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Araby; A literary Analysis Essay Sample. The vivid imagery in “Araby” by James Joyce is used to express the narrator’s romantic feelings and situations throughout the story. The story is based on a young boy’s adoration for a girl. Though Joyce never reveals any names, the girl is known to be “Mangan’s Sister.” The boy is nucleus essay, wrapped up around the writing exercises promise to her that he would buy her a gift if he attends the Araby Bazaar. Nucleus! From the beginning to the end, Joyce uses imagery to writing creativity exercises, define the pain that often comes when one encounters love in reality instead of its elevated form. Imagery is used in essay the very first line of the grudge romeo and juliet essay story stating, “North Richmond Street, being blind, was a quiet street except at the hour when the Christian Brothers’ School set the boys free. Essay! An uninhabited house of two storeys stood at essay useful, the blind end, detached from its neighbors in a square ground. The other houses of the nucleus street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces.” (609). Joyce uses many light and darkness references in the first paragraph to set up the plot of the story. The story starts in a street that is “quiet” until the “Christian Brothers’ School sets the boys free.” The narrator also makes notice of an “uninhabited house of two storeys stood at the blind end, detached from its neighbors.” Showing the setting, the reader is grudge romeo and juliet, forced to picture an old house, most likely bigger than most houses for their time, at the end of a neighborhood. In the third paragraph of the story the narrator says, “When the short days of nucleus essay winter came dusk fell before we had grown somber.
The space of sky above us was the color of ever-changing violet and towards it the writing exercises lamps of the street lifted their feeble lanterns. The cold air stung us and we played till our bodies glowed. Our shouts echoed in the silent street. The career of our play brought us through the dark muddy lanes behind the houses where we ran the gauntlet of the rough tribes from the essay cottages, to the back doors of the dark dripping gardens where odors arose from the ashpits, to the dark odorous stables where a coachman smoothed and combed the horse or shook music from the buckled harness” (610). When talking about how and where the narrator plays with his friends, the reader is automatically envisioning the scenery. The pinkish-blue winter skies, “The…sky above us was the color of ever-changing violet…”, the mud ridden alleys of which the kids “ran the gauntlet”, to the dark stables which had terrible fragrance from the horses the coachman took care of. To Innocence Essays And Politics! In this paragraph alone, Joyce uses several examples to let the reader visualize and empathize with the narrator.
When describing the narrator’s fascination for Mangan’s sister, Joyce does not hold back on his imagery. “She was waiting for us, her figure defined by the light from the half-opened door…. Nucleus Essay! I stood by the railings looking at her. Her dress swung as she moved her body and the soft rope of essay her hair tossed from side to side” (610). This is the essay first time the young narrator shows his interest in his friend’s sister. He begins to grow fascinated with her. Throughout the rest of the story, the narrator gives descriptive thoughts and images of his love. About Petruchio! With each line and image the narrator describes, it helps the reader see the visions that the young boy is seeing. The first line of the nucleus essay next paragraph he proclaims, “Every morning I lay on the floor in ancient and juliet essay the front parlor watching her door. The blind was pulled down to within an inch of the sash so that I could not be seen” (610). Essay! It is almost as if he begins to “stalk” the young lady. “When she came out on the doorstep my heart leaped. I ran to the hall, seized my books, and essay about petruchio, followed her” (610).
The boy begins to spend day and night thinking about his love. The reader begins to understand the nucleus longing the letter narrator has for Mangan’s sister. “Her image accompanied me even in places the nucleus most hostile to romance” (610). The narrator states that he carries groceries for his aunt while they are shopping and all he can do is compare useful, think of her. He imagines that he “…bore my chalice safely through a throng of foes. Her name sprang to my lips at moments in essay strange prayers and praises which I myself did not understand. My eyes were often full of tears (I could not tell why) and at times a flood from my heart seemed to john dryden of dramatic poesie, pour itself out into my bosom” (610). He begins to look at her as a trophy or a prize. He envisions Mangan’s sister as a “chalice” showing how his infatuation has grown much deeper.
In the scene where the narrator is in the late priest’s house during the middle of the night, he states, “It was a dark rainy evening and there was no sound in the house….I heard the rain impinge upon nucleus essay the earth, the letter fine incessant needles of water playing in the sodden beds” (611). The auditory image helps contribute to the drama. “There was no sound in the house”, but outside the narrator heard the rain #8220;impinge upon the earth#8221; with #8220;fine incessant needles of water#8221;. The choice of words in this line makes the rain seem almost as if it is hostile. Nucleus! This helps the reader be able to “hear” the force and fury of the storm making the narrators emotions even more intense. Later in the story, the narrator is in the second story of his house looking down upon his friends playing in the streets without him. The cries of his friends reach him “weakened and indistinct”. To Innocence! This image brings about an impression that the boy now feels #8220;removed#8221; from his friends and their games, because he is caught up in essay his fantasy.
Normally, he would be down there playing with them, but now his head is filled with much more pressing thoughts. They drown out the to innocence essays on culture and politics laughter and fun of his friends#8217; childish games. Finally, when the boy enters the stalls of the Bazaar, he finds nearly all of them to be closed. He states, “I recognized a silence like that which pervades a church after a service” (613). This image makes the Bazaar feel depressed or low-spirited, almost as if the narrator does not wish to be in attendance. It stresses that he is nucleus essay, late and grudge and juliet, has missed the main events. It also seems to introduce a shift in nucleus the boy#8217;s perspective. It seems as the boy enters the bazaar and notices this silence, the vainness of his fantasy slowly begins to dawn on him. In “Araby” by an end to innocence and politics, James Joyce, the message of nucleus this short story is made clear by the depiction of imagery; the writing pain that often comes when one encounters love in reality instead of its elevated form. The narrator realizes as he enters the Bazaar that his obsession with his friend’s sister is senseless.
He begins to nucleus essay, reminisce on the times where he did nothing but think about her. He saw her as a pure girl as he had been taught in his church. While standing in the Bazaar, he begins to realize the hard ships of the exercises world. He thinks of the girl from a worldly view and see’s the major difference in the way he was raised and essay, taught in his church. Is this the perfect essay for you?
Save time and order Araby; A literary Analysis. essay editing for only $13.9 per an end to innocence essays on culture page. Nucleus! Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for writing Araby; A literary Analysis. As humans grow they pass through various stages of development, often some stages are never reached, when a new stage is successfully reached the person has under gone some sort#8230; Lost in Love: A Comparison of #8220;At the nucleus Pitt-Rivers#8221; to #8220;Araby#8221; In both Penelope Lively#8217;s #8220;At the Pitt-Rivers#8221; and essay words, James Joyce#8217;s #8220;Araby#8221; the boy narrators have skewed views about love. Throughout his particular story however, each narrator realizes that his ideas#8230; Comparision Of Araby And Young Goodman Brown. Reality The two stories #8220;Araby#8221; and #8220;Young Goodman Brown#8221; have many points in common as well as differences. Nucleus! These stories deal with the realization of growing up or realization of#8230; Araby And Eveline (Similarities In Theme #038; Plot) Eveline and Araby Both Eveline and Araby were well written short stories by James Joyce. Reading these two stories without performing any analysis or study, it would be improbable to#8230; Stream of consciousness greatly affects the way an author can present his story to his readers. The way that they can shift from dryden an essay of dramatic poesie, topic to topic is incredible because it#8230; Short essay on camparison of #8220;Araby#8221; and #8220;Young Goodman Brown#8221;
The short stories #8220;Araby#8221; by James Joyce and #8220;Young Goodman Brown#8221; by Nathaniel Hawthorne are both stories about change; however both characters change in very different ways. Organized religion imposes#8230;
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Ils sont longs comme des échalas, ronds comme des citrouilles, noueux comme des branches d'olivier, courbés en avant ou rejetés en arrière par l'ampleur du ventre, et, invariablement laids, ils sautent dans l'eau qui rejaillit jusque sur les buveurs du café. Malgré les arbres immenses penchés sur la maison flottante et malgré le voisinage de l'eau, une chaleur suffocante emplissait ce lieu. Useful Words? Les émanations des liqueurs répandues se mêlaient à l'odeur des corps et à celle des parfums violents dont la peau des marchandes d'amour est pénétrée et qui s'évaporaient dans cette fournaise. Nucleus Essay? Mais sous toutes ces senteurs diverses flottait un arôme léger de poudre de riz qui parfois disparaissait, qu'on retrouvait toujours, comme si quelque main cachée eût secoué dans l'air une houppe invisible. Le spectacle était sur le fleuve, où le va-et-vient incessant des barques tirait les yeux. To Innocence Essays On Culture And Politics? Les canetières s'étalaient dans leur fauteuil en face de leurs mâles aux forts poignets, et elles considéraient avec mépris les quêteuses de dîners rôdant dans 1'île. Quelquefois, quand une équipe lancée passait à toute vitesse, les amis descendus à terre poussaient des cris, et tout le public, subitement pris de folie, se mettait à hurler. Au coude de la rivière, vers Chatou, se montraient sans cesse des barques nouvelles. Nucleus? Elles approchaient, grandissaient, et, à mesure qu'on reconnaissait les visages, d'autres vociférations partaient. Un canot couvert d'une tente et monté par quatre femmes descendait lentement le courant.
Celle qui ramait était petite, maigre, fanée, vêtue d'un costume de mousse avec ses cheveux relevés sous un chapeau ciré. Ancient Grudge And Juliet Essay? En face d'elle, une grosse blondasse habillée en homme, avec un veston de flanelle blanche, se tenait couchée sur le dos au fond du bateau, les jambes en l'air sur le flanc des deux côtés de la rameuse, et elle fumait une cigarette, tandis qu'à chaque effort des avirons sa poitrine et son ventre frémissaient, ballottés par la secousse. Essay? Tout à l'arrière, sous la tente, deux belles filles grandes et minces l'une brune et l'autre blonde, se tenaient par la taille en regardant sans cesse leurs compagnes. Un cri partit de la Grenouillère: V'là Lesbos! et, tout à coup, ce fut une clameur furieuse; une bousculade effrayante eut lieu; les verres tombaient; on writing exercises montait sur les tables, tous, dans un délire de bruit, vociféraient Lesbos! Lesbos! Lesbos! Le cri roulait, devenait indistinct, ne formait plus qu'une sorte de hurlement effroyable, puis, soudain, il semblait s'élancer de nouveau, monter par l'espace, couvrir la plaine, emplir le feuillage épais des grands arbres, s'étendre aux lointains coteaux, aller jusqu'au soleil. La rameuse, devant cette ovation, s'était arrêtée tranquillement. Nucleus Essay? La grosse blonde étendue au fond du canot tourna la tête d'un air nonchalant, se soulevant sur les coudes; et les deux belles filles, à l'arrière, se mirent à rire en saluant la foule. Alors la vocifération redoubla, faisant trembler l'établissement flottant. Petruchio? Les hommes levaient leurs chapeaux, les femmes agitaient leurs mouchoirs, et toutes les voix, aiguës ou graves, criaient ensemble: Lesbos!
On eût dit que ce peuple, ce ramassis de corrompus, saluait un chef, comme ces escadres qui tirent le canon quand un amiral passe sur leur front. La flotte nombreuse des barques acclamait aussi le canot des femmes, qui repartit de son allure somnolente pour aborder un peu plus loin. M. Essay? Paul, au contraire des autres, avait tiré une clef de sa poche, et, de toute sa force, il sifflait. Essay Petruchio? Sa maîtresse, nerveuse, pâlie encore, lui tenait le bras pour le faire taire et elle le regardait cette fois avec une rage dans les yeux. Nucleus? Mais lui, semblait exaspéré, par une jalousie d'homme, par une fureur profonde, instinctive, désordonnée. An End To Innocence On Culture? Il balbutia, les lèvres tremblantes d'indignation: - C'est honteux! on essay devrait les noyer comme des chiennes avec une pierre au cou.
Mais Madeleine, brusquement, s'emporta; sa petite voix aigre devint sifflante, et elle parlait avec volubilité, comme pour plaider sa propre cause: - Est-ce que ça te regarde, toi? Sont-elles pas libres de faire ce qu'elles veulent, puisqu'elles ne doivent rien à personne? Fiche-nous la paix avec tes manières et mêle-toi de tes affaires. Mais il lui coupa la parole. - C'est la police que ça regarde, et je les ferai flanquer à Saint-Lazare, moi!
Elle eut un soubresaut: - Oui, moi! Et, en attendant, je te défends de leur parler, tu entends, je te le défends. Alors elle haussa les épaules, et calmée tout à coup: - Mon petit, je ferai ce qui me plaira; si tu n'es pas content, file, et tout de suite. To Innocence? Je ne suis pas ta femme, n'est-ce pas? Alors tais toi. Il ne répondit pas et ils restèrent face à face, avec la bouche crispée et la respiration rapide. A l'autre bout du grand café de bois, les quatre femmes faisaient leur entrée. Nucleus Essay? Les deux costumées en hommes marchaient devant: l'une maigre, pareille à un garçonnet vieillot avec des teintes jaunes sur les tempes; l'autre, emplissant de sa graisse ses vêtements de flanelle blanche, bombant de sa croupe le large pantalon, se balançait comme une oie grasse, ayant les cuisses énormes et les genoux rentrés. Tools? Leurs deux amies les suivaient et la foule des canotiers venait leur serrer les mains.
Elles avaient loué toutes les quatre un petit chalet au bord de l'eau, et elles vivaient là, comme auraient vécu deux ménages. Leur vice était public, officiel, patent. Nucleus Essay? On en parlait comme d'une chose naturelle, qui les rendait presque sympathiques, et l'on chuchotait tout bas des histoires étranges, des drames nés de furieuses jalousies féminines, et des visites secrètes de femmes connues, d'actrices, à la petite maison du bord de l'eau. Un voisin, révolté de ces bruits scandaleux, avait prévenu la gendarmerie, et le brigadier, suivi d'un homme, était venu faire une enquête. Essay About? La mission était délicate; on nucleus essay ne pouvait, en somme, rien reprocher à ces femmes, qui ne se livraient point à la prostitution.
Le brigadier, fort perplexe, ignorant même à peu près la nature des faits soupçonnés, avait interrogé à l'aventure, et fait un rapport monumental concluant à l'innocence. On en avait ri jusqu'à Saint-Germain. Elles traversaient à petits pas, comme des reines, l'établissement de la Grenouillère; et elles semblaient fières de leur célébrité, heureuses des regards fixés sur elles, supérieures à cette foule, à cette tourbe, à cette plèbe. Madeleine et son amant les regardaient venir, et dans l'oeil de la fille une flamme s'allumait. Lorsque les deux premières furent au bout de la table, Madeleine cria: Pauline! La grosse se retourna, s'arrêta, tenant toujours le bras de son moussaillon femelle: - Tiens!
Madeleine. John Dryden Of Dramatic? Viens donc me parler, ma chérie. Paul crispa ses doigts sur le poignet de sa maîtresse; mais elle lui dit d'un tel air: Tu sais, mon petit, tu peux filer, qu'il se tut et resta seul. Alors elles causèrent tout bas, debout, toutes les trois. Nucleus? Des gaietés heureuses passaient sur leurs lèvres; elles parlaient vite; et Pauline, par instants, regardait Paul à la dérobée avec un sourire narquois et méchant. A la fin, n'y tenant plus, il se leva soudain et fut près d'elles d'un élan, tremblant de tous ses membres. Dryden Of Dramatic? Il saisit Madeleine par les épaules: Viens, je le veux, dit-il, je t'ai défendu de parler à ces gueuses.
Mais Pauline éleva la voix et se mit à l'engueuler avec son répertoire de poissarde. Nucleus Essay? On riait alentour; on ancient s'approchait; on nucleus se haussait sur le bout des pieds afin de mieux voir. Letter Tools? Et lui restait interdit sous cette pluie d'injures fangeuses; il lui semblait que les mots sortant de cette bouche et tombant sur lui le salissaient comme des ordures, et, devant le scandale qui commençait, il recula, retourna sur ses pas, et s'accouda sur la balustrade vers le fleuve, le dos tourné aux trois femmes victorieuses. Il resta là, regardant l'eau, et parfois, avec un geste rapide, comme s'il l'eût arrachée, l'enlevait d'un doigt nerveux une larme formée au coin de son oeil. C'est qu'il aimait éperdument, sans savoir pourquoi, malgré ses instincts délicats, malgré sa raison, malgré sa volonté même. Nucleus? Il était tombé dans cet amour comme on dryden of dramatic poesie tombe dans un trou bourbeux. Nucleus Essay? D'une nature attendrie et fine, il avait rêvé des passions exquises, idéales et passionnées; et voilà que ce petit criquet de femme, bête, comme toutes les filles, d'une bêtise exaspérante, pas jolie même, maigre et rageuse, l'avait pris, captivé, possédé des pieds à la tête, corps et âme. Creativity Exercises? Il subissait cet ensorcellement féminin, mystérieux et tout puissant, cette force inconnue, cette domination prodigieuse, venue on nucleus ne sait d'où, du démon de la chair, et qui jette l'homme le plus sensé aux pieds d'une fille quelconque sans que rien en elle explique son pouvoir fatal et souverain. Et là, derrière son dos, il sentait qu'une chose infâme s'apprêtait. Dryden An Essay Poesie? Des rires lui entraient au coeur. Nucleus Essay? Que faire?
Il le savait bien, mais il ne le pouvait pas. Il regardait fixement, sur la berge en face, un pêcheur à la ligne immobile. Soudain le bonhomme enleva brusquement du fleuve un petit poisson d'argent qui frétillait au bout du fil. An End Essays And Politics? Puis il essaya de retirer son hameçon, le tordit, le tourna, mais en vain; alors, pris d'impatience, il se mit à tirer, et tout le gosier saignant de la bête sortit avec un paquet d'entrailles. Nucleus? Et Paul frémit, déchiré lui-même jusqu'au coeur; il lui sembla que cet hameçon c'était son amour, et que s'il fallait l'arracher, tout ce qu'il avait dans la poitrine sortirait ainsi au bout d'un fer recourbé, accroché au fond de lui, et dont Madeleine tenait le fil. Une main se posa sur son épaule; il eut un sursaut, se tourna; sa maîtresse était à son côté. On Culture And Politics? Ils ne se parlèrent pas; et elle s'accouda comme lui à la balustrade, les yeux fixés sur la rivière.
Il cherchait ce qu'il devait dire, et ne trouvait rien. Nucleus? Il ne parvenait même pas à démêler ce qui se passait en lui; tout ce qu'il éprouvait, c'était une joie de la sentir là, près de lui, revenue, et une lâcheté honteuse, un besoin de pardonner tout, de tout permettre pourvu qu'elle ne le quittât point. Enfin, au bout de quelques minutes, il lui demanda d'une voix très douce: Veux-tu que nous nous en allions? il ferait meilleur dans le bateau. Elle répondit: Oui, mon chat. Et il l'aida à descendre dans la yole, la soutenant, lui serrant les mains, tout attendri, avec quelques larmes encore dans les yeux.
Alors elle le regarda en souriant et ils s'embrassèrent de nouveau. Ils remontèrent le fleuve tout doucement, longeant la rive plantée de saules, couverte d'herbes, baignée et tranquille dans la tiédeur de l'après-midi. Lorsqu'ils furent revenus au restaurant Grillon, il était à peine six heures; alors, laissant leur yole, ils partirent à pied dans l'île, vers Bezons, à travers les prairies, le long des hauts peupliers qui bordent le fleuve. Les grands foins, prêts à être fauchés, étaient remplis de fleurs. An End Essays On Culture? Le soleil qui baissait étalait dessus une nappe de lumière rousse et, dans la chaleur adoucie du jour finissant, les flottantes exhalaisons de l'herbe se mêlaient aux humides senteurs du fleuve, imprégnaient l'air d'une langueur tendre, d'un bonheur léger, comme d'une vapeur de bien-être. Une molle défaillance venait aux coeurs, et une espèce de communion avec cette splendeur calme du soir, avec ce vague et mystérieux frisson de vie épandue, avec cette poésie pénétrante, mélancolique, qui semblait sortir des plantes, des choses, s'épanouir, révélée aux sens en cette heure douce et recueillie. Il sentait tout cela, lui; mais elle ne le comprenait pas, elle. Essay? Ils marchaient côte à côte; et soudain, lasse de se taire, elle chanta. Ancient Grudge Romeo And Juliet? Elle chanta de sa voix aigrelette et fausse quelque chose qui courait les rues, un air traînant dans les mémoires, qui déchira brusquement la profonde et sereine harmonie du soir. Alors il la regarda, et il sentit entre eux un infranchissable abîme.
Elle battait les herbes de son ombrelle, la tête un peu baissée, contemplant ses pieds, et chantant, filant des sons, essayant des roulades, osant des trilles. Son petit front, étroit, qu'il aimait tant, était donc vide, vide! Il n'y avait là-dedans que cette musique de serinette; et les pensées qui s'y formaient par hasard étaient pareilles à cette musique. Essay? Elle ne comprenait rien de lui; ils étaient plus séparés que s'ils ne vivaient pas ensemble. About Petruchio? Ses baisers n'allaient donc jamais plus loin que les lèvres? Alors elle releva les yeux vers lui et sourit encore. Essay? Il fut remué jusqu'aux moelles, et, ouvrant les bras, dans un redoublement d'amour, il l'étreignit passionnément.
Comme il chiffonnait sa robe, elle finit par se dégager, en murmurant par compensation: Va, je t'aime bien, mon chat. Mais il la saisit par la taille, et, pris de folie, l'entraîna en courant; et il l'embrassait sur la joue, sur la tempe, sur le cou, tout en sautant d'allégresse. Essay About Petruchio? Ils s'abattirent, haletants, au pied d'un buisson incendié par les rayons du soleil couchant, et, avant d'avoir repris haleine, ils s'unirent, sans qu'elle comprît son exaltation. Ils revenaient en se tenant les deux mains, quand soudain à travers les arbres, ils aperçurent sur la rivière le canot monté par les quatre femmes. Nucleus? La grosse Pauline aussi les vit, car elle se redressa, envoyant à Madeleine des baisers. Exercises? Puis elle cria: A ce soir! Madeleine répondit: A ce soir! Paul crut sentir soudain son coeur enveloppé de glace.
Et ils rentrèrent pour dîner. Ils s'installèrent sous une des tonnelles au bord de l'eau et se mirent à manger en silence. Essay? Quand la nuit fut venue, on compare and contrast essay useful words apporta une bougie, enfermée dans un globe de verre, qui les éclairait d'une lueur faible et vacillante; et l'on entendait à tout moment les explosions de cris des canotiers dans la grande salle du premier. Vers le dessert, Paul, prenant tendrement la main de Madeleine, lui dit: Je me sens très fatigué, ma mignonne; si tu veux, nous nous coucherons de bonne heure. Mais elle avait compris la ruse, et elle lui lança ce regard énigmatique, ce regard à perfidies qui apparaît si vite au fond de l'oeil de la femme. Nucleus Essay? Puis, après avoir réfléchi, elle répondit: - Tu te coucheras si tu veux, moi j'ai promis d'aller au bal de la Grenouillère. Il eut un sourire lamentable, un de ces sourires dont on compare and contrast useful words voile les plus horribles souffrances, mais il répondit d'un ton caressant et navré: Si tu étais bien gentille, nous resterions tous les deux. Nucleus Essay? Elle fit non de la tête sans ouvrir la bouche.
Il insista: T'en prie! ma bichette. Writing Exercises? Alors elle rompit brusquement: Tu sais ce que je t'ai dit. Nucleus Essay? Si tu n'es pas content, la porte est ouverte. Dryden? On ne te retient pas. Nucleus Essay? Quant à moi, j'ai promis: j'irai. Il posa ses deux coudes sur la table, enferma son front dans ses mains, et resta là, rêvant douloureusement. Les canotiers redescendirent en braillant toujours. John Dryden Of Dramatic? Ils repartaient dans leurs yoles pour le bal de la Grenouillère. Madeleine dit à Paul: Si tu ne viens pas, décide-toi, je demanderai à un de ces messieurs de me conduire. Paul se leva: Allons!, murmura-t-il. Et ils partirent.
La nuit était noire, pleine d'astres, parcourue par une haleine embrasée, par un souffle pesant, chargé d'ardeurs, de fermentations, de germes vifs qui, mêlés à la brise, l'alentissaient. Nucleus Essay? Elle promenait sur les visages une caresse chaude, faisait respirer plus vite, haleter un peu, tant elle semblait épaissie et lourde. Les yoles se mettaient en route, portant à l'avant une lanterne vénitienne. An End To Innocence And Politics? On ne distinguait point les embarcations, mais seulement ces petits falots de couleur, rapides et dansants, pareils à des lucioles en délire; et des voix couraient dans l'ombre de tous côtés. La yole des deux jeunes gens glissait doucement. Nucleus Essay? Parfois, quand un bateau lancé passait près d'eux, ils apercevaient soudain le dos blanc du canotier éclairé par sa lanterne. Lorsqu'ils eurent tourné le coude de la rivière, la Grenouillère leur apparut dans le lointain. Creativity Exercises? L'établissement en fête était orné de girandoles, de guirlandes en veilleuses de couleur, de grappes de lumières. Nucleus Essay? Sur la Seine circulaient lentement quelques gros bachots représentant des dômes, des pyramides, des monuments compliqués en feux de toutes nuances. Essay About? Des festons enflammés traînaient jusqu'à l'eau; et quelquefois un falot rouge ou bleu, au bout d'une immense canne à pêche invisible, semblait une grosse étoile balancée.
Toute cette illumination répandait une lueur alentour du café, éclairait de bas en haut les grands arbres de la berge dont le tronc se détachait en gris pâle, et les feuilles en vert laiteux, sur le champ et du ciel. L'orchestre, composé de cinq artistes de banlieue, jetait au loin sa musique de bastringue, maigre et sautillante, qui fit de nouveau chanter Madeleine. Elle voulut tout de suite entrer. Nucleus? Paul désirait auparavant faire un tour dans l'île; mais il dut céder. L'assistance s'était épurée.
Les canotiers presque seuls restaient avec quelques bourgeois clairsemés et quelques jeunes gens flanqués de filles. Petruchio? Le directeur et organisateur de ce cancan, majestueux dans un habit noir fatigué, promenait en tous sens sa tête ravagée de vieux marchand de plaisirs publics à bon marché. La grosse Pauline et ses compagnes n'étaient pas là; et Paul respira. On dansait: les couples face à face cabriolaient éperdument, jetaient leurs jambes en l'air jusqu'au nez des vis-à-vis. Les femelles, désarticulées des cuisses, bondissaient dans un envolement de jupes révélant leurs dessous. Essay? Leurs pieds s'élevaient au-dessus de leurs têtes avec une facilité surprenante, et elles balançaient leurs ventres, frétillaient de la croupe, secouaient leurs seins, répandant autour d'elles une senteur énergique de femmes en sueur. Les mâles s'accroupissaient comme des crapauds avec des gestes obscènes, se contorsionnaient, grimaçants et hideux, faisaient la roue sur les mains, ou bien, s'efforçant d'être drôles, esquissaient des manières avec une grâce ridicule.
Une grosse bonne et deux garçons servaient les consommations. Ce café-bateau, couvert seulement d'un toit, n'ayant aucune cloison qui le séparât du dehors, la danse échevelée s'étalait en face de la nuit pacifique et du firmament poudré d'astres. Tout à coup le Mont Valérien, là-bas, en face, sembla s'éclairer comme si un incendie se fût allumé derrière. Compare And Contrast Essay Useful Words? La lueur s'étendit, s'accentua, envahissant peu à peu le ciel, décrivant un grand cercle lumineux, d'une lumière pâle et blanche. Nucleus? Puis quelque chose de rouge apparut, grandit, d'un rouge ardent comme un métal sur l'enclume.
Cela se développait lentement en rond, semblait sortir de terre; et la lune, se détachant bientôt de l'horizon, monta doucement dans l'espace. Letter Tools? A mesure qu'elle s'élevait, sa nuance pourpre s'atténuait, devenait jaune, d'un jaune clair, éclatant; et l'astre paraissait diminuer à mesure qu'il s'éloignait. Paul le regardait depuis longtemps, perdu dans cette contemplation, oubliant sa maîtresse. Essay? Quand il se retourna, elle avait disparu. Il la chercha, mais ne la trouva pas. Grudge Essay? Il parcourait les tables d'un oeil anxieux, allant et revenant sans cesse, interrogeant l'un et l'autre. Essay? Personne ne l'avait vue. Il errait ainsi, martyrisé d'inquiétude, quand un des garçons lui dit: C'est madame Madeleine que vous cherchez. Creativity? Elle vient de partir tout à l'heure en compagnie de madame Pauline. Nucleus? Et, au même moment, Paul apercevait, debout à l'autre extrémité du café, le mousse et les deux belles filles, toutes trois liées par la taille, et qui le guettaient en chuchotant.
Il comprit, et, comme un fou, s'élança dans l'île. Il courut d'abord vers Chatou; mais, devant la plaine, il retourna sur ses pas. Ancient Grudge Romeo Essay? Alors il se mit à fouiller 1'épaisseur des taillis, à vagabonder éperdument, s'arrêtant parfois pour écouter. Les crapauds, par tout l'horizon, lançaient leur note métallique et courte. Vers Bougival, un oiseau inconnu modulait quelques sons qui arrivaient affaiblis par la distance. Essay? Sur les larges gazons la lune versait une molle clarté, comme une poussière de ouate; elle pénétrait les feuillages, faisait couler sa lumière sur l'écorce argentée des peupliers, criblait de sa pluie brillante les sommets frémissants des grands arbres. John? La grisante poésie de cette soirée d'été entrait dans Paul malgré lui, traversait son angoisse affolée, remuait son coeur avec une ironie féroce, développant jusqu'à la rage en son âme douce et contemplative ses besoins d'idéale tendresse, d'épanchements passionnés dans le sein d'une femme adorée et fidèle. Il fut contraint de s'arrêter, étranglé par des sanglots précipités, déchirants. La crise passée, il repartit. Soudain il reçut comme un coup de couteau; on nucleus s'embrassait, là, derrière ce buisson. Essay? Il y courut, c'était un couple amoureux, dont les deux silhouettes s'éloignèrent vivement à son approche, enlacées, unies dans un baiser sans fin.
Il n'osait pas appeler, sachant bien qu'elle ne répondrait point; et il avait aussi une peur affreuse de les découvrir tout à coup. Les ritournelles des quadrilles avec les solos déchirants du piston, les rires faux de la flûte, les rages aiguës du violon lui tiraillaient le coeur, exaspérant sa souffrance. Nucleus Essay? La musique enragée, boitillante, courait sous les arbres, tantôt affaiblie, tantôt grossie dans un souffle passager de brise. Tout à coup il se dit qu'Elle était revenue peut-être? Oui! elle était revenue! pourquoi pas? Il avait perdu la tête sans raison, stupidement, emporté par ses terreurs, par les soupçons désordonnés qui l'envahissaient depuis quelque temps. Et, saisi par une de ces accalmies singulières qui traversent parfois les plus grands désespoirs, il retourna vers le bal. D'un coup d'oeil il parcourut la salle. And Contrast Useful Words? Elle n'était pas là.
Il fit le tour des tables, et brusquement se trouva de nouveau face à face avec les trois femmes. Nucleus Essay? Il avait apparemment une figure désespérée et drôle, car toutes trois ensemble éclatèrent de gaieté. Il se sauva, repartit dans l'île, se rua à travers les taillis, haletant. Romeo Essay? - Puis il écouta de nouveau,- il écouta longtemps, car ses oreilles bourdonnaient; mais, enfin, il crut entendre un peu plus loin un petit rire perçant qu'il connaissait bien; et il avança tout doucement, rampant, écartant les branches, la poitrine tellement secouée par son coeur qu'il ne pouvait plus respirer. Deux voix murmuraient des paroles qu'il n'entendait pas encore. Essay? Puis elles se turent. Petruchio? Alors il eut une envie immense de fuir, de ne pas voir, de ne pas savoir, de se sauver pour toujours, loin de cette passion furieuse qui le ravageait.
Il allait retourner à Chatou, prendre le train, et ne reviendrait plus, ne la reverrait plus jamais. Nucleus Essay? Mais son image brusquement l'envahit, et il l'aperçut en sa pensée quand elle s'éveillait au matin, dans leur lit tiède, se pressait câline contre lui, jetant ses bras à son cou, avec ses cheveux répandus un peu mêlés sur le front, avec ses yeux fermés encore et ses lèvres ouvertes pour le premier baiser; et le souvenir subit de cette caresse matinale l'emplit d'un regret frénétique et d'un désir forcené. On parlait de nouveau; et il s'approcha courbé en deux. Of Dramatic Poesie? Puis un léger cri courut sous les branches tout prés de lui. Nucleus? Un cri! Un de ces cris d'amour qu'il avait appris à connaître aux heures éperdues de leur tendresse.
Il avançait encore, toujours, comme malgré lui, attiré invinciblement, sans avoir conscience de rien. Grudge Romeo And Juliet? et il les vit. Oh! c'eût été un homme, l'autre mais cela! cela! Il se sentait enchaîné par leur infamie même. Essay? Et il restait là, anéanti, bouleversé, comme s'il eût découvert tout à coup un cadavre cher et mutilé, un crime contre nature, monstrueux, une immonde profanation. Alors, dans un éclair de pensée involontaire, il songea au petit poisson dont il avait senti arracher les entrailles. And Contrast Essay? Mais Madeleine murmura : Pauline! du même ton passionné qu'elle disait: Paul! et il fut traversé d'une telle douleur qu'il s'enfuit de toutes ses forces. Il heurta deux arbres, tomba sur une rame, repartit et se trouva soudain devant le fleuve, devant le bras rapide éclairé par la lune. Nucleus? Le courant torrentueux faisait de grands tourbillons où se jouait la lumière. John? La berge haute dominait l'eau comme une falaise, laissant à son pied une large bande obscure où les remous s'entendaient dans l'ombre. Sur l'autre rive, les maisons de campagne de Croissy s'étageaient en pleine clarté.
Paul vit tout cela comme dans un songe, comme à travers un souvenir; il ne songeait à rien, ne comprenait rien, et toutes les choses, son existence même, lui apparaissaient vaguement, lointaines, oubliées, finies. Le fleuve était là. Nucleus? Comprit-il ce qu'il faisait? Voulut-il mourir? Il était fou. Writing Creativity Exercises? Il se retourna cependant vers l'île, vers Elle; et, dans l'air calme de la nuit où dansaient toujours les refrains affaiblis et obstinés du bastringue, il lança d'une voix désespérée, suraiguë, surhumaine, un effroyable cri: Madeleine!. Son appel déchirant traversa le large silence du ciel, courut par tout l'horizon.
Puis, d'un bond formidable, d'un bond de bête, il sauta dans la rivière. Nucleus? L'eau jaillit, se referma, et, de la place où il avait disparu, une succession de grands cercles partit, élargissant jusqu'à l'autre berge leurs ondulations brillantes. Les deux femmes avaient entendu. Creativity Exercises? Madeleine se dressa: C'est Paul. Nucleus Essay? Un soupçon surgit en son âme. Essays? Il s'est noyé, dit-elle.
Et elle s'élança vers la rive, où la grosse Pauline la rejoignit. Un lourd bachot monté par deux hommes tournait et retournait sur place. Essay? Un des bateliers ramait, l'autre enfonçait dans l'eau un grand bâton et semblait chercher quelque chose. Essay About? Pauline cria: Que faites vous? Qu'y a-t-il?
Une voix inconnue répondit: C'est un homme qui vient de se noyer. Les deux femmes, pressées l'une contre l'autre, hagardes, suivaient les évolutions de la barque. Nucleus Essay? La musique de la Grenouillère folâtrait toujours au loin, semblait accompagner en cadence les mouvements des sombres pêcheurs; et la rivière, qui cachait maintenant un cadavre, tournoyait, illuminée. Les recherches se prolongeaient. Compare Words? L'attente horrible faisait grelotter Madeleine. Essay? Enfin, après une demi heure au moins, un des hommes annonça: Je le tiens! Et il fit remonter sa longue gaffe, doucement, tout doucement. Essay About? Puis quelque chose de gros apparut à la surface de l'eau. Essay? L'autre marinier quitta ses rames, et tous deux, unissant leurs forces, halant sur la masse inerte, la firent culbuter dans leur bateau. Ensuite ils gagnèrent la terre, en cherchant une place éclairée et basse.
Au moment où ils abordaient, les femmes arrivaient aussi. Dès qu'elle le vit, Madeleine recula d'horreur. Petruchio? Sous la lumière de la lune, il semblait vert déjà, avec sa bouche, ses yeux, son nez, ses habits pleins de vase. Nucleus Essay? Ses doigts fermés et raidis étaient affreux. Dryden An Essay Of Dramatic? Une espèce d'enduit noirâtre et liquide couvrait tout son corps. Essay? La figure paraissait enflée, et de ses cheveux collés par le limon une eau sale coulait sans cesse. Les deux hommes l'examinèrent. - Tu le connais? dit l'un.
L'autre, le passeur de Croissy, hésitait: Oui, il me semble bien que j'ai vu cette tête-là; mais tu sais, comme ça, on about ne reconnaît pas bien. Nucleus? Puis, soudain: Mais c'est monsieur Paul! - Qui ça, monsieur Paul? demanda son camarade. And Juliet? Le premier reprit: - Mais monsieur Paul Baron, le fils du sénateur, ce p'tit qu'était si amoureux. L'autre ajouta philosophiquement: - Eh bien, il a fini de rigoler maintenant; c'est dommage tout de même quand on nucleus essay est riche. Madeleine sanglotait, tombée par terre.
Pauline s'approcha du corps et demanda: Est ce qu'il est bien mort? - tout à fait? Les hommes haussèrent les épaules: Oh ! après ce temps-là ! pour sûr. Puis l'un d'eux interrogea: C'est chez Grillon qu'il logeait? - Oui, reprit l'autre; il faut le reconduire, y aura de la braise. Ils remontèrent dans leur bateau et repartirent, s'éloignant lentement à cause du courant rapide; et longtemps encore après qu'on ne les vit plus de la place où les femmes étaient restées, on compare and contrast useful words entendit tomber dans l'eau les coups réguliers des avirons. Alors Pauline prit dans ses bras la pauvre Madeleine éplorée, la câlina, l'embrassa longtemps, la consola: Que veux-tu, ce n'est point ta faute, n'est-ce pas? On ne peut pourtant pas empêcher les hommes de faire des bêtises. Nucleus Essay? Il l'a voulu, tant pis pour lui, après tout! - Puis la relevant: Allons, ma chérie, viens t'en coucher à la maison; tu ne peux pas rentrer chez Grillon ce soir. Writing Exercises? - Elle l'embrassa de nouveau: Va, nous te guérirons, dit-elle.
Madeleine se releva, et, pleurant toujours, mais avec des sanglots affaiblis, la tête sur l'épaule de Pauline, comme réfugiée dans une tendresse plus intime et plus sûre, plus familière et plus confiante, elle partit à tout petits pas. Cette nouvelle fut publiée en 1881 dans le recueil La Maison Tellier.
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Pros and Cons of Lobbyists in the US essay. Definition: The term Lobbyists is nucleus, a word that is given to a group of individual or persons who is/ are employed in order to convince or persuade the legislatures (i.e. the elected members of parliament) in order to vote in favor of a bill or law that will favor the majority of citizens or the employers of the lobbyists. The word lobbyist is derived from the word Lobby which means the formation of an essay of dramatic poesie, a group that aims at intentionally persuading, influencing and convincing the decisions that are made by the legislatures, senior government officials, constituents and other advocacy groups. Therefore, it should be noted the these groups are aimed at ensuring that the maters that pertains to there interests are adhered to and made to be law thus ensuring that they a well represented and governed. Nucleus Essay! The lobbying is also the process where a group petitions a government to intervene in essays on culture, special issues that are of strong national interest (Hahn, 2009). How they conduct their functions. Lobbyists are a group of individuals who form a group with the aim of imposing sanctions on the government or even persuading the legislatures to vote towards a certain bill that reflects their interest. It comprises of essay, a group of intellectuals, retired congress men and human right activists who are aimed at monitoring / correcting the way the government conducts its duties and runs its business (Morgan, 2007). They might be employed by groups such as labor unions, religious or social welfare associations, and other special groups, human right groups and individuals with some special interests amongst other groups of individuals and organizations that would want their services in order to help them achieve their intended mission in the society. Duties and Responsibilities of the Lobbyists. There are several different duties that the lobbyists and the lobby groups in any given country perform some of these duties includes the sensitization of the citizens and essay petruchio, civil servants of their rights (The Debatabase Book, 2003).
This will not only aim at improving their support amongst the citizens and civil servants but will provide the group of the sensitized individuals with the opportunity of knowing their rights more and essay, reduce the cases of violation of their rights by about the government or any other person. A lobbyist is also a representative of the public /client interests in a special forum with the legislatures or a senior government official. This is nucleus essay, where lobbyists will be in a position to cover letter attend some of the meeting that are of national interest and in these meeting the lobbyists will be able to air the demands of the public. At the same time convince the legislatures and the government officials in to voting or even implementing their plans as it will be of great importance to the public. The lobbyists also read and interpret the meaning of the legislative bill that will be passed by the legislatures to becoming laws. And from the interpretation of the lobbyist they will be able to determine the nucleus advantages or disadvantages of these laws on there clients. Thus providing the writing exercises lobbyists with the opportunity of sharing there ideas with the legislatures in order to ensure that they are in a position to benefits their clients without interfering with their interests. In addition, they petition the officials in reforming the laws in nucleus, order to essay suite the interests of their clients (Phil, 2008). The lobbyists will also conduct press conferences that will be used as a way of informing the public and also exercising their position. Indeed, they ensure that the public is essay, well informed of the stand in which the lobby group is trying to take the lobby groups will also use the useful words media as a way in which they will be able to help the public in nucleus, knowing their rights and understanding of the to innocence and politics legislative laws (Morgan, 2007).
They are also made aware of the nucleus effects of the law on them; this is by providing them with the advantages and disadvantages of the legislative laws and also providing the viewers /audiences with their reasons of supporting or neglecting the given law and regulation. This paper highlights on the pros and to innocence and politics, cons of the lobbyists in the United States of America government; this is after we have identified and nucleus essay, understood the responsibilities and duties of the lobbyists and the lobby groups and its importance to the public. This is about, especially a very important aspect that will have on the public and the government operations and actions (Morgan, 2007). Pros of the lobbyists in the United States of essay, America government. There are very many important things that that lobbyists and lobby groups have on a given states, and this is clearly portrayed from the definition of the term lobbyists. This is because they play a major role in the monitoring the way the country is essay petruchio, being run; this is by keeping watch or even convincing the government and the legislatures to deal with a situation that is of national importance first before its effects penetrate deep into the society. Nucleus! This, shields the common-man who has low income and minimum wages from more problems; that could be prevented if the appropriate demands were taken into essay, deep consideration and not neglected by the government officials and legislatures for a long time. One advantage of the Lobbyists is that the lobbyists have played a major role in improving the governance of the society; this is experienced in the ways the government has transformed the United States of nucleus, America government to be more reliable to its citizens and address pressing issues. As a result of these pressures and persuasions the legislature will pass bill that will provide the citizens with good policies that are good for the development of the nation (The Debatabase Book, 2003).
This is writing creativity exercises, expressed in the racial discrimination bill that was passed in the United States of America some in the early 20 th century when the lobbyists complained that the Blacks and the other minor races in nucleus, America a were being ill -treated by the white Americans in the country. This resulted to writing creativity the abolition of slave trade and the recognition of all the races in America as equal and also provided the same treatment and subjecting any body who is involved in any form of racial discrimination to heavy fines and punishment since it was a violation of their human rights and a breach of the American constitution. Lobbyists have also improved the nucleus essay lives and existence of many endangered species; this is because the lobbyists will impose some new legislative laws that will ensure that the legislatures pass in order to ensure that they are supporting the poesie existence of the endangered species such as animals, plants and nucleus, other designated areas (Hahn, 2009). These will help the government to dryden an essay of dramatic preserve some of these natural resources and animals. The country will also be in a position of managing these natural resources such as wild animals and plants. The lobbyists are also able to have a legal basis to protect these resources in nucleus essay, the long run; thus these lobbyists end up making the change that is most effective to the people in the country. Consequently, the lobbyists help the about people and government to nucleus maintain the natural resources from cover letter, more and more safe and protected. Cons of the lobbyists in the United States of America government.
Despite the essay increased advocacy that have been talked about in the previous section on about the advantages of the lobbyist in the United States of America government it has turned out that the lobbyists have also some negative image that are seen as a way of nucleus, denying the citizens the opportunity of getting the ancient grudge romeo and juliet essay best governance. Nucleus! This is because the lobbyists will be compromised or even convinced by their clients who comprises of a smaller section of the public who are very rich and want the legislative law to be passed in order for it to benefit them only and at the same time molest the majority of the population. This is a clear indication that the lobbyists don't always help in the improvement of the social standards and governance of the country. This is because the lobbyists are well compromised with in compare essay useful, order to lure the legislatures and the top government officials into vote or even support the decision that they are supporting despite the offences that are associated with their actions (The Debatabase Book, 2003). A good example is when the lobbyists cooperated with the white house in order to support the bid of the buying of the Enron shares. Thus making the stakeholders loose a lot of money as they never knew that the company was at the verge of collapsing yet the lobbyists were still pushing for the legislation that would result to the company to nucleus essay be enlisted in the stock exchange and conduct its activities. Lobbyists are also seen as the most corrupt individuals or groups of people in the United States of America; this is because they impose the government into legalizing of legislations that are for the benefit of a few influential individuals, while sidelining the and juliet benefits of the entire population (Phil, 2008). Nucleus! This will definitely result to writing creativity capitalism management of the country, where the nucleus essay government actions and activities are influenced with the few rich and wealthy individuals who will dominate the greater economy of the nations while the greater percentage of the nation will basically rely on petruchio the minimum income. In this regard they use the lobbyist to dominate the entire country from the corrupt deals of the lobbyists who pushed for the benefit of the rich but not for the poor. Lobbyism has also resulted to nucleus the marginalization of the American society; this is clearly seen when legislatures accord or even provides only the lobbyists with the attention and room for dialogue and negotiation. They can't just provide or even give any individual with any audience, this is clear indication that shows how the country is governed by the lobbyists who act as the intermediary that connects the common citizens and the legislatures or top most government officials.
This will result to essay the distortion of the nucleus information or problems that are facing the citizens (Phil, 2008). This will eventually lead to words the lobbyists directing the ways in which the government should govern the country. Nucleus! At the same time the lobbyists will use this as an avenue of deviating from the interest of these public and push for there own individual benefits without the influence of the local individuals who don't have any powers to essay about petruchio alter the passed legislation. Lobbying has also resulted to dirty politics and inclined governance in the United States of America that aims as serving the interest of a few section the suspected legislation tend to support. In this case dirty politics has resulted when the lobbyists tend to influence the politicians into supporting their views or vote for their legislations and incase an individual fails to nucleus support the ideas of the individual that will be threatened, assassinated, de-campaigned against during the next election, arraigned in court for an end to innocence and politics, corruption allegations or even given greater deals that they cant resist.
This will definitely result to nucleus the legislatures to be swayed and vote for the legislations that are against their own wishes this for the sake of resorting there seats and influence in the public perspective (Phil, 2008). Lobbyists also affect the lives of the other individuals in the society this is felt and seen when the lobbyists will advocate for the implementation of the legislation laws of a given law that will be used by the government in running the country. The views of the lobbyists will not be representing the entire population interests, thus making it difficult for dryden an essay poesie, the less privileged individuals in the society to suffer the losses that they are not supposed to help them in the society that they live (Hahn, 2009). An example is when the nucleus essay Obama government introduced a bill that aimed at reducing the prices of medical care that will also se a reduction of the creativity prices of drugs and medical consultancy; There was a group of lobbyists that was lead by Tom Hamburger who was highly against essay, the bill by president Obama. He advocated that the legislatures should not vote in favor of the of the Obama health bill as it will provide a large percentage of the American citizens with proper and improved medical attention as opposed to the past where the only the wealthy would be in a position of getting the best medical attention. The passing of the Obama medical plan ensured that the majority of grudge romeo and juliet essay, Americans had easy access to medical attention and cover incase the s bill failed the section that will suffer the most will be the poor this is because they will not be able to essay afford the medical cover that the government will be offering to them. In Conclusion it is noted that the lobbyists have played an important role in the country's economy, political and social.
This is because they have to some point ensured that they are in a position advocating for the passing of bills that will be able to manage the ancient grudge country and ensure that the country will pass bills that will be used in managing the country (Phil, 2008). And from the analysis that has been previously conducted the Lobbyists have been seen to be individuals that are responsible for the many ills that have befallen the essay government. This is because they are believed to exercises be individuals that have been pushing the government and other senior government to implement laws that will help them succeed without considering the views and demands of the citizens that forms the large percentages of the nucleus American population.
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Essay: Nuclear Energy – Advantages and Disadvantages
Amartya Sen: Women’s Progress Outdid China’s One-Child Policy. By AMARTYA SEN NOV. 2, 2015. CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — THE abandonment of the one-child policy in China is a momentous change, and essay there is much to celebrate in romeo and juliet, the easing of restrictions on human freedom in a particularly private sphere of life. But we need to nucleus recognize that the big fall in fertility in China over the decades, for which the one-child policy is often credited, has, in fact, been less related to compulsion and much more to reasoned family decisions in favor of a new norm of creativity, smaller families. This development has been particularly helped by the increasing empowerment of Chinese women through rapid expansion of schooling and nucleus job opportunities.
What China needs now is further expansion of rethinking within families to overcome “boy preference,” which is still widespread, despite being at odds with the success of essay petruchio, Chinese women. This is a good moment to examine what the one-child policy has done — or not done. First, we must question the glib history that China was stuck in the adversity of high fertility rates until the policy changed it all. The one-child policy was introduced in 1978. But the nucleus essay, fertility rate had already been falling rapidly for a decade before that — from an average of 5.87 births per woman in 1968 to 2.98 in 1978.
After that huge drop, the fertility rate continued to fall with the new draconian policy in force, but there was no plunge — only a smooth continuation of the an essay of dramatic poesie, falling trend that preceded the restriction. From 2.98 in 1978, the rate has declined to 1.67 now. Clearly, something more than the one-child policy has been affecting birthrates in China. Statistics that compare different countries, as well as empirical analysis of data from hundreds of districts within India, indicate sharply that the two most potent factors that induce fertility reduction globally are women’s schooling and women’s paid employment. Sign Up for the Opinion Today Newsletter. Every weekday, get thought-provoking commentary from Op-Ed columnists, the nucleus essay, Times editorial board and contributing writers from around the ancient grudge romeo and juliet essay, world.
An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. There is no mystery in this. Nucleus! The lives that are most battered by over-frequent bearing and rearing of children are those of young mothers, and more schooling and essay more gainful employment both give young women a greater voice in family decisions — a voice that tends to work in the direction of cutting down the nucleus, frequency of births. Rapid expansion in China of education, including that of girls, and the enhancement of job opportunities for young women occurred through a series of decades that began well before the cover tools, introduction of the one-child policy, and they have continued robustly since. As it happens, fertility rate declines in nucleus, China have been close to to innocence and politics what we would expect on the basis of these social influences alone.
China often gets too much credit from nucleus, commentators on the alleged effectiveness of its harsher interventions, and far too little for the positive role of its supportive policies (including its heavy focus on education and health care, from which many other countries can learn). So while there are harrowing reports of the hardship created in the lives of many people in romeo and juliet essay, China by the enforcement of the one-child policy, it is far from clear that this policy has had a large impact on the fertility rate of the nucleus, population as a whole. The removal of the one-child policy may, in letter, fact, have been an easy choice. There is little need for nucleus essay, the harshness of this coercive program, given the increasing role of reasoning about family decisions, and particularly the growing empowerment of Chinese women. Writing Creativity! This takes us back to a classic disagreement between Thomas Robert Malthus and the Marquis de Condorcet in the 18th century, at the height of the Enlightenment. Condorcet had noted the possibility of terrible overpopulation; Malthus acknowledged that he was following Condorcet in this, but he hugely exaggerated the danger when he rejected Condorcet’s reassuring argument that human reasoning would produce a corrective. Condorcet had anticipated the emergence of new norms of essay, smaller family size based on “the progress of reason.” Buttressed by the expansion of essay, education, especially for women (of which Condorcet was one of the earliest and most vocal advocates), he argued that people would choose voluntarily to cut the birthrate. Reasoning in decision making is nucleus essay not exclusive to the West. In China it clearly has played a significant part already in tools, restraining family size. It also has other important roles to play.
Despite China’s extraordinary social and economic success (not just in economic growth), it has one of the nucleus essay, worst records in the world in the selective abortion of compare and contrast essay useful words, female fetuses; the number of girls born per 100 male births has been as low as 85, compared with a normal rate around 95 in countries where there is little or no selective intervention against female birth. Chinese women have made huge progress in most spheres of life, but traditional “boy preference” is essay still rampant. Cover Letter! However, legal remedies against sex-selective abortion, like outlawing it, have been ineffective wherever they have been tried. What is needed is more reasoning, aided by further use of women’s empowerment, against such an arbitrary and dehumanizing bias. Such a change has, in fact, been very successfully achieved in South Korea, which once also had a very low ratio of girls to boys at birth. The cultivation of active public reasoning and wider understanding of the demands of gender equity have produced a huge change there. China needs to rely even more on the force of nucleus essay, reasoning, rather than on creativity legal compulsion. The removal of the one-child policy is essay surely an important move in that direction. The fact that China’s demographic history over the last half-century gives firm evidence of what Condorcet called “the progress of reason” certainly gives ground for optimism. Cover! This is all the more important, since China has more challenges to address in this productive way. Amartya Sen, a Nobel laureate, is a professor of economics and philosophy at Harvard.
Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook and Twitter, and sign up for the Opinion Today newsletter. A version of this op-ed appears in print on November 2, 2015, on Page A23 of the New York edition with the headline: China’s Enlightenment Moment. Today's Paper | Subscribe. Nucleus! We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.
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Essay: Nuclear Energy – Advantages and Disadvantages
Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in nucleus essay the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?
If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the writing exercises first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Nucleus! Our first plan contains the grudge 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is nucleus essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is ancient romeo essay worthy of nucleus essay their investment.
Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the essays on culture and politics history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to nucleus essay, include your Articles of letter Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for essay them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of dryden growth and nucleus essay behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and to innocence and politics Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals.
Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of nucleus your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to cover tools, reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the essay types of financial calculations, plans, and cover letter forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to nucleus essay, Write a Business Plan set of articles below.
Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an about experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and nucleus cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents:
How to romeo and juliet, Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the nucleus major highlights of the petruchio rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and nucleus essay why your business idea will be successful. Writing! If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to essay, grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of ancient grudge and juliet investors. Your company will lack the nucleus essay historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors.
First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the john dryden an essay poesie background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to nucleus essay, demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in dryden a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the nucleus following basic template – feel free to creativity exercises, add or subtract sections according to essay, your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional)
Describe the purpose of the and contrast essay plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an nucleus essay overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in cover the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in nucleus the Products and Services section.
Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the creativity exercises logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an nucleus essay existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of of dramatic equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the nucleus use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Of Dramatic! Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters.
Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the nucleus essay financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to essay, identify the amount of money you will need to nucleus essay, raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections.
Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and romeo Facilities (optional) There are many variations and essay approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Essay Useful! Our approach for the company overview section is to nucleus, provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Grudge Romeo And Juliet! Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over essay, go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the dryden an essay of dramatic broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to nucleus essay, the IRS: “A sole proprietor is ancient essay someone who owns an essay unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for cover letter tools any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and essay you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the writing creativity roof over your head. A partnership, according to essay, the IRS: “A partnership is the compare essay relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on nucleus, a trade or business.
Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in tools the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to nucleus, file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to john dryden an essay of dramatic poesie, file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in essay that there are two classes of writing creativity partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is nucleus commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at cover tools the personal level.
You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to essay, have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the an essay of dramatic poesie member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at essay the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the creativity exercises type of company you plan to essay, open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is cover letter especially critical.
With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of essay a venture. The question lenders and and contrast useful words investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of essay each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision.
If you have an established business the information you want to present is the an end to innocence on culture and politics same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the nucleus company. As a company grows from compare essay words start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the essay business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the compare essay useful Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of nucleus a private company that is an end to innocence on culture and politics most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of nucleus Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for writing exercises the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.
An advisory board is nucleus essay a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and writing are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on nucleus essay, how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the essay about petruchio Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to essay, raise, what you are going to use it for, and cover how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the nucleus entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. John Dryden An Essay! Only then will you be able to identify the amount of nucleus money you will need to cover tools, raise.
There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is essay that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in compare useful words your company for a specific sum of money from an essay investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to about, how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when?
What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Nucleus Essay! The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the essays on culture general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability.
Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and nucleus essay why and to innocence and politics when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. Essay! The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is an essay much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is essay more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to essay about petruchio, determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets.
In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to essay, be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the and contrast essay useful asset value may actually be worth more than the nucleus essay going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by creativity exercises the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the nucleus essay value of its assets. The market approach seeks to letter, determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of essay similar assets, with the theory that valuations of romeo essay similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in nucleus the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to cover letter tools, determine a company’s value by nucleus using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow.
You also have an idea of petruchio how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on nucleus, the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the compare and contrast useful words loan. For equity financing, answer the essay following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to about, further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments.
In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. Nucleus! The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in john of dramatic poesie the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. Nucleus Essay! It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to essays and politics, how much you can borrow, the nucleus major exception that since you may be able to ancient and juliet, secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and nucleus essay how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model.
It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. An End To Innocence! Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on essay, their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into writing your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on nucleus, how you intend to sell the writing company or take it public.
Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an essay incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to an end to innocence, be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to nucleus, sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps.
If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the writing creativity core purpose and vision of the nucleus company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short.
1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the ancient grudge essay statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:
A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an essay end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and ancient romeo “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of nucleus employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to about petruchio, fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements.
A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to nucleus essay, maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the cover letter tools nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is nucleus certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of grudge romeo essay having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by nucleus essay new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to cover letter, date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include:
Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in nucleus mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and essay how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for nucleus a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and tools measureable.
For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to nucleus essay, include: Size (e.g.; in sq. Grudge! ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at essay the facility. Location is important for essay petruchio a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of nucleus consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and an end essays on culture if there are any laws that protect the essay lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of essay petruchio electricity and essay water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and writing creativity exercises services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of nucleus your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections.
Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of compare useful your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the nucleus secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. About Petruchio! features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and nucleus essay status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the an end essays on culture functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the nucleus features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and cover tools other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an essay existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the ancient grudge and juliet potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to nucleus essay, existing customers . Think about to innocence on culture and politics how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. Nucleus Essay! This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer.
You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is writing exercises advisable to nucleus, start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and compare one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over nucleus, time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas:
Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the writing exercises likelihood of essay new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps)
Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is compare and contrast useful words competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the nucleus process of procuring goods and services from useful suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the nucleus more working capital you have on an end, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.
Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of nucleus essay how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to cover letter tools, order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is nucleus essay manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to an end to innocence, be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to nucleus, meet your projected sales.
Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on john, excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software.
QuickBooks, Sage, and essay a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to ancient grudge and juliet, manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and nucleus serves as a source of compare useful competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of nucleus essay companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to compare and contrast essay words, ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to essay, your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?
Think about writing alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is essay too high, is creativity exercises there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and nucleus one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to letter tools, a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention.
You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and nucleus essay artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and compare and contrast useful words sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and nucleus essay trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. On Culture And Politics! Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of nucleus view, but many times is dryden of dramatic poesie not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and essay contractors. It is essay words just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an essay invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the to innocence essays on culture and politics company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is essay ever a conflict as to creativity, whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record.
If you have future products and nucleus services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of compare useful product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the essay life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to dryden an essay of dramatic, encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor.
You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for nucleus your product starts to dissipate as sales of essay about petruchio your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and nucleus market analysis chapter will give you an an end essays on culture opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. Nucleus Essay! This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to compare essay useful, as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is essay what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the an essay poesie total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of essay this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.
This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to to innocence and politics, the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in essay the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical.
To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. John Dryden An Essay Of Dramatic Poesie! If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of nucleus switching from one company’s product/services unless it is cover letter compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from essay a Mac to a PC. Essays On Culture! To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at nucleus the macro level is critical for essay words various aspects of your business.
A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in nucleus essay the market growth section. Cover Tools! Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on nucleus essay, some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in tools sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to essay, date on upcoming changes. Writing Creativity Exercises! For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for nucleus the first time non-accredited investors to participate in essays on culture private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for nucleus crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line.
For example, if you count the Dept. of and contrast useful words Defense as one of essay your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in ancient a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on essay, this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from writing creativity exercises one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in nucleus the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the john dryden an essay of dramatic market can be said to have grown by essay 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of dryden an essay this research.
Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for essay Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and useful will continue to grow as those companies continue to nucleus essay, add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of to innocence companies that are related to you in essay terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in exercises the automotive industry. Ford and nucleus Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the john dryden of dramatic poesie end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of nucleus essay Labor website. Essay! Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and nucleus attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and to innocence essays on culture and politics how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in nucleus essay the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete.
If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and dryden poesie it is mature with little growth (so the essay only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for cover the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from nucleus essay a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the john dryden of dramatic poesie student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers.
If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to essay, name your key customers individually. Letter Tools! In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and nucleus customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to and contrast essay, move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an nucleus opportunity to writing exercises, describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:
Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the essay subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into compare and contrast essay useful further detail in the subsequent sections.
Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the nucleus essay low-cost provider in ancient romeo essay an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the nucleus essay luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at about petruchio the cheapest price point in the marketplace. Essay! There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to ancient romeo essay, turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the nucleus essay cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if:
Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for an end on culture and politics the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for nucleus essay the luxury end of the compare and contrast useful words market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?
If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of nucleus essay course, exceptions. And Contrast! For example, you might want to nucleus essay, achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to compare and contrast words, achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in nucleus how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from john dryden of dramatic describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.
There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for nucleus essay effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of cover your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and nucleus powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company.
There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into ancient grudge romeo essay your word of nucleus essay mouth marketing strategy is essays on culture invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in nucleus essay your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to john dryden, your business and nucleus essay adapting the adage “give more to get more”.
How will your products be available? On one end of the writing exercises spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in nucleus essay turn sell to retailers, who in ancient and juliet turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in nucleus mass-market distribution channels.
Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and compare and contrast useful words sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an essay opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.
It also includes sections that further elaborate on essay, your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the nucleus essay key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. About! These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Essay! Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of dryden of dramatic poesie a company that in essay effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).
A new company has an an end essays and politics extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the essay venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at tools what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone.
SWOT Analysis is nucleus a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to to innocence, your business and essay the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in ancient romeo and juliet essay your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the nucleus lowest cost may require operating on about, razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to nucleus, achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is an end essays on culture and politics a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service?
For example, your customers may be willing to nucleus, pay a higher price for writing better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. Nucleus! There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of compare and contrast essay useful your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to nucleus essay, lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for ancient grudge romeo essay the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic.
For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the essay Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and of dramatic poesie implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the essay financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of writing creativity exercises intelligent assumptions about the size of the nucleus essay market you can realistically target, and john an essay of dramatic the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services.
These sections are the essay red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to an end on culture and politics, make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of nucleus essay units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the writing creativity exercises following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast.
Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the nucleus essay production cost Target Market section: Defines the romeo essay size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. Nucleus! For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over dryden an essay of dramatic, time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the nucleus direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level).
Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over writing creativity exercises, time for essay several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the compare useful expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over nucleus, time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over petruchio, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold.
In the essay United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for cover each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. Nucleus! You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of about petruchio any business.
In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Nucleus Essay! Too few staff and and contrast useful you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to essay, think about cover letter your personnel plan is to think about the nucleus milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to cover letter tools, want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues.
Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to nucleus, define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the creativity United States, for nucleus example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the writing exercises personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and essay health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone.
Burden rate only essays on culture and politics affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the essay assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and essays on culture and politics burden rate. Nucleus Essay! For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to creativity exercises, think through costs associated with each functional area of nucleus your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and cover administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. Nucleus Essay! You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and cover tools Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on nucleus, Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here.
Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and letter tools intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an essay accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.
These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the and contrast useful total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront.
Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is essay expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an to innocence essays amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the nucleus essay amount of Prepaid Lease that is john dryden an essay of dramatic poesie remaining at nucleus essay the end of the essays accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and nucleus distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the compare fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business.
What are the nucleus essay monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in tools your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the essay company has made but has yet to collect the grudge romeo and juliet essay money from the purchaser. Essay! Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and grudge romeo allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is nucleus preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment.
Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Compare Useful Words! When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the nucleus key thing to remember is writing creativity exercises that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on nucleus essay, hand is essay about petruchio king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow.
However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on nucleus, the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. On Culture! Keep in nucleus essay mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on exercises, keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on nucleus, hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow.
How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to tools, industry, and business to business. A good place to nucleus essay, find more information is essay words trade associations for your industry. Nucleus Essay! In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on essay about petruchio, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is nucleus very important to ancient essay, any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections.
You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. Nucleus! How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out creativity, a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and essay are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in writing installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the essay financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans.
For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to writing creativity, finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of essay factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. To Innocence On Culture! Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for nucleus obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to dryden an essay, a loan with the nucleus essay difference being that interest is useful not charged on the part of the line of nucleus credit that is unused, and useful the borrower can draw on nucleus essay, the line of writing creativity credit at any time that he or she needs to.
If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the nucleus amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Cover! This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is nucleus likely that the ancient grudge romeo essay money you make from nucleus sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of ancient and juliet essay funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds?
For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of nucleus essay your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities:
Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an cover tools existing business, you can enter past financial data here. Nucleus! This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section.
For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the creativity number of tables it can turn per night and essay the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the tools most impact to your business. You will want to nucleus, continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”.
The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the cover letter tools information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. Nucleus! If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at an end and politics a given point in time, usually the nucleus last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and ancient grudge romeo and juliet outflows from essay your operating, investing and financing activities. Dryden Of Dramatic Poesie! Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the nucleus sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the letter tools relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. Nucleus! The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case.
This is important in determining the compare useful ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is nucleus actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the exercises business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. Nucleus! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the writing percentage of the return (net profit) of the nucleus essay business divided by the cost of the investment. And Juliet Essay! The most common method of nucleus calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by and contrast essay useful far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to essay, generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and an essay poesie detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an nucleus essay appendix and a glossary of terms.
Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to compare useful words, learn the different chapters and sections necessary to nucleus, attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to essay useful, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for essay you and your dream. Click the cover tools images to view our full business examples.
4. Nucleus! The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. And Contrast Essay! We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to nucleus, you to john dryden poesie, flesh out the nucleus details and ensure that each section is useful as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Nucleus! Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on about, the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at essay all to about petruchio, purchasing a pre-fabricated plan.
None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the nucleus plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for compare useful words someone else to do them. You’re going to have to essay, do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself.
Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. Creativity Exercises! This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is essay why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for john dryden poesie them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to essay, meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and dryden an essay of dramatic poesie blather to a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in nucleus essay the appropriate order, according to ancient grudge romeo essay, how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to nucleus, keep your company’s information up to date easily. Letter Tools! One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and nucleus essay earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and compare and contrast essay words marketing plan.
If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of nucleus essay writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by about petruchio licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation.