but it#8217;s the same idea: get another submission from the thesis applicant at the interview stage.) AND while on first glance it appeared that MIT retained the worst of the worst of its essay prompts from abstract algebra research, last year (see below), actually they changed that too! All around positives.
The other big change? They#8217;re EXPANDING their admissions cycle to three rounds. For a very long time, MIT has had just two rounds yet for several years running, we#8217;ve heard that they accepted #8220;late#8221; applications after their January Round 2 date was past. So they sort of kind of let you apply after their final deadline anyway. They#8217;re now standardizing to do what every other top school does. Three Rounds. September, January, April. Cool.
The main application essay question is of writing an undergraduate thesis, what we#8217;re most pleased about. Here it is: Tell us about algebra, a recent success you had: How did you accomplish this? Who else was involved? What hurdles did you encounter? What type of impact did this have? (500 words or fewer). This is such a classic #8220;significant achievement#8221; question that we#8217;re practically rejoicing here in buy papers, Snarkville. Algebra! Such questions let applicants communicate in ways that are revealing at least, provided the applicant does a good job with the thesis question!
The question itself is algebra papers, absolutely awesome: It has subparts that guide you on pursuit of unhappiness what to focus on, it#8217;s a reasonable length to convey what#8217;s needed, and it#8217;s unambiguous. Thank you, Sloan! We have a category for posts here on the blahg called #8220;essay types #8216;achievement#8217; essays#8221; which you may want to research papers investigate if you#8217;re researching how to approach this. Our wait for it Accomplishments Achievements App Accelerator may also be useful in hashing through your possible topics and figuring out which #8220;recent success#8221; is going to be most effective for you to present. What other goodness is coming from the pursuit of unhappiness MIT announcement? Well, they’re retaining their “Additional Information” optional submission, which we have always liked. Here’s the abstract research papers wording for no essay scholarships that: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to know about abstract algebra, you, in any format. Good stuff already coming @MITSloanAdcom chat: It is highly recommended you also submit optional essay (tho it#39;s schoolspecific advice!) They#8217;re also introducing a post-interview-invite essay requirement which looks remarkably similar to what they asked as a main essay prompt for the past two years, except that they fixed the awkwardness of persuasive essay intro tips it and now they#8217;re just asking you to tell another story about being successful somehow: The mission of the research MIT Sloan School of tips Management is to abstract algebra develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer).
MIT had a near-identical question as its Essay 1 for two years and almost entirely because of that, had been recognized here in Snarkville as having the worst essay questions. This new version of the prompt is persuasive essay intro tips, much better though 250 words is very short. If you are in the lucky position of being invited to algebra research interview at MIT, you definitely will want to avail yourself of the pursuit essay benefits in research papers, our Sloan essay strategy guide #8212; though hopefully you will get the guide right away so that you can benefit from the intro entire strategy we lay forth! As of that early May 2015 announcement of the new essay questions, their app requirements page had NOT been fully edited and updated (once again, MIT exhibits sloppiness as of this writing on 5/10/15, they have the new essay questions listed at the top but then the algebra papers discussion of Letters of Recommendation talks about an #8220;essay #2#8221; which is a leftover comment from last year#8217;s app). We#8217;re not saying that we never have errors on our site but on a school#8217;s app requirements page? Proofread, Sloan Adcom, proofread. 7/16/15 Good news! MIT continues to introduce applicant-friendly changes. Application Scholarships! We#8217;ve now discovered that they ditched the ridiculous suggestion that applicants submit a resume in Sloan#8217;s own resume format, and algebra papers that the buy papers resume could be only #8220;50 lines.#8221; These restrictions were just silly, and created undue stress for candidates. You still should only be submitting a one-page resume (that#8217;s true for any school) but now you don#8217;t have to abstract worry about a particular format for no essay application scholarships a particular school (especially when that format did not even demonstrate best practices for papers MBA applicants).
Thank you, Sloan Adcom, for coming around!! MIT 2015 Dates and essay Deadlines. MIT now has three rounds! That means: Be careful about any posts you read here on the blahg about #8220;two rounds#8221; and MIT. We have discussed the implications of this change to three rounds in the 2015 MIT Application Guide but we have not gone back over our historical posts here on this site to offer warnings or corrections what we may have said in the past about application strategy at MIT may not apply to this new world of a standardized admissions cycle. Abstract Algebra Papers! Round 1: September 17, 2015 almost a week earlier than Rd 1 was last year. Traditionally this has been the most advantageous at MIT but we don#8217;t know if that will hold true quite in the same way this year (Rd 1 is always recommended but it used to be REALLY recommended at MIT based on how they managed their two-round cycle; Rd 1 will still be an advantage, but it#8217;s a TBD on pursuit essay how big of an advantage it will be going forward at this school). Based on abstract algebra a 10/7/15 announcement on the MIT blog , interview invitations this year will work the pursuit of unhappiness essay same as they did last year in abstract research, Round 1: They#8217;ll start going out in mid-October, through the #8220;week of November 9th#8221; (not sure why they can#8217;t name the actual day?). Causes Of Conflict In Nigeria! That#8217;s when the Round 1 #8220;release from consideration#8221; happens, which is a nice way to say #8220;no#8221; to abstract you if they#8217;re not interested. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools.
Round 2: January 14, 2016 . This jives with what happened last season, which actually was not what was originally planned. Causes Of Conflict! They had set Round 2 to be January 8, 2015, but then at the last minute, it was EXTENDED TO JANUARY 13th. Round 2 is always viable at MIT. Abstract Algebra Research Papers! Round 2 interview invitations will going out the week of February 15th (same as last year), with Round 2 release to essay narration happen somewhere around March 1st. Round 3 THIS IS NEW: April 11, 2016.
We don#8217;t generally post Round 3 deadlines here on abstract algebra the blahg because it#8217;s typically near-impossible to get in then. HOWEVER: Since Round 3 is NEW at MIT, then we can only expect that they have modified their internal admissions processes to leave spots open for candidates at that stage. We still believe it will be difficult to get in on pursuit a Round 3 app but in this case, it may not be quite so difficult as it would be elsewhere. YMMV. Whew! That#8217;s a lot of algebra change! If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the for college SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT (2015 version) it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs. And of course, you get a full discussion of the impact of the changes with the addition of Round 3 and everything else. The 2015 guide was totally overhauled from 2014; this is not an edit or refresh, it#8217;s a completely new book! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2015 questions] Click to view 2014 questions.
2014 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the algebra research papers 2014 questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from a previous year. The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on in nigeria examples of past work and activities. Algebra Research! (500 words or fewer) Write a professional letter of recommendation on behalf of yourself. Answer the following questions as if you were your most recent supervisor recommending yourself for essay narration admission to the MIT Sloan MBA Program: (750 words or fewer) How long and in what capacity have you known the applicant? Really, MIT? REALLY. Abstract Algebra Research Papers! How does the applicant stand out from others in scholarships, a similar capacity? Please give an example of the applicant#8217;s impact on algebra research a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of buy papers for college how the applicant interacts with other people. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change?
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MIT Links, Important App Info, and Some Snark. official school pages: EssaySnark#8217;s posts on MIT: We haven#8217;t reviewed too many MIT essays on the blahg, however there#8217;s plenty of other schools with similar-enough questions that we have covered: We go into great detail in the Sloan essay guide on abstract algebra research papers how to handle the questions that this school asks. Start there. Then, if you want an MIT essay reviewed for free! on the blahg, try sending it over! If you#8217;re looking for personalized and private help, then our standard Essay Decimator is ideal (we strongly suggest writing BOTH ESSAYS together at once; that way, you can get your entire pitch critiqued, and you#8217;ll be ahead of the pursuit of unhappiness game when it#8217;s time for that interview invite to come along!). Abstract Algebra Research! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. Persuasive! The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to papers help you with the 2017 app!
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DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List. Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Gaherty, Shillington, Ekstrom. Investigation of the Role of Segmentation and Magmatism in Continental Rifting Exploiting Diverse Seismic Datasets from the East African Rift System. For many years it has been accepted that continental breakup occurs by extension and ultimately rupture of the algebra research papers, lithosphere. However, the essay narration, emergence and early evolution of two fundamental characteristics of divergent plate boundaries, segmentation and magmatism, are not well understood because most studies focus on mature or successfully rifted margins. Additionally, there are few existing datasets that can be integrated to provide 3D constraints on rift architecture throughout the lithosphere, which are required to address these questions. My research focuses on investigations of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath two unique end-member study locations within the East African Rift System (EARS). Abstract Algebra Research. The first component of my dissertation concerns the mature Main Ethiopian Rift and causes of conflict essay, Afar Depression.
I used earthquake and abstract papers, continuous data from 100+ temporary seismic stations located in the region to investigate the shear velocity and radially anisotropic structure of the for college, uppermost mantle. This investigation produced estimates of mantle temperature and melt content within the rift and also highlighted the potential location of melt segregation along a steeply dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The second component of my dissertation focuses on research papers the relatively immature Malawi Rift located at the southernmost tip of the EARS. For this study I am using the recently acquired SEGMeNT active and passive source seismic dataset that comprises a 3D array of on-land and lake-bottom broadband and short period seismometers. With this data I plan to investigate the shear velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the region using teleseismic and ambient noise seismic processing. The 3D active source dataset acquired by short period lake-bottom seismometers within Lake Malawi will provide high-resolution images of shallow crustal velocity structure. Together these diverse datasets will yield novel constraints on the state of the Malawi Rift and scholarships, the role of abstract algebra research papers segmentation and magmatism in an immature continental rift setting. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.
Advisory Committee: Hemming, Christie-Blick, Broecker. My dissertation work is focused on constraining a Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial record of hydroclimate change from the essay, Mono Basin, California. Algebra Papers. The emphasis of my work is on sedimentary and stratigraphic observations that I use to interpret lake level fluctuations--a proxy for changes in the basin's precipitation minus evaporation balance. I hope that this, along with a chronology based on uranium series and intro tips, radiocarbon data, can yield an accurate and precise record, which can be used by climate modelers to understand the hydrosphere's dynamics. In addition, models can then use this data to towards understanding how this region's hydroclimate will be affected with projected future climate change. Date Orals Passed : 5/14. Advisory Committee : A. Juhl, B. Anderson, H. Ducklow. Impacts of regional climate change on planktonic microorganisms in abstract marine ecosystems. My graduate research at the interface of marine biology and chemical oceanography addresses the impacts of regional climate change on microorganisms in coastal marine ecosystems. Much of my research focuses on an undergraduate the effects of multiple stressors on the growth and physiology of planktonic microorganisms, which form the base of the marine food web and serve as some of the first bioindicators of abstract algebra change in marine ecosystems. Although the benefits, effects of abstract research ocean acidification are known for tips, some marine plankton, the abstract research, interactive effects of ocean acidification and other chemical stressors (e.g., hypoxia, toxic trace metals delivered from suspended sediments, antibiotics) are not well understood.
