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book reports the Why do book reports strike terror in new year india, the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. How To A Thesis Paper. A book report challenges students to new year essay think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror!
How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the and contrasting book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. New Year. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself.
Use a Book Report Outline. Case Study Outline Business. After reading the book, you are ready to happy new year essay india start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the cover proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and india publishing. In the geography first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas.
Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Happy Essay India. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for first of view book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline.
Most book reports begin with the happy new year basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and how to critique paper publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). New Year Essay India. The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to case study business state why you chose to read it. In the happy body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the an oxymoron book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book.
Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and happy india plot. Case Outline Business. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the new year essay india book. Study Outline. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the new year essay major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the case study business story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events.
You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. Essay. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to person research a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in essay india, an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the new year essay india important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book.
What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of case study outline business fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the happy new year essay india book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to a thesis paper others.
Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by india reading your book report aloud or to outline a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and happy new year writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better.
Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. Ethics. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to essay take a point of view when writing a book report. Essay. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by new year Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills.
When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. A Brief History of CPTED. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) [pronounced sep-ted] is the happy essay india, proper design and effective use of the built environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life. 1 This definition by C. Ray Jeffrey reflects the expanded, current, more holistic perspective of CPTED, 2 encompassing (1) the criminal offender perspective regarding an environment and the risk of getting caught when committing a crime and an oxymoron essay (2) the india, social dynamics, sense of ownership of the cover, environment, and their associated protective actions by persons who work, live, or traverse the environment en route to another destination. This definition and the associated principles of environmental design have been established over decades of research by Wood, Jacobs, Angel, Jeffrey, Newman, Saville and Cleveland. 3 The work of new year essay, these professionals has resulted in the identification and first person point of view definitions of concepts which have proven to reduce crime, through deterrence because prevention is not possible, where implemented and new year improve the quality of life for embo letter individuals who inhabit those environments. For example, Oscar Newman's research for the U. S. Department of new year essay, Housing and Urban Development in the late 1960s included a 2, 740-unit public housing high rise development, Pruitt-Igoe, which never achieved more than 60% occupancy and was torn down about 10 years after its construction at a loss of $300 million, because it had rampant crime.
Across the comparing, street, an older, smaller row-house complex, Carr Square Village, occupied by an identical population, was fully occupied and free of crime during and new year essay after the construction, occupancy, and demolition of Pruitt-Igoe. Critique Paper. Newman's research regarding multiple communities, including Pruitt-Igoe, into what caused these differences in crime resulted in a new, but related, term of defensible space. 4 This concept of ownership as a deterrent to crime has been accepted by happy new year india, professionals in the field and incorporated into the current widely accepted CPTED definition by case outline business, Jeffrey and happy new year india the associated CPTED principles. Six concepts are cited in various references that support the design, construction, and utilization processes of an environment to effectively implement CPTED. Two of those concepts have been incorporated into the three CPTED principles noted below. Natural Access Control: Design features that clearly indicate public routes and discourage access to private structural elements.
These features decrease an opportunity for crime by creating in an offender a perception of first person point, unacceptable risk when attempting access to private areas, which marks the stranger as a possible intruder. Such design features include placement of entrances and happy exits, fencing, and landscaping to control traffic flow. Natural Surveillance: Design features that increase the visibility of a property. These features maximize the business ethics, ability of persons in the area to see persons in happy new year essay, the vicinity and avoid trouble and allow external activities to be seen from adjacent building structures by persons who could call for help. Such design features include landscaping, lighting, window and stairway placement, and building entrance and garage layouts. Territorial Reinforcement: Design features that clearly indicate public and private structural elements of a property. An individual will develop a sense of thematic essay outline, territoriality for a space with frequent activities in an area, a sense of ownership. With this feeling of ownership the individual will want to defend his environment.
This ownership does not necessarily mean legal ownership; it maybe a perceived ownership, such as the new year essay india, sense of ownership that employees feel for the office in which they work. Thematic Essay Geography. 5 The sense of territory and ownership by an individual is reinforced through regularly scheduled activities, inspections, and maintenance. Earlier concepts that have been incorporated into the three major principles are: Maintenance: 6 Characteristics of an happy india environment that express ownership of the property. Deterioration of a property indicates less ownership involvement which can result in more vandalism, also known as the essay, Broken Window Theory. 7 If a window is happy essay india broken and remains unfixed for a length of time, vandals will break more windows. Crime is more prevalent in a thesis paper, areas that are not maintained; as a result law-abiding persons do not feel safe and do not want to frequent those areas. Milieu: This feature is generally associated with environmental land use and reflects adjoining land uses and the ways in which a site can be protected by specific design styles. 8 For example, a diverse housing mix is more likely to have people present at all times of the day, and bedroom communities are more likely to be vacant during various times of the day. Since criminals know their neighborhoods and potential targets of crime, they are more likely to strike at times when they will not be discovered, and possibly apprehended.
Another concept that can be implemented, as required, in addition to the three other CPTED principles is Target Hardening: 9 The use of mechanical devices (locks, security systems, alarms, and monitoring equipment) and organized crime prevention strategies (security patrols, law enforcement) make an area harder to access but may have a tendency to make the happy essay india, inhabitants feel unsafe. This technique is the opposite of natural which reflects crime prevention as a by-product from normal and routine use of an environment. 10 Target hardening often happens after crime has been committed. The integration of similar, but customer service oriented CTPED strategies in the initial environmental design may be as effective, but less threatening. Examples of CPTED Success. CPTED is a multi-disciplinary approach to the reduction of essay outline, crime and the associated enhancement of the essay, perception of personal safety by inhabitants of an environment.
Because of their direct concern for these objectives, law enforcement agencies around the world have embraced these concepts and worked diligently within their communities and the local community resources to implement these principles in ways that are appropriate for poems their environments. Some cities, such as Federal Way, WA, have incorporated the CPTED design principles into their city code requirements for project design. Others utilize the concepts to happy new year essay guide businesses and homeowners to assess their environment and its characteristics to reduce opportunities for crime. 11 In Bridgeport, Connecticut, the cover letter, Phoenix Project resulted in happy new year essay india, a 75% decline in how to critique paper, crime, the lowest since 1972, by controlling street drug trafficking with the happy new year essay, used of CPTED plans that included traffic control devices with one-way street design, increased tactical law enforcement, and mobilization of area businesses and residents. In Knoxville, Tennessee, police, traffic engineers, public works officials, and first point of view residents participated in CPTED training and its implementation to happy new year essay india address drug trafficking and excessive vehicle traffic in residential areas. This effort required street redesign, revised park schedules, and volunteer-led security survey teams. Vehicle cut-through traffic was reduced by case study business, 90% and there is no more drive-through drug trafficking. In Sarasota, Florida, a successful plan to reduce crime in happy new year essay india, one neighborhood has resulted in the integration of CPTED principles into a thesis the local planning process for all development and new year essay redevelopment in that city. Essay. In Cincinnati, Ohio, a CPTED partnership plan with the housing authority management, residents, and police officials has resulted in a 12 to 13% decline in crime in the first three successive years after the happy new year india, plan was implemented.
12. Participants in CPTED Implementation. There are four general groups that use the CPTED concepts, environmental designers (e.g., architects, landscape architects), land managers (e.g., park managers), community action groups (e.g., neighborhood watch groups), and law enforcement groups (e.g., park rangers, metropolitan police.) No group alone can successfully implement these principles because each has a unique perspective and knowledge base. The combination of that knowledge into embo a unified approach is necessary for the creation of an environment that deters crime and creates an environment where persons want to live, work, and shop in india, and feel ownership so that they will do their part to ensure its protection. 13 These groups must work with the city planners, commissioners, traffic engineers, and construction managers who must review the essay poems, designs and implement the planned construction-hopefully in essay india, a manner that effectively implements the desired CPTED principles. There are definite benefits to the utilization of CPTED principles in a community for municipal leadership (ML), local law enforcement (LLE) and community residents (CR). Some of those listed in outline business, the Design Safer Communities Handbook are listed below: Improved perception of safety and livability in public areas and neighborhoods (ML) More revenue from safer and new year busier business districts (ML) Increased use of public parks and outline business recreation facilities by residents (ML) Increased opportunities to develop crime prevention partnerships with residents (LLE) Identification of potential crime problems in the community before they become serious (LLE) Recognition that crime prevention is happy essay everyone's responsibility (LLE) Improved sense of security and quality of life through reduced fear of crime (CR) Increased interaction among residents and stronger neighborhood bonds (CR) New crime prevention and problem-solving skills (CR) Enhanced knowledge of city government agencies and thematic essay other resource (CR) 14.
The implementation of CPTED principles can help support community crime prevention goals. The implementation of the principles, when considered early in the design process for a community, does not increase the costs to residents or business owners. The decision process for the review and acceptance of a project will generally not be lengthened. If CPTED principles conflict with local building and fire codes, then a trained CPTED professional should be consulted to identify suitable alternatives. In some circumstances, the happy essay, community design groups have worked to modify the local codes for comparing and contrasting poems future projects, to incorporate the CPTED principles and further enhance the safety and use of environments in that community. CPTED Design and Planning Process. Depending on happy new year india the scale of the first, development there are multiple stages of review and construction that take place. The following is a generic process that reflects key considerations in site design and instruction, and examples of CPTED concerns that should be addressed during each phase.
Pre-Application Meeting: Some communities require a pre-application meeting to discuss and review the expected land use before the design process begins. Discussions on the location, siting, and design of new or remodeled facilities can reduce the costs of retrofitting a design to address the desired CPTED principles. CPTED concerns are: Once the design has been established, changes may be limited to those required by law or policy-no matter how useful (from a CPTED viewpoint) they may be. Therefore, CPTED input before the plan is happy new year reviewed can save the owner a significant amount of money and time. Such a review is not a standard practice in thematic geography, municipal and corporate developments. Design Schematic Design: This level of the design presents a list of the requirements regarding the intended uses of the property. This document includes the essay india, general site organization, including the building location, parking location, site entrances and exits, and building entrances and exits. CPTED concerns are: How will the development affect the existing neighborhood and how will the neighborhood affect the security of the letter, development? These relationships will affect later decisions regarding access control measures, surveillance opportunities from various locations on and adjacent to the site, design details, and policies regarding use. Design Development: This level of design lists the size and shape of buildings, parking, and other site features.
Building structural features defined at this time include plumbing, lighting, and communications systems; and door and window types and locations. CPTED concerns are: What are the design influences with regard to opportunities for crime, particularly the location of public and private activities, automobile and pedestrian routes, and the use of happy india, landscaping to paper provide places of concealment or reduce surveillance opportunities. Other features that have to happy new year be considered are the placement of business essay, fences, walls, dumpsters, signs and graphics, and lighting. Plan Submission and new year india Plan Review. Plan Review: Local agencies' reviews of plans are limited to those items required by ordinance or local policy.
Persons in thematic, the review process will review different components of the proposal; e.g., the traffic engineer will focus on access and circulation. CPTED concerns are: Crime prevention and security issues are left to the law enforcement representative or CPTED reviewer-a review which is generally the exception than the happy new year india, rule-and such comments, if there is business ethics essay a review, may be viewed as optional. Planning Commission Review and Approval: This step may be required only for essay india large projects. If there is a review it does provide an opportunity for public input on issues of and contrasting, crime and safety. Construction documents include the construction drawings and a manual of materials and product specifications. These documents are used to solicit bids for happy new year construction services and building materials and products, and to guide the site and building construction and installation of related materials.
CPTED concerns are: This documentation is often overlooked as a source of information that is beneficial is assessing the ethics an oxymoron essay, ability of a site and its buildings to reduce crime. New Year Essay. The specifications manual can be useful in identifying problems that could result from the use of certain materials with regard to life expectancy and required maintenance. Breaking and entering, vandalism, and graffiti increase the life costs of thematic essay, such materials by the cost to replace the essay india, materials or to repair the damage done to the site in a timely manner-in order to implement the CPTED maintenance principle. Bidding and Negotiation During Bidding and Negotiation the contractors may request material or product substitutions to reduce cost. Contractors may not understand that the substitutions are not equivalent and may negatively impact the CPTED principles that should be addressed. CPTED concerns are: The substitutions can appear to study outline business be beneficial to the client but significantly reduce the ability of the resulting environment to reduce crime.
Examples of CPTED desirable materials are graffiti resistant materials on walls and other surfaces, the use of constant (rather than average) lighting standards for pedestrians in designated areas, and the use of landscaping materials that only grow to a certain height or can easily be maintained for ease of surveillance by persons in the area. Observation of the construction activities throughout the construction process is vital to the success of the design to happy ensure that the thematic essay outline, design is true to the plan and the specified materials are used in the construction process. CPTED concerns are: The unauthorized substitutions in essay, materials that may be contrary to the CPTED principle to be implemented in the design. Site Use-After Construction. The way that the property will be used when it is completed is as vital to the prevention of crime as its design, including the hours of activity and scheduling, assignment of space, property maintenance, and disciplinary code for violators. CPTED concerns are: The implementation of CPTED principles by property owners, managers, and residents is necessary to the deterrence of crime and the sense of safety for the residents. CPTED Guidelines for Various Environments. The Department of Community Development Services in Federal Way, WA has created a CPTED Checklist to thematic essay outline assist the designer of a proposed project in implementing the CPTED principles that are identified in the Federal Way City Code (FWCC) Section 22-1630. The checklist states the functional area performance standards by topic area, indicating whether the standard is applicable during the Site Plan Review or during the Building Permit Review; possible strategies for implementation of happy, that principle-including a write-in section; and provides a column for the results of the agency analysis, including whether the design conforms, requires revision, or is thematic essay not applicable. The topic areas for natural surveillance include: blind corners, site and building layout for non-single family development, commercial/retail/industrial and community facilities, surface parking and parking structures, common/open space areas, entrances, fencing, landscaping, exterior lighting, mix of uses, and security bars/shutters/doors.
The topic areas for access control include building identification, entrances, landscaping, landscaping location, security, and signage. The topic areas for ownership are maintenance and materials. Happy Essay. 15. The Crime Prevention Unit of the Fairfield Police Department in Fairfield, CA has created a brochure to briefly explain the CPTED principles and a short sample surveys to allow businesses to assess the status of their environment with regard to the CPTED principles. The topics covered include access control, maintenance, natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. This allows the reader to become familiar with the concepts, assess his surroundings, and identify areas for improvement.
16. The Crime Prevention Unit of the Prince William County Police Department has created an extensive guide for implementing the CPTED principles, associated strategies, and pictures that illustrate the protection strategies being presented. The topics presented include the CPTED principles; CPTED techniques for single family homes, neighborhoods, multi-family homes (single buildings and complexes), institutions, commercial drive-throughs, commercial storefronts, shopping malls, office buildings, industries, parking garages/structures, and parks/trails/open spaces, target hardening tips and techniques, landscaping and lighting, and watch programs. 17. Sample CTPED Guidelines. The actual implementation of CPTED principles is dependent on the design of the physical space in essay, relation to the normal and essay expected use the space and paper the predictable behavior of the bona fide users and offenders. Therefore, the implementation of some CPTED principles without consideration for the space and its use may not result in the desired results. Use the examples noted below cautiously and within the new year essay, perspective of a unified, professional design. Embo Letter. When considering the design of an area, the present and new year essay india future uses need to be considered. Natural Surveillance Fully illuminate all doorways that open to the outside.
The front door to essay geography the building should be at least partially visible from the street. Install windows on all sides of the building to provide full visibility of the property. Construct elevators and stairwells to be open and well-lighted, not enclosed behind solid walls. Provide appropriate illumination to doorways that open to the outside and sidewalks. Select and install appropriate landscaping that will allow unobstructed views of vulnerable doors and windows from the street and other properties. Avoid landscaping that might create blind spots. Use security-focused, rather than aesthetically pleasing, lighting that enables pedestrians to see clearly and to identify potential threats at happy essay india night. For example, high or low pressure sodium vapor lights can provide evenly distributed lighting that reduces patches of darkness at the ground level and enables the thematic, human eye to pick up details, with reduced energy consumption. Happy. 18 Make parking areas visible from windows and doors.
Ensure signs in the front windows of businesses and commercial storefronts do not cover the windows or block necessary views of the exterior space. Thematic Essay Geography. Position restrooms in office buildings to happy new year essay india be visible from nearby offices. Keep dumpsters visible and avoid creating blind spots or hiding places, or place them in person research paper, secured corrals or garages. Natural Access Control Use signs to direct visitors or patrons to building entrances and parking. In a business or institution, require visitors to pass through a checkpoint attended by those in authority; e.g., receptionist, guard. Locate check-out counters at the front of the store, clearly visible from the outside. Provide clearly marked transitional zones that indicate movement from public to semipublic to private spaces. Install paving treatments, plantings, and architectural design features, such as columned gateways, to direct visitors to the proper entrance and away from private areas. Design streets to discourage cut-through or high-speed traffic. Install walkways in locations safe for pedestrians, and keep them unobstructed.
Keep balcony railings and patio enclosures less than 42 inches high and avoid using opaque materials. Block off dead-end spaces with fences or gates. Essay. Prevent easy access to the roof or fire escape from the ground. Territorial Reinforcement Use front stoops or porches in homes to create a transitional area between the business an oxymoron essay, street and india the home. Define property lines and private areas with plantings, pavement treatments, or partially see-through fences. Make private areas distinguishable from public areas. Use signage to identify and case outline define areas.
Separate employee parking from visitor parking and happy india shipping and receiving areas. Maintenance Keep trees and shrubs trimmed back from windows, doors and outline walkways. Keep shrubs trimmed to 3 feet and prune lower branches of trees up to 7 feet to maintain clear visibility. Use exterior lighting at night and keep it in working order. Enforce deed restrictions and new year essay covenants, in addition to all county codes.
Disregard of these issues make a site appear uncared for and less secure. First. Maintain signs and fencing and remove graffiti promptly. Maintain parking areas to high standards without potholes or trash. Milieu/Management Interaction between neighbors is vital to the awareness of persons and happy activities in the area. Management may need to create opportunities for first point research paper neighbors to get to know one another. If security systems are utilized, ensure all employees and other authorized persons are familiar with the happy new year india, security system to avoid false alarms. Case Study Outline Business. Set operating hours to coincide with those of new year essay, neighboring businesses.
Avoid shifts and situations where only one employee is present. Fully illuminate interior spaces. Business associations should work together to promote shopper and business safety and the appearance of safety. Resources to Help in CPTED Implementation. Case Studies in Designing Safer Communities Handbook. Person Point Of View Paper. Several of the case studies noted in the handbook are highlighted in the Examples of Success section of this chapter. The nine case studies provide a description of the problem, the process for india determining a CPTED solution to the problem, associated city actions to resolve the problem, lessons learned, and a point of contact to discuss the essay poems, case study activities.
The diversity of examples provides the reader with a good introduction to the CPTED problem-solving process. CPTED Surveys for Site Assessment in Designing Safer Communities Handbook. The handbook provides several surveys in the appendices to new year essay conduct assessments of the area being studied for solutions to geography the criminal activities in the area. Happy. These surveys guide the analysis and enable the CPTED planning team to assess the extent and types of a thesis, crimes in happy india, the area under consideration in order to determine an critique a thesis appropriate solution. The surveys can be modified to happy essay india address the area under consideration, but they serve as an example of ways to obtain the first person paper, necessary information to design an happy essay appropriate solution to outline crime in happy essay india, an area or crime deterrence in a new residential development or business environment. There is a Neighborhood Inventory that supports documentation of the number and types of crimes in an oxymoron, the area and the percentage change over the past 5 years, the present and essay future land use for various types of essay poems, dwellings in the neighborhood, the change number of dwelling and new year india commercial types, the conditions of the neighborhood, and the ages of the persons residing in the neighborhood. There is a Neighborhood Survey that can be used to document individual residents' perspectives on thematic essay outline the quality of life in the neighborhood, level of problem for happy new year various activities in outline geography, the neighborhood; e.g., crime, schools, drug trafficking, homelessness, noise, traffic, trash, abandoned buildings, graffiti, and unsupervised kids. Respondents are also asked about the type of happy essay india, community groups in which the respondent is active, the frequency with which neighbors get together for social events, respondent as a victim of crime, areas where the respondent does not feel safe, and general education/residence/income characteristics of the respondent. In closing the respondents are asked if they have any resources/skills that they would like to contribute to the neighborhood.
Resources in Designing Safer Communities Handbook. The Organizational Resources listing the appendix provides contact information for organizations that are active in areas related to crime including state criminal justice agencies, crime prevention associations, area colleges and universities, local law enforcement agencies, and case study business local municipal planning commissions. The CPTED Researchers and Other Experts listing in the appendix are involved in india, research, training, or technical assistance related to crime prevention through environmental design. The table in the appendix provides the contact information for the individuals noted and their areas of expertise. Please note that the information is provided for informational purposes and does not constitute an endorsement by the National Crime Prevention Council. CPTED Basic, Advanced, and School training is provided at ethics various times throughout the year in different locations and listings of available training are noted on happy india the National Institute of Crime Prevention web site at www. nicp.net. The courses are geared for law enforcement officers, city planners, urban planners, city managers, city council members, architects, security consultants, and educators. The course fees and hotel room costs, as shown on the web site, are quite reasonable. Basic CPTED Training includes the following topics: Understanding CPTED Strategies and Concepts; Lighting and first point of view research paper CPTED; Understanding Site Plans; Planning, Zoning, and CPTED; Report Writing; Barriers-Symbolic and new year essay india Actual; Human Behavior and point research CPTED; Landscaping and CPTED; and Actual Site Plan Reviews. Advanced CPTED Training includes the following topics: The Effect of Color and Lighting on Human Behavior; Codes, Ordinances, and CPTED; Writing a CPTED Ordinance; Traffic Calming and CPTED; Schools and happy new year essay india CPTED; Public Art and CPTED; Terrorism and CPTED; Parks and CPTED; and Community Planning Review. School CPTED Training includes the topics listed above but also includes interior design factors with regard to public areas, special purpose rooms, lockers, and restrooms.
Success: A Blend of Factors. The intent of person research, CPTED is to discourage crime, while at the same time encouraging legitimate use of an environment. The security program [for the building or area] is integrated into the environment, not just added on. Although the concept originated as a result of research to reduce crime in public housing projects, it has applicability to single family homes, neighborhoods, apartment complexes, public buildings, schools, parks, and recreation areas. 19. The use of essay india, CPTED principles in first of view research, the planning and design of buildings, office and essay shopping complexes, and neighborhoods can reduce the creation of problem areas in which the first of view research paper, criminal element feels less risks of happy new year, discovery and possible apprehension. With an atmosphere of safety, persons are more likely to frequent businesses and shops. With repeated presence in an area, an individual's sense of embo, territorial ownership increases-that individual is more likely to want to protect that area. With increased ownership the individual's awareness of what is happening and the desire to alert the authorities to the problem increases, and this behavior is vital to the prevention of crime in that area. But an environment with CPTED design principles does not guarantee an new year essay absence of crime and vandalism. To be effective and truly implement the CPTED principles, the ethics an oxymoron, design (industrial) factors must be blended with the new year india, social (human) factors of the environment.
This blend requires the involvement of trained and dedicated individuals--a mix of government, neighborhood, and business representatives--from its design through it use, individuals from very diverse disciplines coming together to design an environment for people to experience life without fear, and improving the quality of life for all individuals-where they live, where they work, and where they play or relax, now and in the future. 1. Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, D.C., pg. 7. 2. Greg Saville and Gerry Cleveland, 2nd Generation CPTED: An Antidote to the Social Y2K Virus of Urban Design, 13 March 2008. 3. Essay Comparing Poems. Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC. 4. Oscar Newman, Creating Defensible Space,, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, 1972. Happy India. www.humanics-es.com/defensible-space.pdf. 5. Robert Gardner, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.www.crimewise.com/library/cpted.html. 8. Greg Saville and Gerry Cleveland, 2nd Generation CPTED: An Antidote to embo cover letter the Social Y2K Virus of Urban Design, 13 March 2008. 9. Robert Otterstatter, CPTED Watch, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC. www.cpted-watch-com. 10.
City of Mesa Police Department, Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, CPTED Brochure. Happy New Year. www.cityofmesa.org/police/literature/pdf/CPTED_long.pdf. 11. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Checklist Instructions, Bulletin #021, August 18, 2004 and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Checklist, Bulletin #022, August 18, 2004, Department of Community Development Services, Federal Way, WA. 12. Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC, pp 2-3. 14. Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook, National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC, pg 4. 15. City of Mesa Police Department, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, CPTED Brochure. www.cityofmesa.org/police/literature/pdf/CPTED_long.pdf.
16. Fairfield Police Department, Business CPTED Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, Fairfield, CA. www.ci.fairfield.ca.us/files/BusCPTED.pdf. 17. Prince William County Police Department, CPTED Strategies, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, A Guide to Safe Environments in Prince William County, Virginia, Crime Prevention Unit, Woodbridge, VA. www.pwcgov.org/doclibrary/PDF/002035.pdf. 18. James Madison University, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Standards, Safety Plan Excerpt. www.jmu.edu/safetyplan/lighting/cptedstandards.htm. 19. Robert Gardner, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Study. www.crimewise.com/library/cpted.html. Mollie E. Krehnke, CISSP, CHS-II, IAM, is a senior information security consultant in Raleigh, North Carolina. She and her husband, David Krehnke, are members of the inventor team for the Workstation Lock and happy new year india Alar System).
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This guide will show you how to use these techniques properly. Punctuating Titles Cn Punctuating Titles : When to Use Italics, Underlining, and Quotation Marks. It#039;s easy Title of an Epic Poem or Book -Length Poem. Ex: The 3) Title of an happy india, Essay . Title of research, a Ex: Modern Writers and Their Readers. 4) Title In past editions of MLA , underlining a title and italicizing it were considered synonymous. That is How to new year india, Format the Title in MLA 8 EasyBib Blog When citing book titles using the MLA 8 format, always enter the full title , in how to a thesis italics, Weiland, K.M. Structuring Your Novel : Essential Keys for Writing an work, such as an essay , chapter, short story , or poem, place the title in quotation marks, Tips on new year Writing an Essay MLA Style English Grammar Rules Usage The MLA essay format meets the standard layout guidelines as set forth by the name, title of the business, book , publication date, publisher and place of india, publication. essay Referencing a Play in an MLA paper Writers Stack Exchange 10 Oct 2011 Also, most of the critique, names of works in india the works cited section are italicized, articles and If it comes in only one part (short story , article , etc.) When writing a paper in MLA format, there are a few simple rules you should Italics or quotation marks should be used when indicating the and contrasting, title of happy new year essay, another work MLA Format Papers : Step-by-step Instructions for ethics an oxymoron essay, Writing Research MLA Format Papers : Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays .. When using MLA format, do you list the book title , the title of the new year, article or both? MLA FAQs MLA Format Lesley University Library at Lesley 11 Aug 2017 With that in essay mind, you can use MLA guidelines to happy new year essay india, format a citation What if an article title includes a book or other title that should be italicized? Should Book Titles Be Underlined?
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Academic degree , College , Debt 1639 Words | 6 Pages. Stereotypical of Bruneian teenagers. Assignment (Major Essay ) Comments : Mark : Universiti Brunei Darussalam More often than not, particularly, teenagers come . to our attention as a result of their association with issues. Technology advancement in modern world is the most vital factor that may have largely influence today’s teenagers . Specifically in Brunei, our teenagers seem to waste their times in idle activities and only focus to outshine in happy essay social circle. This essay will discuss some of our Bruneian teenagers ' contemporary social. Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei , Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka 1130 Words | 5 Pages. NGARUIYA4 Mary Ngaruiya John Zamparelli English comp Problem solution essay Final Draft. GANG VIOLENCE IN AMERICAN . SCHOOLS There are approximately 27,900 gangs, with 774,000 members, impacting towns, cities, and point of view paper communities across the United States.
According to a recent bulletin released by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 23 percent of happy india, students aged 12 through 18 years reported presence of street gangs in their schools. Embo Cover? Almost half (46%) of happy new year india, students in public. Bloods , Crime , Criminology 1636 Words | 5 Pages. Financial Management (Agency problem ) Prepared by: Sami Hassan Saeed Singabi August 2008 Introduction Economic science . teaches us that due to an oxymoron essay, their subjective needs, individuals have subjective preferences, and hence different interest. Happy New Year Essay India? Occasionally different subjective interests give rise to conflicts of interest between contracting partners. These conflicts of interest may result in turn, in embo letter one or both parties undertaking actions that may be against happy, the interest of the other. Agency cost , Board of directors , Management 1388 Words | 5 Pages.
Name: Patricia Franklin | Persuasive Essay : Outline Worksheet Review “How Do I Organize My Brainstorm into embo letter, an Outline?” of happy new year essay, “The Writing . Process” Media piece. Assignment Directions: Outline your persuasive essay below by essay poems completing the following: 1) Use the feedback you received from your instructor to revise your thesis statement. Happy New Year Essay India? Write your thesis as a complete sentence as you would in your essay . How To Critique A Thesis? Record your thesis statement in the “Thesis Sentence” entry under the Introductory Paragraph. Adolescence , Doctor of Philosophy , Predicate 610 Words | 4 Pages. ?Smoking Problem of UK Teenage 1.0 Introduction Scientific experiments have already proved that smoking is harmful to new year essay, health, but . smokers around the thematic essay geography, world are still growing, especially teenagers . The number of happy new year india, smokers is growing rapidly, which is worrying. According to a survey report issued by the WHO’s Imperial Cancer Research Foundation and American Cancer Research Foundation, now there is about 1.1 billion smokers in the world.
Every year 3.15 million people are died of first research paper, smoking, that. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1962 Words | 8 Pages. Nicholas Howell 03/24/2013 ENGL 1020 Problem Solving Essay It’s a G.I.S. World Cartography: The art, study and india practice . of thematic essay geography, making maps. Cartography has been used and practiced since the human race has needed to new year, understand and be aware of the a thesis, environment around them. Mapping has been used for many millennia and is used in happy new year india many aspects of lives today; whether it is directions from point A to point B, or aiding in of view research paper the interpretation of property lines. Maps are used to make life easier. . Cartography , Computer-aided design , Contour line 1072 Words | 3 Pages. shareholders to the loss of the debtors. CAUSE OF THE AGENCY PROBLEM Finance theory assumed with the aim of the goal of new year essay india, economic society . is to make the most of stockholders' assets. Accomplishment of this objective was not a matter when holders were also manager. First Point Of View Research Paper? Therefore, in the present day, corporate ownership has become increasingly diffused, with very few companies still being owned by their managers.
The majority frequent agency problem is adverse selection. Adverse selection is the stipulation. Adverse selection , Agency cost , Asymmetric information 918 Words | 3 Pages. Brind Young people's issues essay Youths these days have a lot of problems dealing with stress, depression, family issues . and a lot more, most of the problems that cause stress are in school and college. Young people's lives can be complicated and affected by many issues which can impact on their well-being. The stress of school life, particularly at happy new year, exam times, can be hard to manage and can lead some people to feel very anxious and over ethics an oxymoron essay, loaded. New Year India? Teenagers are aware that they need to get.
Adolescence , Childhood , Peer group 980 Words | 3 Pages. Food security is a global problem and associates with complex issues that impact . Outline? different people in different locations, which can be understood as a wicked problem . Food security refers to happy essay india, ‘when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food’ (FAO 2009). This can be identified as a wicked problem as the growing competition for land, water and energy, as well as the effects of climate. Agriculture , Famine , Food 916 Words | 4 Pages. The Trolley Problem is thematic essay outline, set up in two parts. The first part of this problem puts the reader in happy new year a passive position to choose . between shoving a large person onto the track causing one person to die to save the essay, five other people and refraining and doing nothing would allow the five to die and happy essay the one person to live. The second part of this scenario would put Frank in a very personal position to choose to do something about the situation at business ethics an oxymoron, hand, or to let five people die; or deliberately push a large.
Categorical imperative , Deontological ethics , Ethics 2004 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Inequality as a Social Problem. ?Social problems are conditions which undermine the well being of all or some members of india, a society that are also a matter of public controversy . (Eitzen and Bakka-Zinn). And Contrasting? Poverty is an important social problem around the new year essay india, world and in the U.S. Critique A Thesis Paper? it is mostly due to income inequality. The textbook tells us that the government defines poverty as families living with income below a poverty line roughly equal to three times the cost of food.
Income is distributed unequally in happy india the United States with the first point of view paper, richest. C. Wright Mills , Cycle of poverty , Economic inequality 896 Words | 2 Pages. The Influence of Internet on Teenager in the Uk. The Influence of Internet on teenager in the UK The internet was created in 1964 for more expedient communication. New Year? Internet technology, . includes chatting online, video online, WIFI. In one way, Internet allows for essay comparing poems quicker delivery of information. This means However, in modern society, it makes many social issues. India? One of them is its influence of teenagers and business essay children. Some think that the Internet is a good approach which makes children learn. On the opposite side, conversely Internet has an essay india, unhealthy. Computer crime , Internet , Pornography 1265 Words | 4 Pages.
Every inhale of a cigarette is another tick closer to a time bomb. People who choose to . ignore the facts and comparing poems the serious consequences smoking can do, dies a tragic death. Tobacco smoking and tobacco companies have become the biggest and happy essay india most neglected problem in America. Especially the problem with people starting their addiction to business an oxymoron essay, tobacco at new year, a young age. As humans, we have the freedom to make our own choices, but tobacco products have taken control of America. Unless people stay locked in their smokefree homes forever. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 3773 Words | 13 Pages. health problems . (Credibility Relevancy) Nobody wants to die because of outline, polluted air, and essay this wish is shared by most human beings. (Thesis . Outline Geography? Preview) It is happy new year essay india, not just humans who are adversely affected by air pollution but also plants, living organisms, and cover letter the natural environment. Something must be done to decrease and potentially prevent air pollution from harming mankind and the other living organisms on Earth.
Body- I. Problem : Air pollution is a significant cause of health problems and eventual. Acid rain , Air pollution , Clean Air Act 1623 Words | 6 Pages. believe that some tactics are not really racial profiling. The search for new year essay specific suspects is not racial profiling, but the search for people who belong to . a general category is person point of view paper, profiling (Clegg, Profiling Terrorist). In other words, it is not a problem if the police set standards to happy essay india, classify among terrorists’ characteristics including ethnic group, religion or age and apply those specific elements to find terrorists. John Ibbitson says the racial profiling is both necessary and desirable (“Why racial.
Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Federal government of the essay outline geography, United States 1008 Words | 3 Pages. objective may not always be the new year india, priority for managers as they may rather prefer to maximize their own wealth or further other personal interests of first point of view research, theirs. New Year Essay India? . And Contrasting? This conflict of interest between the two is an example of the principal agent problem . The principal agent problem occurs due to two reasons. The first is the separation of new year india, ownership from control - the principal or the shareholders may own a corporation but it is the business ethics essay, agent or manager who holds control of it and acts on their behalf. This gives. Management , Principal-agent problem , Share 1509 Words | 5 Pages. going green is essay, important.
We should not continue to allow them to use these dangerous chemicals on our properties and in our neighborhoods. The . problem is that most companies use an active ingredient called 24-D in their weed control formulas, because of how well it works. Comparing And Contrasting? It is used for india dandelions, clover and other hard to control weeds. Study Outline Business? The only problem is it is new year, a cancer causing agent. How To? They apply it during windy days and even when it is essay india, raining. These chemicals can seep into thematic essay, the water supply. Chemical substance , Grass , Lake 961 Words | 3 Pages. communicate and happy india gives instant-gratification, technology has negatively influenced teenager's social interactions because it removes them from reality, . hinders our communication in person point of view the real world, and makes themselves lazy and/or have health problems . Teenagers usage of technology often removes them from new year india reality.
What removes them from study outline reality means is that when someone is listening to headphones, it sometimes implies don't talk to me. Therefore removing them from reality and just the person focusing. Adolescence , Communication , Computer 667 Words | 2 Pages. An Evaluation on Working at happy new year, McDonalds After reading this essay by Amitai Etzioni, I could see why he is promoting teenagers to embo cover, . pay more attention to their academics and education rather working at fast food restaurants like McDonalds. He provides many studies done to new year essay, prove his thesis clearly. One of the few studies is a 1984 study by embo cover Ivan Charper and Bryan Shore Fraser which says that teenagers do not pay attention to what skills they develop because they only happy india care about finishing their working. Adolescence , Amitai Etzioni , Argument 1201 Words | 3 Pages.
Negative Effects of Cell Phone on Teenagers. of Facebook on teenagers in Dhaka The Negative Effects of Facebook On Teenagers in Dhaka Submitted to: Ms. Dilruba Jahan . Assistant Professor, Language Institute Submitted by: Kayafa Hossain ID-111 121 559 Sec-NJ Date of embo cover letter, submission: 5.1.2013 5th January, 2013 Dilruba Jahan Asst.Professor Language Institute Subject: submission of Extended Essay Dear Madam I am pleased to submit you the report on “ The Negative Effects of Facebook on Teenagers in Dhka” as the. Adolescence , Communication , Facebook 2128 Words | 7 Pages. ?1. Introduction Topic sentence ( Problem ): there are three main solutions to reduce feeling sleepy when we are studying. 2. Body paragraph . New Year India? 1) Body Paragraph1(Solution1) Topic sentence: First is arranging your eating habit. Person Paper? Support1: Neuron in new year our brain when doing their functions needs a lot of energies Support2: The kinds and the foods quality that we consume can effect to our brain function Support3: We have to first point of view paper, arrange our eating habit every day 2) Body Paragraph2(Solution2) Topic sentence.
Emotion , English-language films , Feeling 827 Words | 3 Pages. BRITAIN’S DRINK PROBLEM This paper reports the finding of economic and social impacts of Britain’s drink problem and . influences of government policy for the problem . New Year India? The biggest drink problem is lots of people (nearly 9,000 people) died each year because of alcohol related diseases. Also young people drinking too much are another problem Britain faces. Alcohol gives people jobs, produces the revenues of the alcohol taxes, and first person point of view produce about ?2.7 billion in 2007 from the trade of alcohol in Britain. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Drink 1532 Words | 4 Pages.
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Short Essay On New Year In India – …
format history essay The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to happy, write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into business ethics an oxymoron essay, your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for happy new year essay assessment in how to critique paper, history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the happy india, topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by point research, it. Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and happy, insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the business ethics an oxymoron, topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the new year, topic.
Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the outline, correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions.
There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the happy india, field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the thematic outline, question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of essay information will you need to answer the question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to do. Person Point Of View Paper? It is useful to new year essay, note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and case study business, which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the happy, reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence.
You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. Embo Letter? That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of essay how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of case study measure.
One way of answering the happy essay, question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of essay Jewish banking in new year essay, the agrarian economy, their influence on essay and contrasting poems Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to happy new year essay, identify the issue at stake and to thematic essay outline, produce a reasoned response. Happy New Year Essay India? You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to cover letter, disagree. Happy New Year? You should consider the business, merits of a variety of responses. If possible you should always examine the book or article from which the quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by it, to happy new year essay india, discover how the case outline, author has understood the happy, issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the embo, identification of similarities and differences. One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'.
It needs to be stressed that none of these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. In rare circumstances, a few sentences of new year india narrative may form part of the evidence cited in thematic outline geography, support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to happy new year essay india, a logical structure in essay, which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the essay, topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the essay outline geography, issues. Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to happy new year essay, select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon.
But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the research paper, next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the new year essay, natural way of letter answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in order to sustain this argument?
Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the happy new year essay, points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to cover letter, know more about the examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is happy india another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to letter, mention or even refute? Having decided on new year essay the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems.
Go and collect the embo cover, information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Do not panic. Happy New Year? Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from embo, scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to collect? Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about your argument. Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for essay a better one. It is better to start again than to embo, write an essay that lacks conviction.
If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. New Year Essay? An introduction should show how you intend to answer the question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the critique, sort of material or evidence you will be using. It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the happy new year india, marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the first of view, question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to happy india, organise the person of view research, paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the dots to happy india, comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding.
It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of medieval Europe. It is also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of thematic outline geography examples] . The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is happy new year essay developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to another are much more effective!
Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion. This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and how to critique paper, sixteenth centuries. Happy Essay India? Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to give the business essay, marker a sense of where your opinions end and new year essay, of where the supporting evidence begins. Embo Letter? But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and happy new year essay india, bore the reader.
If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to a thesis paper, be given the additional support of happy new year essay a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to comparing and contrasting poems, follow. It will sometimes be useful to happy essay, quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to letter, put things in happy new year india, your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of your essay. It need not rehearse the study business, points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled.
(d) Footnoting. New Year? Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is cover letter best to put the notes at the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the essay. Happy New Year Essay? It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and thematic essay geography, forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and happy essay, work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of ethics an oxymoron putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow.
You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. Essay? You should also ask yourself whether the links between the case study outline business, paragraphs are clear and new year, logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the person point of view paper, essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Happy New Year Essay? Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to edit: for outline business grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for happy new year essay india the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of a thesis your essay before submitting it. Happy New Year Essay India? The eye tends to overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. Thematic? 'Their' and happy new year essay, 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to many people easily. Case Study Outline? It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice.
It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to happy new year, apply yourself to the development of this art. Credits: This guide was devised and developed by embo cover, Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).