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There are ways to writing essay, fib that smooth over situations to order dissertation, the point where it is unclear what is true. Creative Writing! Judith Viorst. Debut albums , Deception , Judith Viorst 977 Words | 3 Pages. Order Dissertation! honesty and simple truth, in fact it might surprise you just how much we lie in every day casual chit-chats and conversations. A research conducted by a . Argumentative! psychology teacher, Robert Feldman in Massachusetts identified that students on average tell three lies per 10 minute conversation. This is due to the fact that people generally do not realize that they are lying and believe instantly upon proquest what they want to hear. ‘If someone told you that you are the most amazing and down to earth person they have ever. Narrative Essay! Debut albums , Interpersonal relationship , Lie 734 Words | 3 Pages.
Eddie Truong Prof. Dissertation Proquest! Gray English 28 11 March 2013 Finding The Theme Many stories around the world have a wide variety of . theme and issues that are not easily identified. Throughout stories, authors like to describe the characterization of narrative peer edit, character rather than the plot. The reason authors don’t describe the plot of the story is because through the characterization of the characters, readers are able to dissertation proquest, distinguish the different issues the author has planted in the story. Alice Walker’s. Character , Family , Fiction 934 Words | 3 Pages. Katie Kirk Mrs.
Addington AP Lang 1 12 October 2010 The Many Lies in Salem Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is a tragic play set in 1692 in . Salem, Massachusetts, where Miller uses the Salem Trials as a metaphor for the 1950s McCarthy hearings. In Salem, people value their good names. The Puritan community acts as a theocracy in which there appears to be no right to privacy, and people must conform to a strict moral code. The theme of reputation, lying, and deceit are shown in Abigail, John Proctor. Essay Edit! Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , Irony 1488 Words | 4 Pages. Order Proquest! ?Stage 2 English Word Count: 1027 Text . Worst Ever! Analysis – Brilliant Lies Emily Dawe The playwright Brilliant Lies tells the story of a sexual harassment incident between the boss and an employee in the workplace. The lies constantly told throughout the play presented moral dilemmas, which forced the audience to question their own values and beliefs. The story opens with Susy discussing. Abuse , Bullying , English-language films 1042 Words | 2 Pages. Themes and Narration ENG 125 September 2, 2013 Theme is the idea behind a story. Literary symbols and point of view . help us to understand what the theme of a story actually is. The theme of “The gift of Magi” is selflessness.
Symbolism and Plot are two literary elements in this story that contribute to the theme . The theme in order dissertation a story is associated with an idea that lies behind the story (R.W. Clugston, 2010) To understand what the theme of the story is we have to figure out what the. Christmas , Fiction , Meaning of life 863 Words | 3 Pages. ?1. Introduction Lies , damned lies , and statistics is a phrase describing the persuasive power of numbers, particularly the . use of statistics to abelard essay, bolster weak arguments. It is also sometimes colloquially used to doubt statistics used to order dissertation proquest, prove an opponent's point.
The term was popularised in the United States by Mark Twain (among others), who attributed it to the 19th-century British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881): There are three kinds of lies : lies , damned lies , and statistics. . Arithmetic mean , Causality , Correlation does not imply causation 2353 Words | 7 Pages. Symbolism and Theme in The Lesson by Toni Cade Bambara 1972. Application! The Lesson is considered by the Literary Canon to dissertation, be a wonderful work of fiction because of its use of language, humanistic theme , symbolism, . and non-genre plot. Two essential elements that add to the depth and enhance a reader's comprehension of The Lesson are Bambara's use of symbolism and theme . The Lesson takes place in New York's inner city. The fictional story begins with a group of poor, uneducated, lower class city kids standing in front of a mailbox, preparing themselves for step essay, another day.
Fiction , First-person narrative , IF Sylvia 979 Words | 3 Pages. Brilliant Lies by order, David Williamson shows that sexual harassment is a twisted combination of sex and power. Brilliant Lies by David Williamson shows that sexual harassment is a twisted combination of sex and power. Susy Conner uses sex . to narrative edit, gain power, Gary Fitzgerald uses power to gain sex and Brian Conner was too drunk to realise his abuse of both power and sexual harassment. All of these characters wanted something and they all thought they knew how to get it by using either sex or power, or a little of each. Susy has always relied on order her looks and sex appeal to get her by and to gain power. She used.
Abuse , Bullying , Human physical appearance 855 Words | 3 Pages. Abelard Essay! Theme or Issue: Il Postino. Dancing at Lughnasa and Lies of order proquest, Silence - Comparative Course Higher Level. Theme or Issue: Love and Marriage The three texts that I have studied on abelard essay my comparative course are the novel, Lies of order proquest, Silence . by Brian Moore, the playwright, Dancing at Lughnasa by Brian Friel and the film, Il Postino by Michael Radford. The theme or issue that I have studied is narrative, love and marriage.The authors of the texts used key moments to heighten our awareness of love and dissertation proquest marriage. In Dancing at Lughnasa, the main moment in which we can see love is for school, when Chris and Gerry dance. This has a. Brian Friel , Il Postino , Interpersonal relationship 1086 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Theme of “The Raven”: Truth Will Come “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe has a hidden theme in the poem. The story is about . a melancholic man who was visited by a raven called Nevermore. When the man heard the raven knocking on his door, he was nervous and order dissertation anxious. However, he could not overcome his curiosity and opened the door.
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Fantine , France , French Revolution 1975 Words | 5 Pages. THEME OF DUPLICITY IN THREE SHORT STORIES OF . Essay For School! HENRY JAMES: THE LIAR, THE REAL THING, AND THE BEAST IN THE JUNGLE Nazan Gokay Theme of Duplicity in proquest Three Short Stories of Henry James: “The Liar,” “The Real Thing,” and “The Beast in the Jungle” The genius of Henry James. Henry James , Irony , Meaning of life 1416 Words | 5 Pages. ?Laina Posner June 2 Theme 1: Respect and essay Reputation Questions: 1. Reputation is so important to the people of Salem because it . determines where someone stands in society. Order Proquest! The way people think of someone determines how well ones business results. If one loses their good reputation, then they are seen as a bad person in the name of the narrative essay edit, church.
2. Order! A person’s good reputations is similar to abelard essay, the way that we think of it today, because reputation can be seen as a way to determine many things about. Core issues in ethics , Forgiveness , God 838 Words | 3 Pages. telling a white lie. When someone lies they are knowingly providing false information for the purpose of deception. On the other hand white . lies are untruthful statements that are not meant to harm, instead they are positive. White lies serve as to avoid hurting the feelings of the listener and to avoid negative reactions from the listener to the speaker if the truth is told. Order! Much of application essay ever, today’s parenting revolves around white lies . Dissertation Proquest! Parenting consists of telling white lies to help protect a child’s innocence. Essay For School! Anxiety , Deception , Ethics 1308 Words | 4 Pages. “Is this Life?” Resolutions, Humour and Family in Mike Leigh’s Secrets Lies In this essay I would like to argue that in proquest Secrets and literary essay for school . Lies Mike Leigh is dissertation proquest, suggesting that secrets cause tensions in undergraduate creative writing families and destroys relationships between family members. Firstly, I would like to consider that it is actually true according my own experience because there is been some lies and hidden secrets in my family as well and once they are exposed, it causes embarrassments to those whom are affected.
Secondly. Actor , Film , Hollywood, Los Angeles, California 1520 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of Lies in Huckleberry Finn That book was made by proquest, Mr. Mark Twain, and undergraduate rankings he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he . stretched, but mainly he told the truth (1). Those are among the first lines in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, so it's obvious from the very beginning that the truth, or lack thereof, is a major theme in order dissertation the book. Huckleberry Finn is a liar throughout the whole novel but unlike other characters, his lies seem justified and writing moral to the reader because they.
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Each of the themes serve. Deception , Desdemona , Envy 1059 Words | 3 Pages. Hamlet and the Theme of dissertation, Corruption. Queen Gertrude. Undergraduate! From these actions, the still grieving Prince Hamlet reveals a pool of corruption and deceit into which he and order all those around him fall. Argumentative! One . of the order dissertation, main themes of this play is the corrupting power of evil. Shakespeare uses several elements such as rot and decay, deceit and lies , poison and madness to explore the theme of corruption and in doing so proposes that those closest to the source are the first to be corrupted.
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How effectively does the film portray the key themes and characters of Williams play? In 1949, Tennessee Williams released a novel entitled “A . Streetcar named Desire”. Two years later Elia Kazan directed and released a movie based on the novel. She tried to recreate the film as closely as she could to order dissertation proquest, the written play. How well did Kazan do this? Did she leave out key parts or did she cover them all? Did she model the characters perfectly according to the novel? Was she spot on or was she way off. A Streetcar Named Desire , All My Sons , Elia Kazan 1161 Words | 3 Pages. The Meaning of abelard essay, Literary Themes The Meaning of Literary Themes There are different types and forms of order dissertation proquest, literature.
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The Themes Within The Rain Clouds “The Man to Send Rain Clouds” is a beautifully written short story by Leslie Marmon Silko. Set in a modern . 21st century time frame, this story is essay, about a Native American family’s grandfather passing away and how the family gives him a proper, cultural funeral despite all of the order, modern traditions/challenges that present them along the way. There are a couple themes that are displayed as the story is told. The first theme that is the most prominent and apparent. Culture , Family , Indigenous peoples of the college application essay, Americas 1014 Words | 3 Pages. liars. This book is order, about five best friends that have a lot of dirty secrets among them. But this book doesn’t talk about the consequences of doing bas . things and telling lies . The consequences of doing bad things and not telling the truth are losing your families trust, you will never feel peace and doing bad things and telling lies becomes a habit. Doing bad things and not telling the truth brings you a lot consequence. College Ever! One of them is that your family stops trusting you. In the book Pretty Little.
2006 singles , American films , English-language films 790 Words | 2 Pages. The Wizard of Oz: The Theme of Belief. Believe: A Detailed Look at Underlying Themes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a novel published originally in 1900, and written by L. Frank . Baum, who also wrote thirteen to seventeen other books centering around the order, magical land of Oz. This children’s book spawned a Broadway Musical in 1902 and a film adaptation in 1939. It has also been the basic building block for plenty of other films, musicals and novels having to do with this imaginative world, such as Wicked; Oz the Great and Powerful; and. Up To 3 Paragraph Essay! Cowardly Lion , Dorothy Gale , Land of Oz 899 Words | 3 Pages. LIES OF SILENCE - SUMMARY ONE In the first chapter you get to know all important people of “ Lies of Silence”. At the order dissertation proquest, beginning . the main character Michael Dillon is introdced to the reader.
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The Brilliant Crimes of Galileo Galileo Galilei, was a man truly fit to be called the father of modern science, a man who became a symbol . for the war between the Catholic Church and Science. As history shows us that the Catholic Church doctrines was against Galileo’s scientific discoveries in astronomy. It was one of the most important battles between religion and science, where faith and reason clashed. The Catholic Church regretted for the crime that had been committed against Galileo after. Galileo Galilei , Heliocentrism , History of astronomy 2502 Words | 6 Pages.
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Information for Readers and dissertation proquest, Authors. No registration is required and access is free. There is no online submission or registration. Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the author guidelines and then email submissions to [emailprotected] An Argument for Terrorism. It has become something of a cliche to note that there are over 200 definitions of literary, terrorism in existence within broader terrorism studies literature; that many terrorism scholars have given up on the definitional debate and use the term unreflectively; and that such a state of affairs hampers theoretical progress and skews terrorism research in unhelpful ways. However, the order dissertation significance and consequences of the definitional debate go far beyond such narrow academic confines, important as they are to abelard essay, the field. Order Dissertation. Rather, the issue of peer edit worksheet, definition is central to the way in which the Global War on Terror is order dissertation prosecuted by the authorities both domestically and overseas. It also affects the way in which terrorism is understood and dealt with as a criminal act under international and domestic law. In the academic and cultural realms, the definition of terrorism has important implications for the way knowledge and commonsense about the subject is constructed and essay for school, reproduced socially. Furthermore, it has substantial indirect consequences for individuals and groups labelled as terrorists – who may then be legally subject to torture, rendition and internment without trial – and for the suspect communities they belong to.
This paper argues that despite a number of serious political and ontological obstacles to order dissertation, the definition of terrorism, it should be possible to agree on up to writing a clear set of criteria that can be employed to distinguish and conceptualise terrorism as a unique form of political violence. There are a great many advantages to adopting these definitional criteria. More importantly, there are political-normative imperatives for retaining terrorism as a central organising concept for the field. The paper begins by order dissertation proquest, discussing some of the worst college essay ever main challenges in defining terrorism and the kinds of knowledge practices this has resulted in to date. The second section outlines a set of dissertation proquest, criteria that analysts can employ to distinguish terrorism from other forms of political violence. The final section of the paper attempts to undergraduate rankings, demonstrate how this approach to terrorism can play a role in strengthening rules and norms against illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence, whether it is committed by state or non-state actors. The Constitution of Terrorism. I have already noted that the definitional debate in terrorism studies has reached something of a stalemate.
Not only is there no agreed definition among scholars, but an analysis of 490 articles published in the leading terrorism studies journals between 1990 and order proquest, 1999 revealed that only eight, or 1.6 percent of for school, them, could be regarded as conceptually-oriented papers. This suggests that many scholars have largely given up on the challenging theoretical debates surrounding the central concept of the field. An examination of broader terrorism studies literature suggests four main approaches and practices towards the definition and conceptualisation of terrorism. Arguably the most frequent practice—particularly amongst scholars who are newly arrived to the subject—is to simply use the term without defining it, on the misguided assumption that it is widely understood and accepted. Such an approach is problematic for order dissertation proquest, a number of very obvious reasons, not least because terrorism is a highly emotive and divisive concept which different scholars and societies have often understood in worst essay ever, very different ways. A second approach, confined mainly to political leaders and security officials, but also to order proquest, a surprising number of researchers and rankings, media pundits, is to define terrorism as an order dissertation proquest ideology or movement. Although groups specializing solely in terror do sometimes form, they are extremely rare and typically remain highly unstable and ephemeral. There are very few such groups operating today. In reality, most terrorism occurs in the context of wider political struggles in which the use of terror is one strategy among other more routine forms of contentious action. As Charles Tilly puts it, Properly understood, terror is a strategy, not a creed. Terrorists range across a wide spectrum of organizations, circumstances, and beliefs. Third, it is not uncommon to see researchers adopt an actor-based definition in the literature, whereby terrorism is defined as a particular form of political violence committed by non-state actors who attack civilians. Bruce Hoffman, for step up to writing, example, argues that terrorism involves violence perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity . This is in keeping with the U.S. Order Dissertation. State Department's highly influential definition of writing 3 paragraph, terrorism, which conceives of terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to dissertation, influence an audience. For scholars who adopt this definition, terrorism is largely indistinguishable from insurgency, militancy, guerrilla warfare and worst application essay ever, the like.
More importantly, inherent to this approach is an order proquest assumption that while states may commit atrocities, engage in step 3 paragraph essay, political repression or torture opponents, this nonetheless does not constitute terrorism, in large part because states have the sovereign right to order dissertation proquest, use force. From this perspective, definitions of terrorism hinge on questions of abelard essay, legitimacy and sovereignty and the nature of the dissertation proquest actor who employs the violence. As I will argue below, actor-based approaches to the definition of terrorism are both analytically untenable and politically suspect. Lastly, and most commonly among the leading scholars in the field, terrorism is defined as a violent strategy or tactic that actors employ in pursuit of particular political goals. That is, terrorism is 3 paragraph defined and understood by the nature and characteristics of the act itself, rather than the nature of actor, and is conceived as a particular kind of political action directed towards certain strategic goals rather than as a broad ideology or movement. Louise Richardson for example, defines terrorism as politically motivated violence directed against non combatants or symbolic targets which is designed to communicate a message to a broader audience. Crucially, such a definitional approach accepts that states are also actors who can and frequently do adopt strategies of terrorism and commit terrorist acts. This is a useful formulation that provides the basis for order, the identifying criteria I present below. Partly due to these definitional approaches, research on terrorism in the broader field has been characterised by a number of unfortunate tendencies. Argumentative Sex. An initial tendency widely noted by some critics of the field is the selection bias of much terrorism research. In this case, the terrorism label is applied almost solely to non-state groups opposed to Western interests. It is usually not applied to those groups supported by Western states – even when they commit identical acts of civilian-directed violence such as hijackings, bombings, kidnappings and order proquest, assassinations. Thus, while left-wing groups have always received an inordinate amount of attention in terrorism studies literature, right-wing groups like the Contras, anti-Castro groups, US- and South African-supported movements in Angola and Mozambique, various Afghan factions, numerous Latin American death squads, and today a number of Iraqi death squads, have remained scandalously understudied.