Using integrated laboratory experiments and field studies, I examine the interactive impacts of ocean acidification with other chemical stressors on harmful algal bloom (HAB) phytoplankton species including Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Amphidinium carterae , as well as shelled molluscs including Limacina helicina . In addition, some of my research focuses on the supply of dust – a major source of iron for phytoplankton – in surface waters of the Indian Ocean. Using trace metal clean laboratory techniques, I measure thorium isotopes in seawater and causes of conflict in nigeria, surface sediment samples to determine the total atmospheric dust flux to papers, the Indian Ocean. These interdisciplinary studies address the coupled biological and chemical changes in application scholarships marine ecosystems as a result of research increased anthropogenic climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Tolstoy, Goldberg, Malinverno. Cycles and layering beneath the seafloor from marine and borehole geophysical data. In my first chapter, I examine the for college, effect of short-term tidal cycles in abstract the ocean. Specifically, I assess triggering of seismic activity related to the true fortnightly and fortnightly modulations of diurnal and semidiurnal tides at the East Pacific Rise through a dataset from an of writing an undergraduate, Ocean Bottom Seismometer array that was deployed from October 2003 to abstract papers, January 2007. The study is particularly focused on seismicity before and after a well-documented submarine eruption at this site, which culminated in a seismic crisis on January 22 nd , 2006. This study enables us to observe the fundamental change in no essay the state of stress along a mid ocean ridge through a plate spreading event.
For my second and third chapter, I am looking at the morphology, origin and evolution of Pleistocene submarine canyons at abstract, the New Jersey margin. For this purpose, I am using the 2D seismic reflection profiles collected on R/V Oceanus cruise 270 in 1995. Mapping the submarine canyons allows me to study their progression in morphology through space and buy papers for college, time. For a greater understanding of the effects of sea level change on a stratigraphic column, a 3D seismic volume was just acquired on the New Jersey continental shelf, aboard R/V Langseth in the summer of abstract algebra research papers 2015. I participated in the cruise and awaiting the delivery of the processed dataset early next year. I am planning to look at the evolution of Miocene clinoform fronts at this margin. In my last chapter, I am going to evaluate the no essay application scholarships, ocean crustal sites at Reykjanes ridge, offshore Iceland for carbon dioxide sequestration in layers of deep-sea basalt. This work aims to look for an offshore extension of the onshore CarbFix project launched in 2007.
My work would include a geographical reconnaissance of the area, reservoir assessment to algebra papers, estimate carbon dioxide storage volume and lastly a thermal assessment for optimum temperature and pressure conditions to essay narration, support the injected phase of algebra carbon dioxide.?? Advisory Committee : Winckler, Goldstein, Kaplan. The provenance of mineral dust in West Antarctica: Insights into past atmospheric circulation and continental aridity. Mineral dust lofted up into the atmosphere has both a direct and an indirect effect on the climate system. Benefits Of Writing Thesis. My research focuses on understanding the ways that dust influences the climate system today, and how that influence has changed in algebra the past. In particular, we can use dust as a tracer of past atmospheric circulation patterns: by comparing the radiogenic isotopic “fingerprint” of places where the dust might have come from with the signal we see in some climate archive, we know that storm systems transported that dust from buy papers, that known source to our location of interest. Then, we can see how the source areas may have changed over time. My samples come from abstract research papers, several ice cores in intro tips West Antarctica (WAIS), and we use Sr, Nd, and abstract algebra papers, Pb isotopes to identify the changing dust sources to WAIS on glacial-interglacial and millennial timescales, as well as during even shorter-term events such as volcanic eruptions. Date Orals Passed: 4/15.
Advisory Committee: Linsley, deMenocal, B. Anderson. Paleoceanographic-Proxy Development in Scleractinia (Stony Corals) Throughout the thesis, Pacific Ocean: Exploring the Variable Utility of papers Stable Isotopes and Trace Metals in Oceanographic Reconstructions. The geochemical signature in the aragonite skeleton of a coral can be used to decipher past climate. In particular, stable isotopes and trace metals are used to elucidate changes in sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), or coastal river discharge. My dissertation research is a compilation of projects aimed at fine-tuning and exploring the bounds of causes of conflict essay coral paleoceanographic proxies. Using stable oxygen isotopes from corals off the Pacific coast of Panama I am reconstructing decadal precipitation patterns to better understand low frequency variability in the Pacific Basin. Abstract Algebra Papers. In conjunction with the precipitation record, I am studying the viability of essay narration coral Ba/Ca as a terrestrial run off proxy in algebra the same region to better understand the impacts of persuasive oscillating precipitation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.
In addition I am developing Sr/Ca- and oxygen isotope-SST calibrations for corals in the Great Barrier Reef. This calibration will be applied to fossil corals dating back to the Last Glacial Maximum to help us understand SST change in the Great Barrier reef during the most recent glacial to interglacial transition. Ultimately, my research explores the various types of coral paleo-proxies and how their applicability can vary in different oceanographic settings. My findings will underscore the need to consider the algebra papers, location of interest when choosing the no essay application scholarships, most appropriate proxy to interrogate past climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Zappa, Gordon, Sobel. My research focuses on air-sea interaction. In particular, I use IR imagery to study micro breaking, momentum, heat and research papers, gas exchange at the air-sea interface.
IR imagery not only provides a measure of skin temperature, but can also be used to infer surface currents. Structures and variations in causes of conflict in nigeria the skin temperature arise from disruption of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface and/or due to abstract algebra, turbulent eddies generated within the of conflict, water column. The TBL makes up top few micro meters of the water column and the key intermediate between the ocean and atmosphere, which plays a crucial role in heat and gas exchanges. Abstract. My studies aim to infer subsurface and bulk water column characteristics such as turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, and water depth from non-intrusive surface measurements of the benefits thesis, thermal boundary layer. I am currently investigating how sea ice modulates local physics, turbulence production, and gas transfer in the interplay of ice-water shear, convection waves and wind. Date Orals Passed : 10/13. Advisory Committee : Gordon, Thurnherr, Abernathey.
Understanding the global freshwater cycle is of tremendous importance in order to understand and algebra research, adapt to future climate change. Scholarships. The ocean is abstract research inherently linked to the global freshwater cycle. Positive net evaporation (evaporation - precipitation) constantly remove freshwater from the surface in the subtropics creating a local maximum in sea surface salinity while the tropics are freshened by buy papers for college excess rainfall. To balance the loss in abstract algebra research papers freshwater in the subtropics, ocean processes need to mix in surrounding waters laterally and vertically. The mainly wind driven shallow overturning circulation, defined by poleward Ekman drift at the surface, subduction in the subtropics and upwelling in the equatorial regions carries the essay narration, salty surface signature beneath the surface creating a subsurface salinity maximum. Recent advances in remote salinity observations and a comprehensive field campaign (NASA-SPURS) enable us to study the influence of mesoscale eddies for the surface salinity maximum as well as the subsurface salinity maximum in abstract papers the North Atlantic. My dissertation aims to quantify the importance of mesoscale turbulence to the surface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic and identify links to large scale climate variables using a mix of observational data and simplified model experiments. Further more I aim to identify key processes that influence the subsurface salinity maximum once isolated from the essay narration, surface forcing, hence influence the heat/salt transports through the shallow overturning circulation. Specifically the role of double diffusive processes for the salinity core layer and associated transports will be evaluated. Finally these results will be compared to the shallow overturning circulation and salinity maxima in other ocean basins and evaluated whether they can explain regional differences and account for inter annual variability. Date Orals Passed: 4/11.
Advisory Committee: Cane, Ting, D. Chen. Integrated evolution of the abstract algebra, atmosphere-ocean coupled modes. El Nino and application scholarships, the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are a few significant modes of climate variation from algebra, interannual to multidecadal time scales identified from sea surface temperature (SST). Buy Papers. It is well known that ENSO dynamics involves tropical atmosphere-ocean (AO) coupling. As to the PDO and AMO, they are also viewed as the outcome of coupling, yet there is no well-accepted theory about the mechanism involved. Thus, one aim of abstract algebra research papers this thesis is to explain this low frequency AO coupling and how it leads to the observed climate variation.
Based on the heat budget equation, the temperature variation or tendency is determined by the horizontal heat advection (by ocean gyre circulation), vertical heat advection (by upwelling or downwelling), and dissipation (interior ocean mixing) as well as the AO interface heat flux. In order to look into the ocean’s role, estimation of the relative significance of each term will be done using the output from coupled climate models. The time variation of each term will also be investigated using time series analysis tools and other statistical methods (linear inverse model) to no essay application, assist the explaining of the mechanism. The basic assumption in this work is that the coupling is not a local phenomena but on abstract research a basin wide or global scale, which is fulfilled through the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. By studying this topic, we attempt to understand the fundamental question of how heat is transported through AO coupling within the climate system. Further question to be addressed will be how the modes of buy papers for college coupling will change under the algebra, global warming condition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.
Advisory Committee: Norell, Meng, Flynn. Fossils, Morphology, Molecules: combined analyses of salamander phylogeny. Urodela (salamanders) are a major group of of conflict essay modern amphibians (Lissamphibia), with a long evolutionary history that can be traced back to the Mezozoic dinosaur time. Phylogenetic studies of salamander evolution have revealed sharp conflict between the algebra papers, hypotheses based on morphological data and/or molecular data. The proposed research intends to benefits thesis, conduct combined analyses incorporating phylogenetically significant early fossil taxa, all available morphological and research papers, molecular data; a method herein termed “Fossils-Morphology-Molecular Approach” (FMM approach). Such an approach has the advantage in resolving or relaxing the morphology/molecular conflicts, and obviously the advantage in obtaining phylogenetic hypotheses with the ultimate power of scientific explanation. Fossil discoveries from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous beds in northern China have provided the key material for understanding the origins and pursuit of unhappiness, early evolution of modern salamander clades. The fossil material found includes the earliest known fossil record of two major salamander clades (Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea), and the basal taxa of several modern salamander clades. These fossils, together with other Mesozoic fossils worldwide, not only increase the taxon sampling for the phylogenetic analysis to be conducted, but also represent new combinations of anatomical characters, many of which are ancestral to salamander evolution. Morphological data used will include characters of salamander osteology, soft anatomy and abstract research papers, ontogenetic development from various sources.
Characters are drawn both from careful examination of real specimens and from published literature. Molecular data from of writing an undergraduate, GenBank will include more than 20000 base pairs coming from abstract algebra, complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal RNA and various nuclear DNA. Buy Papers For College. These data will be analyzed both separately and combined. Analyses of smaller dataset (morphological dataset with/without fossils) will be performed using PAUP, whereas analyses of morphology/molecular combined dataset (with/without fossil taxa) will be performed using more powerful tools, including MrBayes and POY. Phylogenetic results of parsimony analysis will be compared with that of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis. Cladograms will be calibrated using geological time scale and the first occurrence datum of fossils (FOD). By doing this, both the relationships and abstract research, the tempo of salamander evolution can be better understood.
Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Bell, Buck, Nettles. My research interests are focused on the interaction between glacial water flow (subglacial and essay intro, supraglacial) and ice dynamics. Subglacial hydrology is abstract algebra research papers one of the main controlling factors in the spatial and temporal evolution of ice flow: how the water drains underneath an ice sheet has important implications for the basal sliding condition. However, subglacial water drainage is dynamic in space and time and varies in a complicated manner coupled to surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is known about how the surface hydrology interacts with the subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and ice flow. Currently, I am working on building a 2D numerical model of benefits thesis subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and glacier motion.
A synthetic glacier geometry is abstract algebra used to persuasive, obtain the steady-state solutions for water pressure and subglacial conduit sizes. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. The goal is to apply this model to a real outlet glacier in West Greenland and understand how glacial hydrology affects ice motion on a catchment scale. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Ebel, Walker, Plank.
Constraining Chemical Environment and Processes in the Protoplanetary Disk: Perspective from Populations of Calcium- and Aluminum-rich Inclusions and Metal-rich Chondrules in Carbonaceous Ornans-type and Renazzo-type Chondrites Respectively? On Earth, petrologic and geochemical analyses provide insight into abstract research papers the Earth’s bulk composition as well as the interior and of conflict in nigeria, exterior processes that have been operating throughout Earth’s history as a planet. To understand the origin of the Earth and other terrestrial bodies, the chemical construct and abstract algebra papers, dynamic processes operating in the solar nebula, a cloud of cooling gas and dust existing after sun formation, need to be constrained. The history of the early solar system is preserved in the various components in chondritic meteorites. Buy Papers. Chondrites have never experienced the significant planetary process of abstract research papers differentiation, which separates metals from silicates, and remixes chemical components. Thus, they can be considered aggregates of objects formed in the dynamic, cooling solar nebula. Of Writing An Undergraduate. Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are some of the highest temperature solids formed and abstract algebra, preserved in chondrites.
Chondrules are varied in mineralogy but those containing discrete metal layers record unique conditions relating to the heating and deformation history of the chondrules with which they are associated. The chemistries , textures, and mineral crystal orientations of CAIs and buy papers for college, chondrules directly reflect the conditions and processes in their formation in the nebula. While many previous studies have chosen to focus on a few objects in detail, my study aims to examine many inclusions to better understand chemical, mineralogical, and textural variations and correlations. ? A majority of my research focuses on high resolution, x-ray element map analysis of individual CAIs and other objects in carbonaceous Ornans-like (CO) chondrites using custom-made image analysis software. But, to obtain a more complete understanding of complementarity, or the concept that bulk CO chondrite has a solar composition while individual components do not, I am analyzing the rare-earth element (REE) ratios in individual components. Determining the relationship between object mineralogy, texture, and REE ratio will yield insight into the occurrences of papers various components and their relative proportions that must combine to maintain solar composition within the essay narration, bulk chondrite. This broad survey of CAIs and other objects in CO chondrites will help constrain astrophysical models, refine the order in which minerals condense from the solar nebula, and further improve the formation criterion necessary to produce the observed variation. ? Chondrule formation hypotheses are many but poorly constrained. The chondrules in carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites have associated metal in both the chondrule core and near the rim. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) permits determination of metal crystal orientation. Algebra Research. Determining the relationships between the crystal orientation and chemistry of metal nodules within and among the buy papers, chondrules could yield insight into chondrule formation and deformation. Altogether, the results of this thesis work will contribute to our understanding of abstract algebra research papers our solar system as solids began to form and the journey these solids took before becoming asteroids or planets. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.
Advisory Committee: Class, Goldstein, Hemming. Melt depletion and geochemical evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the West Antarctic Rift System. The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) undergoes compositional changes during tectonic events such as continental rifting, subduction, and orogeny, with each event leaving behind a geochemical imprint. Geochemical mapping of the lithosphere allows us to gain a better understanding of how the continents are structured, and of unhappiness essay, enables us to piece together the tectonic evolution of the continents. Abstract Algebra Papers. Here we look at the Western Ross Sea area of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) as a case study. My thesis focuses on using these geochemical imprints to unravel the geochemical and tectonic evolution of the SCLM in the WARS: Os isotope ratios can be used to date the melt depletion events in persuasive tips the asthenosphere that are considered to be equivalent to the stabilization age of the lithospheric mantle.
In this study, mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basanites were collected in a transection from the algebra research papers, rift shoulder and into the rift basin in the western margin of the WARS. Analyses of these samples provide a recent snapshot of the lithospheric mantle after major episodes of rifting. If we can trace the age of the causes of conflict, lithospheric mantle across this margin, we can begin to understand its behavior in response to rifting and subsequent structure. Algebra Research. We repeatedly observe. 1.7 Ga depletion events across the buy papers, rifted margin, indicating the abstract algebra research papers, widespread Paleoproterozoic stabilization of the lithosphere and dynamic thinning of lithosphere across the western margin of the WARS. Trace elements provide another means to access the depletion history of the SCLM, however the mobility and fractionation of these elements can obscure ancient depletion signatures. Benefits Of Writing Thesis. Nevertheless, we can exploit the behavior of these trace elements. For example, melt depletion is characterized by light rare earth element (LREE) depletions, however we observe LREE enrichments in algebra papers our 1.7 Ga xenoliths. Metasomatism, the chemical alteration of a rock via melt and/or fluid, can overprint the trace element composition of a rock, leaving behind diagnostic signatures of the of unhappiness, metasomatizing agent (e.g. LREE re-enrichment by a carbonatitic melt).
Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes can be used to constrain the role of the abstract, SCLM in the formation of WARS volcanism. It has been proposed that Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in no essay scholarships the Northern Victoria Land (NVL) region of East Antarctica originated from a SCLM source that had been metasomatized during an extensional event in the WARS during the abstract algebra papers, Late Cretaceous. Additional studies demonstrate that Nd and Sr isotope ratios plot near the HIMU field, yet Pb and Hf isotope ratios plot between HIMU and DMM. This can be accounted for buy papers for college, by varying proportions of lithospheric mantle source that has experienced Paleozoic to Mesozoic modification due to subduction related fluids and abstract algebra research papers, flux melting which can incorporate fluid mobile elements such as Pb from the mantle wedge. By measuring these same isotope systems on mantle xenoliths, we can begin to address whether SCLM is a source for the widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the WARS. Date Orals Passed : 4/14.
Advisory Committee : T. Shaw, Seager, Ting. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown that wintertime variability of the stratospheric circulation is essay narration dynamically coupled to anomalous weather regimes in algebra research papers the troposphere. The fundamental source of the coupling is planetary-scale waves which are primarily generated in the troposphere and of writing thesis, couple vertically with the stratosphere when the zonal-mean winds are westerly. My research focuses on understanding the dynamics of extreme stratospheric planetary-scale wave events and their coupling to the stratospheric and tropospheric circulations. Algebra. My results show that the essay intro, lifecycle of upward wave propagation/downward wave reflection events are associated with vertically deep planetary wave structures that exhibit largely equal but opposite-signed time integrated impacts: a net deceleration/acceleration of the stratospheric polar vortex and abstract research, an equatorward/poleward shift of the North Atlantic tropospheric jet. Downward wave reflection events are found to persuasive intro tips, play a key role in the formation of strong vortex events showing that they both represent true dynamical events with strong wave-mean flow interaction. Together with the connection between upward wave propagation and weak vortex events, the abstract research papers, results illustrate a clear dualism in stratospheric wave-mean flow interaction. Planetary wave events are focused in high-latitudes and produce large amplitude tropospheric impacts and hence represent a key dynamical pathway through which Arctic variability can impact the midlatitude circulation. My current research aims to address the question of why stratospheric planetary wave events become extreme in high-latitudes. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature such as stationary-transient wave interactions, instability and resonance.
A better understanding of the dynamical mechanisms responsible for planetary wave events is the subject of current research using idealized modeling. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Ekstrom, Gaherty, Nettles. Investigations of the essay narration, anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy, the abstract research papers, variation of seismic velocity with the propagation or polarization direction of a wave, is an important observable for an undergraduate, investigating the dynamics of the interior of the Earth. Models of seismic anisotropy in oceanic regions provide information about the geometry of strain and flow in the mantle, the specific nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere.
In order to investigate these and abstract algebra papers, other questions, my research is no essay application focused on developing a three-dimensional model of the anisotropy velocity structure of the algebra papers, Pacific upper mantle. Using measurements of fundamental mode surface waves, we invert for variations in seismic velocity laterally and with depth in the upper mantle of the Pacific basin. In addition to variations in isotropic velocities, we include in the inversion the elastic parameters describing both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. The resulting model will improve constraints on olivine fabrics and strain geometries in the oceanic upper mantle. Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Abers, Gaherty, Buck? My first major research project focused on the Woodlark Rift in persuasive intro tips southeastern Papua New Guinea.
This is one of the youngest and abstract algebra papers, most rapidly extending continental rifts in the world, and is an intriguing locality for investigating how continents break apart. Essay Narration. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands, at the heart of this rift, comprise metamorphic core complexes that contain the abstract algebra research papers, world's youngest ultra-high pressure coesite eclogite, exhumed from 100 km depth in just 5 Ma. I have applied a variety of seismological techniques to investigate this region, using data from no essay application, a temporary array of broadband seismometers installed by research members of the causes of conflict, LDEO seismology dept. that ran from 2010-2011.? My analysis of algebra research papers shear-wave splitting, using core-traversing teleseisms, shows strong anisotropy beneath this rift, attributed to crystallographic fabric in the shallow mantle caused by the rate and extent of continental rifting. I have related anisotropy and shear strain in for college the shallow convecting mantle to predict shear-wave splitting times that are very close to the splitting times I observe, bolstering our hypothesis that the anisotropy arises from mantle fabric related to abstract research, rifting. These findings shed light on how mantle flow transitions as a rift matures from a small-scale extensional regime to a large-scale divergent boundary.? We conducted a body-wave tomography study in the same region, using teleseismic P- and S- wave arrivals, and taking a finite-frequency approach to relate differential travel times to 3D velocity heterogeneities. The isotropic velocity model reveals a localised rift structure evident to ?180 km depth, as well as an apparent slab remnant that contains the first intermediate depth seismicity observed in essay narration this region, discovered last year by members of our research group.
Building upon this work, I developed a new method to jointly invert for anisotropy and velocity variations in this rift by simplifying the geometry of the anisotropic fabric based on the rift geometry and the SK(K)S splitting results. This work revealed that the rift axis contains anisotropic material with spreading-parallel fast axis, that is breaking upwards through lithosphere that has spreading-perpendicular fast axis (aligned with the abstract, trend of recent orogenies). Benefits. This exciting result demonstrated that we can actually image lithospheric breakup from the anisotropy signal. ? My next project will entail a change in direction: we are using OBS and on-land seismic data from the Cascadia Initiative’s Amphibious Array to algebra papers, study attenuation of the Juan de Fuca plate from ridge to trench to no essay scholarships, arc. Using differential t* measurements we can investigate the variation of attenuation associated with plate ageing to algebra research, answer questions about the plate’s thermal structure, the distribution of melt/volatiles, and the fate of the asthenosphere upon subduction. This work complements previous studies using surface waves and will contribute to our developing understanding of anelastic controls on seismic parameters by probing the Earth in a different frequency range. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Honisch, McManus, deMenocal. Quaternary carbon cycling in the Atlantic Ocean: Insights from boron and radiocarbon proxies. Ice core records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) support a tight linkage between CO2 concentrations and no essay scholarships, climate over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. On millennial timescales, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driven by the deep ocean, which holds the largest reservoir of exchangeable carbon.
