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arguments 4 homework Your news when you want it. A study of the violence in america essays, impact of homework in different countries says that the pressure of homework causes friction between children and parents. This pressure is worst in by zane and essay families where parents are most keen for their children to succeed at school. And the survey claims that homework causes anxiety and emotional exhaustion. As a solution, the violence in america essays, report suggests that homework clubs, which take place after school, are a successful way of getting the benefit of homework, without risking the disagreements associated with homework at mean to you, home. The report from the violence in america essays, Institute of Education in ielts essay introduction London is a review of research over 75 years, which examines the in america essays, impact of homework in the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe, Australia and is critical mean to you, the Far and Middle East.

And it says that homework can become a source of violence essays tension, particularly when parents try to take too much control of how children are approaching their homework. For parents to reasons for a resume make a positive contribution, the violence, report suggests that parents should take a more supportive and less interventionist role, only helping when they are asked. Parents have the most positive influence when they offer moral support, make appropriate resources available and essays on the, discuss general issues. They should only actually help with homework when their children specifically ask them to, says report author, Susan Hallam. Violence Essays. The report backs the effectiveness of homework clubs, which have become popular in many schools. These provide a quiet place where children can study after formal lessons finish, with a teacher often available to help them. Homework clubs give children the benefits of skyscraper by zane homework without the rows at home. Children feel they make homework enjoyable and give them a better chance of passing exams, says the report.

They may assist in raising standards for those who need extra support or who find it difficult to do homework at home. Violence In America Essays. As such, they help to bridge the gap between the haves and the have-nots. How To Write Report On A Nonfiction. The report also says that the impact of homework on academic achievement is relatively limited compared to other factors, such as prior knowledge, ability, time on task, good attendance at school, motivation and self-confidence. People seem to forget what homework is for. Sadly kids often won't ask if they don't understand, they just want the lesson over with. The best way for a teacher to see who is struggling is to set homework. When I was at school, you didn't get in to trouble for violence in america doing your homework but getting it wrong; far from it, the teachers offered us extra coaching at lunch and break times to help us catch up. You only get in trouble if you are too lazy to do the work set. My advice to pupils is it's your education and career that is at bill research paper, stake so take some responsibility.

The only time pupils have been up till midnight and wearing themselves out on homework is when they had it for two weeks and decided to do it all the night before it is due in, because they wanted to do other things in the evenings. Hello? Some of these children expected to do homework after spending an violence essays entire day in school are as young as FOUR! These are mere children in all aspects of development and children this young should not be receiving homework! It seems to me that the education system is stealing our children's childhood and for a resume, very few are prepared to stand up and question this. There is no way that a four year old or come to that a nine year old needs to learn about adult work schedules and commitments - this is the time when they should be learning through play and discovery not sat at violence essays, a table just because it may be expected of them during their adulthood.

No wonder so many of today's youth leave school with little self worth or respect, they have been expected to grow up far too quickly. If it weren't so sad, some of these comments would be funny! I have home educated all three of my children, we average two to four hours study a day (not all that is academic), and forget it altogether if we have a lovely day and go for ielts introduction and conclusion a walk instead. In case you're wondering my eldest is a Recruitment Officer, the essays, middle one is at University doing a Russian Degree and the youngest one still studying from home. Reasons Resume. Home Education must be the only time homework doesn't cause stress.

They've all grown up to violence in america be confident, happy productive young people who enjoy learning and find satisfaction and a sense of achievement in what they do. Joy Beasley, Halesowen, England. How To A Book Report On A Nonfiction. Come on! If nowadays kids are not able to cope with a few extra minutes of violence essays homework after school, what will happen when they have to work extra hours for work? I think we are creating a nation of lazy and idle people. Children are now psychologically distressed. For God sake, let's stop that: we are creating problems that don't exist. Let's stop analysing things and start working. I've been working in an English school for a few months only and I think that now education is seen as something boring. I have always had homework to do and never had my parents behind me to help. What matters now for kids is to play with their brand new mobile phones.

Let's react and show kids that life is not like in Coronation Street or whatever soap opera they watch every evening on TV. If children's education was handled differently there would be no need for the endless extra hours of homework, most of which is how to write report on a nonfiction busy work rather than genuine study. Many home educating families will witness the fact that their children don't need to be schooled from 9am to 3pm every day in order to violence in america keep up with children within the school system and they certainly don't then need to sit alone for skyscraper by zane a couple of extra hours in the evening doing more work! If these children can succeed with unqualified parents teaching them for violence in america essays a few hours a day, surely schooled children could do the write report nonfiction book, same if the teachers were free to teach without being slaves to paperwork and targets? No homework = Happy kids and parents. Happy kids and parents = Better home life. Better home life = Easier to concentrate on studies.

Concentrate on studies = better results. Better results = Better jobs, plus more money. More money = Better quality of life. Better quality of life = Happiness and violence, good health all round! Get rid of the stress, do not add to it. Life is there to be enjoyed, you get one shot at it. By Zane And Essay. Give the violence in america essays, kids and us a break.

If there is less homework, surely it would also encourage more people (i.e. single parents/full time workers/people wanting to improve their lifestyles) to study at night school that don't have the time to study in the day, plus knowing they'll be up finishing some 50 million word dissertation by the day before yesterday! The world won't stop just because your homework wasn't done or the is critical mean, dog ate it or you dropped it a puddle! Remember those?! I have read all of the comments with great interest as I have two young boys of violence in america my own year one and bill paper, year six. I am a full time working single mum leaving home at 7am and violence essays, not returning until after 7pm. Both my children receive nightly homework, which I insist must be completed to the best of their ability. Sometimes there is friction and what is critical thinking, frustration between us, it's inevitable. Whilst I agree children are under a lot of violence essays pressure, I try to by zane remind my boys that their standard of education is vital and essays, the effort they put in will be rewarded. It is hard work but we have to encourage our youth to do well in education, even if at the end of the day that's all they have. Except of course for love and support.

My boys can be dustmen if that makes them happy, as long as they are educated dustmen! Homework Clubs are a great idea, but are not new. A colleague and I used to run one back in the early 90s after repeated children were unable to do homework because they did not have the equipment, books or help at home. As a busy mum of bill cosby research three young children it would benefit me and violence essays, most other busy families, leaving the evenings free to and conclusion enjoy each others' company and the children to pursue other activities e.g. sport/ brownies/cubs etc. Liz Langley, Mons, Belgium. As neither pupils nor teachers want homework, why not do away with it completely, but extend the school day by an hour or two. That way more will get taught, working parents will not have to worry about after school care, pupils will have no homework to do and teachers will have no homework to mark. My working day ends when I get home from work, so should teachers and pupils. I went to in america essays a school which had boarding and day students.

There was a defined time at the end of the day for bill cosby homework, which all the students remained in school for. This meant the day students didn't have to battle it out violence in america with their parents and didn't have to take work home with them. It also made book sharing and group work much more easy to for a resume organise. The added bonus was that by violence in america essays the time we got to university we were used to settling down for a couple of hours work in the evenings. Rachel, Edinburgh, Scotland.

My cousin was a secondary school teacher for many years and skyscraper, point blank refused to set homework for violence any of his pupils. He didn't see the point in on the importance of being it. If it can't be done at school, why should it be done at all? Martin Willoughby, Stevenage, UK. Essays. The amount of homework a child faces is ridiculous and one of the reasons I took my children out of school to educate them at home. These are children! They are meant to be playing after their school hours (which involves a lot more emotional learning than most adults appreciate). What happens when a child spends hours working on their homework when they don't really understand the subject: hours of work to be met by getting into trouble by the teacher the next day.

So often I remember homework not being marked by the teachers, sometimes for importance weeks, which gave me the message that what I did didn't matter - I, and what I did, wasn't important. As for 'preparing children for the adult world' in terms of hours worked, as with everything else, it should be tailored to the child's age, abilities and aptitudes - after all, that's what the Law requires. I have four children, one doing GCSEs this year, one year nine and in america essays, twins in year seven. Our philosophy is that homework is a priority on a book report on a nonfiction, coming home from school. This has been the same throughout their school lives. All homework where possible is violence done immediately (even after returning from ECAs) or risk the consequences.

Playstation/computer/TV and other activities have to wait until later or weekends. I rarely help with homework as this does not help any child, although I am there if needed. We have plenty of family time - our meals are eaten together (no TV), we sit and ielts, talk in the evening, weekends and holidays is their time with friends (one weekend a month is kept as family time). Even as a full time working mum and dad this was the same. My kids still have their jobs to do too! Plenty of time. Of course homework causes stress, what kid in their right mind goes home at the end of the school day thinking whooohaaaa! I've got homework to do. The Stress comes, as the violence, article says, from parents forcing kids to do their homework. So there are three solutions, stop homework, let the kids decide whether they'll do it or not, or as seems to bill paper be the prevalence do it for them. Essays. personally I'd stop homework, in 13 years of education (primary to a levels) I've never been given a piece of homework for any other reason than the teacher was required to provide me with homework. If the curriculum wasn't such an for a resume unholy mess perhaps homework could be avoided, because teachers would be able to teach, instead of pen-pushing.

Simon Binks, Reading, England. I was actively encouraged by my daughter's teachers to in america essays do her homework for her, particularly the skyscraper by zane and essay, projects that counted towards her marks. Violence In America Essays. This would ensure that the school had a 'pass' to up their standard in the league tables. Essays On The Importance Of Being. Other parents have told me the same story. Violence Essays. I admit, I did it to help my daughter. How many other parents will be as honest? Perhaps then homework can be shown for thinking what it is; a way of improving student standards by allowing their parents to do the work. Essays. Homework is essential for reinforcing the ideas thrown out in the classroom. Nobody likes doing it, but the one hour per subject during the school-day just doesn't cut it when attempting to understand subject material. I recently graduated from reasons for a my university with a degree in in america essays Meteorology and I can certainly attest to the tremendous stress and ielts, workload involved with all the in america, homework assigned.

However, I must say that if children can't handle the (relatively) simple stress from homework, then how can they ever hope to cope with the high expectations and stress levels expected of on the them when working in in america essays their intended career? Michelle, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. There would be big arguments if we tried to force adults into doing compulsory overtime - homework is the same. Kids have a long day as it is. For A. Besides, a lot of research actually shows that doing a lot of essays homework has no appreciable effect on results. Better results come from teachers who are relaxed and can teach instead of worrying about discipline and inspections. I'm 17 years old so naturally I have a part time job. I've noticed as I get old the amount of homework in increased, thus making less time for family time.

I think it's the skyscraper and essay, teacher's job to violence in america essays teach because they're being paid for it. I shouldn't have to how to write a book on a teach myself at home something because the essays, teacher fails to do that. I wish I could spend more time with my family, especially my older sisters, but homework definitely prevents this. I am a teacher and a parent. I have arguments at home about my son's homework, and have to sit in on essays on the importance of being, endless detentions at school for lack of homework. We should give up on homework as a bad deal. Nobody gains from violence essays it. James Brown, Birmingham, UK.

I am an what English teacher in a Junior High School in Japan (12-14 year olds) and we have a homework club. Violence In America Essays. It doesn't work. All it does is take up more of the teachers precious time and make the students do homework straight after their lessons have finished, instead of giving them a couple of hours rest so they can do it when they are ready. Children DO have to take responsibility for their actions. If you dictate everything to them then they will leave school and not know how to organise their lives. Time management is very important in life and homework is good training. Also, there are not enough hours in the school day to cover all the necessary work in the curriculum and so an element of homework is essential, particularly from a book report nonfiction year 10 onwards.

Kids need to learn that four hours school work a day bears little relationship to what is violence in america expected at college/university, let alone when they start working for a living. Too many children leaving school are ill educated and only semi-literate at best. It is far easier to learn when they are young and how to a book nonfiction, is time well spent. My daughter starts school at 7.30am and in america, is dismissed at 2.45pm. Essays On The Importance. By the time she gets home she is done with school. She is 10 years old and all she wants to do is play with her friends. The there is the after school programmes, as sport id good for them. With homework we are stressing out kids way too young. If they can't learn it in school, then the education district isn't doing it's job. Heather Stabler, Round Rock, TEXAS, UK ex pat.

Surely the starting point is to ask what is the purpose of homework? Is it because parents feel cheated if their child isn't doing enough homework - parent/school communication problem? Is it to finish work not done at violence, school? Is it to build on what is critical to you, what is done in school - with appropriate amounts and difficulties set? Or is it, just perhaps, to violence in america essays start to instil the discipline that, regardless of distractions, sometimes work just has to write report on a nonfiction book be done - and you have to violence in america plan how and when to do it. And this reinforces the point - it really is largely up to the child and bill cosby, the school. Parents should keep a good distance unless - as we have sometimes found - the question doesn't make sense or the in america essays, child just needs to look at the problem from another perspective. Perhaps what is really required is a genuine homework policy which all three parties - teachers, children and write a book report nonfiction, parents - all understand. When I was at school homework caused all kinds of violence problems between myself and my parents.

They were constantly on at me to do work or revise or something. By Zane And Essay. I always did enough to get by and do reasonably well at school, but that often wasn't enough for them. Now I'm in my final year at University and everything is going well. Homework did, without exception, cause all sorts of problems, and although I'm not against it in principle, a better system should be instigated to help children and violence in america, parents who fall out over it. On The Importance Of Being. Homework that has been brought home by my seven year old daughter has already caused disagreements. The methodology and content is violence essays so different to and essay what my wife and I did at school it is hard to violence grasp what the school are after. The homework is often unclear and not specific enough to exactly what the teachers are after.

Is it really necessary at importance, this young age? Can't they just enjoy being kids? Dave Clack, Bicester, England. Essays. The simple truth is that homework is of little value until a child begins to study for their GCSEs. All other homework before that is essentially preparing them for that day so that they are used to it. The best thing a parent can do is to instil a routine for their child that they do homework at the same time for skyscraper by zane the same length of violence in america essays time every day. On The Of Being. Then when it becomes important they are used to applying themselves. Most homework problems in our house are generated by a school policy that declares homework to be the parents' responsibility. To me, it is very clear and essays, simple: if the school wish to what to you set homework, then they should enforce it and sanction non-compliance accordingly, not buck-pass. My role as parent is merely to provide appropriate study facilities along with empathy, support and violence in america, love.

I don't mind the homework setting so much but like other views expressed, get frustrated when it is simply pointless 'colouring' for my 11 year old or comes with poor instructions as to what is required. Both my husband and ielts and conclusion, I work full time and finding the time at weekends to create the routine of essays 'homework time' for reasons for a our eight year olds is difficult as the in america, children are at how to write report, an age when their homework has to be supervised. Violence Essays. At times this has been a stressful 45 minutes or even an hour. Skyscraper And Essay. Given the research view that the value of the work that they do in that time is minimal, I am questioning if this is essays really worth the skyscraper by zane, hassle? Angela Ensten, Dunstable. I'd love to help my children with their homework, but, as a teacher, I'm too busy marking other people's children's homework to violence essays have any time for my own. How's about that for irony? Diane Adams, Newcastle, UK. I don't think it is the homework as such - it is the skyscraper by zane and essay, amount of homework teachers expect these young adults to do. By the time they have done 2-3 hours homework had something to violence essays eat they are too tired to do anything else.

As working parents would we be expected to do the same for our employer before we can do the essential things, like running a house interacting (as it is essays on the of being now) with our children and have the social life we crave for? No. so why make these demands on violence in america essays, our teenagers? I am not saying NO homework just be a little less demanding on resume, them. After all a good rest is half the job as we keep telling them. A happy child will learn more than a stressed one so why do we put so much stress on them to do hours and hours of work after their normal working day. On the art project front; we did a school trip when I was about 11 and had to make a model of something from the in america, trip.

Year on year these models were handed down. It's truly amazing how repainting the grass makes it look like a totally different Stonehenge from last years. Skyscraper And Essay. I'm a college student and although it's typical for essays work to pile up my course has been absolutely ridiculous. Is Critical Thinking Mean To You. I'm in my second year doing applied science and only recently the in america, teachers have started giving us more assignments. This has put a lot of pressure on me and my classmates, for example two of my classmates are working mothers and find it difficult to cope doing both. Essays On The Importance. In September-December no assignments was set for us to do and violence in america, only started in January. We have an is critical IVA (Integrated Vocational Assignment) to do at violence, this moment which is the biggest pressure for all of us, it isn't fair. Yep, got to agree with you there. I'm currently studying at University, and I'll be sat at my computer, head right in cosby paper the middle of violence in america essays something, when my Sister, who is doing GCSE's back home, phones up or comes on MSN, then I'm expected to drop everything to give her a hand with something that she's had for a week which is due in the next day, thus putting me off my train of thought, if Tony wants a life line, he'll kill off Homework, or if the Tory's want a decent landslide victory, they'll promise to and essay do it, and by violence in america thunder they will, save our souls, sanity, and various other aspects from the dreaded homework beast. Craig Jackson, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. I try to help my daughters with their homework in how to write report on a nonfiction book a constructive way.

With my younger child (14) I will type out her essays etc on violence in america essays, the computer whilst she dictates them to me. I don't change what she says, I just type it out verbatim and of being, leave her to do spelling and grammar checks and violence in america essays, put the punctuation in essay when it's finished. With my older daughter (17) I help by discussing her work with her. Violence Essays. Apart from ielts introduction Chemistry, she's doing A levels in subjects I understand so we have long involved conversations about Shakespeare and Tudor history etc which she says really helps her get her ideas straight when she's putting an essay together. Violence In America. I help both girls as much as I can but I won't do the cosby research paper, actual work for them - that's not helping as they wouldn't be learning anything if they didn't do the thinking and the research themselves. Poppy Hasted, London, England. Ellie, London, UK - Isn't the fact that a four and a half year old even has HOMEWORK a damming indictment of the government's (and parent's) target obsessed (or perhaps jumping through hoops would be better) education system fixated on league tables and performance without actually considering what we are doing to in america children (or should that be pre-adults?).

I cannot see the point of homework until secondary school, and even then only substantial levels at 14 onwards. Essays On The Importance. This was the kind of homework regime I went through (and I'm not old, just under 30) and essays, I consider that I was a more rounded, intelligent, person at 16 than the general level of 16 year olds being produced these days. Good teachers are the key - not homework. My child's school sets regular spellings and times tables each week and on time, also encourages them to read regularly, but there is violence in america no pressure heaped on them. They then have an optional homework menu each term which has creative ideas for write report on a nonfiction book science, geography, IT, music, PE, Art and DT projects that they can do at home. At the end of each term they have a celebration day when children can bring in in america essays any optional homework they have done during the term. They are generally really interesting things that children want to do and enjoy doing, and many don't need much, if any, input from ielts introduction and conclusion parents.

When the 'I'm bored, what can I do?' cry is heard, the violence in america essays, homework menu provides plenty of ready-made ideas that will keep a child constructively occupied. The head teacher of essays on the importance of being our local high school promotes a very unrealistic homework timetable for in america essays year 11 students where she expects students to work three hours after school and more at weekends. This time table makes many students guilty and despondent because they cannot possibly work so many hours. I have mentored students that her demands are very unrealistic, and that an for a resume hour and violence in america, a half of high quality work will stand them in good stead. Sarah cotter, Woodridge, Suffolk. I think it is introduction a problem of pointless homework. I always hated being given time wasting work that had no value, just because the teachers had to give us something. Kids work enough during the day, that until their courses require coursework, homework should be abolished. Violence In America Essays. It's making me laugh all these comments about homework and all the stress, and even more laughable when people say there should be no homework, as when I was at skyscraper and essay, school I coped, sometimes it was stressful but that is the point, school is not meant to in america be easy!

And by the way I only left school two years ago in case anyone was wondering! Imagine, expecting children to do homework at home. Surely the best way to resolve the problem would be to extend the school day by two hours and skyscraper by zane, let the teachers supervise homework that is set. I fact if the children bring washing equipment, a sleeping bag and a bit of violence food perhaps the teachers can look after them all week. This would not only mean the parents not having to take any responsibility for their child's education, but you could also clearly call the teacher to account when the ielts, child does not achieve the required standards by the end of the year. No more nagging teachers because essential homework has not been done be it reading and spelling at one end, or GCSE coursework at the other. What a solution. Cookery was always the worst, I regularly had to go and specially buy the ingredients (often late at night). The instructions always indicated that these items could be found in any kitchen, not in violence in america mine they couldn't!

Peter Armitage, Cardiff, Wales. Homework does cause tension at home, not only from parent to children but also between adults if both have different methods or answers to the questions set. Also when the homework does go in write on a we don't seem to get any feedback to check it. The clubs are a good idea but does anybody think that the violence essays, teachers want to spend their time running them when they're so overworked already. Essay Introduction. Richard Vickers, Nottingham, England. Violence In America Essays. Tensions arises in our house when my daughter's two job-share teachers want different homework handed in at different times.

Try and report book, get her to in america essays do homework on a Wednesday night when it is a different teacher on Thursday, and equally doing the other teacher's homework on a Friday or Sunday. Resume. Doesn't make for good homework routine. Mo Angus, Aberdeen, Scotland. British kids have the longest school hours in Europe and I think it is inappropriate to expect them to do homework as well. Essays. No wonder kids are getting fatter and less fit - they haven't got the reasons resume, time to play!

Anna Hayward, Cambridgeshire. I lived in a small house with five younger brothers and violence essays, paper thin walls. Trying to do my homework was nigh on impossible in those circumstances and rows and tears would often result. A homework club would have made life much easier and would have put those children from working class homes on more of an equal footing with their middle class counterparts. The only time homework causes a problem in our house is when it's either unclear what needs to be done or badly planned. We had one instance in November where science homework was given on a Monday, to be handed in on Friday - the work was to create a sundial and mark the position of the shadow morning, noon and afternoon. The morning was fine, but since our son was at thinking mean, school during the day he obviously couldn't mark the noon position and by the time he got home it was dark in the evening so there was no light to violence in america cast a shadow! Madness. Other homework has been very vague in the requirements meaning that correct answers were marked as wrong purely because they weren't presented in the way the teacher was expecting.

Lee Furness, Blyth (Northumberland) Not so much a source of tension for us, because I do take a hands-off approach most of the time and hope that the doing or not doing of homework is a life lesson itself. However, I do find, that when asked to ielts and conclusion help, I can't be of much assistance as I can rarely understand the context in violence in america which the homework was set. Homework clubs sound like a much better idea and would leave us to spend our precious little time in family pursuits. This article is so true. My brother is always in fight with my mom about his homework.

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The old saying “it takes 5 years to get a new business off the ground”, is in america certainly true, but there is a HACK to this timeline. If you can model your Solopreneur business after someone who has already been there then you can save a ton of time, not to write a book nonfiction, mention headaches. When you search for something on the web, you will be amazed at the number of violence in america essays, websites that come up that have little to nothing to do with what you searched for. Google and other search engines work hard to thinking mean, weed these out. But it can take time for them to figure out which ones are not relevant. The point is many of these blogs have no real purpose. It doesn’t just happen with blogs. There are plenty of businesses that don’t seem to in america, have a defined niche. They try to be all things to all people. Essay Introduction And Conclusion? While some businesses can get away with that (think, most would be much better served if they refined their focus and narrowed their niche.

It is not an easy task to come up with a niche for your business. Therefore, consider finding a mentor who can help. While it is beyond the violence, scope of this article to describe how to find a mentor, you can do some research to find one. Just be sure that you can get out of the essays on the of being on time, arrangement if you feel they are not doing a good job for you. A mentor should be able to help you define your business niche. They should be able to determine who your ideal customers are as well as show how to find your competitors. These are both extremely important components in coming up with a business niche. Your mentor should also give you some guidance as to whether you should narrow your focus and specialize more. This can help reduce the amount of competition.

As long as there are still enough customers that exist in essays, that specialized niche, you may be on essays of being on time, to a winning formula. Your mentor should also help you come up with a plan or system on how to promote your business. A system that is both scalable and repeatable. If there are weak areas in the plan, they should be able to help you come up with alternatives. So unless your business is already rocking, it can be a wise move to bring on a mentor. Essays? They have been through the skyscraper by zane, process before and can keep you from making the same mistakes they made.

This can streamline your business and help you to succeed much quicker than going about it in a trial-by-error manner. You may want to checkout The Solopreneur Life Membership … It was designed just for violence essays, this purpose, to help mentor you through the Solopreneur journey. Your Business is an Accident Waiting to Happen, If You Don’t Do This. This morning my 16-year-old daughter Anna took the skyscraper by zane, road test for getting her driver’s license. It was a bad day to drive, let alone take a driving test — overnight we received 4 inches of snow, which means we now have more than 3 feet of snow on the ground. Anna and I arrived at violence 8:25 a.m. at the Department of Motor Vehicles office, which is ielts introduction located in the National Guard armory in in america, Owatonna. Anna and the instructor left the office for the driving test at 8:38 a.m.

I sat in the armory hallway, nervously waiting for what thinking to you, them to return. In America? I sent a text to my wife: “I have no idea if she’s going to pass. I’m going to on time, guess she doesn’t. Hope I’m wrong.” My wife: “Not pass because of the roads?” Me: “Yes. Violence? The roads will make it a challenge.” The instructor returned after about 20 minutes.

He stopped and said to me, “She did really well with observation. Even at how to write report on a book a green light, she looked both ways in the intersection to violence in america essays, see if there was traffic. Observation is more important than the maneuvers or anything else.” Right now, 8 hours after Anna’s driving test, I’m pondering the bill cosby, instructor’s comment: “observation is in america more important than maneuvers.” Is that also true for the solopreneur life? Let’s look at the definition of observe: “to watch and and essay sometimes also listen to (someone or something) carefully.” In your solo business, careful observation means knowing client (or customer) ambitions, goals, needs, fears. Observation often takes the form of research. Observation requires that you ask the right questions and listen carefully to the answers. The maneuvers of solo entrepreneurship are things we do with our skills: writing ads, making presentations to prospective clients, planning product launches. All those things are important, but careful observation is the foundation for success.

It’s through careful observation that we begin to form strategies and decide tactics. If we don’t take time to violence in america, observe, then our business maneuvers might as well be done in the dark, because their only chance at skyscraper by zane success will be pure luck. And yes, Anna passed her driving test. The Business Creed: What It Is and How It Can Help You Attract Your Best Customers. W riting a creed, living by it, and proclaiming it is a sure way to attract and bond with your true believers, your kindred spirits, your best customers, according to acclaimed marketer and copywriter Gary Bencivenga.

21 Things We Love and Hate About Being Solopreneurs (in GIFs) In a typical day, how many times do you swing back and forth between loving the violence in america, stuff you’re working on cosby research paper, and hating it? Two times? Ten times? Fifty times? I’ve never kept track, but I know there can be a lot of violence essays, love/hate for me, even within an hour. But that’s the nature of the work. Bill Research? And it’s why we love the in america essays, solopreneur life — it’s never dull and it’s seldom predictable. With that, let’s look at 21 things we love and by zane and essay hate about in america being solopreneurs. 1. You LOVE Not Having This Guy As Your Boss. 3. You LOVE Coming Up With Brilliant Ideas.

4. You HATE When Your Ideas Don’t Work. 6. You HATE When an Account Goes Past 60 Days. 8. You HATE When Your Computer Crashes. 9. You LOVE Whipping the of being on time, Competition. 11. You LOVE Feeling Appreciated For Who You Are. 12. You HATE When Nobody’s RT’ing Your Tweets.

14. Violence In America? You HATE When Your Biggest Client Dumps You. 16. What Is Critical Thinking Mean To You? You HATE When Your Website Breaks. 18. You HATE Being Bone Tired and Working Against a Deadline. 19. You LOVE When Criticism Rolls Off Your Back.

20. You HATE When Your Kids Have a Day Off From School. 21. You LOVE It When a Plan Comes Together. Applying Blackjack Rules To Solopreneurship. I’ve been a member of the same fantasy football league for 30 years. Last weekend we held our annual rookie draft. The location for the draft moves each year, and this year we held it at Jackpot Junction, a casino hotel (with a terrific golf course) located in central Minnesota.

The only time I visit casinos is when our draft is held at in america essays one. How To Write A Book Nonfiction Book? I have nothing against casinos, except the smell of cigarette smoke. Anyway, when our draft is in america held at a casino, our custom is to find an almost-empty blackjack table and introduction take all of the open chairs. Violence? Then we spend the evening playing the is critical thinking mean to you, game and enjoying each other’s company, which is a treat, because we don’t see other very often anymore. My goal at essays the blackjack table is to stay in the game for as long as possible. I start with a small bankroll (it was $25 on is critical thinking mean to you, Saturday) and I quit when the money is violence gone.

In the past I’ve broken even or made a few bucks, but Saturday night I tripled my stake. Sweet! On Monday morning one of the essays on the, owners sent me an email: “How do you stay in in america essays, the game for so long on $25?” This is introduction and conclusion how I do it (your mileage may vary): I seek knowledgeable advice. Essays? I know the basics of blackjack, but I’m definitely a novice. So before I go down to the casino I get a 5-minute tutorial from my friend Ahhhs, who majored in skyscraper by zane and essay, math and works as a computer programmer. In America Essays? Ahhhs knows blackjack odds very well, so I sit next to him at the table ask his advice when I face a difficult decision. For example, “Should I hit my 12 against the dealer’s 2?” “Should I split these 9’s against the dealer’s 7?” “Should I double-down on my 9 against the dealer’s 7?” I make small bets.

I prefer $2 tables, but Saturday we were at research paper a $5-minimum table, so almost all of in america essays, my bets were $5. I play “by the book.” The odds of winning at blackjack are pretty decent, if you always make the essay and conclusion, mathematically correct play. Violence In America Essays? If you take risks in an attempt to win a lot of money quickly, however, it’s likely you’ll go to bed early. When you play by the book, you remove most of the emotion. You understand there are no guarantees — your 20 can still lose the ielts essay and conclusion, hand, even when the dealer is showing a 6. But you don’t get flustered when that happens, because you’re going to win some hands when the odds are against you. I try not to flip-flop.

If your strategy is to “hit” at in america essays 16, then hit at 16. Don’t hit one time and “hold” the next. I have an exit strategy. My plan for is critical mean to you, Saturday night (if I was winning) was: if I double my money ($50), then I’ll set aside the original stake and play only essays, with the write a book book, money I won. My plan (if I was losing) was to in america, quit at $0 and not borrow any cash or go to the ATM. I count my money. I disagree with Kenny Rogers on this one; I’m always counting my money.

Blackjack is a gamble, but solopreneurship is a gamble too, no doubt about it. (Ponder this for a while: the odds of ielts essay introduction, making a living at blackjack are better than making it as a solopreneur.) I think the rules I used at in america essays the blackjack table hold a bit of value for a solo business: seek expert advice, make small bets, play by the book, don’t flip-flop, have an exit strategy. If only it was that easy! The trick is translating the rules to solopreneurship: Who’s really an expert? What’s a small bet? Which “book” should I follow? Let me know when you’ve found answers to those questions. #128521; What Does Your January 2, 2014 Look Like? A vision without a plan is just a dream.

A plan without a vision is how to write a book report drudgery. A vision with a plan can change the world. (Anonymous) You know what visualization is. In America Essays? And you know that visualization is a powerful tool that can be used to help achieve any goal. Essays On The Of Being? I encourage you to use visualization in plotting your course for in america essays, 2013. I want you to find a quiet place, and for 15 minutes I want you to close your eyes and think about the following questions. It’s Thursday, January 2, 2014, the first work day of the new year. Ielts Essay And Conclusion? What does the day look like for in america essays, you? What are you doing? Who are you with? Who are your primary clients now?

Who are your prospective clients? What was your revenue for ielts introduction and conclusion, 2013? What cool projects did you work on? Who are two interesting people you met in 2013? How did you become better at your work? What new skills did you acquire? How do you feel, physically?

How is your health? How often did you exercise in 2013? What did you do for in america essays, recreation? What were the best books you read? What industry events did you attend? When and how did you step out of comfort zone? Whom did you turn to for motivation and report on a nonfiction book inspiration? When you’re finished with the visualization, write down on essays, a piece of paper what you saw, and keep paper in a place where you’ll see it every day. Next, develop your plan for making the vision a reality. Write the plan this week.

At this very moment, there’s a person plotting to how to write on a book, win your future customers. I’ve met your competition, and I can tell you this: • They’re just as smart as you, perhaps smarter. • They worked harder in school than you did. • They’re willing to violence essays, work for less money than you are. • Their skills are more up-to-date than yours. • They want what you have. How will you beat your competition in cosby paper, 2013 — and beyond? What’s your plan to win? How Narrow (or Broad) Should a Solopreneur’s Niche Be? T here’s a lot of discussion about how narrow a solopreneur’s niche business should be.

Seth Godin maintains that the secret to being the best in the world is to violence in america, make the “world” smaller, i.e. to narrow your niche. He tells the story of Alan Scott, who was the best artisan pizza-oven builder in the world. Essays On Time? “It was a niche that didn’t exist before, but it spread, it engaged people, it created a tribe that supported him. Alan was passionate about his craft and wasn’t shy about sharing it. He trained others and in america turned it into a movement.” Godin says: “It’s entirely possible that you will choose a niche that’s too small. Paper? But it’s much more likely you’ll shoot for something too big and become overwhelmed. When in doubt, overwhelm a small niche. Violence In America? “ But your niche must be broad enough to support your business. Your niche is what too narrow if there’s not enough potential business for you to violence in america essays, meet your revenue goals. Your niche is too broad when you don’t have a clear picture of reasons for a resume, who your customer is and what they want and need. I want to know about violence in america essays your niche.

How narrow is it? Did you start wide and get narrow, or the other way around, or has your niche stayed the essays on the on time, same? How did you find (or create) your niche? If you started over, what would you do differently? Share your thoughts in the comments below. If you need help identifying and building your niche business, complete the form below and I will be in touch soon.

Cash Flow: The #1 Threat To Solopreneur Businesses. Solopreneurs said in The 2010 and essays 2011 Solopreneur Surveys that cash flow causes them the most pain in essay introduction and conclusion, their businesses. Violence? Here are some of their comments from the 2011 survey: “The ebb and flow of my business is so difficult — especially the ielts and conclusion, months when I have to dip into reserves.” “I don’t know if I can hang on. I have 3 months of cash remaining. I’m afraid I’ll have to go back to my old job.” “Cash flow is a make-or-break challenge for me.” Conventional wisdom says cash-flow problems can be solved with improved billing, improved collections, or the development of recurring income. Those are excellent ideas, but they assume that the violence essays, business itself is sound. Fundamental Causes of Poor Cash Flow. The causes for cash-flow issues go deeper than that and can be traced back to critical steps that are skipped in the startup stage. Three fundamental causes of poor cash flow are: • Not operating in the right niche. • Capabilities that don’t match marketplace needs.

• Lack of essays on the on time, enthusiasm for the work. In response to the cash-flow pain, I have created a custom course named “Destination Cash Flow: Transform Your Idea Into a Mighty Solopreneur Business.” It’s a 21-day course that focuses on the early startup stages, with the clear intent of building a solo business that will cash-flow. Destination Cash Flow will be a foundational product/service offering for me, and I envision making it available at all times. The course utilizes private coachsulting by phone, private coachsulting by violence email, and a customized curriculum. The Destination Cash Flow Web site uses a Western/rafting vibe.

The great rivers of the American West inspired Destination Cash Flow; I love whitewater rafting, and it’s a powerful metaphor for the solopreneur life. Both: • are fueled by high energy and enthusiasm. • require methodical, step-by-step preparation. • demand swift responses to unexpected obstacles. • rise and fall on the ability to mean, solve problems.

Check out the essays, Destination Cash Flow Web site and let me know what you think. In the NFL and In Solopreneurship: Winning and ielts essay introduction Losing Turns on the Strength of the Gameplan. In his book, Take Your Eye Off the violence in america essays, Ball: How Watch Football By Knowing Where to reasons for a, Look, (Amazon Affiliate link) Pat Kirwan explains how a National Football League team constructs its gameplan each week. Every NFL team has a playbook that’s about in america essays as thick the Manhattan phone book (Manhattan, New York, not Manhattan, Kansas). The playbook contains roughly a thousand offensive plays, and each play has variations, based formation. So theoretically, every team has several thousand plays that could be used during a game. Reasons For A Resume? But not all the plays are included in the gameplan each week. Take a guess at how many plays are in in america, the gameplan.

Is it 200? 100? 75? The answer: about 40 plays. You Are What Your Record Says You Are. How do the coaches boil the playbook down from thousands of plays to a few dozen? The team’s coaches base the gameplan on dozens on variables: injuries to ielts, key players; weather conditions; the violence essays, number of days the team has for practice; the ielts introduction and conclusion, plays that the team performs well; plays that other teams have used against the week’s opposition; whether the game is in america played at home or on the road; how individual players match up against the players from the how to write report nonfiction book, other team; the ability of the in america, players (especially the quarterback) to process information quickly while playing in the game. During the days leading up to the game, the of being, players practice what’s in violence essays, the gameplan. The gameplan sometimes is pared down even further, based on what happens in essays importance of being on time, practices.

As the week comes to an end, coaches and players must have confidence in the gameplan. If there’s uncertainty, then the in america essays, chances of winning the game are reduced greatly. And then the game is played. A team either wins or loses. The win-loss record defines teams, players, and bill research coaches.

The NFL is essays a results-driven game and livelihoods change, based on whether or not you win. As solopreneurs, our task is ielts introduction very similar to violence, that of the football coaches: develop a winning gameplan for cosby research paper, the challenge ahead. There are thousands and thousands of in america essays, resources at our disposal as solopreneurs. But we can’t use all of them — or half, or a third, or a quarter — to achieve our goals. We have to make wise choices, based on the conditions we are facing, and we need to a book on a nonfiction book, have supreme confidence in the gameplan, once it has been constructed.

Make no mistake, solopreneurship is a results-based game. Did I reach my goals for this month (did I win)? If I did, that’s great. In America Essays? If I didn’t, then why not? Was it the gameplan or the execution that failed? Or both? How should the gameplan be changed, going forward? Do I really know what changes I need to make?

These questions have to be asked — and by zane and essay answered — or else the in america essays, losing will continue. (Tough questions are rarely asked after a victory, but that’s a story for another day.) ©2010-2015 The Solopreneur Life runs on the Rainmaker Platform.

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3 Building Your File By Creating Database Records from in america, Resumes. And Conclusion! You can create a new RESUMate record by simply typing in a candidate’s name and contact information, but most records are created from resumes. RESUMate can import resumes that are stored on your local drive as PDF or Microsoft Word files, as well as e-mail messages or any other text format, including resumes copied from the web. The three icons highlighted in blue (in the violence in america upper left of the screen) are used to create records. The top icon (1 at left) will create a single record manually. What! The second icon (2 at left) will create a single record automatically from a resume. The bottom icon (3 at left) will open the Import Express tool to create records in bulk.

1. Violence Essays! Creating Individual Records From Text Sources – In about ten seconds, any text resume can be converted into a RESUMate database record. Research Paper! The source of the resume can be a Word file, a PDF, an in america e-mail message, or something you simply copy and paste off of the internet. Skyscraper By Zane And Essay! All you have to do is point RESUMate to the resume. 1.1 – Selecting an violence in america Open Word File From Your PC. 1.2 – Selecting a LinkedIn Profile or Other On-Line Text Visible in Your Browser. 1.3 – Selecting a PDF on Your PC. 1.4 – Selecting an E-Mail Message (With or Without Attachments) 1.5 – The Benefits of Importing Records One-At-A-Time. 2. Cleaning Up a New Record – RESUMate will attempt to ielts essay, automatically scan out violence in america essays name, address and contact information. But it will sometimes make mistakes and for a, there are database fields it cannot fill. You can correct the mistakes and fill in violence, any additional information with just your mouse. No typing is required.

2.1 – Correcting Name and Address Errors. 2.2 – Filling In Text and Date Fields. 2.3 – Why Cleaning Up Records Is Important and Useful. Paper! 3. Creating Multiple Records in violence essays, a Single Click – If you have more resumes to import than can practicably be done one-by-one, RESUMate offers two methods for importing large batches of resumes, the Import Wizard and the Import Express tool. 3.1 – Importing Records from ielts, Excel Files and Spreadsheets with the Import Wizard. Violence Essays! 3.2 – Importing Batches of Up To 1,000 Resumes with Import Express. Reasons For A! 3.3 – The Benefits of Importing Batches of Records. 1. Creating Individual Records From Text Sources. Essays! Creating a new record from reasons for a, a resume is called Automated Data Entry, or ADE.

To begin ADE, click the ADE icon in the stack on the left or click the Record menu and select New Automated Data Entry Record . The Automated Data Entry Window will open. There are four tabs. Each tab allows you to select a different source for the new record. After the source is identified, whether a Word file, e-mail message or something else, the process is identical. 1.1 - Selecting an violence in america essays Open Word File From Your PC - The Word Document tab will list any currently open Word files on your PC.

You can open a file from an e-mail attachment, a network drive, or your local disk. If the file is open in Word, you will see the title listed in this tab. Simply select the Word document you want to use and click the OK button. And Essay! 1.2 - Selecting a LinkedIn Profile or Other On-Line Text Visible in violence in america essays, Your Browser - The Clipboard tab will display text that has been copied from any source. If you are on LinkedIn or another website that displays candidate information, simply use your mouse to highlight the relevant text, right click, and select Copy. The text you've copied will instantly appear in what is critical mean to you, the clipboard preview.

Once you see the text there, click the OK button. 1.3 - Selecting a PDF On Your PC - The File on Disk tab allows you to browse your PC and shared network locations for text documents. This tab is mostly used to essays, create records from skyscraper by zane, PDFs, but it can also be used to select Word files, .rtf files or even .txt files. Violence In America! Once you have selected the file, click the OK button. NOTE: Most PDF files contain text. Essays Importance! But PDF files that have been scanned from violence essays, paper documents sometimes contain an image of the scanned document rather than the what thinking mean text of the document.

RESUMate can only read text; it cannot read images. If you select a PDF file and it comes into RESUMate blank, this may be the case. To check and essays, see if the PDF contains an image or text, open it in Adobe or another reader program and see if you can use your cursor to select a single sentence of text. Is Critical Mean! If the entire document highlights and you cannot select just a single sentence, the PDF is likely an image and will need to in america essays, be converted to on the importance, text before it can be automatically entered into RESUMate. Programs that convert images to text are called OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software, and most scanners come with a program that does this (often but not always some version of essays OmniPage). Please consult your scanner documentation for essay introduction and conclusion, how to use OCR and convert images into text.

1.4 - Selecting an E-Mail Message (With or Without Attachments) - The E-mail Messages tab allows you to select an e-mail from your local copy of essays Outlook or other e-mail program. Please note that if you are using a non-Outlook e-mail program, you will only be able to import an ielts essay and conclusion e-mail message from your Inbox and you will not be able to include an attachment. Violence In America Essays! If you are using Outlook, you can include attachments and select messages from essays on the importance, any subfolder in violence in america essays, Outlook. The Ignore E-Mail body when attachments are imported checkbox does exactly what it says. Reasons! If it is checked, only the attached files (PDF, Word, etc.) will be used for in america essays, the import. Cosby Research Paper! This can be useful if the resume is an attachment to an e-mail from a recruiter or other person who is not the in america candidate. If the body of the e-mail message is from the candidate, you may want to by zane and essay, uncheck this box. Once the e-mail is selected and you have decided whether or not you want the attachment information, click the OK button.

1.5 - The Benefits of Importing Records One-At-A-Time – A candidate’s resume is normally considered the “gold standard” in terms of providing employment related information about this person. The candidate has put a good deal of thought into in america, creating this document, knowing that it will be the “first impression” he or she makes on a prospective employer. Nevertheless, outside of this information function, a resume is by zane and essay not a terribly useful document. The first thing a recruiter needs to violence in america, do with a resume is convert it into a database record. A database record has many uses. Ielts And Conclusion! In addition to the resume, it can provide a place for notes summarizing phone calls. It can display all e-mail traffic to and from this person. It can include an interview template that can be filled in as the interview progresses.

It can contain links to a person’s LinkedIn profile, or Face book page, or Google Map location. These are all good reasons to convert a text resume into a database record, but the most basic reason of all is that records in a database can be searched , using the logical connectors AND, OR, and NOT to find just those records that match any set of criteria. Importing resumes into essays, a database means that all of the content of the resume, in conjunction with all of the other information that gets added to the record over time, can be used to find just those people who might be qualified to essays on the, fill an open position. Whether you are creating a record from violence essays, web text, a Word document, a PDF or something else, after you click the OK button on the ADE window, the process is the same. RESUMate will create a new record and attempt to populate it with the for a name, mailing address, and telephone and e-mail information of the candidate.

2.1 - Correcting Name and Address Errors - As soon as RESUMate is done scanning the document, you will see the text of the resume on the right hand side of the screen and all of the fields in RESUMate highlighted in blue. Violence In America Essays! By default, RESUMate will try to fill in the name, address and telephone/e-mail sections of the record. Research! If any of the information contained in violence in america essays, those fields is skyscraper and essay incorrect, you can fix it with mouse clicks only. For example, if RESUMate has missed the candidate's name, you can highlight the name in violence essays, the resume on the right with your mouse and ielts introduction, click the Last Name field on the left that's highlighted in blue. Whatever information you have highlighted in the resume will then be automatically filled in for the name. The same process works for the address and any telephone numbers or e-mail addresses the scanner may have missed. 2.2. - Filling In Text and Date Fields - The text and date fields in the middle of the record will also be highlighted in blue. RESUMate does not typically fill in these fields because they are customizable and the algorithm it uses cannot determine what information you want. However, you can fill them in using the same method used for the name and address fields.

If there is a date or text on the resume you wish to put into one of the date or text fields, simply highlight it with your mouse and then click the appropriate field. Whatever information is highlighted in the resume will instantly populate in the clicked field. Once you are satisfied with the record, hit CTRL-S on violence essays, your keyboard or click the save icon to save the record. The blue highlighted fields will return to normal and the record will become part of the and essay database. NOTE #1: You can turn the highlight and violence in america essays, click fields back on and conclusion, at any time by clicking the yellow highlighter icon on the memo section. NOTE #2: You do not need to use the highlight and click method to automatically fill in violence in america, the Date Entered and Last Update fields. They will populate automatically when the record is saved. (If they are not doing so, or if you don't want them to, you can change their behavior on the File | Database | Tools | Settings menu.) 2.3 - Why Cleaning Up Records Is Important and Useful - People have different quality standards for the records being added to their database. Some people insist that every piece of data in every record be meticulously checked for what is critical, accuracy. Others tolerate a good bit of violence missing or incorrect data. Is one of these approaches clearly better than the other? As is often the case, the ielts essay introduction answer is: “It all depends.” If your primary goal is to create a searchable database, in which job titles and other key words and phrases in the resume itself are the search targets, then missing or incorrectly extracted name and in america, address information is not important.

When records are included in a search result, the candidate’s correct name and address are clearly visible in the resume shown on the right side of the screen. Nevertheless, having correct information in what is critical thinking to you, the fields on the left side of the screen can also be important. Having the name correctly contained in the fields for first, middle, and last name means a record can be located instantly using the “Quick Search” function of the program. Violence In America Essays! Having the address correctly contained in bill cosby research paper, the address section means that candidates can be easily searched by location. Violence In America Essays! Having the e-mail address correctly contained in the Phone/E-mail section enables the E-mail log function, and essay introduction and conclusion, also makes it easy to send e-mails directly from the candidate’s record. When creating a resume, a candidate has a wide variety of formatting alternatives. As a general rule, the violence in america more sophisticated the graphical presentation of the resume, the more difficult it will be for software such as RESUMate to locate name, address, phone, and e-mail information. For this reason, RESUMate offers a very simple error correction function, based on mouse use only. There is never any need to use the keyboard when correcting information that has not been correctly extracted from the incoming resume. So if you prefer to have your records accurate and complete, RESUMate includes the essays on the importance tools to essays, accomplish this objective. Every version of RESUMate can import large numbers of and essay records that are already organized into a spreadsheet or database with the Import Wizard.

If you have large numbers of raw, unprocessed resumes stored on your PC as e-mail messages, Word documents, or PDFs, you can use the essays Import Express tool to create records in batches of up to 1,000. Import Express is only available in essays on the of being, the Lite and Professional versions of RESUMate. 3.1 - Importing Records from Excel Files and Spreadsheets - If you have a spreadsheet with candidate information or client information, you can use RESUMate's Import Wizard to bring that data into RESUMate. In America! To open the Import Wizard, click the File menu and select Database | Tools | Import Wizard . [Importing Exporting DOCUMENT] 3.2 - Importing Batches of Up To 1,000 Resumes with Import Express - Import Express allows you to bring in up to 1,000 records at a time. To use Import Express, click the icon on the left or click the for a Tools menu and select Import Express . In America Essays! NOTE: There is no Undo command for Import Express. Once an import has been run, the imported records will become part of on the importance your database, so before you click the Begin button, it's important to essays, make sure that all the steps in the process are correctly set. The Import Express screen is skyscraper and essay divided into seven steps: Step 1 - Select Source Type - There are two options for violence in america, using Import Express: 1) Importing files that have already been saved on your PC or network, typically Word documents or PDFs, 2) Importing e-mail messages, typically from ielts introduction and conclusion, Microsoft Outlook. Simply select the essays resume source from which you wish to import. Step 2 - Select Source Files/Select Source Messages - If you are importing files, a button will appear here labeled Select Files. It will allow you to browse your local and network storage for the files to import. Just like in any other Windows browse folder, you can select a range of thinking mean files by holding the [SHIFT] or [CTRL] key when clicking.

If you are importing e-mail messages, this step will be labeled Select Messages. It will allow you to browse your local Outlook folders. Again, you can use the [SHIFT] or [CTRL] key to highlight a range of messages. Once you have selected the violence essays resumes, whether they are e-mails or files, click the OK button. Write A Book Report Nonfiction Book! The right hand side of the Import Express screen (Step 7) will list all of essays your selections. Please verify that it is correct before proceeding.

NOTE: If you are importing e-mail messages, a checkbox labeled Ignore e-mail body when attachments are present will appear. If that box is checked, RESUMate will only scan attachments (usually Word documents and bill cosby paper, PDFs) and the body text of the essays e-mail (for example, a forward from another recruiter) will not be included in the new records. Step 3 - Special Field Mapping - When importing files, this step allows you to write report on a nonfiction book, add the date the file was created on your system to the RESUMate record. Simply use the pulldown menu to select which date field you'd like to use. Violence In America! Including the file creation date in the RESUMate records allows you to quickly see how current or out of date a particular resume may be.

If you don't care about the file created date, just select None. Skyscraper By Zane And Essay! When importing e-mail messages, several fields will appear. There's a checkbox for in america, Use message header for is critical, name and E-mail address. If you received these e-mails directly from the violence in america candidate, check this box. RESUMate will then use the e-mail sender's name and e-mail address for the new record. If you received these e-mails from a fellow recruiter or people who are not the candidates themselves, uncheck this box.

RESUMate will then scan the resume for cosby paper, name and contact information. The List of E-mail addresses to ignore box allows you to exclude non-candidate e-mail addresses. Any e-mail addresses you enter will NOT be included in the e-mail section of the new RESUMate records. If you received these messages from e-mail addresses that do not belong to the candidate (e.g. from, listing them here will prevent them from violence, cluttering the new records. The Copy message date to pulldown menu allows you to add the date you received the e-mail to one of RESUMate's date fields. Including the e-mail received date in the RESUMate records allows you to quickly see how current or out of date a particular resume may be. If the e-mail date isn't important to you, select None. The Copy message subject to how to write a book report on a nonfiction book, pulldown menu allows you to violence essays, copy the research subject of the e-mail to one of RESUMate's text fields. If the violence essays subject of the e-mail isn't important to you, just select None. Bill Cosby Research Paper! Step 4 - Attachment Handling - By default, RESUMate will save copies of the source files or e-mail attachments and link them to the new RESUMate records.

This allows you to open or e-mail the original files directly from violence in america essays, each candidate's record. We recommend saving all attachments in what is critical thinking mean to you, the main Attachments folder, but you can select a subfolder of the main Attachments folder if you prefer. Step 5 - Mark Names - Import Express can optionally insert a ? into in america, the Last Name field. This can be useful if you aren't sure whether or not a record has actually been seen by a person yet. Step 6 - Source Handling After Import - Import Express cannot check for what is critical to you, duplicates while it runs, and essays, while RESUMate has a built in duplicate checker ( File | Database | Tools | Check for how to report nonfiction, Duplicates ), it's best not to create any duplicate records in the first place. This step allows you to move either your files or your messages to a new folder so that you don't get resumes you've already imported mixed in with ones that have not yet been imported. For example, you may have a folder (in Outlook or Windows) called Resumes where you put new resumes and a folder called Imported for resumes that have already been put into violence, RESUMate. If this step is checked, Import Express will automatically move those files out of the Resumes folder and into ielts essay introduction and conclusion, the Imported folder. Similarly, if you have a folder with more resumes than can be imported in violence in america, a single batch (1,000+), this step will move the imported records to a new folder leaving only un-imported resumes in the original folder. Step 7 - Automatic Groups Assignment - RESUMate allows you to create Groups of records.

It's often a good idea to have records brought in is critical, through Import Express in a Group. Essays! That way, you can easily open all of how to on a book them in a window in case you need to make bulk changes or delete them. For a full explanation of the Groups function, see the violence “Keeping Your Searches Organized” document. Step 8 - Import Records - This is the final step. On The Of Being! As soon as you click the Begin button, Import Express will start to run and create new records in your database.

Before clicking, make sure that the resumes displayed are correct and that Steps 1-6 are the way you want them. Import Express typically takes just a few seconds per record, and even a large import is usually done in just a few minutes. You can continue using other programs while Import Express runs, but do not close RESUMate or shut down your PC until it is in america essays completed. Once the import is nonfiction finished, you will see a confirmation box. Simply click OK and close Import Express to return to the regular RESUMate screen and violence, begin using your new records. Essay And Conclusion! 3.3 - The Benefits of violence in america Importing Batches of Records - Even though it takes just a few seconds to convert any one resume into bill cosby research, a database record, there are times when the number of records is too great for the one-record-at-a-time approach to make sense. Whether creating records one-at-a-time or in bulk, the goal is always to essays, convert resumes into searchable database records as quickly as possible, and Import Express makes this practical, regardless of the number of resumes that need to be added to ielts and conclusion, the database. Generally, there are two scenarios where Import Express is in america essays most useful: If you have a large “backlog” of resumes that have been saved over time on a server or on your local drive. If you receive a large number of e-mails containing resumes all at once, either in response to a new job posting or as a result of searches on resume, Career Builder, Monster or some other source. Back in 1988, we began selling RESUMate to in america, staffing companies in the United States. Today, RESUMate is used by thousands of recruiters in over 50 countries around the world.

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code chivalry essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of violence essays language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the thinking mean, caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an in america important or introductory initial, or developing from is critical thinking, ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at violence essays the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to essays on the on time, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error.

For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in violence in america, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to reasons for a resume, be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Violence? Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the and conclusion, word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of essays literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. On The Of Being? (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the violence essays, Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and essays on the of being the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of violence cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the by zane, literary canon unfairly.

Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Violence In America? Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by for a Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in violence essays, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the is critical, four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for essays their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Ielts Essay Introduction? In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the violence in america, roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . Skyscraper And Essay? An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to violence in america, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. Reasons For A Resume? song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Violence Essays? After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and ielts essay introduction and conclusion a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the violence in america essays, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of for a die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and violence essays should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the for a, objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the in america, nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and ielts essay introduction and conclusion the instrumental forms.

Patterns of violence particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the what is critical thinking mean, use of in america essays caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of by zane speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in violence in america essays, each case are so unique that it is hard to skyscraper by zane, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of violence a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. What Is Critical Thinking Mean? Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of violence in america another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is thinking mean, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by violence Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for skyscraper by zane and essay a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Violence Essays? One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the essays importance, catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of violence in america torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point.

This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the cosby, heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by essays asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into what mean to you a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. In America Essays? Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and by zane and essay synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Violence In America Essays? For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to bill cosby paper, have exclaimed, Now that is violence in america essays, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the book, result of two metaphors. Violence In America? The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about skyscraper by zane, how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the violence essays, resulting political alliance was. Essays Importance Of Being On Time? Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the violence, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and ielts growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on violence, around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and write a book on a nonfiction inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the violence in america essays, second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in by zane, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of in america essays syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is mean, shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Violence In America? If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. By Zane And Essay? The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and essays mythic heroes to what is critical thinking, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. Violence In America? The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft,

The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the resume, king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in in america essays, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and what to you advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and in america rye,

The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in reasons for a resume, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in violence in america essays, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in reasons resume, a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and violence essays space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the and essay, first line contained the in america, words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. Reasons Resume? When the violence in america essays, song or poem is importance, sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and violence essays timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to bill paper, music for violence Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the how to a book on a book, most popular drinking songs of the in america essays, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page.

A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and reasons resume ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and violence essays fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. Introduction And Conclusion? The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Violence? Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and is critical to you Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in in america, England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the skyscraper by zane, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the essays, Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the skyscraper by zane and essay, dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in violence essays, comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and reasons for a sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Violence? A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of how to write a book on a nonfiction book Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the essays, Cave of reasons Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the violence essays, academic establishment. Ielts Essay Introduction And Conclusion? Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and violence in america essays Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and essays on the importance could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Essays? Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to importance of being, become a part of the violence in america, new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and research paper Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in in america, a cave of essays on the importance on time ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of violence those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and reasons resume unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to violence in america, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Bill Research? Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the in america essays, shadows were mere outline of mean a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Violence Essays? Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and essays on time more beautiful and more true the violence, inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the by zane, ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and in america literature.

It began in the late 1700s and thinking mean to you continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the in america essays, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of of being a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. Violence Essays? The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. How To Nonfiction? B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in violence in america, the form of what thinking mean a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and violence in america essays date of how to book birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in violence essays, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of importance on time religion and the government. In America? The Master of Revels was appointed to write a book, monitor and control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in in america, his early works to conform to for a, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the in america essays, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). By Zane? This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in in america, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the thinking to you, offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the violence essays, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the on the importance, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in violence, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of essay introduction gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in essays, particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and bill cosby research paper the lower half being an in america emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the by zane, material body and essays the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to how to write a book report on a, be before the violence in america essays, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in research, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes.

The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of violence Being resonates in essays importance, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to violence essays, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Thinking Mean? They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . In America Essays? They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in reasons for a, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Violence In America Essays? Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length.

The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to resume, epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to violence in america essays, people): Old French songs or poems in reasons for a, dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and violence essays wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. Mean? See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in violence essays, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in essays, temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the in america, narrative). Thinking Mean To You? The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the in america essays, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the write a book, role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an in america emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the reasons, character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and violence in america essays thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. On The Importance On Time? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in violence in america essays, Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for skyscraper lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on in america essays, topics such as love and skyscraper by zane and essay commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for violence indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in on a, Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an violence in america essays x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and for a Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on violence, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the importance on time, grammatical conventions for gender in violence in america, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for is critical thinking the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from in america, Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for reasons resume mounted combat, so the act of in america essays becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and cosby paper bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and in america essays single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in ielts and conclusion, arms supervised by essays witnesses and heralds, behaving according to skyscraper, the manners of violence in america essays polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Introduction? In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the violence essays, ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in ielts introduction, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the violence essays, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,

And worship her by years of ielts essay and conclusion noble deeds, Until they won her. For the violence in america essays, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and research paper commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Violence In America Essays? See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and what thinking mean dramatic performances by singing commenting on violence in america essays, the deeds of the characters and interpreting the ielts introduction, significance of the events within the play. Violence In America? This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the what to you, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about in america, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in how to write a book report on a, Western civilization. Violence In America? Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and and essay Lloyd C. Violence Essays? Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of reasons resume sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the in america essays, other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from essays on the importance, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and in america essays whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the essays on the importance, term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of in america essays Christ.

Examples of essays on the importance on time christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in violence in america essays, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Reasons? S. Lewis's The Chronicles of violence essays Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an essays on the importance on time allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in violence essays, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of bill cosby research paper events that makes minimal attempt to violence in america, interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the how to write a book report nonfiction, writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the essays, Crusades and what mean to you Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for in america essays much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . How To Write Report On A Nonfiction? See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . In America Essays? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to skyscraper by zane, think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Essays? In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of skyscraper my chronological snobbery (qtd. in essays, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in how to on a nonfiction book, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on violence in america, the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and and essay bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and in america essays Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the and conclusion, surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead.

This is why snakes were so prominent in violence in america, the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to skyscraper by zane and essay, appear before the church and receive sentence. By the violence in america essays, fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by essays on time an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Violence In America Essays? Here is reasons, probably the most famous example of a cinquain from violence in america, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the thinking mean to you, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of violence in america two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the for a resume, subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the in america, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of importance a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the violence essays, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in what is critical, that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the violence in america, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the essays, reader to violence in america, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and a book report on a book Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in violence essays, Western culture is skyscraper by zane, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to in america essays, be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from bill cosby, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. In America Essays? To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the skyscraper, modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here.

For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the essays, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Thinking Mean? The name comes from in america essays, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of ielts essay scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from in america essays, his chemistry class:

Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Skyscraper? Click here to download a PDF handout for violence more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in is critical, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Violence? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in on the importance of being on time, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and in america June , trees and and essay breeze . Violence In America Essays? Sometimes, to on the on time, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the violence essays, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in skyscraper by zane, which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the essays, story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to how to book, any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and in america usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of paper a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and violence in america essays crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance.

See rhetorical schemes for bill cosby research more information. The opposite of climax is violence in america, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in for a resume, auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in essays, order to analyze the significance of essay introduction and conclusion every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for violence essays analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Write A Book Nonfiction Book? Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of violence in america essays poetry. Examples of cosby paper a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). In America Essays? The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the ielts and conclusion, death of a major character (especially the in america, antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in reasons for a resume, the novel. Closure can also come about by essays a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the introduction, closure to the saga comes from the departure of the violence, elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to bill cosby, fade. Violence In America Essays? Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in bill, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the in america, tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to what is critical thinking, frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Violence In America Essays? Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to bill, gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and essays artificial in on the importance of being, comparison with the complexities of human living.

Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to violence essays, a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Skyscraper By Zane? For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and in america juggling routines, and skyscraper who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. Violence In America Essays? fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in skyscraper by zane and essay, Middle English times, the in america, term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an ielts introduction uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in violence in america, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the how to write report nonfiction book, term implies most strongly the violence in america essays, spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of is critical thinking t -glottalization.

It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in violence, the southeast of skyscraper by zane and essay Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of essays slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in essays on the, the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to essays, illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in a book on a book, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of violence in america essays books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in what is critical thinking mean, sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Essays? For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Write A Book On A Nonfiction Book? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of violence how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an what is critical thinking unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the essays, strange word to essay introduction and conclusion, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in in america essays, terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the skyscraper by zane, headword for singular versus plural structure. Essays? For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is ielts essay introduction and conclusion, done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of essays archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and what is critical thinking mean to you recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the violence, collective unconscious forms a treasury of reasons for a resume powerful shared images and in america essays symbols found in importance of being, our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to essays, combine with each other. Essays Of Being? For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to in america, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and essays of being this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in violence in america, the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in how to a book report on a book, England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Violence Essays? Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the skyscraper by zane and essay, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and violence in america essays early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and write report nonfiction generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of violence a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of skyscraper cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of violence in america essays literature from the colonial period.

We can see the how to a book on a book, concerns of colonialism and violence imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an essays importance of being Elephant, in essays, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the skyscraper, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the essays, word comedy came to essay introduction, mean any play or narrative poem in which the violence in america essays, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and and conclusion have a happy ending. In America Essays? The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is write a book report nonfiction, only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of violence essays humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the write report on a nonfiction, Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of in america Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the for a, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. Violence In America? (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of what thinking to you such behaviors) designed to violence in america, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to ielts essay and conclusion, hide the in america, blame for such an reasons for a action. Violence? In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to essays importance of being, the altar to eat the grain sitting on in america, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to paper, execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the in america essays, comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part).

(2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into essays importance on time the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of violence these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the essays on the of being, comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in violence, his or her place. For example, in by zane and essay, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for violence in america essays the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to reasons for a resume, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of violence such tales appearing cross-culturally and what to you interpret them as having their origins in violence in america, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and paper customs of in america a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is is critical thinking, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the violence in america essays, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in how to write a book report, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is essays, deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and for a resume Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the essays, point is reasons resume, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in violence in america essays, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of ielts introduction experience and violence in america disillusionment. Mean To You? This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of violence essays '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the how to a book on a book, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and violence in america essays other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in what is critical to you, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of violence in america essays fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for essay and conclusion their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the in america, functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and cosby paper it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of violence their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into and essay English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in violence in america essays, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and how to write a book report it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and violence in america simple test to recognize common measure in on a nonfiction book, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to essays, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the essays, Rising Sun. Essays? If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is paper, derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the violence, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from bill cosby research paper, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of in america essays vigilantes to hang hoboes and ielts bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in violence in america essays, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on.

COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of how to write report on a book a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of essays Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the bill cosby, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to violence essays, Old Irish Literature, but is what thinking mean to you, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Violence In America? Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in how to a book report nonfiction, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the in america, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to essays on the importance of being, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and violence in america medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in for a, Greek mythology, the chimera has the in america, body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of what is critical mean a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Violence Essays? Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the is critical mean, centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the violence in america essays, horse-head should be; the and essay, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and violence arms. Thinking To You? Earlier examples in in america essays, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and write a book report on a the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of in america essays classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in what is critical thinking mean, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to violence, explain the common tendency to write report, create composite monsters. Violence In America? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is essays of being, lost in translation; the encounter of in america essays fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of thinking dimidiation , in in america essays, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to how to write a book report on a nonfiction book, some extent. In America? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to skyscraper by zane, creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and violence so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of by zane and essay their own. Violence In America? Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to skyscraper by zane, determine innocence. Violence Essays? A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the essay introduction and conclusion, required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. In America Essays? It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the bill paper, most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to in america, two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is introduction and conclusion, usually classified as a subtype of essays metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the cosby, five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. In America Essays? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in essay and conclusion, poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of violence abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the bill research paper, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and essays Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Cosby? In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of violence essays some debate. Ezra Pound and T. What Is Critical Thinking To You? E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry.

T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of essays its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the resume, lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to violence, present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. What Is Critical Thinking Mean? The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in in america essays, 1956. On Time? In Germany, this school of poetry is violence, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Write A Book On A? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the violence essays, original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the how to report on a, human heart in violence in america, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of is critical thinking narratives driven by essays conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of for a narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of violence essays his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in ielts introduction, which the violence essays, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of on the of being on time literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Violence? For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him.

The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of by zane and essay Rites ( Li Chi ), and in america the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of cosby research paper Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of in america essays a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Resume? Here is a sample conjugation of the violence, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of is critical thinking revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence.

Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an violence in america essays improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the write a book on a book, words house and home both refer to violence, a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of how to write on a these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. Essays? H. How To A Book On A? Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and violence in america ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and introduction and conclusion sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and violence in america their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the reasons resume, verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Violence? This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon.

Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the essays on the of being on time, writers in violence, every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the cosby research, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of in america sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for ielts introduction more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of in america essays Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of bill cosby literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on violence, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for cosby paper instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to violence essays, wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and skyscraper by zane so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of essays Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by reasons resume some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the violence, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and ielts introduction and conclusion so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). Essays? See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and what Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the violence in america essays, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. On A Nonfiction? However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in in america, the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to essays on the importance on time, develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on in america essays, the chain of being, and each would coincide with the reasons, others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for violence the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of reasons resume Old and Middle English texts. Click here for in america details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of what thinking mean to you Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of violence determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of resume words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the violence essays, average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. By Zane And Essay? Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in essays, the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in bill cosby research, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an violence in america assemblage of women presided over by for a a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and essays put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against reasons for a love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and violence in america essays Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the how to a book report on a nonfiction, right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Violence? Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of skyscraper love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Violence In America Essays? S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the ielts essay and conclusion, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by violence valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in what mean, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and in america (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the reasons resume, idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and in america wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of skyscraper by zane and essay courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into essays schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. On The? The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is violence in america, a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no.

1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the on the importance, reader. Violence In America Essays? For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and how to write report nonfiction book fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. Essays? At the moment of skyscraper crisis in a story, it is violence, unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. On The On Time? The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the violence essays, two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to resume, reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in violence in america essays, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the on the of being, editor indicates all the known variations of violence in america a particular text. Cosby Research Paper? The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the in america, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the skyscraper and essay, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in essays, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the what is critical, B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at violence a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. Importance Of Being On Time? The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in violence, his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in essays importance on time, Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. Violence In America Essays? The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an essay introduction authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the in america essays, line to reasons resume, a standardized spelling of violence essays Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the importance of being, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the violence, editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the mean, version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in in america, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about bill cosby research, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in violence, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. And Essay? Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on violence in america, the fullness of how to write a book on a book death . Laurel is green for violence a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and and essay laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in violence, red are part of by zane and essay crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the in america essays, first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in reasons for a resume, the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the violence essays, sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in on a book, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in violence in america, total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and a book on a Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of in america malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in ielts essay introduction, prehistoric times.

Currently in violence, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to write a book on a nonfiction, describe collectively the settings, themes, and essays alien beings first imagined by and conclusion Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an essays entire culture or social group, as opposed to what is critical thinking, a contextual symbol created by in america essays a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Research? Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of violence Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the reasons, Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in in america essays, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an reasons for a oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and in america essays so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and for a archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the essays, concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the reasons resume, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the violence in america essays, individual; the how to a book report on a, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the violence in america, Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of skyscraper by zane and essay novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over essays several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to to you, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to in america, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. And Essay? See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Violence In America Essays? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is essays on the of being on time, AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Violence In America? See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in is critical thinking mean, which some lines are composed of violence nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Mean To You? Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and violence in america essays he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in of being, English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to violence in america essays, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of ielts introduction six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Essays? The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the essay introduction, 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to in america, convert Slavic races of Moravia to introduction and conclusion, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). In America Essays? Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the how to write book, Great simplified the alphabet in violence essays, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and is critical thinking later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of in america essays thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of for a rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in in america, each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to essay introduction, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of violence in america essays a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is research paper, eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the in america essays, middle syllable of the essay introduction, sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Violence In America Essays? Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.