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MerCruiser Axius 350 Instruction Manual. Summary of Contents for MerCruiser Axius 350. Ignition#x2011;protected equipment (Annex II) ISO 8846; SAE J1171; SAE J1191; SAE J 2031 Mercury MerCruiser declares that our sterndrive or inboard engines without integral exhaust, when installed in a recreational craft, in accordance with the creative magazines, manufacturers supplied instructions, will meet the exhaust emissions requirements of the directive mentioned above. Page 2: Read This Manual Thoroughly. Boat Model Length The serial numbers are the manufacturer#x2019;s keys to numerous engineering details that apply to your Mercury MerCruiser#xAE; power package. When contacting your Authorized Mercury MerCruiser Dealer about service, always specify model and biodata cv serial numbers.
The description and specifications contained herein were in effect at writing the time this guide was approved for essay, printing. Mercury Marine, whose policy is one of continuous improvement, reserves the right to discontinue models at any time, or to change specifications or designs, without notice and without incurring obligation. Notice Throughout this publication, and on your power package, dangers, warnings, cautions, and notices, accompanied by the International Hazard Symbol , may be used to alert the installer/user to special instructions concerning a particular service or operation that may be hazardous if performed incorrectly or carelessly. Observe them carefully. These Safety Alerts alone cannot eliminate the hazards that they signal. Transfer of Warranty.
2 Mercury Installation Quality Certification Program. 14 Mercury Product Protection Plan: United States and creative online Canada. Bibliography? 3 California Emissions Limited Warranty. 14 Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty (Gasoline#x2011;Fueled What Is Covered. Creative Online? 15 Products Only) . 3 Duration of Coverage. 15 3#x2011;Year Limited Warranty Against Corrosion. 5 How to Obtain Warranty Coverage.
Engine Oil. 76 Sterndrive#x2014;Bravo. 80 Engine Specifications. 77 Steering. 80 Engine Specifications. 78 Power Trim. Russian Revolution Paper? 80 Axius 350 MAG, Axius SeaCore 350 MAG with Emissions Control.
78 Section 5 - Maintenance Owner/Operator Responsibilities. 82 Easy Engine Oil Drain System. 86 Dealer Responsibilities. 82 Engine Oil Drain Pump. Changing. 91 Propeller Repair. 99 Power Trim Fluid. 92 Bravo Three Propeller Removal. 99 Checking. 92 Bravo Three Propeller Installation.
100 Filling. 92 Serpentine Drive Belt. 101 Changing. 93 Checking. 101 Battery. 93 Replacing or Adjusting. 102 Multiple EFI Engine Battery Precautions. 93 Corrosion Protection. 103 Cleaning the Flame Arrestor. Creative Writing? 93 Corrosion Information.
Ordering Literature. 139 Outside the United States and write a english outline Canada. 140 United States and creative online Canada. 139 Dealer Checklist and Customer Orientation. 140 Page iv 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Mercury Product Protection Plan: United States and Canada California Emissions Limited Warranty. 14 . 3 What Is Covered . Resume Biodata? 15 Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty (Gasoline#x2011;Fueled Duration of magazines Coverage . 15 Products Only) . How To Write A English? 3 How to Obtain Warranty Coverage . 15 3#x2011;Year Limited Warranty Against Corrosion. Page 10: Warranty Registration: United States And Canada. Federal Boat Safety Act is required.
You may change your address at writing any time, including at time of warranty claim, by calling Mercury MerCruiser or sending a letter or fax to write, Mercury MerCruiser#x2019;s warranty registration department with your name, old address, new address, and creative online engine serial number. Page 11: Mercury Product Protection Plan: United States And Canada. The optional Mercury Product Protection Plan is the paper, only Factory Plan available for writing magazines online, your engine. One#x2011;, two#x2011;, three#x2011;, four#x2011;, or five#x2011; year term plans can be purchased up to 12 months after the original engine registration date. Essay? See your participating Mercury MerCruiser dealer for creative magazines, complete program details. Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty (Gasoline#x2011;Fueled Products Only) Section 1 - Warranty Warranty Period for Commercial Use The warranty period begins on the date the product is first sold to a commercial#x2011;use retail purchaser or the date on as english, which the product is first put into magazines service, whichever occurs first. Commercial users of georgetown resume these products receive warranty coverage for either one (1) year from the date of first retail sale or the accumulation of creative writing online 500 hours of operation, whichever occurs first.
Page 13: Year Limited Warranty Against Corrosion. Mercury Marine warrants that each new Mercury, Mariner, Mercury Racing, Sport Jet, M Jet Drive, Tracker by Mercury Marine Outboard, MerCruiser Inboard or Sterndrive engine (Product) will not be rendered inoperative as a direct result of corrosion for the period of russian research time described below. Page 14: Year Limited Corrosion Warranty: Seacore Sterndrive Models With Gas Engines. 4-YEAR LIMITED CORROSION WARRANTY: SEACORE STERNDRIVE MODELS WITH GAS ENGINES What Is Covered Mercury Marine warrants that each new MerCruiser SeaCore engine, transom, and sterndrive package will not be rendered inoperative as a direct result of creative magazines corrosion for the period of time described below. This limited corrosion warranty provides coverage for four (4) years from either the date on which the MerCruiser SeaCore engine, transom, and sterndrive package is first sold or the date on which it is first put into russian research service, whichever occurs first. The repair or replacement of parts or the performance of service under this warranty does not extend the life of this warranty beyond its original expiration date. Page 16: Consumer Application Warranty Chart. Section 1 - Warranty Consumer Application Warranty Chart Limited Corrosion Consumer Application: Standard Factory Limited Warranty by Region Boat Brand Warranty Non-Certified Boat Brand Certified Boat Brand All Boat Brands Vazer, Vazer Vazer Standard Models, Standar Models Scorpio Standar Models Scorpio and creative writing magazines online and. Page 17: Commercial Application Warranty Chart. Section 1 - Warranty Commercial Application Warranty Chart Limited Corrosion Commercial Application: Standard Factory Limited Warranty by for tangerine, Region Boat Brand Warranty Non-Certified Boat Brand Certified Boat Brand All Boat Brands Vazer, Vazer Vazer Standard Models, Standar Models Scorpio Standar Models Scorpio and and. Page 18: Government Application Warranty Chart.
Section 1 - Warranty Government Application Warranty Chart Limited Corrosion Government Application: Standard Factory Limited Warranty by creative, Region Boat Brand Warranty Non-Certified Boat Brand Certified Boat Brand All Boat Brands Vazer, Vazer Vazer Standard Models, Standar Models Scorpio Standar Models Scorpio and and. 1 year 3 years (excluding 2 years Brazil) 2 years Brazil Europe, Middle 3 years 2 years Axius 350 MAG, Axius 377 MAG East, Africa 3 years with Emissions Control Australia, New 2 years Zealand 1 year 1 year 1 year. Page 20: Warranty For Government Applications. (excluding Brazil) 2 years 2 years 2 years Brazil Europe, Middle 3 years Axius 350 MAG, Axius 377 MAG East, Africa with Emissions Control Australia, New Zealand 1 year or 500 hours 1 year or 500 hours Japan 1 year or 500 hours. Page 21: Warranty For Commercial Applications. Section 1 - Warranty Warranty for Commercial Applications Standard Factory Limited Warranty by coursework bibliography, Certification Status of creative writing magazines online Boat Manufacturer Commercial Limited Engine Model Region Corrosion Warranty Installation Quality Not Certified Certified The Americas 1 year 1 year 1 year (excluding Brazil) 2 years 2 years 2 years. Page 22: Mercury Installation Quality Certification Program. California Emissions Limited Warranty NOTE: Mercury Marine does not establish model years for the Mercury MerCruiser product line.
In order to comply with CARB warranty regulations, and for that limited purpose only, model year shall have the same meaning as calendar year. As English Coursework Bibliography? As an writing online, example, 2003 model year products refers to products manufactured during calendar year 2003. Duration of Coverage NOTE: Mercury Marine does not establish model years for the Mercury MerCruiser product line. Extended? In order to comply with CARB warranty regulations, and for creative writing magazines online, that limited purpose only, model year shall have the same meaning as calendar year. Georgetown? As an example, 2003 model year products refers to products manufactured during calendar year 2003 This limited warranty provides coverage for the components of the writing online, emissions control systems.
Page 24: Disclaimers And Limitations. Your Warranty Rights and Obligations NOTE: Mercury Marine does not establish model years for georgetown resume, the Mercury MerCruiser product line. In order to comply with CARB warranty regulations, and for writing magazines, that limited purpose only, model year shall have the resume, same meaning as calendar year. Writing Online? As an example, 2003 model year products refers to products manufactured during calendar year 2003. Better Fuel Economy #x2011; burns up to 30#x2011;40 percent less gas and oil than conventional carbureted two#x2011;stroke engines, saving money and resources. Resume? Longer Emission Warranty #x2011; Protects consumer for worry free operation. Beginning January 1, 2003, one Three#x2011;Star label will be included with each factory#x2011;certified Mercury MerCruiser engine. 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Section 1 - Warranty All Mercury MerCruiser engines (500 hp and magazines below) will have a Three#x2011;Star Ultra Low Emission rating. The Three#x2011;Star label identifies that these engines meet the research paper, California Air Resources Board's Sterndrive and Inboard marine engine 2003 exhaust emission standards. Page 27: Section 2 - Getting To Know Your Power Package.
Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Table of Contents Identification. Writing? 20 Adjustment . 25 Engine Serial Number Decal MPI. 20 Joystick#x2014;Basic Operation. 25 Bravo Transom Serial Number. 20 Power Trim. Section 2 - Getting to resume cv, Know Your Power Package Identification The serial numbers are the manufacture's keys to numerous engineering details which apply to creative writing magazines, your MerCruiser power package. Science Outline? When contacting MerCruiser about service, always specify model and serial numbers.
Engine Serial Number Decal MPI The serial number decal is located on the engine cover. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Features and writing magazines online Controls Lanyard Stop Switch The purpose of a lanyard stop switch is to turn off the engine when the operator moves outside the operator's position (as in accidental ejection from the how to a english outline essay, operator's position). Stop switch Lanyard Clips to creative writing online, the operator. Page 30: Emergency Stop (e?stop) Switch. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Emergency Stop (E#x2011;Stop) Switch The emergency stop (E#x2011;stop) switch turns off the engines in an emergency situation, such as a person overboard or tangled propeller. When activated, the E#x2011;stop switch interrupts the power supply to coursework, the main power relay, including power to the gauges, steering, and accessories.
Page 31: Sc1000 And Sc100 Digital Gauges (if Equipped) Section 2 - Getting to writing magazines online, Know Your Power Package SC1000 and SC100 Digital Gauges (If Equipped) The SmartCraft SC1000 and SC100 digital gauges complement VesselView. Refer to the SC1000 and SC100 Digital Gauge Operator's Manual for more information. Science Extended Essay? Typical SmartCraft gauges Tachometer Speedometer LCD System View display. Page 32: Bravo Sterndrive Serial Number And Identification. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Bravo Sterndrive Serial Number and Identification The Bravo sterndrive serial number, gear ratio, model number, and online bar code are embedded in resume the ground plate on the port side of the sterndrive. 33533 Bravo sterndrive information on online, ground plate The serial number is also stamped as a permanent reference on the sterndrive casting inside the back cover. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package NOTE: When using the joystick, the computer moves the sterndrive in and out of gear even though the ERC handles remain in neutral. Typical ERC handles Neutral Forward Reverse Bow of boat 28086 Adjustment The amount of force needed to move the ERC handles and to move the ERC handles through the detentes is adjustable to help. Section 2 - Getting to as english coursework, Know Your Power Package ERC Trim Control WARNING Excessive trim can cause serious injury or death at high speeds. Use caution when trimming the sterndrive, and never trim out beyond the gimbal ring support flanges while the boat is underway or at engine speeds above 1200 RPM.
Some ERC's will have a single button for trimming both sterndrives simultaneously or may have separate buttons for each sterndrive unit. Page 35: Joystick And Trim Control. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Joystick and Trim Control 24704 Typical joystick While using the Axius joystick, the best boat control is achieved when the sterndrives are in the full down (in) position. Full down (in) trim maximizes propeller efficiency allowing the creative writing magazines online, boat to move parallel with the joystick command. The joystick will function while the for tangerine, sterndrives are trimmed up (out), however control of the boat may be limited or altered because the inefficiency of the propellers at or near the top of the writing magazines, water surface. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package A circuit breaker protects the engine wiring harness and the instrumentation power lead.
Test the resume, circuit breaker by pushing the online, red button. To reset the breaker, push the yellow lever back into the housing. Yellow lever#x2014;shown tripped Red test button 22529. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package The power trim system is protected from overload by analytical, a 110 amp fuse and a 20 amp spade fuse on the power trim pump. The trim pump may also have an magazines online, in#x2011;line circuit protection device in the power trim positive lead near the battery switch or battery connection. IMPORTANT: The audio warning system alerts the operator that a problem has occurred. It does not protect the engine from damage. Resume? Your Mercury MerCruiser power package may be equipped with an audio warning system.
Most faults cause the warning horn circuit to activate. How the warning horn activates depends on the severity of the problem. If an OBDM fault is detected, the audio warning system sound with one five#x2011;second horn, then one short, 1/2#x2011;second horn every 60 seconds for certain faults related to the emissions control or fuel systems. See your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for creative writing magazines, assistance. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package #x2022; Waypoint Sequence#x2014;controls the georgetown resume, boat on creative, a pre#x2011;determined path with multiple waypoints 35301 SkyHook Turn to starboard Waypoint Sequence Response Track Waypoint Auto Heading Resume Turn to port The buttons on the Precision Pilot Trackpad have the following functions: Function Description Engages and essay for tangerine disengages SkyHook. Section 3 - On The Water Section 3 - On The Water Table of Contents Safe Boating Suggestions. 34 General Information . Writing Magazines? 50 Be Alert to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. 35 Heading Adjustment and Override . 50 Good Ventilation . 35 Standby . Section 3 - On The Water Safe Boating Suggestions To enjoy the water safely, you should know and understand all boating regulations and restrictions that pertain to your activity.
Know and obey all nautical rules and laws of the waterways. Boat operators should complete a boating safety course. Page 43: Be Alert To Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Section 3 - On The Water Federal law requires an georgetown resume, approved personal flotation device for every person aboard, as well as a throwable cushion or ring. Creative Magazines? Flotation devices must fit correctly and be readily accessible. Know your boating area and avoid hazardous locations.
Be alert. By law, boat operators are responsible for ensuring that they can see or hear indications of danger. IMPORTANT: If the boat is operated during periods of freezing temperature, precautions must be taken to prevent freeze damage to the power package. Damage caused by how to a english essay, freezing is not covered by Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty. Protecting People in the Water While You Are Cruising It is very difficult for a person in the water to take quick action to writing magazines, avoid a boat heading in their direction, even at slow speeds. Page 45: Boats Having An Open Front Deck. Section 3 - On The Water Boats Having an Open Front Deck No one should ever be on as english bibliography, the deck in front of the creative, fence while the boat is in motion. Keep all passengers behind the front fence or enclosure.
Persons on the front deck could easily be thrown overboard or persons dangling their feet over write a english for a the front edge could get their legs caught by a wave and pulled into the water. Page 46: Impact With Underwater Hazards. After striking a submerged object, stop the online, engine as soon as possible and inspect the science outline, drive system for any broken or loose parts. If damage is present or suspected, the power package should be taken to an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for creative writing magazines online, a thorough inspection and georgetown resume necessary repair. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Generally increases speed and engine RPM #x2022; Causes bow to creative writing magazines, bounce in choppy water #x2022; Increases danger of following wave splashing into the boat when coming off plane #x2022; At extremes, can cause the a english outline for a, boat to porpoise Shifting weight to front (bow): #x2022;. Section 3 - On The Water If full#x2011;throttle operation is below the online, recommended range, the propeller must be changed to prevent loss of performance and possible engine damage. On the as english bibliography, other hand, operating an engine above the recommended operating RPM range will cause higher than normal wear and damage. Page 49: Starting And Stopping The Engine. NOTE: MerCruiser DTS models are equipped with SmartStart.
The SmartStart feature incorporates push#x2011;button starting. Rather than holding the start button or key switch to start the engine and then releasing it when the engine starts, SmartStart completely controls the starting process. Section 3 - On The Water Throttle Only Operation NOTE: When operating in throttle only (neutral) mode, the DTS Control System will not allow the engine speed to increase above 3500 RPM. Writing? Console mount remote controls are equipped with a throttle#x2011;only button. Revolution Research? To activate throttle only mode: Refer to the Remote Controls section for remote control features. Section 3 - On The Water Move the joystick in the direction that you want the creative magazines online, boat to move, or twist the joystick in the direction that you want the boat to rotate. Science Extended Essay? The joystick can be moved and rotated at the same time.
The following table gives some limited examples of the basic responses to creative writing online, inputs from the how to outline for a, joystick. Section 3 - On The Water Movement Joystick Input Boat Response (shown from light gray to dark gray) Boat moves to port without rotating 25931 24708 Boat moves diagonally forward and to the starboard without rotating 25926 24709 Boat moves diagonally aft and to the starboard without rotating 25924 24710. Section 3 - On The Water Movement Joystick Input Boat Response (shown from light gray to dark gray) Boat moves diagonally forward and to the port without rotating 25925 24712 Boat rotates clockwise 25921 24713 Boat rotates counter clockwise 25920 24714 Boat moves diagonally forward and to the starboard while rotating clockwise. Page 54: Special Digital Throttle And Shift (dts) Features. Section 3 - On The Water Movement Joystick Input Boat Response (shown from light gray to dark gray) Boat moves diagonally forward and to the starboard while rotating counterclockwise 25918 24718 Boat moves diagonally forward and to the port while rotating counterclockwise 25917 24719 Boat moves to the port while rotating clockwise.
Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Accessing the creative magazines, slow#x2011;speed trolling features of the integrated transmission system. Russian Paper? 28090 Yacht handled ERC levers with DTS trackpad, Typical Item Control Function Illuminate when the transmission is in the neutral gear position. The lights flash when the magazines, NEUTRAL. Section 3 - On The Water To engage Dock mode: Place both ERC levers in analytical essay neutral. Creative Writing Online? Press the DOCK button located on the DTS Trackpad attached to the ERC levers. The DOCK button light turns on.
Place either ERC lever into science outline gear. Creative? The engines raise the RPM at a proportionally lower RPM for how to write a english outline essay, the ERC lever position, and magazines online with half the usually available power. Section 3 - On The Water 1 (Single) Lever The Axius system features the ability to command both engines with a single lever. How To Write A English Outline For A? This feature simplifies engine management during rough sea conditions by allowing you to grasp a single lever to command both engines simultaneously. 31466 1 LEVER. Page 58: Axius Plus Can Control Pad (if Equipped)
Section 3 - On The Water To disengage Sync mode: Place the ERC levers in any detent. Writing Magazines? Press the write a english outline for a essay, SYNC button. To re#x2011;engage Sync mode, press the SYNC button. Axius Plus CAN Control Pad (If Equipped) General Information #x2022; Axius Plus CAN Control Pad functions are controlled through the magazines, Axius trackpad only. #x2022;. Section 3 - On The Water If you press a button with the power icon when that button light is for tangerine off, the light turns on creative writing online, for that button, a single beep sounds, and the ACTIVE light illuminates. Button with power icon AUTO HEADING. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press one of the georgetown, TURN buttons in the direction you want to creative writing magazines online, turn. Each press of the button changes the desired heading by 10#xB0;. Port TURN button Starboard TURN button STANDBY ACTIVE TURN TURN RESUME AUTO.
Section 3 - On The Water If the ERC Handles are moved to neutral, Auto Heading turns off, a single beep sounds, and analytical the STANDBY light turns on. You cannot resume your course by pressing the RESUME button. OFF button Current heading Drive positions Engine RPM. End of First Season Checkup At the end of the first season of operation, contact an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer to discuss and/or perform scheduled maintenance items. If you are in an area where the product is operated continuously, year#x2011;round, you should contact your dealer at the end of the first 100 hours of creative writing operation or once yearly, whichever occurs first. Section 3 - On The Water The ACTIVE light is resume illuminated when one mode of writing Axius is on. 35564 STANDBY light ACTIVE light Power Icon The power icon indicates a button that engages or disengages an Axius Premier touchad function indicated on analytical for tangerine, the button. Only one function can be on at a time.
Section 3 - On The Water Press the online, AUTO HEADING button to engage Axius. The button illuminates and beeps once. The button will beep twice if auto heading does not engage. 35561 Indicator lamp AUTO HEADING button Axius will hold the current compass heading the boat is following when the AUTO HEADING button is pressed. 31409 To adjust the heading while auto heading is active and the button light is analytical essay on, press the TURN. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press one of the TURN buttons in magazines online the direction you want to science essay outline, turn. Each press of the button changes the desired heading by 10#xB0;.
35567 Port TURN button Starboard TURN button #x2022; Tap the joystick in the direction you want to turn. Tap the joystick left (port) or right (starboard) to adjust your course by creative writing magazines, 1#xB0;. Section 3 - On The Water To disengage auto heading, turn the georgetown resume, steering wheel or press the AUTO HEADING button. A single beep sounds when it disengages. If the steering wheel is used to creative writing magazines, disengage auto heading, the how to write essay, RESUME button LED turns on creative writing online, and a single beep sounds. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press the AUTO HEADING button on the Axius touchpad. The AUTO HEADING button LED light turns off. 35561 Indicator light AUTO HEADING button To Resume to russian revolution research paper, a Heading The RESUME button light turns on writing magazines online, if the previous course heading is analytical essay available to resume. Magazines? The previous heading can only be resumed within one minute of the Auto Heading being disengaged or if the boat has not turned more than 90#xB0;. Page 68: Engaging (activating) Skyhook. Section 3 - On The Water To engage Skyhook the drives must be shifted into neutral.
However, after engaging Skyhook the drive response is not the same as with drives normally shifted into georgetown resume neutral. The propellers will turn when Skyhook is activated, and propeller rotation may not be obvious. IMPORTANT: If either of the labels cannot be located or are not legible, they must be replaced before engaging Skyhook. Writing Magazines Online? Contact the manufacturer of science extended your boat, your Cummins distributor, or an Authorized Cummins MerCruiser Diesel Repair Facility and replace the labels. Page 70: The Skyhook Screen In Vesselview.
Section 3 - On The Water A safety popup (warning screen) appears on VesselView. 33920 Skyhook warning screen on VesselView To acknowledge that you understand the creative writing online, warning on the screen and close the safety popup, press the science extended essay, enter button on VesselView. Page 71: Disengaging (deactivating) Skyhook. Section 3 - On The Water Disengaging (Deactivating) Skyhook IMPORTANT: Under most circumstances, both engines and drives must be operational to achieve acceptable Skyhook performance. Creative Magazines? If the as english, necessary reference signals from an online, engine or drive become unavailable, Skyhook automatically disengages. To disengage the Skyhook, you must do one of the following: #x2022;.
Page 72: Course Adjustment Using The Turn Buttons Or Joystick. Section 3 - On The Water 31409 To adjust your course while AUTO HEADING is engaged, see Course Adjustment Using the Turn Buttons or Joystick. Essay? 10. To disengage Auto Heading refer to Disengaging Auto Heading. 11. Press the AUTO HEADING button a second time, Auto Heading goes to Standby mode and all lights other than STANDBY turn off. Section 3 - On The Water NOTE: The joystick must move over 50% of its travel for the movement to creative writing magazines online, be recognized as input. For Tangerine? 24707 Adjusting heading to starboard To Resume a Heading The RESUME button light is on if the creative writing magazines online, previous course heading is essay available to resume. IMPORTANT: The previous heading can only be resumed within one minute of Auto Heading being disengaged or if the boat has not turned more than 180#xB0;. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press the AUTO HEADING button on the Axius Premier CAN touchpad.
The AUTO HEADING button light turns off and creative writing magazines the Standby light comes on. Revolution Research Paper? 35568 Port TURN button Starboard TURN button RESUME button AUTO HEADING. Section 3 - On The Water Response Button Press the RESPONSE button to change the how hard the selected Axius Premier program tries to keep the boat in position in the various modes. 35571 Indicator lamp RESPONSE button Press the RESPONSE button again to online, change the gain further. Each time you press the RESPONSE button, the button light blinks to resume biodata cv, indicate the gain setting for that mode. Page 76: Disengaging Track Waypoint Mode. Section 3 - On The Water Press the creative online, TRACK WAYPOINT button on the Axius Premier Trackpad. Science Essay Outline? The TRACK WAYPOINT button light turns on and a single horn beep sounds, indicating Track Waypoint engaged. Track Waypoint tracks to the first waypoint on the chart plotter course.
Page 77: Turn Buttons Or Joystick In Track Waypoint Mode. Section 3 - On The Water You can resume the creative, Track Waypoint heading within one minute, if the analytical essay for tangerine, vessel has not turned too far and creative writing online the RESUME light is still on essay, or flashing. Turn Buttons or Joystick in creative writing Track Waypoint Mode While in TRACK WAYPOINT. Section 3 - On The Water VesselView displays a pop#x2011;up screen warning. The operator must determine it is safe to turn the analytical for tangerine, boat. Creative Writing Magazines? If so, press the WAYPOINT SEQUENCE button to acknowledge that it is safe for Axius Premier CAN Trackpad to analytical essay, automatically turn the boat and maneuver to the new course. Section 3 - On The Water A horn beep sounds on VesselView and writing magazines the green circle icon on the Axius Premier screen will display TRACK. Cv? The TRACK icon on the VesselView screen should illuminate. 31411 Waypoint Sequence TRACK icon If you are in a waypoint arrival zone set by the chart plotter, Waypoint Sequence mode only creative online informs Axius Premier it is OK to paper, proceed to next waypoint. Section 3 - On The Water If you are not in a previously set waypoint arrival zone, WAYPOINT SEQUENCE mode starts auto sequencing to the waypoints in magazines the route.
Acknowledge that you understand the information presented by the pop#x2011;up screen warning and press the russian paper, enter button#x2014;the button with a check mark symbol. Page 81: Axius Shift Override—emergency Procedure. Section 3 - On The Water Axius Shift Override#x2014;Emergency Procedure If the VesselView display shows the error message GEAR POS DIFF and an engine will not start or will not shift into gear, there is creative writing online a problem with the coursework bibliography, Electronic Shift Control (ESC) system. If one drive is working, you may operate on one engine and creative drive. CAUTION Using the essay outline, emergency procedure to manually shift the magazines, drive disengages shift control at the helm. Section 3 - On The Water Notes: Page 74 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Page 83: Section 4 - Specifications. Fluid Specifications. 79 . 76 Engine. 80 Gasolines Containing Alcohol . 76 Sterndrive#x2014;Bravo. 80 Engine Oil.
76 Steering. 80 Engine Specifications. Georgetown? 77 Power Trim. 80 Engine Specifications. Writing Magazines? 78 Axius 350 MAG, Axius SeaCore 350 MAG with Emissions Control. 78 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010 Page 75. The fuel system components on your Mercury MerCruiser engine will withstand up to 10% alcohol content in the gasoline. We do not know what percentage your boat's fuel system will withstand. Contact your boat manufacturer for specific recommendations on the boat's fuel system components (fuel tanks, fuel lines, and fittings).
NOTE: The use of non#x2011;detergent oils, multi#x2011;viscosity oils (other than as specified), non FC#x2011;W rated synthetic oils, low quality oils or oils that contain solid additives are specifically not recommended. Revolution Research? MerCruiser/ Quicksilver Synthetic Blend, NMMA FC-W rated, 4-cycle oil MerCruiser / Quicksilver 25W40 NMMA FC-W rated oil. 1.5 mm (0.060 in.) Engine Specifications Axius 350 MAG, Axius SeaCore 350 MAG with Emissions Control NOTE: Performance specifications are obtained and creative online corrected in accordance with SAE J1228/ISO 8665 Crankshaft Power. All measurements are taken with the bibliography, engine at normal operating temperature. Section 4 - Specifications 224 kW (300 hp) Propshaft power 5.7 L (350 cid) Displacement 72 A Alternator amperage Cold 65 A 4800#x2013;5200 Rev limiter 5350 Idle in neutral At 2000 RPM 124 kPa (18 psi) Minimum oil pressure At idle 41 kPa (6 psi) Seawater#x2011;cooled models 71#xB0;. Always use the dipstick to determine the exact quantity of writing magazines oil or fluid required. All Models Capacity Fluid Type 4.25 liters Mercury/Quicksilver Synthetic Blend MerCruiser Engine Oil Engine oil (with filter) (4.5 U.S. qt.) 25W#x2011;40 Seawater cooling system 20 liters (21 U.S. qt.)
Section 5 - Maintenance Section 5 - Maintenance Table of Contents Owner/Operator Responsibilities. 82 Replacement. 95 Dealer Responsibilities. How To Outline For A Essay? 82 Water#x2011;Separating Fuel Filter (MPI). 96 Maintenance. 82 Water#x2011;Separating Fuel Filter. 96 Do#x2011;It#x2011;Yourself Maintenance Suggestions.
82 GEN III Models. 96 Inspection. 83 Removal . Page 90: Owner/operator Responsibilities. It is the operator's responsibility to perform all safety checks, to ensure that all lubrication and maintenance instructions are complied with for online, safe operation and to return the unit to an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for a periodic checkup. Normal maintenance service and replacement parts are the responsibility of the owner/operator and as such, are not considered defects in science extended essay workmanship or material within the terms of the magazines online, warranty. Check plug leads and cv electrical leads for damage. #x2022; Remove and creative writing inspect the analytical essay, propeller. If badly nicked, bent or cracked, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. #x2022; Repair nicks and corrosion damage on writing, power package exterior finish. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Lubricate the U#x2011;joint splines and russian revolution research cross bearing, if equipped with a grease fitting. #x2022; Inspect the writing magazines, gimbel bearing for georgetown, roughness.
Replace if necessary. See your certified Mercury MerCruiser dealer. #x2022; Vazer models, Alpha models, and 496 MAG Bravo models only: Lubricate the engine coupler. Section 5 - Maintenance Date Maintenance Performed Engine Hours Engine Oil NOTICE Discharge of oil, coolant, or other engine/drive fluids into the environment is restricted by law. Use caution not to spill oil, coolant, or other fluids into the environment when using or servicing your boat. Creative Writing Magazines? Be aware of the resume, local restrictions governing the creative magazines, disposal or recycling of waste, and contain and dispose of fluids as required. Fluid type 4.3L (262 cid) 3.8 liters (4 U.S. Extended Essay Outline? qt.) 5.0L (305 cid) Mercury/Quicksilver Synthetic Blend MerCruiser Engine Oil 25W#x2011;40 4.25 liters (4.5 U.S. Writing? qt.) 5.7L (350 cid) Changing Oil and Filter Refer to the Maintenance schedule for the change interval. Engine oil should be changed before placing the boat in storage. Engine Model Engine Oil Capacity Fluid type Mercury/Quicksilver Synthetic Blend MerCruiser Axius 5.0, 5/7 and Axius SeaCore 5.0, 5.7 4.25 liters (4.5 U.S. For A? qt.) Engine Oil 25W#x2011;40 Start the engine, run the engine for three minutes, and check for leaks.
Stop the engine. Allow approximately 5 minutes for the oil to drain into the oil pan. Remove the fill cap from the reservoir and observe the writing online, fluid level using the dipstick. Russian? IMPORTANT: If fluid is not visible in creative writing the reservoir, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. The fluid level must be in the warm range and analytical not above the online, full hot mark when the engine is warm.
When the engine is cold the fluid level must be in the cold range and not above the full cold mark. 6101 The coolant level in the heat exchanger should be at the bottom of the filler neck. If the georgetown resume, coolant level is low, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Online? Install the cap onto georgetown resume, the heat exchanger. IMPORTANT: When reinstalling the pressure cap, be sure to tighten it until it seats on creative writing magazines online, the filler neck.
Inspect the lubricant condition. If any water is visible at the bottom of the essay for tangerine, gear lube monitor, if water appears at creative writing magazines the fill and drain plug hole, or if the gear lube appears discolored, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer immediately. These conditions can indicate a water leak in russian revolution research paper the sterndrive. IMPORTANT: If any water drained from the gear lube fill and drain hole, or if the gear lube appears milky, the sterndrive unit is leaking and should be checked immediately by your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Lower the magazines online, sterndrive unit so that the propeller shaft is for tangerine level. Fill the creative writing magazines, sterndrive unit, through the fill and drain hole, with specified gear lubricant until an air#x2011;free stream of lubricant flows from the vent hole. Section 5 - Maintenance Tube Ref No. Analytical Essay For Tangerine? Description Where Used Part No.
High Performance Gear Sterndrive unit 92-858064K01 Lubricant IMPORTANT: Use only Mercury/Quicksilver High Performance Gear Lubricant in the sterndrive unit. Install the creative writing, vent screw and sealing washer. Continue to pump gear lubricant into the gear lube circuit until the lubricant appears in the gear lube monitor. Ensure that the essay, rubber gasket is inside the cap and creative magazines online install the cap. Changing Power trim fluid does not require changing unless it becomes contaminated with water or debris. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Analytical Essay? Battery Refer to specific instructions and warnings accompanying your battery.
If this information is not available, observe the following precautions when handling a battery. Page 102: Positive Crankcase Ventilation Valve (pcv) Section 5 - Maintenance Remove the flame arrestor. 6110 Engine cover knob Engine cover Nuts, flame arrestor Cover mount bracket Flame arrestor Crankcase ventilation hose Clean the creative writing online, flame arrestor with warm water and a mild detergent. Cv? Inspect the writing online, flame arrestor for holes, cracks, or deterioration.
Replace if necessary. Allow the flame arrestor to air dry completely before use. Install the extended outline, PCV valve in the valve cover and reconnect the hose, if not connected already. Ensure that the PCV valve is writing tightly seated in the valve cover. Replacement IMPORTANT: Use only Mercury MerCruiser replacement parts to ensure compliance with emission regulations. Remove the PCV valve from the port valve cover. As English? PCV valve. Page 104: Water?separating Fuel Filter (mpi) Removal Allow the engine to online, cool down.
NOTE: Mercury MerCruiser recommends that the engine be shut off for 12 hours prior to filter removal. Close fuel supply valve, if equipped. Disconnect the georgetown, Cool Fuel Module harness from the engine wiring harness. 10. Start the online, engine. Check for gasoline leaks around the georgetown resume, fuel filter assembly. Creative Online? If leaks exist, stop the engine immediately.
Recheck the filter installation, clean spilled fuel and properly ventilate the engine compartment. If leaks continue, stop engine immediately and revolution research contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Lubrication Electronic Shift Control (ESC) Shift Cable Lubricate the pivot points and the guide contact surfaces. Page 106: Sterndrive Unit And Transom Assembly. Section 5 - Maintenance Sterndrive Unit and creative writing magazines online Transom Assembly Lubricate gimbal bearing by applying approximately 8#x2011;10 pumps of georgetown grease from writing a typical hand#x2011;operated grease gun. Gimbal bearing grease fitting mc77068-1 Tube Ref No. Description Where Used Part No.
U-joint and Gimbal Gimbal bearing 92-802870A1 Bearing Grease. Propellers Propeller Repair Some damaged propellers can be repaired. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Bravo Three Propeller Removal WARNING Rotating propellers can cause serious injury or death. Never operate the boat out of the as english bibliography, water with a propeller installed. Before installing or removing a propeller, place the drive unit in online neutral and engage the lanyard stop switch to resume biodata, prevent the creative writing, engine from starting. Page 108: Bravo Three Propeller Installation. Section 5 - Maintenance NOTE: Some damaged propellers can be repaired. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer.
Rear propeller nut Rear propeller Rear propeller thrust hub Front propeller nut Front propeller Front propeller thrust hub Propeller shaft anode screw Flat washer. Section 5 - Maintenance Install the georgetown, propeller shaft anode over online the propeller shaft nut. Place the flat washer onto georgetown resume, the propeller shaft anode screw. 10. Place the star washer onto the propeller shaft anode screw. 11. If a propeller shaft anode is reinstalled, apply Loctite Threadlocker 271 to the threads of the creative magazines online, propeller shaft anode screw. As English Bibliography? Propeller Propeller shaft nut Propeller shaft anode. Section 5 - Maintenance NOTE: Minor, transverse cracks (across the belt width) may be acceptable. Creative Writing? Longitudinal cracks (in the direction of write outline for a essay belt length) that join transverse cracks are not acceptable. Creative Writing Magazines Online? mc75130-1 #x2022; Fraying #x2022; Glazed surfaces #x2022; Proper tension #x2011; See Replacing or Adjusting for proper specifications. For Tangerine? Replacing or Adjusting IMPORTANT: If a belt is to be reused, it should be installed in creative the same direction of biodata cv rotation as before.
MerCathode System Battery Requirements The Mercury MerCruiser MerCathode system requires a minimum battery charge of 12.6 volts at all times to creative, maintain functionality. Boats equipped with a MerCathode system that use shore power, and are not run for a long period of time, must use a battery charger to maintain a minimum battery charge of 12.6 volts or above. Page 112: Checking The Quicksilver Mercathode System. Checking the Quicksilver MerCathode System The MerCathode system should be tested to ensure adequate output. Perform the test where boat is moored, using the reference electrode and russian test meter. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for creative magazines online, service and coursework information . Reference Electrode 91#x2011;76675T 1. Page 113: Power Package Exterior Surfaces. Copper base paint, if not prohibited by law, can be used. #x2022; If using copper based anti#x2011;fouling paint, avoid an electrical interconnection between the Mercury MerCruiser Product, Anodic Blocks, or MerCathode System and the paint by allowing a minimum of 40 mm (1#x2011;1/2 in.) unpainted area on transom of the boat around these items. Section 5 - Maintenance Do not wash the sterndrive unit with a power washer.
High pressures can damage the coating on the reference wire of the MerCathode assembly, if equipped, and increase corrosion. 32671 MerCathode reference electrode Do not paint Do not pressure wash Sterndrive Surface Care Standard Bravo sterndrive. Page 115: Flushing The Power Package. Flushing the Power Package General Information Your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer can explain how to creative magazines, properly flush your power package. The boat can be equipped with a combination of any of three different types of how to write for a water pickups: through the hull, through the magazines, transom, and analytical essay for tangerine through the sterndrive. Page 116: Sterndrive Water Pickups. Sterndrive Water Pickups There are two types of water pickups available on Mercury MerCruiser sterndrives: dual water, and side water pickups. Dual water pickups require the flushing attachment (44357Q 2) and the flush seal kit (881150K 1), and side water pickups require the flushing attachment (44357Q 2). Page 117: Alternative Water Pickups. Section 5 - Maintenance WARNING Rotating propellers can cause serious injury or death. Never operate the boat out of the water with a propeller installed.
Before installing or removing a propeller, place the creative magazines online, drive unit in neutral and revolution engage the lanyard stop switch to prevent the engine from writing magazines online starting. Page 118: Seacore Power Package Flushing Procedure. Section 5 - Maintenance Remove the seawater inlet hose from the seawater pump and plug the cv, hose to prevent water from siphoning into creative the engine or boat. 6147 Using a suitable adapter, connect the georgetown, flushing hose from the water source to the water inlet of the seawater pump. NOTICE Without sufficient cooling water, the creative magazines, engine, the water pump, and science essay outline other components will overheat and suffer damage. Section 5 - Maintenance NOTE: Engines with the sterndrive water inlet blocked off at the gimbal housing: Refer to writing, Alternative Water Pickups. WARNING Rotating propellers can cause serious injury or death. Never operate the boat out of the water with a propeller installed.
Before installing or removing a propeller, place the drive unit in neutral and engage the analytical for tangerine, lanyard stop switch to creative writing online, prevent the engine from starting. IMPORTANT: Do not store the coursework bibliography, quick#x2011;connect fitting in the flush socket on the engine. Doing so would allow the seawater pump to writing magazines, suck air during engine operation causing an how to, overheating problem. Damages due to engine overheating are not covered by creative writing magazines, Mercury MerCruiser Warranty. Quick-connect fitting stored in the boat Quick#x2011;connect fitting (water hose end) Section 5 - Maintenance 20. Insert the dust cover in the flush socket on the engine. Dust cover installed in the flush socket Dust cover Flush socket 18490 IMPORTANT: If the essay for tangerine, unit is to be stored in the water, the seacock should remain closed until time of usage.
If unit is to magazines online, be stored out of the water, open the extended outline, seacock. Section 5 - Maintenance Notes: Page 114 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Section 6 - Storage Section 6 - Storage Table of Contents Cold Weather or Extended Storage. Creative Writing? 116 Boat out of the Water . 121 Preparing Power Package for write a english for a essay, Storage. 116 Manual Single#x2011;Point Drain System. 123 Engine and Fuel System Preparation . 116 Boat in the Water . Page 124: Cold Weather Or Extended Storage. Cold Weather or Extended Storage IMPORTANT: Mercury MerCruiser strongly recommends that this service should be performed by an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Damage caused by creative writing online, freezing temperatures IS NOT covered by the Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty.
NOTICE Water trapped in the seawater section of the cooling system can cause corrosion or freeze damage. Drain the seawater section of the georgetown, cooling system immediately after operation or before any length of storage in freezing temperatures. Page 125: Draining The Seawater System. Section 6 - Storage Tube Ref No. Creative Online? Description Where Used Part No. Analytical Essay? Premium Plus 2-cycle TC- Fuel system 92-858026K01 W3 Outboard Oil Fuel System Treatment Fuel system 858071K01 Stabilizer Allow the engine to cool down. IMPORTANT: Immediately wipe up any fuel spills or sprays. Writing Online? Close the fuel shut off valve, if equipped. Page 126: Manual Single Point Drain System. Section 6 - Storage Manual Single Point Drain System 6128 Blue handle Blue drain plug location Three Point Manual Drain System Blue drain plug 6126 Multi-Point Drain (MPD) System Side of cylinder block Bottom of exhaust manifolds 6129 Page 118 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010.
Page 127: Air Actuated Single Point Drain System. Section 6 - Storage 6130 Water circulating pump hose Fuel cooler to thermostat housing Check valve (if equipped) 6131 Air Actuated Single Point Drain System Boat in the Water NOTE: This procedure is written for the air pump that is attached to the engine. Resume Biodata? However, any air source can be used. Creative Writing Magazines Online? Close the seacock (if equipped) or remove and russian revolution research paper plug the magazines, water inlet hose. 12. Remove the as english bibliography, air pump from the air manifold and return it to writing, the mounting bracket. 13.
Mercury MerCruiser recommends leaving the drain system open while transporting the science extended essay outline, boat or while performing other maintenance. This helps ensure that all water is drained. Section 6 - Storage 14. Before launching the boat, pull up on the manual release valve. Verify that the green indicators are no longer extended. Writing Magazines? Green indicators 6135 15.
Open the biodata, seacock, if equipped, or unplug and reconnect the water inlet hose prior to operating the engine. Boat out of the Water NOTE: This procedure is written for creative writing online, the air pump that is attached to the engine. 10. Remove the analytical essay, air pump from the air manifold and return it to the mounting bracket. Creative Writing? 11. Mercury MerCruiser recommends leaving the drain system open while transporting the boat or while performing other maintenance. As English Coursework? This helps ensure that all water is drained. Page 131: Manual Single?point Drain System. Section 6 - Storage Manual Single#x2011;Point Drain System Boat in the Water Close the seacock (if equipped) or remove and creative plug the water inlet hose. Rotate the blue handle counterclockwise until it stops (approximately two turns).
The red on the handle shaft indicates that the extended essay, drain system is open. Page 132: Three?point Manual Drain System. Section 6 - Storage Rotate the blue handle counterclockwise until it stops (approximately two turns). Creative Writing Magazines? The red on the handle shaft indicates that the essay for tangerine, drain system is open. Do not overtighten the handle, as this action will create new threads.
Blue handle 6141 Visually verify that water is draining. Section 6 - Storage To properly vent the creative writing magazines online, cooling system, remove the blue drain plug from the side of the thermostat housing within 30 seconds. Blue drain plug location 6139 Remove the resume, two blue drain plugs from the seawater pickup pump (front, starboard side). Blue drain plugs 6140 Verify that water is draining from each opening. Page 134: Multi?point Drain (mpd) System.
Section 6 - Storage Multi#x2011;Point Drain (MPD) System Place the boat on a level surface to ensure complete draining of the creative writing magazines, system. How To A English Outline? Remove the creative writing, blue drain plugs from the how to write, following locations. Creative Writing? It may be necessary to clean out the drain holes using a stiff piece of outline essay wire. Section 6 - Storage Check valve Drain plug (if equipped) 6131 On models with a seawater pickup pump, remove the two blue drain plugs. If the seawater pickup pump does not have blue drain plugs, or you are unable to creative, access them, loosen the clamps and as english coursework remove both hoses. 6145 Hose clamps Blue drain plugs. IMPORTANT: Mercury MerCruiser requires that propylene glycol antifreeze, mixed to writing magazines, the manufacturers instructions, be used in extended the seawater section of the writing, cooling system for resume biodata, freezing temperatures or extended storage. Make sure that the creative writing, propylene glycol antifreeze contains a rust inhibitor and is recommended for use in marine engines. Section 6 - Storage Carefully inspect the engine for fuel, oil, fluid, water and exhaust leaks. Inspect the steering system, shift and for tangerine throttle control for proper operation. 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010 Page 129.
Section 6 - Storage Notes: Page 130 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Page 139: Section 7 - Troubleshooting. Section 7 - Troubleshooting Section 7 - Troubleshooting Table of Contents Check VesselView First. 132 Insufficient Engine Temperature. Creative Writing Online? 133 Diagnosing EFI Problems.
132 Low Engine Oil Pressure. 134 Diagnosing DTS Problems. 132 Battery Will Not Recharge. 134 Engine Guardian System. 132 Joystick. 134 Troubleshooting Charts. Diagnosing EFI Problems Your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer has the science essay, proper service tools for diagnosing problems on creative, Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) Systems. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) on these engines has the ability to detect some problems with the system when they occur, and store a Trouble Code in the ECM's memory. Ignition problem.
See Engine Runs Rough, Misses or Backfires. Engine overheating. See Excessive Engine Temperature. EFI System fault Have EFI System checked by an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Analytical Essay? Engine Runs Rough, Misses, or Backfires Possible Cause Remedy Clogged fuel filter. The ERC lever increases engine RPM, but does not engage gears and creative writing the boat does not move. Engage gears manually. See Section 3, Gear Engagement#x2014; Emergency Procedure.
Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Resume Biodata Cv? Page 134 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Check for damage to the propeller. Check VesselView for Guardian fault codes that indicate reduced engine power. If found, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer to ask if the propellers need to be changed. Writing Magazines Online? Check the essay for tangerine, TROLL button on the DTS track pad. Put the handles in creative Neutral and push the TROLL.
Page 144: Power Trim Does Not Operate (motor Operates But Sterndrive Unit Does Not Move) Section 7 - Troubleshooting Power Trim Does Not Operate (Motor Operates but Sterndrive Unit Does Not Move) Possible Cause Remedy Trim pump oil level low. Fill pump with oil. Extended? Drive unit binding in gimbal ring. Check for magazines, obstruction.
Page 136 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Page 145: Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information. Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information Table of Contents Owner Service Assistance. 138 Resolving a Problem . Biodata? 138 Local Repair Service . 138 Mercury Marine Service Offices . 139 Service Away From Home . 138 Ordering Literature. Page 146: Owner Service Assistance. Resolving a Problem Satisfaction with your Mercury MerCruiser product is writing very important to your dealer and to us. If you ever have a problem, question or concern about your power package, contact your dealer or any authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealership.
If you need additional assistance: Talk with the essay for tangerine, dealership's sales manager or service manager. Page 147: Mercury Marine Service Offices. #x2022; Year built United States and creative writing magazines online Canada For information on additional literature that is available for your particular Mercury MerCruiser power package and how to order that literature contact your nearest dealer or contact us at: Mercury Marine Publications P.O. Box 1939. Page 148: Outside The United States And Canada. Contact your nearest dealer or Marine Power Service Center for information on additional literature that is paper available for your particular Mercury MerCruiser power package and how to order that literature. Creative? Print or type your mailing address, which be used as your shipping label, and include your order and payment. Mail to.
Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information Safety Customer Dealer Enable Throttle Only and demonstrate its ability to disable shifting of the electronic remote control #x2610; #x2610; and russian paper joystick while engines are running. Joystick Customer Dealer Demonstrate that the joystick requires both engines to magazines online, be running to research paper, operate. Magazines Online? #x2610;.
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essay on the war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Writing Magazines Online? Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Extended? Its conduct was intense. Its impact on writing magazines, military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Georgetown? They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the writing magazines war was swift. Revolution? Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on magazines, 4 August. German violation of cv, Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and creative writing magazines online Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of coursework bibliography, war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to writing magazines, recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and biodata Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to creative online, themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and bibliography only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to online, their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to science extended, defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Creative Writing? Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Science Essay? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. Writing? On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.
Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Essay Outline? They also had world-wide friends. Creative Online? Germany found itself at cv war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the creative online greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for write essay, the defence of India helped bring the creative online British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in georgetown resume, a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and magazines ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the a english essay Western Front in France and Belgium the French and creative writing magazines their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against bibliography the German army. Here the creative magazines online war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in as english bibliography, the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an writing magazines enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of how to write for a essay, Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to magazines online, the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to science extended outline, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of writing online, German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. A English Essay? German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the writing online second phase of the science extended war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.
During this period the Germans stood mainly on creative writing, the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the science essay Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of magazines online, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of analytical, 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Creative Writing? These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the extended fighting and the absence of creative writing online, achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the outline essay Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to creative, the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and extended essay infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and creative later to georgetown resume, the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and creative writing online man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Analytical For Tangerine? For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat.
On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of online, Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at coursework Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Creative Writing Magazines? Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of cv, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Creative Writing Magazines Online? Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to resume, fight an three fronts: against Serbia in creative writing, the Balkans; against coursework bibliography Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.
This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Writing? Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the science extended Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in writing, the east it is far from biodata, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Writing Magazines Online? The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command.
During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and georgetown British forces recrossed the creative writing online Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into resume, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against writing the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and georgetown resume Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of writing magazines, 1918.
In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by georgetown, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and writing online disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in russian revolution research, April 1915, but were compelled to creative magazines online, withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from how to a english outline for a, their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Creative Writing? V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of analytical for tangerine, Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and writing magazines online economic strength begin to georgetown, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. Creative Magazines? The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.
He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to as english coursework bibliography, tropical Africa. Creative Online? Germany's colonies in write a english essay, West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in magazines, Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the how to a english essay south Atlantic, and the North Sea. Creative? The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Essay For Tangerine? German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of creative writing magazines online, ruin. Analytical? German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the creative writing magazines online conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of analytical, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. Writing Magazines? War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.
Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. Analytical Essay? By 1918 the writing magazines British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of biodata cv, Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and creative writing magazines online military leaders have been subjected to a english outline for a essay, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the creative online murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to georgetown, be brutal and costly, in creative writing magazines online, both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by as english coursework, European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the writing magazines online Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to science essay, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of creative writing, a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east.
The possibility of cv, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by creative online, the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Georgetown? The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by creative writing, knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the how to outline for a essay German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France.
By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the creative writing magazines online war'. Paper? The German army was a potent instrument. Writing? It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war.
The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from for tangerine, front to front. Creative Magazines? The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the science extended essay outline commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to creative writing, embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the how to a english outline for a essay inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and creative writing online indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in as english, Russia) failed to evolve in creative writing magazines online, Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the russian research Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Creative Magazines? Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. How To For A Essay? By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on writing magazines, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.
The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in science extended, the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to creative writing magazines, defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.
Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to as english coursework, imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of writing online, northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and essay psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and magazines online 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. For Tangerine? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Magazines? The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A English Outline? A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Magazines? Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Resume? Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to writing, the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the science complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on writing magazines online, 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Biodata Cv? There was an overwhelming popular response to magazines, his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the extended outline field in 1917 after the French and writing magazines online Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. Write For A Essay? They would win the war and creative writing magazines online decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by resume cv, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Magazines? By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the analytical essay for tangerine obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to creative writing magazines, acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the cv valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.
And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and creative magazines online ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.
They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Science Extended Essay? Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by online, the need to keep France in georgetown resume, the war. This could only be done in France and by writing, fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in russian revolution research paper, Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to creative writing online, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and bibliography military leaders met regularly. Writing Online? At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on essay, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.
The system worked well until the magazines German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of outline, Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Creative Writing Online? This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of essay for tangerine, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and magazines provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to essay outline, be fed and kept in the field for years at online a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of resume biodata, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the creative writing magazines online First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to georgetown resume, the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to creative magazines online, maintain the offensive in the face of essay for tangerine, huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in online, conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of extended essay outline, 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Creative Writing Magazines Online? The results were barren of strategic achievement. How To A English For A Essay? The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to creative writing online, get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Resume? They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to creative writing magazines, destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the as english coursework bibliography problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by creative, maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. How To A English For A? All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of creative, shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the how to forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Creative Online? But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an extended essay outline entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the writing enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only coursework bibliography, with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by writing, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and resume biodata ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by creative magazines, a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the resume biodata instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into magazines, the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the science essay number of infantry in writing online, the front line, where they were inviting targets for resume cv, enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on creative magazines online, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in resume, depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on creative writing magazines, a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on coursework, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and creative writing magazines online well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.
An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and as english coursework British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the creative writing magazines online momentum and inflict upon georgetown resume, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to creative online, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in paper, ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of writing online, their civilian morale. Russian Revolution Research Paper? It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for creative writing online, the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of as english, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to magazines online, their home populations but also to as english coursework bibliography, those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of creative writing magazines online, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the bibliography Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.
Truly the creative magazines online new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.
The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Georgetown Resume? Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and creative aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and resume cv the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to creative magazines, explain and as english justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the writing magazines online impression of resume, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the writing magazines online major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and russian revolution paper financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Creative Writing? The degree of analytical essay, active resistance to the war was low in creative magazines, most countries. Russian Paper? But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to creative magazines, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the analytical essay for tangerine war in online, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on science extended outline, the battlefield for social advances at home. And in writing magazines, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the write outline for a Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and creative magazines loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and as english coursework imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Creative Writing Magazines Online? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to analytical for tangerine, abandon the creative writing magazines Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Extended Essay? They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is magazines online, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to extended essay outline, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Magazines Online? Ed. Essay? Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.