The nature and phasing of relationships between deep ocean circulation, the oceanic carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and climate remain enigmatic, and algebra research, are all the more important considering recent anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle. My research addresses the above questions through the causes in nigeria essay, creation of new paleoproxy records to constrain deep-ocean carbon cycling. To date, I have measured the boron isotope and abstract algebra, radiocarbon composition of deep-sea bamboo corals, and assessed their ability to intro tips, record changing pH and radiocarbon activity in the North Atlantic Ocean. Abstract Algebra Papers. Going forward, I aim to combine radiocarbon records from modern deep-sea corals to essay, elucidate the transfer of radiocarbon produced by abstract nuclear weapons testing to the deep North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, I will set up a high-throughput procedure for boron isotope analyses via multicollector ICP-MS at Lamont. With this procedure, I aim to reconstruct changes in pH in the deep Atlantic Ocean across the “thermohaline crisis” during the mid-Pleistocene Transition. Date Orals Passed: 5/15.
Advisory Committee: Shillington, Tolstoy, Carbotte. Controls on surface processes, fluid flow, sedimentation, and of writing, faulting on active and passive. margins from multi-beam sonar and multi-channel seismic reflection data. My thesis will include at least three chapters: The first chapter is focused toward gaining an algebra papers, understanding of benefits an undergraduate thesis surface processes, fluid flow, faulting/compaction, and sediment physical properties outboard of the deformation front at the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
To obtain this goal, I am using 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) and multi-beam sonar (MB) data collected offshore Oregon and Washington during the Cascadia Ridge to algebra research, Trench survey in 2012. I first performed detailed p-wave velocity analysis to achieve. sub-surface perspective on seafloor surface related fluid flow features (e.g. pockmarks). I then used the derived velocities to both depth-convert the MCS data in order to measure fault offset/dip within the sediment section and provide porosity information, which I then use to buy papers, decompact the sedimentary units in order to uncover the embedded tectonic signal i.e. intra-plate faulting. As an additional project, I mapped large-scale scour marks on abstract research papers the distal Astoria Fan and. then inverted for the source process azimuth. The azimuths all point toward the Astoria canyon, which is the extension of the Columbia River, and therefore, may be indicators of seafloor erosion due to late Pleistocene outburst flooding events. The second chapter involves mapping amplitude variations along with specific surface seismic attributes across sub-surface paleo-channels and related rift-block bound basin unconformities within the Galicia 3D MCS dataset collected offshore Spain in the summer of 2013. The 3D volume is. 20km x 67km and has been processed to pre-stack time migration. I am then relating the amplitude variations/surface seismic attributes to current seafloor reflectivity derived from the MB backscatter data in order to better constrain channel morphology and essay narration, abyssal plain sand distribution as it relates to tectonic and climatic forcing processes from the abstract algebra, Miocene to present.
Furthermore, I plan to use the drilling results/check-shots to generate synthetics in order to better constrain the essay narration, time-depth relationship indicated by the reflectivity series. The third chapter will involve 2D MCS and MB data collected offshore the abstract papers, US East coast during both the ENAM USGS/NOAA surveys in 2013-2015. I will develop a 1D inversion algorithm to benefits of writing an undergraduate thesis, constrain the p-wave velocities and use them to study the physical properties of discrete Holocene submarine slope failures. Furthermore, I will perform amplitude vs offset analysis along the basal slide surface of the slope failures in abstract order to persuasive, quantify the change in physical properties. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Broecker, deMenocal, Polissar. Variation in the intensity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon as recorded by elevated shorelines and dD leafwax. - dD leafwax in soils. - Water isotopes in the E. Mediterranean and abstract algebra research papers, the Levant. - Production rates of intro tips meteoric cosmogenic nuclides during the abstract algebra research, last deglaciation.
Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Hemming, Anderson. Abrupt climate change has been shown to occur synchronously with changes in the vigor of the pursuit, oceans’ circulation. As oceans redistribute massive quantities of heat across the Earth’s surface, changes in their circulation are often invoked as playing an important or perhaps driving role in these past climate changes. Many high-resolution climate records, generated over research the past two decades, have provided glimpses into of conflict essay these past climate events; however, the abstract research, equivalent, detailed record for changes in the oceans overturning circulation remains elusive. My thesis research focuses on refining, Pa/Th, a proxy that will help us generate a more detailed understanding of the relationship between climate and changes in ocean overturning. Protactinium and thorium are two elements produced through the radioactive decay of uranium in causes of conflict essay seawater. As the concentration of algebra research uranium is well known and relatively homogenous in the ocean, the disparate chemical properties of these two elements help us to understand the strength of the oceans’ circulation regime, elucidating the role of the oceans in global climate change.
Abrupt shifts in the Atlantic’s circulation regime have been inferred from carbon isotopes within benthic foraminfera, geostrophic gradient shifts captured in oxygen isotope data from benthic foraminifera, and of unhappiness essay, the change in algebra research papers burial rate of 231Pa/230Th in bulk sediment. Drift deposits are often selected for 231Pa/230Th paleoceanographic reconstructions because the sedimentation rates far exceed those of the mean ocean average, thus allowing for resolution of transient climate events not preserved in other seafloor sediment cores. The fine sediment (20um) that makes up the majority by mass of benefits of writing an undergraduate thesis these deposits is chiefly carried from non-proximal localities. Previous work suggests that the fine fraction of the sediment carries a disporportionatly high concentration of authigenic thorium, 230Th , and extra-terrestrial helium, 3He, two nuclides frequently employed as constant-flux proxies in the aid of climate reconstructions from sediments. Date Orals Passed : 4/14. Advisory Committee : Ekstrom, Nettles, Webb. My research focuses on research papers surface wave observations. Currently I am working to improve methods of earthquake relocations using surface waves by assessing and correcting source effects for recordings of teleseismic earthquakes which have previously been unaccounted for. In the future, I intend to analyze surface wave recordings to analyze the relationship between explosive sources and tectonic release in the context of underground nuclear test monitoring.
Date Orals Passed: 10/14. Advisory Committee : McManus, Anderson and Winckler. The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is hypothesized to play an essay narration, important role in tropical circulation, in linking the climate of the northern and algebra research, southern hemispheres and in predicating important changes in thesis ocean overturning, particularly on deglacial timescales. Abstract Papers. My dissertation will present reconstructions of the paleo-position of the ITCZ through the quantification of 230 Th xs,0 -normalized 232 Th fluxes in essay marine sediments which serve as a proxy for dust flux. Because the ITCZ is an efficient scavenger of atmospheric particulates, changes in the latitude of research papers maximum dust flux provide a constraint on variations in ITCZ position. Specifically, my current research focuses on reconstructing high-resolution (sub-millennial) records of no essay application scholarships dust flux from 0-350 ka BP at abstract research papers, several sites in the central equatorial Pacific (Cruise ML1208). Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee : Gaherty, Spiegelman and Abers. The Cascadia subduction zone, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the North American plate, has historically produced large, approximately M9, megathrust earthquakes. Improved knowledge of the structure of the subducting crust and mantle can help us better understand the processes that control subduction, including those related to megathrust earthquakes. We use three seismic datasets to image different properties of the no essay application scholarships, region at different scales. Algebra. (1) Wide angle ship-to-shore reflection data from the 2012 Ridge-to-Trench and COAST cruises record variations in the reflection character of the subduction interface offshore central Washington.
An approximately 35 km long region of high amplitude reflections has been observed perpendicular to benefits of writing an undergraduate, strike spanning the coastline. These may be explained by differences in physical properties, ray geometry or a combination thereof. Algebra Papers. (2) Receiver functions calculated from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) dataset image thickness and shear wave velocities of the crust. Essay. Thus far results have imaged a low velocity zone offshore central Washington, which may indicate a weak thrust zone. (3) Surface waves (also from the papers, CI) are used to causes of conflict in nigeria, calculate the phase velocities down to upper mantle depths across the entire Juan de Fuca plate and along the coast of the overriding North American plate. This will be used to algebra research, look for velocity anomalies potentially associated with hydration of the mantle, segmentation of the plate along strike, or other heterogeneities. These data are complimentary to the receiver function images of the of unhappiness, crust and abstract algebra, will be used in a joint inversion to determine both the tips, crust and mantle structure. In addition, many of these data are from instruments deployed in abstract algebra research papers an offshore environment. In particular, receiver functions have been challenging to calculate at ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the past due to interference from the water column. Part of this research has involved characterizing the noise spectra of these instruments deployed at different depths to understand the frequency dependence of different noise sources. Since studying subduction zones requires both onshore and scholarships, offshore observations, this improved understanding of using OBS data is instrumental in future studies of subduction zones.
Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Ducklow, Martinson, Goes. My dissertation research focuses on biogeochemical coupling with climate dynamics and physical oceanography in Antarctica. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced the most rapid response to climate change than any other place on the planet; teleconnections with climate variability such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are well reported. Using Palmer LTER time series data, my research investigates how the large scale climate/atmospheric forcing impacts ecology and biogeochemistry in the system, through examples via phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacterial dynamics, and biogeochemical standing stocks.
Based on research papers interdecadal observational data and of conflict in nigeria essay, statistical models, I have addressed intraseasonal to interannual covariability of phytoplankton, bacteria, and biogeochemical standing stocks; I established physical and climate forcing mechanisms predicting the variability, which includes interactions between SAM and abstract algebra research, ENSO, sea ice dynamics, and water column stability parameters. My future plans include further investigations on the impacts of causes pure physical processes (e.g. mixing) on the observed variability in the biogeochemistry. I also plan to abstract research papers, incorporate the observed patterns to conceptual NPZD models. Date Orals Passed: 5/13. Advisory Committee: Shillington, Webb, Savage. Current seismic behavior and variation of seismic reflectivity signature for megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian Subduction zone.
Great earthquakes occur in the seismogenic portion of subduction zone megathrusts. Although most subduction zones show small to moderate interplate thrust earthquakes during the of unhappiness essay, intervals between great earthquakes, a few show only seismicity within the downgoing slab, not on the plate interface, even at megathrust depths. Abstract. The different patterns of seismic behavior could reflect different levels of material heterogeneity on megathrust. Downdip of the seismogenic zone, the megathrust changes from stick-slip behavior to stable sliding. Competing models suggest that the transition is controlled by temperature or the of writing thesis, intersection of the abstract research papers, megathrust with the serpentinized forearc mantle wedge.
In some subduction zones, changes in behavior appear to of conflict, be accompanied by changes in seismic reflection signature. The Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone is abstract algebra one of the best places to study the relation between megathrust property and seismic hazard. In Nigeria Essay. During the research, 20th century, virtually the entire Alaska-Aleutian subduction interface has ruptured in application large to great earthquakes. Research. The 1964 Mw 9.2 Earthquake ruptured some onshore area, allowing us to deploy a broadband seismic network (MOOS array) to study the details of the current seismic behavior. Further west, the rupture zone of of writing an undergraduate 1938 Mw 8.2 Earthquake lies completely offshore and is fully accessible to marine profiling. The megathrust of the Alaska/Aleution subdction zone also exhibits large variations from abstract algebra, locking to freely sliding along strike from recent GPS study. My thesis focuses on the seismic behavior and reflectivity of the megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone and consists of: 1. A detailed study of seismicity recorded by essay narration the MOOS array. Papers. We generated a seismic catalog with 8,308 earthquakes down to magnitude 1.0 with high precision and calculated 117 focal mechanisms from the data recorded by MOOS array. Most microearthquakes are showing normal faulting mechanisms, and the direction of the T axes generally follows the dipping direction of the slab, indicating that they lie inside the subducting slab under down-dip extension or result from plate bending.
Interplate thrust events are absent on benefits of writing the megathrust within the 1964 great earthquake rupture area. 2. Study the variations in seismic reflection signature of the megathrust from MCS data. We trace the reflections of the plate interface from the trench to papers, place 140km landward on the dip profile across the rupture zone of the benefits an undergraduate thesis, 1938 Mw 8.2 earthquake. Large variations in the reflection response are observed with depth. The plate interface is marked by abstract papers a single, simple reflection within the rupture zone. Farther landward, 120 km from the trench, the megathrust reflection changes to a brighter and wider ( 12 s twtt) zone of reflectivity, where more abundant intraslab seismicity as well as episodic tremor and of writing, slip occur.
The change in algebra the megathrust reflection response appears to occur where it intersects a shallower band of causes in nigeria essay reflectivity, which we tentatively interpret as the continental Moho. Date Orals Passed 4/15. Advisory Committee: Previdi, Fiore, Ting. Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on U.S. climate: extreme events, stagnation, and the warming hole. Anthropogenic aerosols remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of and ability to algebra papers, project present and future climate. I examine the effects of an undergraduate anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate in the United States, with a focus on extreme events and the southeast U.S. “warming hole”. I examine changes in algebra research papers frequency, magnitude, and in nigeria essay, duration of extreme temperature, precipitation and stagnation events. Extreme atmospheric stagnation events, characterized by persistent weak winds and lack of papers precipitation, are of particular concern for in nigeria, air quality and human health. The lack of ventilation and scavenging by abstract research precipitation allows pollutants to build up to persuasive tips, dangerous levels in the boundary layer. This creates a potential feedback between air pollutants (atmospheric aerosols) and abstract algebra research, the meteorological conditions that contribute to extreme pollution events. Using the no essay application, GFDL-CM3 chemistry-climate model, I find that aerosols have reduced the research papers, frequency and magnitude of high temperature extremes over the U.S. Essay Narration. between 1860 and abstract research, 2005, while decreasing the frequency and buy papers, magnitude of extreme precipitation, particularly in algebra research the eastern U.S.
As a result, aerosols have largely cancelled out the effects of greenhouse gases over persuasive intro tips the historical period. However, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols are projected to decrease in abstract algebra the future, unmasking the impacts of greenhouse gases during the next few decades.? The modeled spatial response pattern of persuasive essay intro tips extreme temperatures to both aerosols and abstract algebra research papers, greenhouse gases is characterized by a strong response in pursuit the western U.S., moderate responses in the central and northeast U.S., and a weak or absent response in the southeast U.S., collocated with the observed “warming hole”, one of the few regions across the globe which has not warmed significantly over the twentieth century. I find that the algebra research papers, weak temperature response in this region is tied to changes in the moisture budget, driven by changes in regional circulation patterns and the westward extent of the Bermuda High. I will use results from persuasive essay, multiple global climate models to evaluate how the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial extent of U.S. stagnation events change in abstract response to forcing from anthropogenic aerosols. Essay. I will use observations of U.S. air stagnation from algebra research, NCDC in pursuit conjunction with GFDL-CM3 to examine specific large-scale stagnation events (such as summer 2012) and identify key atmospheric drivers (such as changes in the Bermuda High). I can then examine how these drivers change in response to algebra, forcing by atmospheric aerosols, providing a mechanistic explanation for changes in pursuit of unhappiness essay stagnation.
Finally, I will use a series of sensitivity simulations performed by several chemistry-climate models to examine the impacts of aerosols from different source regions and from individual aerosol chemical components on U.S. stagnation events. Ultimately, this work will help us understand the impacts anthropogenic aerosols on abstract algebra research papers past and present U.S. climate, which will in turn improve our ability to project the essay intro, effects of their removal over the next few decades. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Martinson, Gordon, Yuan. The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is abstract algebra research papers bordered by the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC), which flows adjacent to the continental shelf.
Below the permanent pycnocline, the ACC advects upper circumpolar deep water (UCDW), characterized by temperature and nutrient maxima. For College. Understanding the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf is important for two main reasons. Abstract Papers. Firstly, the available heat of circumpolar deep water is believed to be partly responsible for recent increased melt of marine glaciers. Secondly, as a nutrient-maximum (macro, but more importantly, micro), the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf influences the local ecosystem. One of the primary goals of my research is to understand the of conflict essay, processes of shelf-slope exchange along the research papers, WAP margins. To date, I have identified that intrusions of UCDW to the WAP shelf are episodic with a frequency of about 3-4 per month and a size on the order of the first baroclinic Rossby radius. There is a mesoscale structure to the UCDW boluses which is shown to originate in the baroclinic instability of the shelf-break current upstream. The advective component of the intruding current is coherent with the along-slope wind stress in the weather-band and intrusion sites are tied to persuasive essay intro, bathymetry at the shelf break (both cross-cutting canyons and seaward-veering isobaths). I am now testing the abstract papers, hypothesis that nonlinearity of the weakly stratified flow induced by persuasive essay tips wind bursts facilitates the crossing of linear potential-vorticity conserving contours and allows episodic penetration at abstract algebra, these topographically-determined sites.
The hope is to essay, isolate essential dynamics so as to extend these findings to regions of similar shelf-break and current configuration around the Antarctic continent. Topographically-independent exchange of abstract research papers a yet-unquantified amount may occur as well via interleaving. A parallel goal of my research is to quantify the modification (by vertical and lateral mixing) of the intruding water mass. Since there are no microstructure observations on the WAP shelf, this largely involves parameterizations (Richardson number-based and internal wave shear/strain-based) and inversion methods applied to budgets of essay intro tips conserved properties. The work utilizes a combination of theoretical models and analysis of an extensive, multi-platform observational database (moored current meters, shipboard CTD/ADCP observations, and abstract algebra papers, autonomous underwater vehicles). Date Orals passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Class, Shillington, Hemming. Magmatism at the southern end of the East African Rift System - origin and role during early stage rifting.
The process of continental rifting is fundamental to modern tectonic theory, yet details of the emergence and early evolution of continental rifts are still poorly known. I use geochemical tools to reconstruct the sources and timing of rift magmas as part of an integrated study that examines magmatism segmentation - two fundamental features of nascent divergent plate boundaries. The southern East African Rift exhibits pronounced segmentation and crustal thinning despite being nearly devoid of magmatic activity. Buy Papers For College. The Rungwe Volcanic Province in Tanzania is the only volcanic region in the southern 1000 km of the rift. Abstract Research Papers. Physical models require magmatism at the onset of continental extension, but Rungwe is too small volume and located in buy papers the wrong place to serve this purpose. A detailed investigation of the timing and chemistry of Rungwe eruptions could shed light on the role of these volcanoes in initiating and sustaining regional extension. A number of geochemical approaches are employed to better understand how existing volcanoes developed at Rungwe. Eruption ages, obtained using Ar-Ar isotopic ratios in abstract algebra the rocks, help track the initiation and frequency of eruptive activity in buy papers the context of regional tectonic extension. Isotopic fingerprints of research these lavas give context of how the mantle source here relates to sources around the globe. Petrological models of lava compositions give context of the conditions at the source of melting.
I intend to construct a highly-resolved, time integrated model of continental rifting by combining these three critical datasets with field observations. This model can potentially be independently verified by buy papers the extensive geophysical survey underway which will better image subsurface structures. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: van Geen, Bostick, Schlosser. Access to safe water is a fundamental human need and therefore a basic human right –Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General rightly pointed out our rights to water and sanitation. Fulfillment of such a basic need is a challenge in papers many parts of the world because of either limited water supply or contamination of the available water. Benefits Of Writing Thesis. My research tries to answer questions about the fate and transport of arsenic (As), a metalloid naturally present in groundwater around the world that threatens the lives of tens of millions of people drinking untreated well water, particularly in South and Southeast Asia. My study assesses long-term temporal variability of shallow (30 m) groundwater arsenic concentrations across a 25-km 2 area of Araihazar, Bangladesh, where a team of health and abstract research, earth scientists have been conducting research since 2000. Comparisons of test results spanning more than a decade indicate significant changes. The observed trend shows that As concentrations in areas with initially high levels have declined whereas concentrations in areas with initially low levels have increased.
The hypothesis I am currently exploring using simple hydrological and geochemical assumptions is that this trend has been driven by widespread irrigation pumping. Date Orals Passed: 3/14. Advisory Committee: Goddard, Kushnir, Baethgen. Cross-timescale Interference and Climate Predictability of Rainfall Extreme Events in no essay South East South America. My research focuses on the physical mechanisms and potential predictability associated with climate extreme rainfall events in South East South America (SESA), at multiple temporal scales (sub-seasonal to seasonal). I use an papers, approach known as weather-within-climate that identifies persistent weather types through cluster analysis to describe climate events with particular characteristics. I analyze the relationship between these synoptic circulation types and extratropical cyclones, meso-scale convective systems and enhanced moisture advection events (e.g., low-level jets or atmospheric rivers), also exploring different sources of potential predictability (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillations, Southern Annular Mode, Atlantic Meridional Mode, Southern Atlantic Dipole, Madden-Jullian Oscillations and benefits an undergraduate, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone behavior) for these events at different temporal scales.
I have found that these weather types are not only useful to abstract research, understand the physical mechanisms and identify potential predictors related to extreme events, but that they are “sensitive” to cross-timescale interactions between the different climate drivers. This led me to explore the impact of the tips, so-called Cross-timescale Interference Conjecture on extreme rainfall events. My analysis indicates that considering cross-timescale interactions increases extreme events’ seasonal predictability in abstract algebra approximately 50%-70% with respect to the more traditional approach. Using these ideas I was able to design and causes essay, evaluate a new methodology that is able to abstract papers, produce subseasonal-to-seasonal extreme rainfall scenarios”, providing not only skillful climate information about how many extreme events to expect in SESA for the next season, but also about benefits an undergraduate how, when and where are they expected to occur. Special attention is paid to the potential for the development of useful and reliable products for decision-making in algebra different sectors in SESA. Date Orals Passed: 11/12.
Advisory Committee: Gordon, Yuan, Zappa. Intraseasonal Sea Surface Temperature variability coupling to Madden- Julian Oscillations over buy papers for college the Indonesian Maritime Continent. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability is abstract research governed mainly by essay narration air–sea or surface heat fluxes, subsurface processes including Ekman pumping, intense tidal mixing, and lateral advection. All oceanic and atmospheric forcing determines the variability of SST. The Indonesian sea surface temperature are influenced by many oceanic and atmospheric forcing across different timescales, which consist of tides, Indo-Australian monsoon, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Indonesian Throughflow. Research. They are located at the pathway of prominent tropical atmosphere phenomena such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is identified as convective and subsidence cells along the causes in nigeria, equator that propagate eastward from the Indian to Pacific Ocean. The seasonal forcing is the largest contributor to SST variability in the Indonesian Seas, and the combined seasonal and semi-annual variability can only explain. 70% of algebra papers total SST variances in Indonesian Seas. The remaining. 30% of the SST variability has not been studied, and we suspect that it is attributed to intraseasonal and interannual variation.
My study particularly focuses on describing the SST characteristics at intraseasonal timescales (20-90 days) over the Indonesian Seas by considering plausible governing processes such as atmospheric and oceanic motions and their corresponding to the air-sea interaction. Thesis. The objective of my study is to examine intraseasonal SST variability of the Indonesian seas (Indonesian maritime continent), specifically to understand the sea-air interaction, coupling of the ocean and atmosphere associated with the papers, MJO dynamics, which we argue is one of the primary drivers for benefits, SST variability at intraseasonal timescales in some area of the research, Indonesian Seas. The analysis includes evaluating their responses to MJO events at essay narration, several seasonal and algebra, interannual background states. This study is very useful for a better weather prediction in the region. Date Orals Passed: 9/14. Advisory Committee: Griffin, Boelman, Callahan. My primary research focuses on plants’ physiological response to increasing air temperatures. Buy Papers For College. Most of my work is conducted in the Hudson Highlands Region of abstract algebra papers New York State, where proximate causes of climate change, such as insect outbreaks, severe droughts, environmental disturbances such as forest clearings, and persuasive essay, intense deer browsing have resulted in abstract research the mortality of dominant tree species (oaks), impacting long-term biomass, carbon dynamics, and carbon storage capacity in northeastern forests. However, one of the most important threats to carbon storage capacity in the region includes plant community shifts via climate change.
A study published in benefits of writing an undergraduate thesis 2008 by algebra papers collaborators at Black Rock Forest summarized changes in forest composition over the last 76 years. They found that three northern ranged species were extirpated from the forest and intro, eleven southern-ranged or non-native species had migrated in naturally or anthropogenically. I aim to compare a suite of papers physiological (photosynthesis and respiration) and leaf traits across a broad range of tree species with different historic distribution ranges (northern, central, and persuasive essay tips, southern) that co-occur in this region's forests in order to algebra research papers, understand the physiological mechanisms that may be driving species replacement as trees migrate to climatically suitable habitat. This research will provide insight into whether the centrally-ranged species, such as the dominant red oak, are physiologically disadvantaged, which may threaten their persistence under elevated temperatures, influencing the carbon sequestration capabilities of northeastern temperate forests. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Kushnir, Giannini, Sobel. SST-Forced Variability of essay intro tips West African Monsoon Rainfall on Seasonal to Decadal Timescales. The West African Monsoon is one of the major monsoon systems on the planet, delivering the totality of research rainfall to the Sahel region of Africa during a few summer months. An Undergraduate. This monsoon system has demonstrated considerable variability on a number of timescales ranging from sub-seasonal to interannual, decadal, and even millennial.
Indeed, both the abstract research, spatial extent and magnitude of the no essay scholarships, observed rainfall shift during the research, 20th Century in this region was unseen anywhere else in the world. Much of the variability on seasonal to decadal timescales has been attributed to forcing by the global oceans, which drive anomalously weak or strong monsoon responses. However, the physical mechanisms which link sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies across the various basins to buy papers, precipitation changes over land are not fully understood, nor is the interplay between competing anomalies and their resulting effects. My dissertation aims to address some of these research gaps using a blend of observations, theories, and modeling. Some of the ways in which I have been re-examining the role of the global oceans on Sahel rainfall variability are in using a moisture budget framework and idealized SST experiments to identify the atmospheric signatures that are consistent with precipitation change. Abstract Algebra Papers. The improved understanding of the effects of SSTs on Sahel rainfall variability have large implications for policy and decision-making in the region.
Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory committee: Savage, Holtzman, Scholz. My research focuses on for college two methods of understanding the abstract algebra research, mechanical controls on the seismogenic zone. The first half of my thesis focuses on the shallow portion of the seismogenic zone at the Japan Trench where the 2011 M w 9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake slipped to the surface and caused a large tsunami, leading to the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. Essay Narration. A year after the algebra research papers, earthquake, an essay narration, ocean drilling expedition sampled the fault zone that slipped during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.
I have used trace element geochemistry to develop a detailed stratigraphy of the plate boundary fault zone, which gives insight into the distribution of deformation in this region. The degree of localization of slip can have significant implications for the stress state required for this shallow slip. I am also developing a biomarker thermal maturity indicator (using alkenones and abstract algebra research, n -alkanes) to in nigeria, determine whether faults in the decollement region have experienced a significant temperature rise (inferred to research papers, be the result of frictional heating). This allows us to determine which faults inferred from the stratigraphy were likely to have slipped seismically. Through a series of benefits thesis hydrous pyrolysis experiments, I also constrain the kinetics of the biomarker thermal maturation to algebra research, estimate the temperature rise on these seismic faults. This allows us to put constraints on the maximum earthquake each of these faults may have experienced. The second half of my thesis focuses on the effect of temperature changes on the frictional behavior of subducting sediments at the upper limit of the seismogenic zone.
I will investigate the effect of short-duration pulses of hot fluid onto fault surfaces from nearby fault zones. This will give insight into the dynamic frictional behavior that can be important for our understanding of aftershock sequences. I will also investigate the frictional behavior of subducting sediments with varying amounts of carbonate, a significant input to essay narration, the sedimentary budget of subduction zones. Carbonate material tends to begin deforming plastically at abstract algebra research papers, shallower conditions than silicate rock. However, carbonate-rich sediment has been observed to demonstrate unstable slip behavior over a wider range of conditions than more clay-rich sediment. I will investigate the essay intro, deformation mechanisms that could be responsible for this enhanced seismic potential. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Cane, Seager, Abernathey. My research focuses on the variability in the Tropical Pacific Ocean on decadal to multidecadal timescales.
This variability has been shown to force hydroclimate on nearly every continent, and is responsible for the drought that has affected the Southwestern United States since 1999. Abstract Algebra. Further, it has been hypothesized that fluctuations in the rate of the increase of no essay scholarships global mean temperature with anthropogenic forcing, such as the global warming hiatus of the algebra research, 2000s, may be modulated by the mean state of the Tropical Pacific. My project investigates both the buy papers, predictability of this phenomenon and the global ocean's response to it in terms of heat uptake. I address these questions using ocean reanalysis datasets and coupled model simulations, by papers applying idealized conceptual models, statistical analyses, and a Lagrangian advection scheme. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Bostick, Chillrud, Schlosser. Developing Improved Strategies of essay narration Remediating Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers. Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in groundwater around the world, and abstract algebra research, is highly detrimental to humans and essay narration, many other organisms. Arsenic is also the second most common contaminant of concern at U.S.
EPA National Priority List. In this context, my work is research focused on the development of the geochemical techniques for remediating arsenic problems. The fate of arsenic contamination is often linked to iron. But their interaction is not simple in essay intro that it involves a complex network of biological and chemical (abiotic) redox processes, solid-solution phase equilibria, and both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Therefore, I want to investigate laboratory microcosms using arsenic-bearing aquifer sediments and groundwater and also conduct field scale research, to understand the efficacy of different amendments at abstract algebra, retarding arsenic mobility, and elucidate changes in solid-phase iron and arsenic speciation. From my work, I hope to reveal the implicit relationship between iron and arsenic within subsurface environments and the conditions under which these processes either liberate or sequester arsenic. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Nettles, Ekstrom, Gaherty. Glacial Earthquakes and Glacier Seismicity in application scholarships Greenland.
I am interested in a range of seismic phenomena associated with large marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland. Algebra Research Papers. On the global scale, I consider glacial earthquakes that produce globally observable surface waves which can be analyzed in order to provide information on the geometry and dynamics of of conflict essay their source glaciers. As these events may be analyzed in near-real time, they potentially represent an algebra research, important means of monitoring large glaciers in Greenland for changes in their dynamic behaviour. On the local scale, I am interested in the abundant, tiny earthquakes which occur in these rapidly deforming glaciers, and the connections between those events and larger questions with regards to the calving process and other aspects of glacier dynamics. More broadly, I am interested in the connection between sources of essay narration seismicity and the physical processes governing them. My dissertation includes studies of glacier grounding states, front-position, and calving-front orientation, and tidal forcing, using both global and local seismic data. Date Orals Passed : 3/14. Advisory Committee : Flynn, Meng, Christie-Blick. South America’s relative geographic isolation for much of the Cenozoic, and the continent’s reach from abstract, high latitudes to the subtropics bred a diverse, abundant, and disparate array of endemic mammals. Causes Of Conflict In Nigeria. For instance, there are perhaps as many as five orders of extinct placental herbivore representing a gamut of ecomorphologies (“meridiungulates,” or South American native ungulates, SANUs).
Some research questions: What are SANUs, with relation to each other and to the rest of the abstract algebra research, placental mammals? How do morphological and molecular evolution relate to climate, and can characters and character changes be local paleoenvironmental proxies? Do ancient biomolecules, including DNA and protein sequences, agree with morphological phylogenetic data? Some projects: I am expanding the Assembling the Tree of an undergraduate thesis Life project Mammalia dataset, adding taxa to test the hypothesis that some of the abstract algebra, SANUs are related to African mammals while others are related to causes of conflict in nigeria, Holarctic ungulates. I have explored the relation between morphological evolution and climate within one SANU family, a project born out of alpha-taxonomic descriptive work on two new fossil genera from a new latest Eocene site in the Chilean Andes. I have also looked in fairly exhaustive detail at abstract research papers, the chronologic basis for calibrating phylogenetic comparative and essay tips, other macroevolutionary studies, reviewing and revising the mammal-based biochronology of abstract papers Cenozoic South America. For my most recent project I am extracting ancient DNA from various North American ungulates to test hypotheses surrounding Pleistocene population and ecosystem dynamics, as well as phylogenetic (taxonomic) hypotheses, with an eye towards testing and refining ancient DNA methods in the lab and in silico. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Buck, Bell, Creyts.
Sliding Dynamics and persuasive essay intro tips, Internal Structure of Ice Sheets. Basal sliding is an important part of ice sheet dynamics. My work is focused on basal sliding and hydrology, and abstract research, the linkages between these processes and ice sheet stratigraphy. Identification and Control of Subglacial Water Networks Under Dome A, Antarctica. This chapter is no essay concerned with using ice-penetrating radar to identify subglacial water in East Antarctica. I found numerous subglacial lakes organized along topographically controlled hydraulic networks that connect melting and freezing locations beneath the ice sheet. Abstract. Published in JGR-Earth Surface in 2013.
Traveling slippery patches produce thickness-scale folds in ice sheets. This chapter is concerned with a model for the production of large (of order 1000m) basal structures in continental ice sheets. Such structures have been observed in radar data from essay narration, both Antarctica and Greenland. I find that thermally controlled slippery patches at the ice sheet base can migrate downstream over time. Research. Convergence produced by the gradient in of writing basal slip around these patches produces uplift within the ice sheet. When the patches move with the ice sheet, this uplift can produce large stratigraphic structures that resemble the observations. This new feedback stresses the importance of time-variable basal slip and enlarges our understanding of the relationship between slip and abstract research papers, stratigraphy. Published in persuasive GRL in 2014. Overturned folds in ice sheets: Insights from a kinematic model of travelling sticky patches and comparisons with observations. This chapter generalizes the abstract, connection between basal slip and internal stratigraphy.
Here I used a kinematic model in a moving reference frame to essay narration, identify overturning vortices that form in the lower portion of the ice column above a moving sticky patch. The dimensions of the vortex depends on the regional sliding velocity and on abstract the propagation velocity of the patch. I used three example observed radar folds to constrain model parameters using data. Submitted to JGR-Earth Surface in August 2015. Basal freeze-on: Mechanisms and volumes. This chapter explores the conditions necessary to produce large basal freeze-on structures inside ice sheets. I explore the dominant factors controlling both conductive cooling and supercooling, as well as the ice flow conditions that encourage the formation of large basal structures. I conclude with a discussion of the water supply and benefits an undergraduate thesis, glaciological settings that promote basal freeze-on, as well as the settings that promote traveling slippery and sticky patches. Algebra Research. In preparation. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.
Advisory Committee: Goldstein, Pena, B. Anderson. Neodymium isotope composition in deep waters can be considered as a water mass tracer. My research interest is to study modern and past ocean circulation using Nd isotopes and concentration. It consists of the following components: 1. The high Nd isotope ratios of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW, ?Nd = -4) have been difficult to reconcile with the inputs as reflected in surface waters (e.g. Jones et al.
EPSL 2008). An additional volcanic component has been suggested. In order to constrain the sources of Nd in benefits of writing an undergraduate the North Pacific, samples from the abstract algebra papers, INOPEX Cruise (2009) have been analyzed for Nd isotopes. Below 2500m in samples from the Aleutians-Kamchatka and East Asia margins, the ?Nd values are convergent at. -3.6, consistent with NPDW. However, samples above 2500m from Aleutians-Kamchatka show higher ?Nd than corresponding depths near East Asia, consistent with higher volcanic contributions near the of unhappiness, Aleutians-Kamchatka. In the shallowest 500m the ?Nd trends to more positive values toward the surface (to -1.5) near the Aleutians-Kamchatka, and toward lower values near East Asia (to -4.6), also consistent with volcanic contributions at algebra research papers, Aleutians-Kamchatka. The highest ?Nd at Aleutians-Kamchatka coincides with a previously reported Fe concentration maximum, interpreted as Fe mobilization from reduced marginal sediments (Lam and Bishop GRL 2008), which may also be a means of mobilizing REE.
2. Over the past several years, studies have increasingly focused on the potential of external addition of Nd along water mass transport paths (for example through “boundary exchange” with particulates or addition from groundwaters), thus challenging the idea that Nd isotopes behave “quasi-conservatively” in the oceans. The SW Atlantic, with the major water masses involved in pursuit of unhappiness the AMOC (southward flowing NADW, northward flowing AAIW and algebra research, AABW), is arguably the best place on Earth to evaluate how well Nd isotopes trace water mass mixing, in intro order to clarify its value for following the abstract algebra papers, AMOC through time. We will report Nd isotope ratios of seawater collected on the SW Atlantic meridional transect of the NIOZ West Atlantic GEOTRACES Cruise Leg 3 (RRS James Cook 057), which sampled seawater profiles and the sediment surface at 18 stations between 0-50°S. Most stations are sampled in the open ocean, providing a test of whether Nd isotopes show quasi-conservative mixing systematics away from continental margins. The cruise section also provides several opportunities to test the of unhappiness essay, potential effects of external Nd input. 3. The modern Southern Ocean has significant input from NADW, which is reflected in Nd isotope compositions of the Southern Ocean, and when the Atlantic meridional ocean circulation weakens, so will the North Atlantic signal. Thus, present and paleo-records of the water mass distribution in the Southern Ocean will help to understand the abstract, changes of ocean circulation. Using Nd isotopes in modern seawater and fossil fish debris from sediments will help to characterize the present day and past evolution in the Southern Ocean Nd end-member composition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Ryan, deMenocal.
The Late Pleistocene Evolution of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is a large, deep, and semi-enclosed body of causes of conflict water that lies at the interior of a series of abstract research papers basins connected to for college, the Mediterranean Sea via two shallow sills characterized by an estuarine-type circulation. This hydrologic setting changed in the past. Over the last 3 million years, the Black Sea alternated between two environments: a freshwater lake and abstract algebra papers, a brackish-to-marine basin. The factor that controlled the preferential state is the form of the benefits of writing an undergraduate thesis, connection with the abstract papers, Mediterranean Sea.
The entry of salt water is limited by the height of the global sea level relative to the threshold depth of the sill in the Bosphorus portal. Buy Papers. The last time the Black Sea connected to the Mediterranean occurred approximately 7,150 years ago as a consequence of the rising global sea level from deglaciation. Abstract Algebra Papers. This led to large changes in of conflict in nigeria essay the basin which include salinization, sapropel deposition, anoxia, and fauna turnover. This event is clearly seen in both shelf and slope cores. Prior to the connection, the Black Sea remained very fresh and the bottom waters were more oxygenated.
Turnover occurred at times the research, surface waters became dense enough to break the stratification. During the essay narration, last glacial maximum, the Black Sea sediments have a series of sulfide spots implying that turnover was reduced. These spots disappeared when a series of meltwater pulses appear in abstract research papers the cores, which have a distinct brownish color and record hyper-pycnal floods. Plumes of persuasive essay tips freshwater brought oxygen to the black sea and algebra research, hence, formation of iron sulfide did not occur. I am studying the series of these events, how they are reported in the sediments, how one dates them, and of writing an undergraduate, the connections between the shelf and the slope cores. Abstract Algebra. I am also thinking about how these events in the Black Sea connect to global and the possible implications.
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essay truth lies Deliver us from cruelty! Un-edited January 2006 draft. Forever Blowing Goebbels. Deluded liars as they are, liars of despair, we all scoff in derision as infamous leaders stop and look out over the utter devastation they’ve inflicted on their subjects and on themselves, calling this useless defeat a glorious day, a moment of blessed victory. We are rightfully scornful when, after finally having been put on trial, these same leaders manage to brand themselves victim or martyr, not the hundreds of thousands of poor, poor bastards they murdered in cold blood.
In disbelief we take note of ‘Democratic People’s’ republics that are or were as ‘Democratic’ as a Gulag, and ‘of the People’ like the moon belongs to Freddie, down the block. On every day basis we listen incredulously as one breathtakingly useless product after another gets deliberated misrepresented for quick gain. The list goes on and on, in politics, in commerce, in papers, religion, in sports, in the arts, in battle as in love: the chronic fib. But lying and persuasive essay, dissembling enslaves and is a matter that goes beyond minor, social untruths. Subterfuge can be seriously life-threatening, lying so endemic in some societies that they have distorted their original national character. Areas where people say only what they think a listener wants to hear, to research 'protect' themselves, al-Taqiyya as it's called, concealment permitted in the service of essay narration, faith and the self, but leading to aberrant pathology when fed by abstract algebra papers, stupid judgment, leading to constant conflict and primitive violence.
Lands where life had or has so little to offer that the aggressive/defensive lie became the only means of workable daily congress, or is it because of the benefits of writing thesis pervasive lie that nations have become unliveable? With streets in abstract papers, which what’s bad is called good, where what’s ugly is called beautiful and nothing’s true any more: where children lie to intro tips their elders because elders lie to their children, and abstract algebra research, men to essay narration women, or women to men, even women to women and abstract algebra research, so on, fed by a controlled press also prevaricating in the service of some sordid ideal: the of unhappiness stealing of mind, the theft of reality. Even though Nietzsche wrote truths are illusions we have forgotten are illusions, there are many aspects, situations and events that are reasonably true, everything else eventually turning into a living hell. Abstract Research Papers. Places where one must lie to get fed, where lying is like breathing, in application, constant and abstract algebra papers, despairing skirmish with smoked mirrors, fantasy and denial. Lying to buy papers for college survive only because everyone and everything around is doing the abstract research same, only pretending to be proud, happy to be alive, exhibiting gratefulness to the country by showing hatefulness, resentment and suspicion towards the outside, never inspiration by what is achieved elsewhere: everything a delusion.
The neighbourhood furthermore where one’s forcibly grateful to a God always siding with those who already have so much. All of benefits thesis, it colloquially known as ‘kidding oneself’, but a phenomenon rather more ominous as during the last century it has become quite clear that the abstract papers degree of a people’s suffering, is directly proportionate to its ability to tolerate a lie. We’ve heard all the nonsense about original sin, but wouldn’t it be saner to worry about the original lie? How it all started? Turning the world to evil, causing so much suffering? For it’s the original lie that’s truly sinful and repeating one, innocently or not, over of writing, and over again, most imprudent and self-defeating. Though some might say, but I don’t know anymore what the truth is.
Yet it’s all so very simple: the largest truth in the world is algebra papers that lies exist, blind and essay, dominate. And that whereas an absolute truth is transcendent, open and research papers, vast like space, lies are specific, narrow, calculated and strictly human in persuasive, all its forms. Official lies, wishful lies, stupid lies, smart lies, ugly lies, it makes no difference: falling for them is proof of one’s own denial which in itself is a form of abstract algebra research, defeat, a lack of courage. The never being accountable, the never accepting any responsibility, the never having done it, it never being true, when it bloody well is. Plus the problem that official, highly organized lies are highly tempting: they pretend to protect, but are likely to end up killing you. That’s why they’re lies, you see.
Unless you’re blind, to of conflict the fact, in which case you should apply for a smelling-lie dog Those instances of ultimate and out and out physical and moral betrayal, when laws are distorted, ideals poisoned and justice only condemns, never, ever acquits. When it has been proven over algebra papers, and over essay tips, again that only equilibrium equates meaningful life for all, the sole place where justice resides. The way it is research during the time between hunger and satiation, thirst and the quenching of it when man can truly live, in of writing an undergraduate, this beautifully balanced space, however briefly, spending his most shining hours. Yes, of course, truth’s fugacious, hard to catch sometimes, but only algebra research papers, because it’s free; it’s only the lie that holds out the false promise of an undergraduate, immediacy and permanence. Abstract Algebra Research Papers. And certainly there exists natural injustice in buy papers for college, the way that health, looks, and brains are distributed or that tsunamis strike indiscriminately, but surely gratuitous human injustice is the research most perverted one of all, particularly as expressed through the insidious lie. A lie being nothing more than an impostor: a scorpion posing as a loving chameleon, changing colour according to what’s up, but sooner than later striking out with long, swift, and deadly tongue. Only the application truth delivers safety and legitimacy, simply because truth is, while lies are not.
To illustrate how lies lead to misunderstanding and then quickly to hate and oppression by way of distortion and irrationality, misusing terms brandished about in modern philosophy, it’s the algebra research lie , however promising, however tempting, not someone’s attitude towards or interpretation of existence that could be deemed ‘nihilistic’ or ‘absurd’. Benefits Of Writing An Undergraduate Thesis. If anything and to begin with because on their own terms, there can be no real absurdity or nihilism, the negation of the truth of the here and abstract algebra papers, the now, unless one crawls into a black hole staying there forever to prove the point. Since the minute one asks for a glass of water, one no longer is of unhappiness a nihilist: can’t be a nihilist and take the eight o’clock bus, can’t have had breakfast with 2 fried eggs, afterwards be on one’s way some place. For anyone to suggest furthermore that existence without faith is meaningless is an untruth: the fact that with or without faith and without exception we beg for water and abstract algebra, food creates existential meaning by itself and in the fullest sense. Persuasive Tips. On an other level, deliberately erring by misusing already dubious terms such as ‘nihilistic’ or ‘absurd’, equating these with another tenet, atheism, is creating a lie. For it proposes more than just that, it proposes that atheism is abstract algebra papers evil, thus hateful, while in fact a tenet in itself creating hate. Therefore don’t listen to those who maintain this stance and always remember that only factual truth, not a stated truth liberates and no essay, that whereas bodily man is abstract algebra papers not a lie, his hopeless fantasies, not to mention his strange definitions, correlations and ambitions, all too often are.
On the main these represent non-lieu, are often truly absurd, self-serving and mostly harmful. And speaking of persuasive intro, factual good and evil, of truth and lies or what may be dangerous use of words, a case in papers, question is the Czech Republic where I visited recently. Sixty three per cent of the people there are said to be 'atheist' by choice and conviction, though one won’t find a more gifted and balanced populace that, other than having produced some nasty incidents of discrimination against Gypsies, is not a mass producer of expressed hate caused by a lack of 'contract', that is conventional faith. Next door in Poland, on the other hand, religiosity is pursuit of unhappiness essay about one hundred and ten per abstract papers cent, also with mainly excellent people and beside a brand of essay, irrational, rather rural and disembodied anti-semitism, not especially perfect or imperfect in algebra, relation to the folks across Slavic street. Benefits Of Writing Thesis. Plus, all there having that glass of algebra, water and probably fried eggs in essay, the morning, so what difference do all those earlier differentiations and accusations in real terms make, except to note again that these hide the truth, may get out of hand, instigate real hate and by their very intent should be our concern? Atheism then shouldn’t be made to be something that isn't an automatic truth by a long stretch, in general the notion of Nihilism best forgotten, that very idea less than accurate and all because of those eggs! Life without God is abstract algebra research papers not absurd to all and the notion that an benefits an undergraduate atheist cannot be good is as gross an exaggeration as the news of Mark Twain’s death was upon a time. Because the atheist can be as forgiving and generous as the believer and if you don’t believe that you must go to Prague where good men like Kafka, Hasek and Havel demonstrated it, opening huge windows, huge doors to light, borrowing a leaf or two from Gogol in expressing their despair at the lack of goodness, the lack of truth, the tyranny of the ongoing, the living Ubu- esque lie of abstract, their world, while not exactly pining for God but, in the latter’s case, for the intellectual and musical company of an ordinary man named Zappa.
A place before liberation described by buy papers for college, Arthur Miller as a huge funeral. A place where he said he felt terrible because nobody could speak, everybody lying constantly because the algebra papers language of truth had been taken away from them and essay narration, all the walls were listening. A place where a few courageous souls managed nevertheless to abstract algebra assure him that lying was their only pursuit of unhappiness essay, freedom. Research. But surely Mr Miller would now agree that under those circumstances this no longer represents a real lie, that it is mere coded truth. The use of the language of the lie as a trompe-l'oeil, conveying between honest people what is at stake, masking what needs to be done urgently to reverse their plight.
The non-atheist Catholic Church on of writing thesis the other hand handily condoning the abstract algebra mass killing of the feared leftist atheist, as recently as during the Spanish civil war: again, talk about evil, talk about lies, talk about mixed values, talk about turf Finally, by yet another yardstick there cannot be a degree to truth as it’s absolute, but there are degrees to lies. Truth’s on essay narration the side of personal decency, sometimes referred to as character. The fact Rosa Parks wasn’t asked by a single white person to come sit next to research papers them on that or any other bus, nobody reaching out, gently taking the persuasive essay intro tips unsightly mantle of humiliation off her frail shoulders, forcing her to quietly but firmly wave it at their turned 'way face, is sad and wrong. There’s no excuse; truth’s inclusive or no truth at all. It’s the lie that’s exclusive all the time. And let nobody say ‘I didn’t know, I didn’t see’, because that, my friends, already is a lie. Plus that small courageous steps count for more than equally repressive burning of abstract algebra, cars or throwing of Molotov’s evil child. For the truth is largest when it’s small and individual, residing everywhere, and should people ask for you to point it out, tell them it lies right there in the vast space that lies can’t occupy. Some lies worse than others, especially mechanical ones, ones of persuasive essay tips, wanton moral laziness, of research, ennui or criminal indifference, the sort that has reduced some to persuasive intro become inhuman, that is, though breathing and wheezing, unconscionably robot- èsque . Like Eichmann in abstract research papers, the way that Hannah Arendt justly described him, hence her reference to the matter-of-fact nature of his crime. But here it seems we’re running out of language, for as Eichmann was still a man, it suddenly signifies how under certain influences, bewitched by benefits of writing an undergraduate, tragic lies, it appears to be all too human for someone to abstract algebra papers become inhuman.
Verbal penury at its most tragic perhaps, but no less a truth, the advent of the holocaust yet again exposing the connection between the cold lie (of superiority in this case) and all the evil it can produce, plus the fact that a culture prohibiting real truth ultimately dooms itself to insignificance. It’s Human to become inhuman , what a terrible state of affairs, what terrible words. Just like the causes of conflict term the research papers ethics of the lie would be, for lack of of conflict in nigeria, a better term describing the condition whereby any idea or notion naturally murders the previous one (making us both master and slave of ourselves, as Camus points out), a description itself too contradictory to algebra papers be acceptable. But let’s keep it simple, let’s not stray and get lost in semantics, only grant that some evil is essay intro tips too big for mere words and research papers, that at causes in nigeria essay the same time words are the favourite tool of evil. Words becoming un-words, their meaning imperceptibly twisted sometimes. And that nothing can be relatively true, anymore than that proverbial girl could be a little bit pregnant: was she or was she not!?
That only the lie has shadings, one always leading up and into the next, ever intensifying, making slaves out of masters, bad masters out of slaves and so on and all over again, and that modern history has shown conclusively how pernicious for absolutely all of us it is not to have strangled all these shadings at abstract research birth. Deriding them, walking out on them, on the disingenious who’ll use them to persuasive essay triumph. What a gas! The best gas of all! Imagine people strutting out on Hitler at Nuremberg, laughing him off that ridiculous Riefenstahl bühne, later and not by accident the first World War Crime Tribunal not having to be convened in the same place! Or when all the straight arms of the Nazi salute rose, calling TAXI, TAXI , mocking the bastards as if they were hailing a cab. That phoney stage taken after some Hollywood production number, or was Hollywood copying her?
Who cares! A Triumf of research papers, Wasser, Cypress Gardens in Aryan World, Adolf in essay narration, an Esther Williams routine, on research water skis, troops floating by, arm up in stiff salute again and large frozen smiles, flashed ivories midst stretches and jets of magnificent blue. Palms, flags, banners, bright lights, the awful geometrics of it, the deliberate symmetry of no essay, it, the dreadful uniformity of algebra research papers, it, the fulminating artificiality of it, the false illumination of it, moving lines, everything linear right down to the Chaplin moustache, nothing round, no loose ends, all of it moving like a flat, straight clockwork, evenly paced, suggesting progress, beauty, safety, order, but in reality an illusion going absolutely nowhere. Essay Narration. In other words Leni blowing Goebbels: staging idiotic fantasy, including angular bulges in dated swimming suits, probably rectangular chopped Idaho potatoes, good thing they sat up front, and oh what stunning bathing caps, cut just like helmets: exact-same look, all the to-be-run-out-of-town mechanics holding out that violent taking sweeter than giving. Achtung , Esther, with fantasy flicks. Life may be short but it is ever so deep!
All means of seduction identical and just that: means. Though in papers, this case one show infinitely more lethal than the other, with its mad, crazed Wolf casting his spell over buy papers for college, the dreadfully mesmerized. A deep, smell of defeat still unreleased, still trapped below the short-lived scent of algebra research, revenge, brainless fury and of writing, glory! Ah, what a monumental sense of humour the madding crowd would have expressed by howling the great wacky one off. Too bad it wasn’t quite like that, that those in attendance didn’t see him that way, didn’t take him for abstract papers, what he was: a bad, bad, actor in a horrible movie, suddenly looking like a mutant Oliver Hardy had he worn a bowler hat.
Readying the essay narration cruel dunce not for celebration but for getting cut, like all that wasted celluloid he and Leni employed and abstract, occupied: all of it a lie. N.B. Buy Papers For College. A more recent example of an algebra papers already weak state in further decline (25-05-2010): As a front-page editorial Tuesday in the daily Jamaica Observer put it, For a long time we have been heading for no essay application, an explosion as those who have held the reins of government have given succor to criminals in their blinkered thirst for political power . The upshot is abstract algebra papers that we now live in causes in nigeria, a society that accepts as normal the blatant disregard for the law and respect for the rights of others - a society in which it is considered good to be bad and bad to be good. It has to stop. or this recent blog of mine: There is absolutely nothing dialectical about Marxist-Leninism, this part of philosophical materialism was high-jacked in Russia, in 1917. What remained should have been an argued as opposed to abstract algebra papers a class physicalism conflict, but also was misappropriated, evolving from neo-prevarication-ism into nightmare-ism after the manipulation of reality and the wholesale larceny of the public mind. Some are still at it. Priests of privilege over flocks captured and of writing, imprisoned by abstract algebra research papers, them, and of writing an undergraduate, usually the way things turn out.
The result of revolutions like rotten, scrambled eggs. To be taken out. Good to feed the dogs with. Not fellow humans. Help Critical Thought Survive, Help Total Literary Originality; Any small donation is abstract algebra papers Deeply Appreciated: