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Heroes defining essay - N 1 Athletics
Ashbourne College#039;s Psychology Blog. Q1. Outline and heroes, evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression (e.g. social learning theory, deindividuation) • Social learning theory= originated from work of Gabriel Tarde (1912) Learning= relatively permanent change in questions, behaviour due to experience. Defining! • Classical behaviourism= direct experience (classical/operant conditioning)/ • Neo-behaviourism= indirect/vicarious experience (observational) • Theory claims we learn aggression primarily through observation of party essay, significant people around us= Modelling people who are similar (age/sex) or higher status (parent/teacher) Key characteristics of Imitation: 1. Heroes Defining Essay! Behaviour of party essay, role models. 2. Copying behaviour of a higher status. 3. Degree of contact with role model. Heroes Essay! 4. Degree of george orwell essays such such were, understanding of the behaviour. • Tarde= these are ways social behaviour and responses could be influenced by the actions of others. Essay! • Tarde combines both logic of social/cognitive psychology in social cognitive perspective of human behaviour-= behaviour motivated by inherent psychological factors/ socio-environmental factors: • Individual and social environment linked= reciprocal determinism. SLT consists of four basic processes: 1. Attention= observation- watching the behaviour.
2. Retention= cognitive process schema- storing the behaviour. 3. Reproduction= behaviour- copying behaviour. 4. Motivation= state- having reason for displaying behaviour. • SLT= helps in explaining inconsistencies of aggressive behaviour=where we learn to act/or not- be aggressive depending on different situations/contexts e.g. A Descriptive Essay Food! aggressive + domineering at heroes defining essay, home/ meek + submissive at work. • Explanation of SLT based on research= ‘Bobo doll studies’ KEY STUDY-Bandura, Ross and and rubrics, Ross (1961) Experiment firstly involved: 72 child participants= different groups of children: experimental group –witnessed adult model kick/punch Bobo doll/ control group- witnessed non-aggressive behaviour = After- different groups were put into the toy room with Bobo doll- their behaviour was observed. Essay! They found children who had witnessed aggressive behaviour were more likely to an action thesis show aggression. Experiment had a well-defined way of coding the behavioural responses of the children to a measurable outcome. Defining! Laboratory research- artificial setting/lacks ecological validity.
Children’s behaviour- may have produced demand characteristics (wanting to ‘please the experimenter’) Confidentiality- names of those involved maintained private- but films widely available on internet of experiment suggest compromise of confidentiality. Thesis! Lack of heroes essay, informed consent- parents/guardians of of application, children were not fully informed + children would have been unaware they were being filmed. Study has face validity to explain children copying through imitating role models/ the heroes essay media influence on aggression- such as influence of behaviour from and rubrics t.v. Essay! personalities/ celebrities: e.g. two boys (aged 10/11) murdered young boy Jamie Bulger-watched horror/violent film ‘Child’s Play 3’ before the murder. Bandura’s research focuses society’s attention on the power of the a descriptive about food media- in heroes defining, areas of aggression and other related areas e.g. health (anorexia/bulimia) Criticism of imposed etic/generalisibility- by assuming that processes of essay and rubrics, learning are the same for people in defining essay, all countries/cultures universally. Cultural bias= Bandura: a western researcher working in a western society. Essays Such Were! Deterministic approach- to suggest child would passively absorb the observed behaviour and heroes essay, imitate it without logical thought for the implication of it. Algebra 1 Essay! Process of decreased self-assessment/ awareness- in situations where individual identification is difficult/impossible= e.g. child with a toy mask/individual football supporter amidst a large crowd of defining, supporters/individual in a crowded music arena. Situations were individual identification is restricted ensures changes in the normal standards of behaviour/ inhibitions are lowered- Singer, Brush and Lublin (1965): Group situation-Inhibitions reduced- Change in normal standards of behaviour/anti-social behaviour: Milgram (1964/1965) study of the situational determinants of writing research, destructive obedience= found participants were more likely to give higher levels of electrical shocks when they could not see/be seen by their victim. Similar to this study: Zimbardo (1969)- study showed the heroes essay effect of reduced inhibitions: He used female undergraduate participants in a ‘study of learning’. The female participants play teacher/ a stooge is used to an action play student. ‘Student’ has to complete a set of heroes essay, tasks/ if completed wrongly= teacher gave electric shock to ‘student’. Half the participants wore large laboratory coats/hoods to cover their faces/never referred to by name= deindividuated group.
Other group wore their normal clothes/given large name tags/ introduced to each other formally. All participants could see ‘student’/were told she was either ‘honest’ or ‘conceited/critical’. Irrespective of description- deindivuated participants gave twice as many shocks of individuated ones. Gender bias- can’t generalise findings universally when only female participants were used. Lacks ecological validity- artificial setting- actions may not be in accordance to real-life situation. Ethical issues- concerning psychological effects of experiment on participants.
Diener (1979) = naturalistic observation of 1,300 ‘trick-or- treating’ children in the U.S. found that children in large groups/wearing costumes- more likely to perform anti-social actions e.g. stealing money/sweets. – the writing research group ‘reduces the defining essay possibility of personal identification’- behaviour may deviate from normal moral standards Limitations: Fundamental problem of of application, this theory= doesn’t provide explanation for heroes the fact- not all crowds/groups perform aggressive actions: Evidence linked to deindividuation and anti-social behaviour- but evidence also suggests deindividuation may lead to ‘prosocial’ behaviour= Gergen et al. (1973)- study in which lowered levels of individuation didn’t result in aggressive actions= in a dark room – most participants were involved in george were, intimate contact/at least half cuddled/ about 80% of the essay group felt sexually aroused. Saying aggression is caused by lowering one’s inhibitions is narrow/deterministic: Postmes and Spears (1998)= meta-analysis of over essay and rubrics, 60 studies investigating deindividuation= no consistent research to heroes essay support argument- reduced inhibitions/anti-social behaviour more likely to be seen in large groups/crowded situations where anonymity is maintained. = They suggest behaviour change of individuals in research, large groups- more influence from ‘group norms’. Relating this theory to groups e.g. football hooliganism is too stereotypical: Marsh et al. (1978)= found what might appear to be an essay anti-social group actually consist of several different groups-with different places in the status ‘hierarchy’/ aggression was highly ritualised rather than physically violent. Evaluation: Challenges: Runciman (1966)= argues aggressive behaviour could be due to one’s relative deprivation- perceived difference between what you have and what you think you should have.
Dollard et al. (1939) = argues aggression is the result of frustration building up (psychoanalysis)/ presence of environmental cues (behaviourism) that signal aggressiveness. George Orwell! Social theories don’t take into account potential biological factors influencing aggression= genetic/bio-chemical or neuro-anatomical causes. Q2. Outline and evaluate research relating to heroes group display of aggression in humans. Psychologists /sociologists interested in how crowds operate. 2 disciplines differ in how they explain crowd disorder: Sociologists focus on role of the essay media as ‘amplifier’ of defining, anti-social behaviour. Psychologists more concerned about factors within group that lead to anti-social behaviour.
Freud: mindset of an individual in a crowd different form that of an individual on their own= merging minds/sharing the same opinion/inhibitions reduced. Methodological flaws: didn’t follow hypothetico-deductive method. Influence from the group: Freud criticised – idea ‘group’ had a soul of its own: Le Bon (1896)= ‘pathological’ viewpoint: Crowd behaviour the result of individuals’ personalities. Essays Such Such! Atmosphere of a group causes contagion- ‘group members fall under the influence of essay, a collective mind’ Group members are suggestible/views of group/imitating others ‘group mind’ Blummer (1939)= circular reaction causes individuals to george orwell were the joys reproduce behaviours/emotions-which intensifies/amplifies. Convergence theory/ emergent norm theory.
Motive behind group behaviour- convergence upon a specific location by like-minded individuals e.g. football crowd. Turner and Killian (1957)= crowd behaviour as such is ‘normless’- individual has no norms to follow they base behaviour on others around them. The distinctive behaviour- governs behaviour of the group/ taken on as he norm of the group. Convergence theory= View dictates that crowds aren’t a passive group of people- they#8217;re a logically thinking mass of individuals View doesn’t help to explain unpredictable crowd behaviour- because its governed by the norms identified/ accepted by the group. Heroes! Theory focuses more on of application how individuals are rational/ the formation of crowd/ behaviour can be seen as rational/logical – more focused on irrational forces- contrasts to heroes defining contagion theories. Emergent norm theory= Doesn’t take into an action account non-verbal processes that occur in crowds- incomplete. Criticised for defining not explaining how norms might emerge. Algebra 1 Essay Questions! Berk (1974)= behaviour that looks irrational (crowd running out of essay, building) may be rational (building on fire) Value-added theory- Neil Smelser (1963)= • Certain prerequisites (situations/conditions) are needed in order for a group /social movement to develop: stages he suggested were: Stage 1. Structural conduciveness- social situations/conditions must allow for collective action. Stage 2. Structural strain- parts of social system don’t function effectively. Stage 3. Growth/spread of generalised belief- shared view assigns casuses/determines a response/action. Stage 4. Precipitating factors- collective belief strengthened search for alternatives gathers pace.
Stage 5. Mobilising the collective for action- leaders/workers emerge hierarchy of order is established. Stage 6. Reaction of agencies of social control- attempt to interfere the essay collective operation. Smelser argues social life/processes we follow within it affect how individuals behave= If society offers incentives/rewards that the heroes defining essay individual is define letter interest in- they may not think carefully about how they achieve the goal. Value-added theory= Ethnocentric/lacks ecological validity/generalisibility= Provides a theoretical point-of-view based upon Smelser’s own ‘Western industrialised’ educational/socio-economic background- so not accounting for important cultural differences. Heroes Essay! Logical theory- but doesn’t take into account the complexities of crowd behaviour- theory difficult to test- Berk (1974) – “crowd events occur with great speed, are difficult to anticipate#8230;” Elements from these theories can help to explain crowd behaviour- Hockling (1982) With groups e.g. lynch mobs= Zimbardo (2007)= argues dehumanisation is thesis crucial to understanding ‘man’s inhumanity to man’: Inhuman aggression of lynch mobs in USA- torture/violent murder of black people was not seen as a crime against humanity- it was seen across USA as a result of black people’s stigmatisation as ‘niggers’ so they weren’t seen as individuals= Ginzberg (1988) Most theories fail to acknowledge actions of positive crowd behaviour- Cassidy et al. (2007)=investigated crowd celebrations: Mela (1 month long Hindu festival): crowds behaved well/increased generosity/support. Shows how crowd behaviour/ collective living can promote good/ non-aggressive behaviour/ a strong sense of common identity/close proximity- beneficial instead of being causal factor for subsequent harm. Heroes Essay! Q3.
Outline and evaluate studies relating to biological explanations of human aggression. Assumption that aggression is caused by internal factors (rather than external) Influences summarised as: Biochemical influences: hormones; the neurotransmitter serotonin. Brain structure influences. Aggression is the by-product of party essay, complex internal physiological processes. Researchers approached investigation of genetic factors in aggression primarily through twin and adoptions studies= to try and establish whether aggression- a product of inherited characteristic (nature) or environmental influences (nurture) KEY STUDY- Rhee and Waldman (2002)- Meta-analysis of defining, 51 twin and nazi party, adoption studies = 87,000 individuals. Anti-social behaviour operationalised in terms of: Psychiatric diagnoses-e.g. anti-social personality disorder. Calculated= genetic component of heroes essay, anti-social behaviour across the and rubrics studies- approx. 40% Environmental contribution approx. 60% Self-report used in meta-analysis- limits reliability= as differences found as: Self-report individuals = assessed genetic component at 39%/ individuals assessed by defining, another person= 53% Difficult to letter of application separate genetic/environmental effects in twin studies- MZ twins have more similar environmental experiences.
Specific genes cause aggression- such as= Sandberg (1961)-identified (scientifically known as) the heroes defining 47 XYY karyotype. Court-Brown’s research (1965 and 1967)- found that of a sample of 314 patients- those with XYY would be ‘best hospitalised due to an increased likelihood of aggressive behaviour’= statement not substantiated with evidence. Media encouraged the belief XY phenomenon with films – XYY man/ Alien 3= limits potential for explaining aggression due to its deterministic focus. Aggression passed through genetic transmission- looked at through animal studies. Nelson (2006)- noted selective breeding experiments can lead to more aggressive behaviour in writing thesis, animals. Heroes Defining! Theory supported by Cairns (1983)- in study of mice. Define Letter! Observational animal research has= Methodological issues: Evidence helps researchers to create more informed models. Difficult generalising findings from animals to humans/ no alternative-using humans in genetic research seen as unethical. Heroes Essay! Artificial settings/lacks ecological validity- to how aggression might occur in a real-life setting. Difficult to separate influence of biological genetic factors (nature) from environmental upbringing (nurture)- as extraneous variables could be causing aggression- unreliable.
She examined personality traits of a sample-XYY men compared these to a sample of XY men and XXY men(thought to be more feminine) Focused on levels of aggressiveness between 2 groups. Essay And Rubrics! Found= in all occurrences of X (about 1 in every 1,000) only characteristic of heroes essay, height seemed to of application be linked to the XYY condition. Levels of aggressiveness between groups fluctuated-= no definite conclusion could be drawn. Heroes Defining! Basic measure of comparing XYY to XY male inmates in prison/ comparing evidence to general population= lacks validity. Nazi! XYY research= found no consistent link between genotype/aggressive nature. Defining! Using thematic apperception testing= showed XYY tend to give more aggressive/ less anti-aggressive interpretations of images- compared to XY men. Theilgaard concluded= issue is too complex- XYY men might seem to be more aggressive/ but tendencies didn’t mean they would perform aggressive acts/ resulting in prison. Hormones influence many parts of our lives: Court cases have shown that hormonal fluctuation-woman’s pre-menstrual tension can be used as grounds for claims of temporary insanity- to reduce a charge of murder to manslaughter= R v Smith (1979) 3 All ER 605,611 (CA) Nelson (1995)- reviewed research into how hormones influence aggressive behaviour= seems to be a positive correlation between level of androgens circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in female/male prisoners. Levels of androgens not measured a precise point when aggressive act performed. Testosterone= androgen produced by Leydig cells in male testes/in adrenal cortex= release of hormone is rhythmic following natural circadian rhythm.
Increased levels of testosterone associated with increased levels of aggression= e.g. Of Application! during puberty aggression increases when androgen levels are higher. Wagner, Beuving and Hutchinson (1979)= show if a male mouse is castrated- levels of aggression reduce/ if mouse receives testosterone aggression levels increase. Research graph correlating the number of biting attacks compared to the mouse (pre-castration=post-castration=given 150 microgm/day of testosterone) results show positive trend- increase in the number of biting attacks with increase of testosterone= post-castration/given testosterone. Research correlational- cannot establish cause+ effect= androgens encourage aggressive behaviour but- they could encourage social dominance/ impulsiveness/ competition. Pillay (2006)- high testosterone levels can be desirable for athletes= given link to high levels of competition/athlete’s need for more muscular bodies. “testosterone is only one myriad of factors that influence aggression and the effects of environmental stimuli have at times been found to correlate more strongly” Other environmental factors e.g. temperature/noise/overcrowding have an influential role in showing aggressive behaviour. Huston et al (2007)- basal model of testosterone= more testosterone/ more competitive/dominant. Essay! Mazur and Booth (1998)- reciprocal model of testosterone= testosterone levels vary with person’s dominance.
It is the writing research effect not cause. Study= 2,100 air force veterans- over heroes defining, 10 year period- four medical examinations Methodological issues: No peer review- essential in validity of research. And Rubrics! Longitudinal study- increased amount of data. Heroes Defining! Using veterans- unable to generalise findings- aggression could be influenced by external factors e.g. memories of the a descriptive essay about war/ or psychological factors= post-traumatic stress disorder. Defining! Serotonin neurotransmitter important in the control of aggression= low levels of serotonin- less able to control impulsive/aggressive behaviour= Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine- 5HT)= Lenard (2008)- “low serotonin levels in the brain can result in impulsive behaviour/aggression/overeating/depression/alcohol abuse/violent suicide”. Normal levels of serotonin exerts a calming/inhibitory effect in the brain. = Cases (1995) Serotonin + aggression. Davidson, Putnam and party essay, Larson (2000)= suggested role of serotonin-‘inhibitory function’ of aggressive tendencies: Compared violent criminals to non-violent= low levels of serotonin in violent criminals. Animal research supports this= in defining, mice- serotonin 1B receptor not functioning-found increase in aggressive behaviour. Tame domestic animals have higher levels of serotonin.
Russian researchers looked at silver foxes (animals have been tamed by humans- more than 30yrs)= Found= all had higher levels of party, serotonin/5-HIAA. Heroes Essay! Summers et al (2005)= observed that globally acting serotonergic drugs do modify aggressive behaviour- but cannot be singularly identified as the only cause of activity in regions of the brain- that could have serotonergic effects on aggression. A Descriptive Food! Mann et al. Defining Essay! (1990) = administered drug (known to deplete serotonin levels in the brain) to 35 healthy adults. Found= among males (but not females)- hostility/aggression levels increased after treatment with the drug. Study of the such such were the joys negative relationship between serotonin/aggression- correlational- doesn’t establish cause+ effect relationships. Ethical issues: when using human participants-research must look after (not use) – to further understand/make better our human existence. Heroes Defining Essay! Neurotransmitters on their own-out of letter, context to the wider physiology of the brain-ignore influence of brain structure on demonstrating aggressive behaviour. Essay! Brain structure/damage. Hypothalamus/amgydala associated with aggressive responses: Bard and algebra questions, Mountcastle (1953)- looked at heroes defining, ‘rage’ in george orwell essays were, cats caused by defining essay, detachment of higher/lower brain through lesioning= Concluded: hypothalamus initiates aggressive behaviour/cerebral cortex reduces behaviour. Flynn (2006)- found stimulating= lateral hypothalamus in cats- more likely show ‘predatorial aggression’. = medial hypothalamus-more likely to show ‘vicious attack behaviour’.
Amgydala= in define letter, 1930’s-careful lesioning of amgydala of aggressive animals showed taming effect.= harming/causing dysfunction to animal is unethical. Amgydalectomy- in humans reduces violent behaviour- but emotion is lost. Brain injury/damage to brain can alter the defining processing of an action, information/ causes aggression. Frontal cortex closely connected to hypothalamus/amgydala- damage often show: impulsive behaviour/irritability/ short temper/easily provoked. Phineas Gage- railway worker- a tamping iron- entered left side of his face= passed through jaw/up+ behind left eye/ exited through top of his head- he survived for 11 years after: Noticeable changes in heroes, persona- formerly quiet/hard-working/shrewd character turned to very negative/aggressive individual – after result of questions, brain injury. Convincing- but case study- one person- generalisibility limited/ relying on accuracy of medical notes made in 1868 by heroes essay, Harlow (Gage’s physician). Evidence supports the idea that the Amygdala- has influential effect on mediating aggressive responses.
Animal studies- cats/rats/hamsters- show neural processed surrounding amgydala functioning= can explain aggressive changes in behaviour. Difficult to generalise- animal studies to nazi humans- human brain more complex than many animals. Essay! Potegal et al. (1994)= argue generalisation between animals and humans should be more viable- human/animal differences are qualitative ( i.e. basics the same/ details different): Underlying neural circuitry related to emotional expression seems more similar- allowing for more avenues of generalisation. Blair et al. (2001) = shows in cases – humans hospitalised for psychopathic tendencies- often caused by damage to amgydala. Supported by various findings in non-human animals. Biological explanations are reductionist as it ignores: Influence of culture in aggressive behaviour- socialisation- (e.g.
Arapesh tribe= Mead (1935) Aggression learned through observation of various forms of algebra questions, media- Freedman (2002) Situational factors- e.g. temperature/overcrowding/noise • Showing of aggression may simply be result of frustration- ultimately becomes aggressive actions through the essay identification of essay, aggressive cues in environment. Heroes Essay! Q4. Outline and evaluate research studies into evolutionary explanations of nazi party, human aggression. Heroes Defining Essay! Aggressive behaviour by animals= Craig (1921)- provided 1st attempt understanding aggression from ethological p.o.v.- since Darwin’s work- late 1800’s. Craig- made clear- that animals- ‘even when the animal does fight, he aims not to destroy enemy, but only get rid of algebra questions, his presence and interference’ = Van Der Dennen (2005) Lorenz (1966)-ethologist- stressed humans are animals- show similar behaviour patterns to animals: • Four main drivers behind behaviour of animal= fear/reproduction/hunger/aggression. Functions of heroes essay, aggression= Help to ensure fittest/strongest were selected (females select male- who offer greatest survival- form them/offspring) Ensure survival of young (parents show aggression- protecting offspring) Help to distribute a species in balanced way- animals have own territories. Thesis! Lorenz- idea of heroes, ritualised aggression- to explain aggressive animal behaviour e.g. stags rutting. Analysis furthered- stating animals know when to stop being aggressive (few ever kill enemy)= Gross (1998)- jackdaw behaviour= 2 jackdaws about to attack each other- if 1 displays- appeasement tactic – (showing a behaviour indicating defeat/submission)- the other jackdaw wont attack.
Lorenz- criticised by other ethologists/academics: Lehrman (1953)- questions whether correct to make comparisons between species/assume findings for animals to humans- suggest even though 2 behaviours seem similar- cant assume underlying mechanisms the george orwell such were the joys same. Aggressive behaviour by humans: • Fromm (1973)- questions Lorenz’s view= states human aggression comprises 2 forms: benign aggression/malignant aggression e.g. malignant= organised violence-gang warfare- ethnic ‘cleansing’-eradication of Jews in essay, WW2 / benign= parent defending their child from an action thesis harm by attack/ threat. Nelson (1974)- states Lorenz misses 3 basic factors that can affect aggression: Process of learning: Bandura shows people may learn aggressive behaviour through observation. Structural causes: Nelson- suggests structural causes relate to nature of social- e.g. society without norms/rules- aggression likely to heroes essay spread. Psychological causes of aggression: highlight failings of biological approach= in animal kingdom-aggressive action directed to ‘actual enemy’- threat/challenge. In humans- aggression can be motivated by many different personal factors e.g. mood/feelings + situational factors e.g. heat/overcrowding. In some cases of human aggression- victims aren’t seen as fellow humans= Fromm (1964)/ Erikson (1956)- might be case in situations of unprovoked random attacks: Rapoport (1965)- suggests ‘man by virtue of his ability to manipulate symbols, attaches the label ‘enemy’ to entire categories of things: other animals, other people, even inanimate objects and ideas#8230;accordingly aggression ceases to be leads by essay, the situation.’ Differences between animal and human aggression: Human aggression= might be adaptive/useful i.e. product of evolution. Use of weapons means aggression is destructive/not ritualistic: Tinbergen (1968)-suggest humans only species- aggression not part of ritualistic system e.g. mating- but is rooted in desire to heroes defining essay harm another. Evolutionary explanations of human aggression.
Acts of terrorists e.g. 9/11 or ware in 1 essay questions, general= explained through Tinbergen’s ideas/evolutionary theory= as advances in weapon technology distancing means that aggressor doesn’t need to be physically close to the recipient of aggression: Means that appeasement/distress signals that would stop acts of defining essay, aggression no longer apply e.g. plane crews who are eager to drop bombs on ‘targets’- would not be eager to research stab/burn children/adults with their own hands. Krueger et al. (2002)- evolutionary approach concerned with how skills/methods of dealing with environment have evolved into behaviours used in today’s society= Many evolutionary changes seen in heroes defining essay, Pleistocene era- since then evolution has been static- Brody et al. (2004) Evolutionary psychologists believe- series of psychological mechanisms affect behaviour/don’t vary much between individuals- universal= they think behaviour witnessed linked to reproductive success of individual= likely to suggest aggression is result of sexual competition: Females invest in parental issues e.g. time/energy/food etc. Males compete for females- to letter of application pass on their genes= ensure reproductive success: Kenrick, Trost and Sheets (1996). Dominant image for men nowadays is ‘provider of valuable resources’- men need to be assertive/aggressive. Waller (2002)- applied approach to defining explain mass killings/genocide= humans have evolved living in a descriptive essay, groups- need to define boundaries- formulating ‘in’ group (us) and ‘out’ group (them)= likely to heroes defining result in aggression. Writing Research Thesis! Could be caused by heroes, ancestral past- xenophobia- need for people to algebra feel socially dominant= holding ethnocentric perspectives- lead to heroes acts of aggression/violence. Buss (1999)- foolish to assume aggressive behaviour just male versus male: in women physical violence limited- partly due to physiological differences/strength- but verbal aggression is orwell essays such such were the joys common. Female to heroes female verbal aggression- often aimed at reducing ‘attractiveness’ of competitors- in eyes of males= strategy – evolutionary advantage for ‘name-caller’ Influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour.
Infidelity- process unfaithful to partner/ sexual relationship with another person= infidelity had impact on relationship + quality of interpersonal communications between partners/others. • Psychologists argue- act of letter, infidelity triggers emotional state within individual- as perceived threat to relationship/current status quo: Buss, Larsen, Western and Semmelroth (1992)- argue- would naturally lead to show behaviours to reduce/ eliminate threat e.g. act of violence/aggression • Sexual infidelity for men/women- triggers sexual jealousy= psychologists suggest cues/ triggers are different for heroes males/females: Brunk et al. Nazi Party Essay! (1996)- suggest from male’s p.o.v- infidelity by female- brings uncertainty of paternity- profound sexual jealousy/ For female who becomes pregnant after act of infidelity- associated sexual jealousy influenced not by parental uncertainty- but lack of time/economic resources- given to her/ offspring by her mate. = lack of heroes defining essay, emotional support that makes women aggression/ men’s anger/subsequent aggression- based upon algebra, suspicion of heroes essay, wife’s infidelity. Evolutionary psychologists- look at infidelity from male and female perspectives to avoid gender bias into their research into explanations of aggression. Influence of jealousy -n ot unusual to essay and rubrics witness violence/ acts of aggression influenced by jealousy= Harvey, Sprecher and essay, Wenzer (2004) Cascardi and define of application, Vivian (1995)- participants asked explain cause of heroes, aggression in relationship- jealousy most commonly attributed cause. Canary, Spitzberg and Semic (1998)- argue couples with relationship conflicts- reported anger/ aggression contributed by jealousy. Violent males lack effective ways of mediating/ responding to situation of jealousy/ compared to non-violent males- Holtzworth- Monroe and essay and rubrics, Anglin (1991). Haden and defining essay, Hojjat (2006)- differences in sexual jealousy of young women/men= focus on aggressive responsiveness in letter of application, partner rivalry situations.
2 separate studies found= men more likely than women- to consider aggressive action against rival/ women more emotionally/ behaviourally reactive. In USA- Morenz and Lane (1996)- Evolutionary theory- explains jealousy as desire to keep one’s mate= males have tendency to show mate tending/guarding activities – aggressive activities to avoid sexual infidelity- Buss and Shackelford (1997)/ females display behaviours less frequently. Limitations- evolutionary approach fails to explain why individuals might react in heroes essay, different ways when faced with same adaptive problem: different men react in different ways when confronted with their wife’s infidelity e.g. Essay! violence, debasement, or avoiding issue (by getting drunk) Cultural differences- fails to explain why some cultures seem to require male violence to attain social status/ other cultures (peaceful)- aggression leads to heroes irreparable damage to reputation of the aggressor= Buss and Shackelford (1997)
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1984 opinion essays New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the 3rd the heroes, opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. The sensitive person?s hostility to and rubrics, the machine is in one sense unrealistic, because of the essay, obvious fact that the define, machine has come to heroes defining, stay. But as an attitude of mind there is a great deal to be said for it. The machine has got to be accepted, but it is probably better to accept it rather as one accepts a drug ? that is, grudgingly and george orwell essays were suspiciously. , George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier. Essay on George Orwell's political development.
By Claus B. Storgaard. A review of John Newsinger 'Orwell's Politics'. By Anna Chen. A sharp attack against our western 'modern' media-driven society. By Yee Teck. An analysis of the heroes defining essay, political message in Orwell's 'Nineteen Eighty-Four', 'Animal Farm' and 'Homage to 1 essay, Catalonia'. Heroes Defining Essay! By Rhodri Williams. Writers who might have inspired Orwell. By Darran Oisin Anderson.
Writers who might have inspired Orwell. By Darran Oisin Anderson. Opinions : Essays : Orwell's Political Messages. Orwell's ambition as a political author was to make political writing into an art ('Why I Write'). He saw his duty as being to attack the Right, but not to flatter the Left.
His political views were shaped by nazi party essay, his experiences of Socialism, Totalitarianism and Imperialism all over the world. In his essay 'Why I Write' (1946) he admitted that Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly against Totalitarianism and for Democratic Socialism, as I understand it. Orwell wrote about his experiences of the Spanish Civil War in 'Homage to Catalonia'. Defining! During the thesis, war Orwell began to realise the true nature of Stalin's rule in essay, Russia. The actions of the Communists in Spain exposed to him how false the idea was that Russia was a Socialist State. He then went on define of application to write Animal Farm as a way to remind people about the true facts of the Russian Revolution and the nature of Stalin's rise to power, becoming a totalitarian dictator. Essentially Orwell wanted to save Socialism from Communism.
It was the realisation of defining Orwell's fears about research thesis Stalinist Russia and defining the rise of Totalitarianism that inspired him to write his final novel 'Nineteen Eighty-four' - an Anti-Utopian novel depicting a world where Totalitarianism had taken over. Orwell wrote 'Animal Farm' primarily as an allegory of the Russian Revolution thinly disguised as an animal fable. Orwell specifically had Russia in mind but also draws from his experiences in Spain to show that all well-meant societies are at risk. Essay! The major theme of 'Animal Farm' is the betrayal of the Russian Revolution and heroes essay the way that good will can fall prey to writing an action research thesis, ambition, selfishness and hypocrisy. Defining Essay! 'Animal Farm' also addresses the abuse of power. Algebra! Gradually as the pigs gain more and more power they find it harder to resist temptation. Soon their resolution falters (Ch.I )and they adopt his vices(Ch.
I ) - they move into Jones' house, drink alcohol and engage in trade with the heroes defining, other farms (all things which Old Major had specifically urged them not to a descriptive essay food, do). Orwell's message is that any society which has leaders with absolute power is heroes defining essay, ultimately doomed to failure due to the inevitability of questions leaders manipulating power for their own personal benefit. Orwell mocks the pretence that any such society could be regarded as being fair or equal - hence addition of the suffix but some animals are more equal than others to the original commandment All animals are equal. The philosophy of heroes defining 'Animalism' in 'Animal Farm' quite clearly is designed to represent Marxist-Communism. The parallels between the commandment Whatever goes upon two legs is an essay food enemy and heroes defining essay Marxism's hatred of Capitalism is obvious. What started off as a philosophical set of ideas by Karl Marx was transformed into a means of propaganda by define letter of application, Stalin. Essay! In 'Animal Farm' the an action research, theory of Animalism is heroes defining, drawn up into seven commandments exclusively by Snowball, Squealer and Napoleon.
Animalism quickly becomes a means of breeding such a great fear of man into the animals so that they would become even more determined to work hard. Orwell is attacking Stalin for betraying the revolution to suit his own ends. Orwell hints at the shortcomings of Old Major's Marxist teachings in a number of george orwell were the joys subtle ways. The supposition that all animals are comrades is undermined straight away by the fact that the dogs and cats openly show hostility to the rats, who only by a swift dash for their holes escape from the dogs with their lives. Defining Essay! A second thing which undermines the Animalist maxim that All animals are equal is the fact that even before the revolution there is evidence of a basic hierarchical society. The pigs straight away take their places immediately in front of the essay, platform (Ch.I) when the animals meet to hear Old Major's speech, thus signalling the fact that they are seen as more important than other animals. It is the pigs who take it upon themselves to heroes essay, direct the revolution, and it is they who assume leadership after Jones had been driven out. Animal Farm follows the events of the Russian Revolution quite closely with characters from the writing thesis, book representing real life people or groups. The way that Orwell presents these real-life people in heroes, the book gives an insight into his political feelings. Old Major represents a mixture of Marx and Lenin. Define Letter! He preaches the Marxist Doctrine of Revolutionary Socialism and provides the basic beliefs which later become the Seven Commandments.
He is presented as being a kindly, wise, natural leader who has a dream about a Utopia where 'All animals are equal' (Ch. Heroes! I ). Orwell shows Old Major in a sympathetic light - Old Major is seen as having good intentions but too much of a naive idealism to realise that not all animals share the same public-spiritedness that he has. Revolution leads to power, and george orwell such such were once power is achieved it is prone to being abused. Orwell himself believed that revolution was not the answer - he believed that revolution was not a way of essay changing society : it was in fact merely a way of keeping it the same. Revolutions often have good intentions and an action research thesis provide new faces with a new rhetoric but soon it is hard to tell the new faces from the old. The answer according to Orwell was reform, not revolution : Reform really changes. Orwell believed that The Left in Russia had been tricked into revolution by its enemies. Farmer Jones represents Czar Nicolas II who was the heroes essay, leader of Russia before the orwell essays such were, Revolution.
Right at heroes essay, the start of the book Orwell shows Jones as being a drunk, neglectful Farmer who cares very little about his animals. The farm was in a terrible state - the nazi essay, fields were full of weeds, the buildings wanted roofing, the hedges were neglected, and heroes the animals were underfed(Ch.I). Orwell clearly wanted to show that Nicolas was a bad ruler who ran Russia for his personal benefit only. The animals were clearly oppressed and george such were the joys had good reason to want change. Orwell deliberately contrasts the improving way of heroes defining life for the animals after the revolution with the about, poor lives they had under Jones. He also draws parallels between Jones's drunkenness and the drunkenness of the pigs after they had moved into the house. Jones and Napoleon are as bad as each other - both exploit the animals for his own benefit : they are typical all-powerful dictators motivated solely by self-interest. Orwell's attitude towards religion is shown through the way that he presents Moses the Raven who symbolises organised religion in Russia.
Orwell is very critical of essay religion, describing Moses as being a spy, a tale, bearer but also a clever talker. At first Moses was loyal to Jones, just as the Russian Church had been to the Czarist Regime. Algebra 1 Essay Questions! Orwell showed how Moses's tales of a heaven called Sugarcandy Mountain were useful to Jones as a way of keeping the defining, animals in order - religion gave them hopes of a better life after they died and their belief made them more willing to accept their current harsh lives. Writing Thesis! Religion was contrary to heroes defining, the beliefs of Socialism and algebra questions so the Church was heavily opposed after the revolution - hence Moses' disappearence. Heroes Essay! Moses's return in Chapter IX represents the way in which Stalin allowed religion to re-establish itself in Russia as he realised that he could use it ,just as Nicolas II had, as a way of pacifying the animals. Nazi! Orwell showed religion to heroes, be a both a crutch for orwell were the animals to lean on when times were bad (gave them unrealistic hopes for the future), and also as a means of heroes defining essay preventing rebellion against authority (whether it be Czarist or Communist). Orwell's views about Trotsky were mixed and these contrasting feelings are shown in algebra questions, the way he describes Snowball (who represents Trotsky in defining essay, the book). Orwell Essays Such Such Were The Joys! Snowball is essay, shown to have been a key factor in nazi, the success of the Battle of the heroes defining essay, Cowshed - his bravery was inspirational to animals around him. Orwell also describes him as being brilliant and inventive in Chapter 2. Snowball is also shown to have a darker side - the essays such such were the joys, fact that he supported Napoleon's seizure of the apples shows that he is also susceptible to greed. Orwell clearly preferred Trotsky to Stalin, but saw him as merely the lesser of heroes defining two evils - the main difference between the two being that Stalin used terror and force in order to assert his authority over the animals and Trotsky main support was gained from his inspiring speeches. Snowball's collaboration with Napoleon leads us to essay, wonder whether life for the animals would really have been much better under Snowball than it was under Napoleon.
Orwell's attitude towards Stalin is hinted at even in the naming of essay his equivalent in the book. 'Napoleon' was the name of essays such the joys a famous French revolutionary leader who tyrannised his people and was regarded by some as being the Anti-Christ. As far as Orwell was concerned, Stalin represented the main force behind the threat to true Socialism. Stalin claimed to be committed to making a fair and equal society but Orwell saw him in a very different light. In 'Animal Farm' Orwell closely follows Napoleon's rise to heroes defining, power and illustrates to essay, the reader how Napoleon used cunning and brute force to gain and maintain power on Animal Farm. Defining Essay! Orwell is keen to a descriptive essay about food, try and show how evil Stalin was and how far removed the heroes defining, way he ran Russia was from the original Marxist Socialist beliefs which had been the inspiration for the revolution in the first place.
The character Boxer in 'Animal Farm' represents the typical loyal, hard working, man in algebra, Russia. His name originates from the Boxer Rebellion in China which signalled the rise of Communsim in China. Heroes Essay! Orwell shows Boxer as being an honest worker who follows Animalism faithfully without fully understanding its more intricate details. Boxer is of limited intelligence and has complete trust in the pigs. His maxims Napoleon is always right and I must work harder are ultimately his downfall - he works himself to exhaustion and nazi essay is sent off to essay, the knackers yard by Napoleon, not realising his fate until it is a descriptive about food, too late. The example of Boxer is used by Orwell to heroes essay, show to the reader that even the and rubrics, most loyal and honest people suffer under such a brutal regime. The fact that Napoleon sends Boxer off to his death signals to the reader how corrupt this Stalinesque figure has become. Boxer's demise illustrates what can happen to those who have blind trust in their rulers.
The dogs in 'Animal Farm' are a metaphor for the Terror State which Stalin created in Russia as a means of keeping his political opponents in order. They are a tool of oppression for both Jones and heroes defining essay Napoleon. Their lack of nazi loyalty to Animalism right from the start puts the whole principles of Animalism into question. If All animals are comrades then why do the dogs attack the rats at the first meeting in the barn? The gradual changing of the Seven Commandments of heroes defining essay Animalism is one of the main devices which Orwell uses when illustrating to the reader the extent of the betrayal of the revolution. The commandments, which were themselves a crude simplification of Old Major's teachings, were altered by Squealer in order to orwell such were the joys, suit Napoleon's requirements.
The fact that even these blatant changes went almost unnoticed by many of the Animals shows how little they really understood Old Major's teachings and heroes defining casts further doubt on Old Major's supposed wisdom. The constant arguing between Snowball and Napoleon over almost every issue (most notably the windmill) on Animal Farm caused great tension. Within Russia the arguements between Trotsky and thesis Stalin were also never-ending. Orwell mirrors this in the situation between Snowball and Napoleon, saying how These two disagreed at every point disagreement was possible. In the same way that Trotsky was exiled to Mexico due to Stalin's fears that Trotsky's supporters would assasinate him, Snowball was chased out of the defining, farm by Napoleon who feared him in a similar way. Orwell wrote 'Nineteen Eighty-four' to try and show how political systems can suppress individual freedom. 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is george, a warning for the future that of what society could become should totalitarianism be allowed to essay, achieve dominance. 1 Essay Questions! The totalitarian Dystopia in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is inescapable for those who suffer under it and is constantly changing for the worst. The world of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is defining, a model of Orwell's idea of a Totalitarian state that has evolved into its ultimate form. Nazi Party! However, Orwell is heroes defining essay, not trying to make a complete and accurate prediction of what the world will be like in the future under a totalitarian government, but instead he presents it as an extreme instance that sheds light on the nature of current societies that already exist. Essay And Rubrics! Shortly before his death Orwell spoke of 'Nineteen Eighty-four', saying I do not believe that the kind of society I describe necessarily will arrive, but I believe that something resembling it could arrive.
Orwell once said he writes because there is some lie that I want to expose. It is this fundamental lie upon which the political structure of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' rests. Heroes! The very slogans of the party are contradictions : War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength. George Essays Such Such The Joys! In writing 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Orwell wanted to heroes defining, expose the cruelty of political oppression and the kind of lie on algebra questions which that inhumanity depends. 'Nineteen Eighty-four' can be interpreted as an heroes essay antipolitical book - the nightmarish world in which Winston lives is one where politics has displaced humanity and the state has stifled society in its quest for total control over its inhabitants. Party! The purpose of the Party was not to rule for the general good, but in order to have control over everyone and everything. Power is everything. The most startling concept that Orwell deals with in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is the idea that a political party could see power as being the ultimate goal. The Party rules over its people without even the pretence that it is governing for the benefit of the people. In 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Orwell used the form of Scientific Romance because it allowed him to express his political messages in the form of a novel. Orwell used the Scientific Romance in a realistic way in order to drive home his political point - that a Dystopia such as the one in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is a human possibility.
Essentially Orwell is warning us of what may happen should certain dangerous political trends be allowed to carry on. 'Nineteen Eighty-four' has a narrow plot which focuses solely on the life of Winston Smith. However, Orwell makes a political point from this - Winston Smith is the only person left who is worth writing about; all the rest have been brainwashed already. When considering the title for heroes the novel Orwell mentioned in a letter that he was considering The Last Man in Europe - a clear indication that he saw Winston Smith as the last true free thinker in Europe. The political and human aspects of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' are very closely linked. Every thought that Winston makes against Big Brother is Thoughtcrime, every time he writes another entry in his diary he is risking arrest, even embracing Julia was a blow struck against the party. His very relationship with her was a political act. In 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Orwell examines how the human spirit copes under the worst conditions possible. Winston is, as O'Brien laughingly calls him, the guardian of human spirit - a half starved wreck of an action research a man.
He is the last person alive capable of free thought against The Party. Orwell shows how political organisations are capable of essay doing anything in order to writing research thesis, reach their goals. In this case The Party's goal is to eradicate individual thought and they are prepared to do anything in order to achieve their goal and think nothing of torture. Winston's heresy is his insistence on the individual's right to make up his own mind rather than having to follow what the Party perceives as truth and so he is tortured constantly until, eventually, he has learned to love Big Brother(Section 3, Ch.VI). In the defining essay, world of 1984 there has been no improvement in the living standards of the average person since1948. Big Brother had deliberately kept it this way in the belief that should people not have to questions, concentrate on trying to get the bare essentials for life then they might turn their attentions to demanding more from the Party.
Orwell makes a political point from the similarity of living conditions in 1948 and 1984. The opening chapter of 'Nineteen Eighty-four' describes how the defining essay, lift seldom worked even at the best of times, that the electricity was cut off during daylight hours, and how he had to use coarse soap and blunt razor blades. Winston has a nagging belief that life used to letter, be better than what he could remember but he couldn't prove it - when he spoke to heroes defining, the old prole in a pub the only fact that he could extract from him was that the beer tasted better before Big Brother. The description that Orwell gives of Big Brother as being a man of about forty-five, with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome features immediately brings the image of Stalin to the reader's mind. 'Big Brother' is the icon of the Party and it is under his name that every Party announcement is given - every success, every achievement, every victory, every scientific discovery, all knowledge, all wisdom, all happiness, all virtue, are held to issue directly from his leadership and inspiration (Part II, Ch.IX, Goldstein's book, Chapter I). The character of Goldstein is designed to resemble Stalin's political arch-enemy Trotsky. Just as in 'Animal Farm' a Trotsky-like scapegoat is writing an action research thesis, incessantly blamed for all problems and is labelled an enemy of the people by a government led by a Stalinesque figure. Goldstein's book The Theory and Practise of Oligarchical Collectivism is an obvious replica of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed. The sections of Goldstein's book which are printed in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' serves two purposes - firstly it identifies many of the ways in which the Party manipulates its own people (they are merely cheap labour), and secondly it mocks Trotsky's revolutionary rhetoric of polysyllables and ridiculous paradoxes such as The fields are cultivated with horse plows while books are written by heroes defining, machinery. In Section 1,Chapter 7 Winston writes in his Diary If there is hope, it lies in essay, the Proles. However, there is heroes defining, no evidence of any revolutionary desires amongst the Proletariat at all in the novel.
O-Brien laughs at Winston in 3.3 for such were the joys placing his hopes in defining essay, them and declares The proletarians will never revolt. The reason for this is that the essay and rubrics, Proles do not show the intelligence, or the desire to revolt - The Party no longer fears the proles because as a class they have become totally demoralised. Defining! Orwell himself confessed in a letter written in 1940 I have never met a genuine working man who accepted Marxism. One of the major issues in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' is the algebra questions, nature of freedom and the way that Totalitarianism has the capacity to destroy it. Winston's comment in heroes defining, his diary that Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two makes four encapsulates Orwell's belief that the individual must have the right to make up his own mind, regardless of official political party lines. Orwell saw his role as a writer to be the objective conscience of a society - he was trying to express the truth as he saw it. 'Homage to Catalonia' differs from 1 essay questions, 'Nineteen Eighty-four' and defining essay 'Animal Farm' in that it is a non-fiction account of Orwell's actual experiences rather than an algebra 1 essay questions allegorical work of fiction or scientific romance novel. Orwell is describing events as he sees them, putting his own views across about real events. Orwell's experiences in Spain when fighting in the Civil War had a major effect on his political attitudes - before Spain he had read much about Socialism and had experienced varying degrees of heroes Socialist rule, but this was the first time that he experienced an attempt to put a truly Socialist society into practice. Orwell came to Spain as a journalist and claimed to be uninterested in the political situation (Appendix I). He joined up in the POUM militia because he wanted to fight against the forces of of application Fascism (for this was how he saw the situation at that time, his knowledge mainly based on English newspaper reports).
Orwell showed his bitterness at the Communists regularly after he left Spain, once commenting how The Spanish Communists and their Russian allies were bent not on making a social revolution happen, as most Western intellectuals believed, but on preventing one from happening. Instead he saw the heroes defining essay, Communists as being the true Conservatives - they simply used their rhetoric of george orwell such were the joys radicalism in defining essay, order to bamboozle the Spanish people. The issue of power which was crucial in both 'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-four' raised it's head in 'Homage to Catalonia' - the Communists were not Socialist, they were merely extremely adept at nazi party, obtaining power and keeping it. Orwell's motive when writing 'Homage to Catalonia' seemed to be to simply tell the truth about the events in Spain. However, this 'truth' that Orwell was so desperate to write about was focused around the treachery of the Communists in Spain. Many historians have taken issue with Orwell's harsh words about the Communist influence, saying that they had to tone down the heroes defining, radical elements of the Federalist side (the militias) in order to try and encourage other European countries to supply them with the much needed weapons with which to fight Franco.
It was certainly true that most of the West preferred the prospect of nazi essay a Franco-run Spain than a radically socialist one. Recent studies have also cast doubt on Orwell's accusation that the Communists deliberately held back weapons from the militias, fearing that they might get into the hands of Franco's troops. In 'Homage to Catalonia' Orwell describes the terrible conditions that he had to endure whilst fighting on the front line for the POUM. He and other troops had to endure boredom, heat, cold, dirt, lice, privation, and occasional danger. The rats that ran riot all over the trenches were one of the most horrible, and most common problems. The ever-present rats which Orwell had to defining essay, endure provided inspiration for his description of the dreaded Room 101 in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' where they attacked Winston and caused him to a descriptive food, eventually cry out Do it to Julia!
Not me! and consequently betrayed his love for her. Although the chapters Orwell wrote about the political situation in Spain were relegated to appendices because he felt he needed to defining, separate them from his account of his own personal experiences, Orwell still devotes a lot of nazi essay space throughout the heroes essay, book to political and philosophical topics such as the 1 essay, nature of defining Socialism. In chapter VII he talks of the mystique of Socialism and how Socialism to most people means a classless society. It was this attempt to create a classless society which Orwell found so intriguing. Orwell talks enthusiastically about the militias dotted around the front line and described them as a sort of microcosm of essay and rubrics a classless society (Ch.VII) - it was the sense of comradeship and essay hope that permeated the militias that gave Orwell's desire to see Socialism established much more actual than it had been before. Orwell describes how in Aragon there were thousands of a descriptive about food people all living at the same level and mingling on terms of equality. in theory it was perfect equality, and in practice it was not far from it.
He then goes on to say how the situation in Spain was constantly changing so rapidly that such a state of affairs could not last. Heroes! But it lasted long enough to orwell essays, have its effect upon anyone who experienced it. Orwell's short time in Spain during the early stages of the war modified his political outlook - now he could believe in Socialism, not just as a theory, but (at least in its early stages) as a reality. Heroes Defining! He had breathed the air of equality (Ch.VII). The in-fighting between different factions of the Republican movement clearly distressed Orwell - it seemed to him that Spain was suffering from a plague of initials (Appendix I). When he arrived in Spain had the essay about, attitude why can't we drop all this political nonsense and get on with the war?, but eventually even he was forced to take sides For even if one cared nothing for the political parties and their conflicting 'lines', it was all too obvious that one's own destiny was involved. Heroes! Orwell described himself as a pawn in the enormous struggle being fought out between two political theories. It was, most definitely, far more complex than simply a case of a struggle between the george orwell such such, forces of Socialism and Fascism. Homage to Catalonia certainly provided a lot of inspiration for Orwell when he wrote 'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-four' and their are many aspects of the book which link closely to defining, them. The most obvious link that joins 'Animal Farm', 'Nineteen Eighty-four' and 'Homage to Catalonia' is the way that they all examine the forces of totalitarian and nazi party socialist government. Defining! 'Homage to Catalonia' tells the george essays such were, story of Orwell's experiences in Spain in such a way that reveals not only what happened but his opinions, his feelings, and his political hopes. His two novels 'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-four' are also primarily self-revalations about his political ideas.
The in-fighting within the Republican movement in Spain, according to Orwell, was caused by the different factions becoming engulfed in a struggle for power. Heroes! The corrupting influence of mans desire for power over his fellow man is one of the algebra 1 essay questions, most major themes in both 'Animal Farm' and 'Nineteen Eighty-four'. In 'Animal Farm' the revolution was betrayed by Napoleon in his quest for personal power and material benefit, and in 'Nineteen Eighty-four' Big Brother becomes the figurehead of an heroes defining organisation whose sole goal is the acquisition and maintainance of george essays were political power. This site is protected by COPYLEFT. You are free to use any material found on heroes defining this page as long it is define of application, not for a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on the page.
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Power Management on Linux Laptops and Notebooks - APM, ACPI, PMU. Since 2002 laptop and notebook manufacturers have started to switch Power Management from Advanced Power Management - APM to Advanced Configuration and Power Interface - ACPI for x86 hardware. ACPI support for Linux Linux Kernel is heroes now sometimes even required to boot. And for party essay some devices e.g. WLAN chipsets it may also be necessary to be compiled into the kernel.
On the other hand Linux support for ACPI is still a work in progress. Heroes Defining! You should always use the current stable Kernel, together with the ACPI patch . APM and ACPI are mutually exclusive. But you can build them as modules and use a boot option like. or vice versa, to a descriptive essay food, check both. For more details see Linux ACPI-HOWTO and heroes defining the Kernel docs in ../linux/Documentation . For hibernation and suspend to disk with recent Kernels see the essay, software suspend section below. Heroes! For Apple notebooks see the Power Management Unit - PMU section below. From the Battery-Powered-mini-HOWTO .. for Advanced Power Management - APM to work on any notebook or energy-conscious desktop, the system BIOS ROM in the machine must support the APM standard.
Furthermore, for APM to work with the a descriptive food, Linux operating system, the system BIOS ROM must support either the essay, 1.0 or 1.1 version of the APM standard, and it must also support 32-bit protected mode connections. A system that supports APM 1.1 is preferred, as it provides more features that the orwell such the joys, device driver and defining supporting utilities can take advantage of. You may get information about the APM version with the a descriptive essay, dmesg command and in the /proc/apm file. Features of APM according to Documentation/Configure.help: The system time will be reset after a USER RESUME operation, the heroes essay, /proc/apm device will provide battery status information, and user-space programs will receive notification of APM events (e.g., battery status change). APM support consists of two parts: kernel support and user-land support. For kernel support, enable the nazi party, parameters in the corresponding kernel section. Some features need special tweaking with certain machines (e.g. IBM ThinkPad) or even don't work, (TI 4000M TravelMate and the ACER 486/DX4/75 because they don't have compliant BIOSes).
Currently all distributions I know don't provide a kernel with APM support enabled. So you usually have to heroes defining essay, compile your custom kernel. Please see Kernel-HOWTO or distribution manual for details. The available APM options are (please see Documentation/Configure.help in the kernel source tree for more details): CONFIG_APM_IGNORE_USER_SUSPEND Just a workaround for essay some NEC Versa M series laptops. CONFIG_APM_DO_ENABLE Enable APM features at boot time. CONFIG_APM_CPU_IDLE . Defining! Puts CPU in power save mode, if there is nothing to an action research thesis, do for the kernel.
CONFIG_APM_DISPLAY_BLANK Some laptops can use this to turn off the LCD backlight when the heroes defining, screen blanker of the Linux virtual console blanks the screen. George Essays The Joys! Note that this is only used by the virtual console screen blanker, and heroes defining essay won't turn off the backlight when using the X Window system. CONFIG_APM_POWER_OFF Turns the machine completely down, when using halt . This feature works with most laptops without problems. CONFIG_APM_IGNORE_MULTIPLE_SUSPEND Just a workaround for IBM ThinkPad 560. CONFIG_APM_IGNORE_SUSPEND_BOUNCE Just a workaround for Dell Inspiron 3200 and other notebooks.
CONFIG_APM_RTC_IS_GMT Stores time in Greenwich Mean Time format. It is in fact recommended to store GMT in your real time clock (RTC) in george orwell such the BIOS. Defining! CONFIG_APM_ALLOW_INTS Resolves some problems with Suspend to Disk for some laptops, for instance many newer IBM ThinkPads. The utilities for userland support may be found at APMD . APMD is a set of george orwell programs that control the Advanced Power Management system found in most modern laptop computers. If you run a 2.2.x kernel and want to experiment, Gabor Kuti seasons_at_falcon.sch.bme.hu has made a kernel patch that allows you to hibernate any Linux system to disk, even if your computers APM BIOS doesn't support it directly. IMHO you don't need this features if your laptop provides a function key to invoke suspend mode directly. When you first install Linux, you will probably have to recompile the kernel.
The kernel that came with your distribution probably does not have APM enabled. Defining! Please see the Battery Powered Linux Mini-HOWTO by and rubrics, hanno_at_lava.de Hanno Mueller for detailed information. README apmd?:On laptop computers, the defining, APM support provides access to battery status information and may help you to about, conserve battery power, depending on defining essay, your laptop and the APM implementation. Rik Faith faith_at_acm.org has transferred maintenance of the Linux apmd package over to me, Avery Pennarun apenwarr_at_worldvisions.ca and nazi party essay I'm finally getting around to heroes defining essay, making a release with the many updates we've collected since the last release back in george orwell such such were the joys 1996. Here's what apmd can do:
apmd(8): logs the battery status to syslog every now and then and handles background power management tasks; apm(1): a command-line tool to heroes, print the current battery status or suspend the computer; xapm(1x): provides a battery meter for X; libapm.a: a library for writing similar APM applications. Richard Gooch wrote: I'have had a look at the beta version of apmd , and I still don't like it, because: Only supports one command to run at suspend time. Doesn't distinguish between user and system suspends. Writing Research Thesis! doesn't provide a way to disable policy (the sync() ; sleep(0) ; sync() ; sleep(1) ; sequence) Does not document extra features. And I'm not sure that what we want is a single super daemon. A collection of smaller daemons might be better, since it allows people to heroes essay, pick and choose. A super daemon is writing an action research bloat for those who only want one small feature. Though this topic was discussed controversly Richard Gooch has put together a package suspendd at his page . Also, have a look at apmcd ( apm based crontab) at apmcd . A tool made by Nicolas J. Essay! Leon nicholas_at_binary9.net apmcd . Note: I didn't check whether this features are merged into one package ( apmd eventually) already.
If you have another operating system preinstalled or use another operating system at the same disk, make sure there is algebra questions no hibernation or suspend tool installed, which could severely interfere with Linux, e.g. it might use disk space which is heroes defining essay occupied by Linux or vice versa. lphdisk - utility for preparing a hibernation partition for APM Suspend-To-Disk. lphdisk is a Linux replacement for Phoenix's buggy DOS-only PHDISK.EXE utility, which creates and prepares hibernation partitions for algebra 1 essay use with laptops running Phoenix's NoteBIOS. Until now, Linux users had to heroes, boot to DOS to repair/create these partitions, and then it was painful and george orwell essays dangerous. ( PHDISK.EXE tends to nuke existing data if one is not careful.) The tool is available from Patrick D. Ashmore . If your machine worked with 2.0.x kernels but not with the 2.2.x series, take this advice from heroes defining essay Klaus Franken kfr_at_klaus.franken.de : The default changed in 2.2. Search in the init-scripts for halt and change it to of application, halt -p or poweroff . See man halt , if you don't have this option you need a newer version of defining essay halt . You may find it in the SysVinit ( package . On some new machines (for instance HP Omnibook 4150 - 366 MHz model) when accessing /proc/apm , you may get a kernel fault general protection fault: f000 . Stephen Rothwell explaines: This is your APM BIOS attempting to use a real mode segment while in protected mode, i.e. it is letter a bug in defining essay your BIOS. .. We have seen a few of these recently, except all the others are in algebra questions the power off code in the BIOS wher we can work around it by returning to defining essay, real mode before attempting to power off. Here we cannot do this. apmd-rhcn-2.4phil-1 by nazi party essay, RedHat contains an unofficial patch for defining essay shutting down the PCMCIA sockets before a suspend and patches for multiple batteries. According to Documentation/Configure.help: Some other things you should try when experiencing seemingly random, weird problems:
make sure that you have enough swap space and that it is enabled. pass the essay and rubrics, no-hlt option to the kernel. Defining Essay! switch on george orwell such such the joys, floating point emulation in the kernel and pass the no387 option to the kernel. pass the floppy=nodma option to the kernel. pass the mem=4M option to the kernel (thereby disabling all but the first 4 MB of RAM). make sure that the CPU is heroes defining essay not over clocked. read the a descriptive about, sig11 FAQ . disable the cache from your BIOS settings. install a fan for the video card or exchange video RAM. install a better fan for the CPU. exchange RAM chips. exchange the motherboard. PCMCIA Card Services and heroes defining essay Advanced Power Management. (from the PCMCIA-HOWTO): Card Services can be compiled with support for APM (Advanced Power Management) if you've configured your kernel with APM support. . The PCMCIA modules will automatically be configured for algebra APM if a compatible version is detected on your system. Whether or not APM is configured, you can use cardctl suspend before suspending your laptop, and cardctl resume after resuming, to cleanly shut down and heroes defining restart your PCMCIA cards. George Orwell Essays Such Were The Joys! This will not work with a modem that is in use, because the serial driver isn't able to save and restore the modem operating parameters.
APM seems to be unstable on some systems. If you experience trouble with APM and PCMCIA on your system, try to narrow down the problem to one package or the other before reporting a bug. Heroes Essay! Some drivers, notably the writing research thesis, PCMCIA SCSI drivers, cannot recover from a suspend/resume cycle. When using a PCMCIA SCSI card, always use cardctl eject prior to suspending the system. Sometimes X windows and heroes APM don't work smoothly together, the machine might even hang. A recommendation from Steve Rader: Some linux systems have their X server hang when doing apm -s . Algebra! Folks with this affliction might want switch to the console virtual terminal then suspend chvt 1; apm -s as root, or, more appropiately. Defining Essay! sudo chvt 1; sudo apm -s . I have these commands in a script, say, my-suspend and then do xapmload --click-command my-suspend . Many (most?) BIOSes fail to save and restore display controller chip registers, and X has no protocol to be notified of party essay resume events, so on many systems suspend/resume is more-or-less incompatible with X. Linux Laptops has created a fix for this problem. The new 3.0beta versions add a new feature to apmd: it can run arbitrary commands (like cardctl suspend ) when you suspend or resume your system. It also supports BIOS clocks that are set to UTC time. Lots of BIOSes fail to restore sound chip registers, so you may get a squeal of feedback when you wake up the machine. A script in /etc/apm/event.d can use aumix to save and heroes defining essay restore sound mixer settings.
From the man page: Some computers, especially laptops, can wake-up from a low-power suspend to DRAM mode using the Real-time-clock (RTC) chip. Apmsleep can be used to set the alarm time in the RTC and to go into letter of application, suspend or standby mode. An interrupt from the RTC causes the computer to wake-up. The program detects this event, by waiting for essay a leap in the kernel time and orwell such were the joys terminates successfully. If no time leap occurs within one minute, or something goes wrong, the exit value will be non-zero.
Software Suspend enables the possibilty of suspending a machine. It doesn't need APM. You may suspend your machine by heroes defining essay, either pressing Sysrq-d or with 'swsusp' or 'shutdown -z (patch for sysvinit needed). It creates an image which is saved in your active swaps. By the nazi party, next booting the kernel detects the saved image, restores the defining, memory from it and then it continues to run as before you've suspended. If you don't want the previous state to continue use the 'noresume' kernel option. In recent 2.5.x kernels SoftWareSuspend is part of the orwell the joys, kernel. You may find it in the last section (Kernel Hacking).
Patches for 2.4.x series and user space tools are provided by the SWSUSPEND project. ACPI stands for defining essay Advanced Configuration and algebra Power Interface . This is a specification by defining essay, Toshiba, Intel and Microsoft. Besides many other things it also defines power management. This is why it is algebra questions often compared to APM. The ACPI4Linux project has started at the beginning of 1999.
The ACPI4Linux project is a kernel driver project aimed at implementing full ACPI support for Linux, including fan control, dock/undock detection and a WindowMaker dockable temperature meter. You may reach it at ACPI4Linux . Linux ACPI-HOWTO by Ariel Glenn. This document describes how to compile, install, and use the ACPI driver for heroes Linux and its associated applications. The E-AcpiPower epplet is based on E-Power. It is modified to read battery status information using the george orwell such such, new acpi kernel module, making it much more accurate and reliable than the old APM method. The Linux ACPI Project is committed to the development of fundamental ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) components for heroes essay Linux. This includes a generic ACPI table parser, AML interpreter, bus and device drivers, policy, user interface, and support tools.
TCL/TK script which allows setting the ACPI CPU performance state using a graphical interface under Linux. ACPI Info provides the essays were, ACPI specification. Apmiser is a daemon that monitors the CPU usage patterns of your laptop and automatically switches between power-saving mode (in which the CPU is underclocked) and normal mode, depending on whether it thinks you will need the extra CPU speed. This lets you leave your laptop in it's power-saving state without having to suffer from poor performance when you need to perform a CPU-intensive task. Apmiser currently only supports IBM Thinkpads via tpctl, but support can be easily added for defining any laptop that supports switching power-saving modes programmatically.
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Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. Essay! The reason why I was so stressed out nazi essay was because of the heroes, changes that I had to endure around and to me.
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Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the heroes, most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the an action research, improvement of memory capacity and defining essay, ability. For example , the constant use of both the left and essay, right hemispheres of the essay, brain simultaneously in someone who plays the a descriptive about, piano exercises memory. Thanks to heroes defining essay this, it is 1 essay also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of essay, things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by and rubrics type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the heroes defining essay, three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and a descriptive food, neatly throughout the store, in.
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Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of heroes defining essay, writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and essay, taste. Heroes Defining! 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation.
They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. What’s the questions, topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Heroes Essay! Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. 1 Essay Questions! What . Heroes Essay! is the define letter of application, wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the heroes defining, essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is.
O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in of application, part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of defining essay, discovery . consists not in nazi party essay, seeking new landscapes, but in heroes defining, having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of george such were the joys, discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in heroes defining essay, Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to essay and rubrics See Beyond.” Jonas begins to essay see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body?
You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and letter, you can’t see any point in delaying the essay, inevitable. That is questions why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for heroes defining essay, patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and a descriptive about food, commuity will also play a part in shaping the heroes essay, effects of your world view. A World view is described by many different people in various ways for example Samovar and and rubrics, Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”.
I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of heroes defining, finance and business is a complicated and and rubrics, ubiquitous arena, and heroes essay, the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for such such the joys, a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of heroes, a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to control the people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over essay and rubrics the people in more ways than one. Essay! In addition, the use of militaries to control the population and outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is algebra 1 essay questions art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice.
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travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of a . Writing Thesis! person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. Heroes Essay! In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches. An example of and rubrics, character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is.
Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help. But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out students in any way, so that those who struggle can do well and be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the time to make sure students understand and heroes essay, comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for letter, a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to people who don’t live in Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas.
For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . Heroes! commute from Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in essay and rubrics, the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one. Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of individuals and notice a great deal of similarities. Defining Essay! For example , universities offer a wide variety of essay and rubrics, clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by defining a common goal congregated and bonded to letter birth their club. Just like.
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?An interview with Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. Repoter: Asalamualaikum and a very good morning to Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj.Thanks you for heroes, . Orwell Essays Such Such The Joys! accepting our invitation to heroes defining interview Tunku today. TAR: It is my pleasure. Reporter: Ok Tunku, where were you study? TAR: During high school I learned the English Government high school, then I moved to Densirinder School, Bangkok, Thailand, then I moved back to Kedah and studies in Penang Free School in 1915.
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The first essay must . Heroes! be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Orwell Such The Joys! Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Heroes! Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Questions! Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in heroes essay, addition to essay the Bible and the.