Although this is in writing, part the result of the definitional practices noted above, it is also the result of an order dissertation understandable but avoidable ideological bias amongst many Western scholars who adopt the interests of their own governments. A more serious issue is essay for school that the order dissertation field has been widely criticised for its failure to provide sustained analysis (and moral condemnation) of state terrorism. Abelard Essay. Indicative of the almost exclusive focus on terrorism from proquest, below as opposed to terrorism from step up to writing essay, above is the finding that only 12, or less than two percent, of dissertation proquest, articles from step writing, 1990 to 1999 in the core terrorism studies journals focused on state terrorism,[ 11] and dissertation proquest, that only 12 of the 768 pages in the Encyclopaedia of World Terrorism (1997) examined state terrorism in any form. In part, this is due to the not infrequent practice noted above of defining terrorism exclusively as a form of non-state violence. However, there are also many prominent scholars who accept that, objectively, terrorism is a strategy of political violence that any actor can employ, including states, yet simply refuse to examine cases of state terrorism in their research. Walter Laqueur, arguably one of the founders of terrorism studies, is argumentative emblematic of this practice: he openly accepts that states have killed many more people and proquest, caused far more material and social destruction than terrorism from undergraduate creative writing rankings, below, but then argues that this is simply not the type of proquest, terrorism he wishes to essay, examine. It is perfectly understandable that scholars would wish to focus on particular subjects, but when an entire field neglects what is a very important dimension of the phenomenon, it raises troubling questions about the ideological orientation and political objectivity of the dissertation proquest overall field. Clearly, there are reasons for concern over this state of affairs. From a political-normative perspective, the field appears biased towards Western state interests and complicit in the terroristic practices Western states have regularly employed over the past two hundred years. The well-documented use of political terror by Western states during the colonial period, the terror bombing during World War II and abelard essay, other conflicts, cold war counter-insurgency and pro-insurgency campaigns, the active sponsorship of right-wing non-state terrorist groups and the widespread use of torture during certain counter-terrorism campaigns, among others, are only the most prominent examples of the order proquest kind of step, terrorism that many Western states have employed.
The failure to dissertation proquest, analyse state terrorism or to condemn it in the same morally assured terms as non-state terrorism appears to many observers as pro-Western bias and argumentative essay, a toleration of certain forms of state-practiced terrorism. In addition, it represents a breakdown of scholarly procedure and order dissertation, a self-imposed intellectual blindness. It is intellectually unsustainable to argue that states cannot practice terrorism against their own people and against other states. For example, such an approach would argue that a car bomb detonated on a city street by clandestine state agents is not an act of terrorism, but an identical attack by non-state actors is. Or that the kidnap, torture and murder of a civilian by agents of the state are not terrorist acts, but the same act by a non-state group is step essay terrorism. Proquest. Accepting that terrorism can only really be described according to the nature and quality of the particular act of violence—rather than the purported legitimacy of the actor who commits it —has a number of undergraduate rankings, serious consequences and implications. In the first place, the acceptance that states are not exempted from employing terrorism raises serious questions about the broader focus of the field and the empirical foundations it is based on. That is, while non-state terrorists have killed tens of thousands and caused significant damage during the past century and a half, the acceptance that states can be terrorists, too  reveals that some individual states have been responsible for order dissertation proquest, more terrorism than all non-state terrorist groups put together.
A conservative estimate of state-instigated mass murder, forcible starvations and genocide against civilians for example, suggests that governments have been responsible for 170-200 millions deaths in the twentieth century alone. Even if only a small proportion of these deaths can be strictly defined as state terrorism, the few hundred deaths caused every year by non-state terrorists pales beside the massive death, destruction and de-stabilisation caused by some states. Moreover, a great many states continue to employ terrorism on a considerable scale against their people today in step up to writing, places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the order Philippines and elsewhere. And yet, the worst essay broader terrorism studies field does not include statistics on order dissertation proquest state terrorism in any of its recognised databases, nor does it expend any real effort trying to literary for school, understand the nature, causes, strategies and outcomes of state terrorism. A serious analytical breakdown occurs when an entire field largely fails to examine what is arguably the most serious aspect of the subject. It would be comparable to an imaginary situation in dissertation proquest, which criminologists focused most of their research on anti-social behaviour and burglaries, and failed to study in worst college application essay ever, any systematic way the extent and causes of domestic violence, rape, murder, sexual abuse or other serious crimes. Another important consequence of accepting state terrorism as terrorism (and not just repression) is the order proquest need to re-conceptualise some of the accepted truisms in the field regarding the nature of terrorist behaviour. It is abelard essay not the case for example, that terrorism is order dissertation solely the 'weapon of the weak'; it can also be true that the stronger the state, the stronger the temptation to rule through a regime of terror. In fact, an objective look at the history of terrorism would suggest that strong actors have used terror far more frequently than weak ones. Moreover, it is clear that contrary to popular beliefs, terrorism can be employed during war as well as during peace. Step Writing 3 Paragraph Essay. For example, when states bomb civilian targets of no military value for the sole purpose of proquest, terrorising a population into surrender—a case of frightening one group of people in step up to, order to produce a political change in another—they are clearly committing a terrorist act. Similarly, counter-terrorism itself can become terrorism under certain conditions: · When it fails to distinguish between the order dissertation proquest innocent and for school, the guilty; · When it is highly disproportionate; · When it aims to terrify or intimidate the wider population or a particular community into submission; · When it is co-opted to serve a political agenda. Ultimately, there are important ethical-normative implications for the notion that states employ terrorism too, often under the guise of counter-terrorism. In the current climate, virtually every state and proquest, international organisation has adopted new anti-terrorism legislation, and military force—including strategic bombing—is frequently being used as a tool of counter-terrorism.
At the application very least, scholars should be highly suspicious of any and all attempts by states to order dissertation proquest, define terrorism in ways that conveniently absolve what they or their agents do from being considered terrorism. They should refuse to accede to the common practice of exempting state officials from charges of terrorism, if for up to, no other reason than that: There is something morally suspicious, however, about people making laws that apply to everyone else accept [ sic ] themselves. The sheer fact that politicians have entered into a mutual-protection pact not to prosecute one another as 'terrorists' cannot change any logical or deontological facts of the matter. If what they do is otherwise indistinguishable from what is done by non-state actors that we would deem to order dissertation proquest, be terroristic, then the acts of the state officials doing the same thing would be morally wrong for just the same reasons. It is up to writing 3 paragraph essay not as if there understandable reasons exist for the continuing failure to agree upon a definition of the field's central concept. In the first place, some of the key concepts at the heart of the definition of terrorism are extremely subjective and difficult to determine objectively. Most definitions of terrorism by leading scholars for example, describe it as a form of illegitimate violence directed towards innocent civilians that is order proquest intended to intimidate or terrify an audience for political purposes. The question of rankings, what makes an act of violence legitimate or not, who is considered a civilian, how innocence can be measured, what the real intentions of often clandestine actors might be and what counts as a political aim, are all highly contested and subject to competing claims. As a consequence, in order, practice it is often the politically and culturally determined legitimacy of the argumentative particular group under scrutiny that determines whether its actions are labelled as terrorism and not necessarily the characteristics inherent to the violence itself.
Much more significantly however, terrorism is not a causally coherent, free-standing phenomenon which can be defined in terms of order proquest, characteristics inherent to the violence itself. It lacks a clear ontological status—which actually makes an objective definition impossible. College Essay Ever. As two leading figures in the field put it, The nature of terrorism is order not inherent in the violent act itself. One and the same act… can be terrorist or not, depending on worst college ever intention and circumstance. The bombing of civilians for dissertation, example, is not always or inherently a terrorist act; it may be the creative rankings unintentional consequence of a military operation during war. The reality is order proquest that terrorism is worst college application a social fact rather than a brute fact. Although acts of violence are experienced as brute facts, the wider cultural-political meaning of dissertation, those acts as terrorism for creative writing, example, is decided through symbolic labelling, social agreement and a range of inter-subjective practices. That is, as a phenomenon, terrorism is dissertation constituted by and through the discursive practices which make it a concrete reality for politicians, law enforcement officials, the media, the worst application essay ever public, academics and so on.
We can identify a number of processes by which certain acts and individuals are constructed as terrorism and terrorists, including: · The labelling of certain acts and groups as such by authoritative actors, such as the annual State Department reports; · The legal definitions contained within criminal and international law; · The compiling of statistics on proquest terrorism by the CIA, RAND, and various academics and think-tanks; · The ascriptions of different groups and acts as terrorist in the media; Actions and actors are constituted and reconstituted as terrorism in a continuous flow of social and political discourse. Moreover, analyses of these discourses reveal significant variation and instabilities between and within institutions, as well as shifts over time in worst ever, the way terrorism is discursively constructed and delineated. For example, before the late 1960s, there was virtually no terrorism spoken of by politicians, the media or academics; there were instead numerous references to order, bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, hijackings and essay, so on.[ 27] The current discourse of terrorism used by scholars, politicians and the media is in fact, a very recent invention. Similarly, in the 1980s, the Afghan Mujahidin were described as freedom fighters before they were later reconstructed as Islamic terrorists. Numerous other groups and states have experienced the dissertation proquest same kind of discursive transformation from terrorist or state-sponsor of terrorism to freedom fighter, political leader or ally in application essay, the War on Terror.
In an important sense, terrorism does not exist outside of the order dissertation definitions and practices that seek to enclose it. In the same way that races do not exist objectively as a meaningful way of assigning identities and behavioural characteristics to individuals, but classifications of humankind do, so too terrorism does not exist as a kind of essential marker—even if classifications of different forms of creative writing, political violence do. A pertinent illustration of the order dissertation ontological instability of the terrorism label is the observation that there are no less than four recognised terrorists who have gone on to win the Nobel Peace Prize: Menachim Begin, Sean McBride, Nelson Mandela and Yassir Arafat. In other words, even within the confines of contemporary terrorism discourse, once a terrorist, is writing not always a terrorist. It depends upon the current political context and the dominant discourses which determine and constitute it. It is for dissertation proquest, this reason, among others, that some scholars argue that the term should be avoided or eschewed altogether in academic research. These scholars suggest that the appropriate focus of essay on safe sex, study is not the dissertation proquest terrorism that exists out there in reality, but the discourses of terrorism and the discursive practices that construct terrorism as a political and cultural subject. Another set of scholars argue more prosaically that terrorism is a political-cultural label and an act of de-legitimisation, and that no group ever accepts its designation as terrorist. They suggest that as a concept, terrorism has been greatly abused by political interests and has too many negative cultural and abelard essay, political connotations to retain any real analytical value. While these are cogent and challenging arguments, I do not accept that this means we should abandon the attempt to carefully and consistently determine which acts should be considered terrorist, or that we cannot agree on order dissertation proquest a set of literary essay for school, fairly clear identifying criteria which can be employed for order dissertation proquest, research purposes.
An Argument for Terrorism. It is my argument here that in spite of its insecure ontological status, its negative cultural-political baggage and for school, its frequent misuse by political and academic actors, there are a number of important political and normative reasons for retaining the term terrorism as an organising concept for the field. I want to further suggest that the term can serve a useful function within a broader progressive political project to dissertation, restrict and eliminate the use of essay ever, certain kinds of illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence. However, in order to achieve these lofty goals, scholars need to adopt the aims and commitments of order, a more 'critical' approach to terrorism. Politically, there are a number of reasons why we should retain the essay peer term terrorism and engage in sustained and rigorous discursive struggle over its constitution and dissertation proquest, knowledge production. Most obviously, the term now has widespread political and cultural currency. Argumentative Essay On Safe Sex. It is the order dissertation organising concept for college application ever, a vast array of powerful political institutions, processes and practices in order dissertation, contemporary society, and scholars who refuse to employ or engage with it risk marginalising their views and their access to power. The term also clearly retains a great deal of academic currency. There is now a whole field of abelard essay, research, teaching and advocacy surrounding the concept of terrorism, with numerous journals, conferences, teaching programmes, think-tanks, research centres, funding opportunities and order, advisory posts in argumentative essay on safe, existence. Order Dissertation. To refuse to employ the term or engage in debates about its definition and application in research is again, to essay for school, risk marginalisation and irrelevance within this broader scholarly context.
Most importantly however, there is a compelling normative imperative to retain a term that de-legitimises particular kinds of violence directed against order dissertation proquest civilians and which instrumentalises human suffering for the purposes of influencing an audience. Of course, the normative power of the step writing 3 paragraph essay terrorism label is order dissertation highly dependent upon its consistent application to all qualifying cases, including cases involving Western states or their allies. The selectivity and narrative edit worksheet, bias of terrorism scholars and order dissertation, political leaders in the past has seriously undermined this project by making it appear that the term is worksheet reserved solely for enemies of the West. However, I would argue that this provides a reason for critical engagement rather than withdrawal and capitulation in the discursive struggle. Although terrorism can never be adequately defined due to its unstable ontological status, I want to dissertation proquest, argue that it can, and creative writing rankings, should, be described according to a set of identifiable and unique characteristics, which delineate it from other forms of political violence. Furthermore, a review of broader terrorism studies literature would suggest that the following conception of terrorism has broad support from many leading scholars in the field and could form the basis of a consensus over how to conceptualise it. Such an approach moreover, has several advantages over most of the existing approaches I outlined above. I suggest that as a form of political violence, terrorism can be described according to four main characteristics.
First, terrorism is an dissertation proquest intentional and pre-determined strategy of political violence. This suggests its rational and instrumental basis. It also implies that any actor (states, groups or individuals) can employ it in step up to essay, pursuit of strategic goals. More importantly, it implies that actors can abandon its use at any time, and that being a terrorist is not a determinant of future behaviour or an indication of some kind of essential evil nature. Terrorists can choose to adopt non-violent strategies instead; they can even become statesmen and peacemakers. Importantly, it also implies political motivations, as a way of distinguishing terrorism from dissertation proquest, other forms of violence designed to terrify, such as the intimidation of communities by organised criminals seeking to obtain financial reward, the terror caused by a serial killer, or the fear caused by a one-off mass killing. Lastly, it implies forethought and intentionality, as opposed to the terror induced by rioting or communal disturbances, for example. Second, the targets of terrorist violence are not necessarily the victims of the abelard essay violence, but rather the audiences to the violence. From this perspective, terrorism is a form of dissertation proquest, political communication rather than direct military action.
An important distinction here is that terrorism instrumentalises its victims. Unlike the actions of soldiers in war who seek to essay peer edit, directly degrade the material ability of the enemy to continue fighting, the victims of terrorism are chosen instead for symbolic reasons. An important point here is that states which try to hide their involvement in civilian-directed violence may still be sending a powerful message to the society or social groups they wish to intimidate. The use of disappearances as a strategy of terrorism for example, sends a message that the state is omnipotent, omnipresent and ruthless in rooting out opponents, as does kidnap and order dissertation, torture. In other cases, state terrorism may be both instrumental and direct: killing a union organiser for example, both weakens the union and sends a message to abelard essay, potential union leaders and the society they come from. Third, and related to the previous point, terrorism is intended to order dissertation proquest, cause fear and intimidate. This is the essay sex central purpose of the violence and not just the unintended consequence, although it can be argued that there is a certain kind of intentionality when actors engage in proquest, actions they can be sure which will cause terror and intimidate, such as using airpower to bomb civilian areas. Moreover, the intention to cause fear can usually be deduced from the targets, context and foreseen consequences of the argumentative on safe violence.
Bombs in public places or the widespread use of torture against regime opponents for example, are clearly intended to terrify the wider society. Lastly, terrorism is aimed primarily but not solely at civilians. Here I differ with some scholars in that I argue that it is often unhelpful to try and maintain civilian-military or combatant-non-combatant distinctions in conceptualising terrorism. I agree with Goodin in proquest, this regard that such distinctions can in fact, be counter-productive, as they allow actors to claim legitimacy for creative, other forms of equally abhorrent violence. A violent campaign aimed at police officers or off-duty military personnel that was intended to cause fear and intimidate the wider society or a certain section of society for example, would still constitute terrorism even though it avoided targeting civilians. Similarly, certain actions during war which were aimed solely at terrorising enemy soldiers and their civilian audience, rather than for military-strategic reasons, could also be considered terrorism. The use of certain types of militarily ineffective but demoralising chemical weapons or the bombing of civilian areas in which there were no real strategic targets, for order dissertation, example, would qualify as terrorism. There are a number of clear advantages to employing such a conception of literary, terrorism. In the first instance, it does not artificially and illogically limit the phenomenon by the nature of the actor (as some definitions do), but includes state terrorism, gender-based terrorism, and non-state terrorism. Second, it does not limit the order proquest analysis to abelard essay, peace, but also includes the behaviour of actors in war—the site of a great deal of dissertation proquest, concentrated political violence.
Lastly, as mentioned, it can be argued that there is already a consensus on these criteria among the leading terrorism scholars, as their definitions tend to incorporate all these elements. From this perspective, the main issue is not that we do not know what terrorism is or that we cannot clearly identify it; it is rather that the writing application of the definition is too often restricted—for whatever reason—to a narrow set of actors that most often happens to coincide with the current strategic interests of proquest, Western powers. During the cold war, most terrorism research focused on left-wing non-state groups; today, most terrorism research focuses on so-called Islamist terrorism. This inconsistent application both distorts the focus of the field and worst essay, undermines attempts to restrict and eliminate oppressive forms of political violence. Terrorism and Emancipation. In addition to its analytical advantages, the order dissertation terrorism label could be employed as means to step writing, advancing a progressive political project aimed at protecting marginalised and vulnerable populations from indiscriminate and oppressive forms of violence. That is, at the most basic level, employing the above criteria can have the effect of de-legitimising any and all forms of violence that seek to instrumentalise human suffering for the sole purpose of sending a message to an audience. Related to this, it also de-legitimises all forms of civilian-directed violence, including the direct targeting of civilians during war. Most importantly, however, this approach to terrorism brings back states as a subject for analysis and holds them accountable for actions that many recognise as terrorism but which are rarely acknowledged as terrorism, even by terrorism scholars.
This is a critical task, given that the order dissertation proquest known effects and consequences of state terrorism —in terms of deaths, human suffering and material, social and political destruction—are far more serious than non-state terrorism. In this sense, the identifying criteria described above functions to set the argumentative on safe limits of dissertation, legitimate state violence, despite the frequent attempt to justify terroristic forms of argumentative, violence by reference to doctrines of state sovereignty and the legitimate use of political violence. The criteria can also be used to scrutinise state practices during counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations to dissertation, ensure that they do not morph into undergraduate writing rankings, terrorism themselves by failing to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty or being highly disproportionate, for example. Similarly, it can be used to evaluate state practices during times of war, identifying those occasions when military actions go beyond strategic necessity to the use of force for the purpose of intimidating and order dissertation proquest, demoralising civilians. In short, these criteria provide a strict set of criteria for the evaluation of actions by up to writing 3 paragraph, any and all actors who are in conflict. As such, they have the potential to strengthen the norms relating to the limits of political violence, thereby improving human and social security. Order Dissertation. Importantly, the broad social and academic consensus, as well as the relevant legal precepts, is already in place for proscribing and de-legitimising actions that fall within the categories of illegitimate, terrorist violence outlined above. However, in order to make this work in everyday scholarly practice, I would argue that terrorism scholars in particular would need to adhere to a set of core ontological, methodological and normative commitments. These have been outlined in detail elsewhere, but would include, among others: · An acute sensitivity to the politics of essay edit, labelling in the terrorism field and an acceptance of the insecure ontological status of the term; · Transparency about their own values and political standpoints, particularly as they relate to the geo-political interests of Western states; · A willingness to expand their focus of research to include the use of terrorism by dissertation proquest, states, including Western states engaged in operations overseas; · Adherence to a set of responsible research ethics, including a commitment to undergraduate creative writing rankings, refusing to cooperate with state counter-terrorism projects that include the use of order proquest, torture, illegal practices such as rendition or the creative writing rankings victimising of whole suspect communities; · A commitment to normative values which reject any and all forms of civilian-directed violence and which promotes a broad notion of human security. In particular, terrorism scholars must recognise the cultural-political biases they hold and aim for consistency of application of the criteria set out. Specifically, they must demonstrate a willingness to dissertation proquest, scrutinise and condemn the actions and worst application ever, intentions of their own states when they cross the line into terrorism.
This is in fact, the proquest biggest problem facing the field in this area. It is not that terrorism scholars do not recognise the use of up to writing, terrorism by states; it is rather that they limit the focus of their research largely to non-state groups that are opposed to dissertation, Western interests and abelard essay, fail to acknowledge the long history of order dissertation, involvement of their own states or allied states in terrorism. In this paper, I have attempted to demonstrate that even though terrorism is impossible to worst ever, define and the study of terrorism is beset by some unhelpful biases and knowledge practices, it is both possible and necessary to retain the dissertation proquest term as a focus for research. I have further suggested that as an analytical term, terrorism can potentially also play an important normative function. However, in order to 3 paragraph, realise this potential, terrorism scholars need to acknowledge and accept the ethico-political content of their subject and dissertation, commit themselves to a number of transparent principles. The consequences of failing to do so are that the field remains unbalanced, politically biased and highly limited in its focus. More importantly, unless these imbalances are addressed, the narrative essay edit worksheet field is in danger of reinforcing the view that terrorism is solely a problem of non-state groups and dissertation proquest, individuals, and that states are immune from condemnation or sustained scholarly analysis. As such, there is a danger that terrorism studies will continue to be seen by some as simply an arm of the state security sector and a bastion of support for the Global War on Terror.
Considering some of the morally questionable and counter-productive policies at the heart of current state security practices in the global counter-terrorism campaign—such as extraordinary rendition, the abelard essay widespread use of torture, internment at Guantanamo Bay, pre-emptive war, extra-judicial killing of terrorist suspects, shoot-to-kill policies, intrusive surveillance, aid and support for order dissertation, authoritarian regimes and the like—this should sound a clarion call for concerted action to scholars in the field. About the Author: Richard Jackson is Reader in International Politics at Aberystwyth University and the Founding Editor of the journal, Critical Studies on literary for school Terrorism . He gained his PhD from the University of order, Canterbury, New Zealand. His current research focuses on the discourses of terrorism and the development of essay peer, 'critical terrorism studies'.  An earlier version of this paper was presented at the British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge.  Silke, A. (2004) 'The Road Less Travelled: Recent Trends in Terrorism Research', in A. Silke, (ed), Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures . London: Frank Cass, p. Order Proquest. 207.  For an excellent overview of the main definitional approaches in the field, see Raphael, S. (2007) 'Putting the State Back In: The Orthodox Definition of Terrorism and the Critical Need to application, Address State Terrorism', Paper Prepared for British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, available online at: http://www.bisa.ac.uk/2007/tuesday.htm.  Tilly, C. (2004) 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', Sociological Theory , vol. 22, no. 1, p. 6; Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for dissertation, Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol. 16, no.
2, p. 199.  Tilly, 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', p. 5.  Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism , New York: Columbia University Press, p.43.  Emphasis added. Edit. Quoted in Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues , Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 33.  See Raphael, 'Putting the State Back In'.  Richardson, L., quoted in Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2000) The Future of Terrorism London: Frank Cass.  I explore this problem in Jackson, R. (2007) 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse', in Michael Innes, (ed), Denial of Sanctuary: Understanding Terrorist Safe Havens , Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.  Silke, 'The Road Less Travelled', p. 206.  Quoted in Goodin, R. (2006) What's Wrong with Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity Press 2006, p. 55.  Laqueur, W. (1977), Terrorism . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 6.  Western state terrorism is discussed in order dissertation proquest, more detail in Jackson, 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse'.
 See for example, George, A. (1991), Western State Terrorism , Cambridge: Polity Press; Herman, E. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda , South End Press.  In any case, it can be argued that states who employ terror as a mode of governance lack legitimacy.  Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , pp. Abelard Essay. 50-77.  See Rummel, R. (1994) Death by dissertation proquest, Government . Somerset, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , p. 67).
 The former British ambassador to Uzbekistan reveals the college application nature and extent of Uzbek state terror and Western complicity in Craig Murray, Murder in Samarkland: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on Terror (Mainstream Publishing, 2006). This is not to say that there are no scholars who examine state terrorism, simply that they are few and order dissertation, far between and college application essay, tend to order proquest, exist on the margins of or even outside of the main field. There has been some outstanding research on state terrorism, including: Sluka, J. (ed.), (2000), Death Squad: An Anthropology of State Terror (Penn: University of Pennsylvania Press); Stohl, M. and Lopez, G. (eds.) (1986), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research , ed. Bernard Johnpoll, Contributions in Political Science, New York: Greenwood; Gareau, F. (2004), State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism , London: Zed Books; and Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 52.  On the essay peer worksheet issue of terrorism during war, an excellent example is Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . Order. London: Zed Books. Grosscup provides a thoroughly convincing and eloquent argument about creative writing why the doctrine and practice of strategic bombing constitutes a form of state terrorism – not least because its original formulation was as ' terror bombing' aimed at civilians and order dissertation proquest, intended 'to create such terror, destruction and misery as to argumentative on safe sex, undermine civilians' morale and in swift order break their fragile will to resist' (p. 24). He goes on dissertation proquest to document the use of 'terror bombing' against civilian populations in numerous European colonies, in the Spanish Civil War and essay peer edit worksheet, during World War II, and then in its new formulation as 'strategic bombing' in numerous conflicts since such as Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. Furthermore, Grosscup demonstrates that the two most common justifications for strategic bombing – that unlike non-state terrorism it does not deliberately target civilians and that when large numbers of civilians are killed it is not intentional – are in fact, highly specious (p. Order Proquest. 179).
 Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? pp. 69-73.  Schmid, A. and A. Jongman, (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and Literature , Oxford: North Holland, p. 101.  See Zulaika, J. and W. Douglass, (1996) Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism , London: Routledge; Jackson, R. (2005). Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism , Manchester: Manchester University Press; Jackson, R. (2007) 'Constructing Enemies: Islamic Terrorism in Political and Academic Discourse', Government Opposition , vol. 42, no. Peer Edit. 3, pp. 394-426; Winkler, C. Order Proquest. (2006) In the Name of undergraduate writing rankings, Terrorism: Presidents on Political Violence in the Post-World War II Era , Albany, NY, State University of New York Press; Collins, J. and proquest, Glover, R. (eds.) (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to step 3 paragraph essay, America's New War (New York University Press, 2002); and order dissertation proquest, Croft, S. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America's War on worst college application essay ever Terror , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
 See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo .  Livingston, S. (1994) The Terrorism Spectacle , Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [29 ]Sluka, J. (2002) 'Comment: What Anthropologists should know about the Concept of Terrorism', Anthropology Today , vol. 18, no. 2, p. Proquest. 23.  Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo , p. x.  Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol.
16, no. 2, p. 205.  See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo .  This point was made to me in conversation with Ken Booth, Aberystwyth University.  See Sluka, 'Introduction'.  Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 15.
 See Sharlach, L. (forthcoming) 'Veil and Four Walls: A State of Terror in Pakistan', Critical Studies on Terrorism , vol. 1, no. 1.  See Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Sci ence, 6(3), 244-51. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. Perspectives on literary essay for school Terrorism is proquest a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies.