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Making Your Case for Telecommuting: How to beispiel essay Convince the Boss. by Katharine Hansen Ph.D. It’s a rare worker who has not — at japanese modernity one point or another during his or her career — thought it would be great to work from home instead of beispiel fr ein englisch, commuting to express dissertation work. Perhaps your personal life is englisch, feeling out of balance with your work life. Perhaps you have a new baby. Maybe you have an elderly parent to care for. Or perhaps you’re just sick of the grind. A Essay? Certainly since the 9-11-2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S. many workers have sought the perceived safety of home as a workplace. For many telecommuting is seen as the answer to essay englisch the desire to work from home. The term “telecommuting” is used interchangeably with the more recent term “teleworking” which some experts suggest you use when proposing an off-site arrangement to your boss — since “telework” sounds more like working.
According to the American Interactive Consumer Survey conducted by The Dieringer Research Group for the International Telework Association and Council (ITAC) the number of employed Americans who performed any kind of work from home with a frequency range from as little as 1 day a year to full-time grew from 41.3 million in 2003 to 44.4 million in 2004 a 7.5% growth rate. The number of full-time telecommuters last year was 12 million up from about 8.8 million in 2003. The number of streetcar named desire, telecommuters is increasing worldwide. Canadian telecommuters for fr ein englisch, example can recoup up to essay named six full work weeks yearly — an average hour a day — by eliminating their daily commute according to Bernard Brodie an InnoVisions Canada consultant. If you’re seriously thinking you’d like a job where you can telecommute a few reality checks are in order first: It’s extremely rare to find a job that starts out as a telecommuting job. It’s much more common to convert an existing job into a telecommuting arrangement by beispiel fr ein essay englisch, presenting a thoughtful and comprehensive proposal to your supervisor. Most telecommuters don’t telecommute full-time instead working from home two or three days a week. Structure Of Master S Thesis? Two days per week is the national average among teleworkers according to the International Telework Association.
The first thing to do is beispiel fr ein englisch, investigate whether your employer already has a telecommuting program in report, place. Chances are you’d know about it if such a program exists but maybe it’s a well-kept secret. Ask your human-resources department if the beispiel essay englisch organization has such a program. If your employer has no program start doing some research. Read the organization’s employee manual carefully to determine whether any company policies prohibit telecommuting. Try to get an idea what the employer’s attitude might be toward allowing you to telecommute.
If the company offers flex-time or other flexible work options the organization may also be open to dissertation binding manchester telecommuting. On her Web site WorkOptions.com Pat Katepoo offers some good tips on signals to fr ein essay englisch look for in your current workplace that suggest how receptive your employer may be to telecommuting. You may also want to with a essay ask yourself if a flexible work arrangement would likely hurt your “promotability” within the beispiel fr ein essay organization and whether you are willing to live with that reality. Find out if competitor companies allow telecommuting and if other employers in your organization’s geographic region permit the asia text practice. Beispiel Essay Englisch? You may want to compile articles about the benefits of teleworking. Check out the free article downloads at Gil Gordon’s Telecommuting Web site. Introduction To Thesis? Arm yourself with as much information as possible. Also be sure you are a good candidate for telecommuting.
In your heart of hearts are you convinced that you have the beispiel fr ein self-discipline to work from home under minimal supervision? And perhaps more importantly does your boss perceive you as the essay kind of self-starter who can perform independently? Are you a proven performer? Well organized? A good time-manager?
Think about beispiel fr ein essay englisch yourself the same way you would if you were looking for a new job; what is your Unique Selling Proposition? In what ways are you an asset to your employer and what do you do better than anyone else in your organization? If you can effectively communicate your value to your employer you’ll be better able to sell your boss on the idea of letting you telework. For a good set of introduction to thesis report writing, questions to ask yourself to evaluate your candidacy for telecommuting see Telecommute Connecticut’s Could You Telecommute? and Judy Wolf’s Is Telework for You? Consider also whether your job functions lend themselves to telecommuting. You can find lists of the occupations that are the best candidates for telecommuting at the Web sites for Work-at-Home Success and beispiel fr ein essay englisch the Metropolitan Atlanta Telecommuting Advisory Council. Once you are comfortable that telecommuting is report writing, right for you and fr ein essay englisch you are fully informed use the following guidelines and strategies to essay streetcar named craft an effective telecommuting proposal: Plan to hit your boss with a double-whammy: A written proposal and an oral presentation. Experts agree that both a comprehensive balanced written proposal and a presentation are the best approach.
The presentation prepares your boss to absorb the points in the written proposal and essay gives him or her the opportunity to raise questions or objections (to which you’ll be fully prepared to respond). The written proposal enables the essay streetcar boss to more carefully consider your ideas when he or she has more time and serves an beispiel fr ein essay a crucial tool if your boss agrees with your idea but must obtain approval from higher up in the food chain. You may want to to thesis rehearse the fr ein essay presentation and even role-play with a friend or co-worker so you can practice responding to the questions and objections you anticipate from your boss. Ask not what telecommuting can do for with a essay, you; explain what telecommuting can do for your employer. Follow the same principle you would for any aspect of job-hunting from resumes and cover letters to interviews and salary negotiation — focus on the benefits of beispiel essay englisch, telecommuting to the employer not the benefits to you. Never frame your proposal in terms of how telecommuting will meet your needs. Don’t mention your need for with a essay, better work-life balance more time to beispiel essay englisch spend with your kids care-taking responsibilities for elderly parents or any other personal need. State only that telecommuting will make you more productive and efficient be a better use of the essay time you previously spent on fr ein, the road make your boss’s life easier — whatever benefits you come up with that focus on the employer’s needs — not yours. Tout your value to the company and the traits that will make you an effective teleworker. Note your accomplishments and contributions. Describe yourself as someone who has the characteristics of a successful telecommuter and wherever possible cite supporting evidence of these characteristics such as in report writing, performance evaluations.
Propose a trial period. The most successful telecommuting proposals are those that offer an easy out for beispiel fr ein essay, your boss. It’s hard to refuse an offer to introduction report simply try it. If telecommuting doesn’t work for you or your boss the experiment will be over after a trial period. Of course if telecommuting is truly important to you you’ll do your darndest to make it work. Both you and beispiel fr ein your boss may want to propose an “out” clause that would enable either of you to a essay end or adjust the telecommuting experiment before the end of the fr ein essay englisch trial period if it simply isn’t working out. Summer or whatever season is your organization’s slow period may be a good time for a trial. On the other hand the best time may be when the company is fully staffed and few workers are taking vacations. Cordyceps Paper? Build in accountability measures.
Your boss’s biggest fear is likely that you will be unproductive if he or she is not there to watch over you. Beispiel Englisch? Suggest ways for your boss to with a essay keep tabs on fr ein essay, you and cordyceps be fully informed of your progress. Offer to fax or e-mail your boss a report of your activities for each day or week of at-home work. Suggest frequent evaluation meetings at various stages of the trial period. Beispiel Fr Ein? Establish a list of measurable goals against which to writing determine the success of the trial.
The Web site MommyCo.com suggests a product such as Norton PCAnywhere that enables you to take over the use of an office computer via modem so that anyone back in the office can monitor your activities at all times. Beispiel Englisch? By outlining your job description assure your boss that you’ll meet your responsibilities. Express Dissertation Binding? Chances are telecommuting will not change your basic job responsibilities. But it’s a good idea to delineate your job description to assure your boss that you know what needs to be done and that telecommuting won’t significantly change that. You may want to construct a table that shows which of your job activities will be accomplished off-site which will be performed in the traditional workplace and which can be done at either location. Englisch? Describe how you will handle key relationships with other team members. Propose a schedule. Manchester? It’s best to propose that you telework for only one or two days a week to beispiel essay start with. Pat Katepoo who bills herself as The Flex Success Coach suggests that Mondays should not be one of the days you propose for teleworking. But whatever you propose be clear in your documentation to the boss what schedule you plan. You’ll probably want to pledge to be in the office for all staff/team meetings.
You may want to provide a projected schedule of what each day’s work from home will be like. Text? Be sure your boss knows you’re reachable and flexible. Provide your boss with your phone fax pager cell-phone numbers and e-mail addresses. Instant-messaging is a great tool for essay, real-time communication with the office. Establish a frequency for checking in — once a day or more depending on your job functions and structure employer’s needs. Pledge to return phone calls within a given period of beispiel fr ein essay englisch, time.
Tell how you’ll handle deadlines. Assure your boss you can come into the office on relatively short notice if you are urgently needed. The Metropolitan Atlanta Telecommuting Advisory Council advises that you pledge to always carry a folder of remote-work projects for anytime you have to telework unexpectedly (such as in case of a weather or sick-child emergency). Describe your workspace. Paint a picture for your boss of a safe professional and well-equipped workspace that is free of distractions. Draw a diagram or better yet provide a photo of your workspace. Invite your boss to cordyceps research paper visit your home office and essay even propose a schedule of site visits. Asia City Essay Japanese Modernity Pacific Text? Address personal issues. Beispiel Essay Englisch? Although you should never frame your proposal in terms of your personal needs you must address how you plan to deal with those needs especially if your boss is asia city essay japanese modernity, aware of your personal situation. First don’t delude yourself into thinking you can care for very young children while also working for your employer in your home.
Even if your ulterior motive for telecommuting is more time with your kids you will need some kind of childcare arrangement while you’re working at home. Whether you’ve planned in-home childcare or a daycare facility your boss needs to know that your children’s needs won’t distract you from work. Beispiel Fr Ein? Elderly parents may also need some sort of daycare arrangement. Talk about equipment. Your proposal should address what equipment you need to telecommute effectively which equipment the employer will provide what equipment you will provide what costs the paper employer will incur and englisch how data-security insurance and with liability issues will be handled should your computer be hacked or equipment be stolen or damaged. Fr Ein Essay? Typical telecommuting equipment includes a fax machine additional phone line with voicemail storage media such as Zip disks/drives or CD-ROMs to back up and transport computer files and express manchester a computer with Internet access preferably broadband rather than dialup. Deploy statistics and case studies that support the beispiel business benefits of telecommuting. Numerous studies support the notion that telecommuting workers are more productive and have higher morale and less absenteeism. Organizations that allow telecommuting have less employee turnover. Provide examples of other companies in your area especially competitors that allow teleworking.
List co-workers willing to support the help venture. You may want to include supporting articles as an appendix to fr ein essay englisch your proposal. Some good sources for essay japanese modernity text, supporting statistics include: Judy Wolf’s Telework: An Overview of Benefits International Telework Association and Council (ITAC) Telework Facts and Figures You may even want to provide a cost-benefits analysis. Englisch? These sites tell how to put together such an analysis: Crunch the numbers… from June Langhoff’s Telecommuting Resource Center. Cost-benefits from the Canadian Telework Association. If you need help getting started use a sample telecommuting proposal or proposal template. Structure Of Master S Thesis? Several sites offer fill-in-the blanks proposal templates: MoneyMakingMommy.com. Other sites offer sample proposals: Judy Wolf (PDF; Adobe Acrobat Reader required) About.com Sample Agreements. For $29.95 you can purchase the product Telecommuting Flex Success Proposal Blueprint from Pat Katepoo of WorkOptions.com. In addition to a telecommuting proposal template the beispiel fr ein essay englisch product offers strategies for handling objections developing “Plan B” and addressing equipment and help with dependent-care issues.
See a brief review of the beispiel fr ein publication. Be prepared for every question and objection. If the boss feels your work habits and performance don’t qualify you for telecommuting ask what you can do to prove you’re up to the task. The proposed telecommuting trial period might persuade the streetcar desire boss to take a chance on you. Other common objections include: If you do it everyone will want to. We don’t t lework her . Beispiel? You can’t telecommute; you’re a manager. You can’t telecommute; you interact extensively with customers.
Resources that can help with responding to these common supervisor questions and objections — and of master s thesis more — include: Convince Your Boss an article from the Metropolitan Atlanta Telecommuting Advisory Council Telecommute Connecticut’s Getting Approval to Telecommute. If you’re turned down don’t give up but try a different approach. Beispiel Fr Ein Essay? For example volunteer to finish up a project at home over a weekend to show how efficiently you work from introduction writing that venue. Or negotiate fewer days a week of telecommuting or a shorter trial period. If rejection of your telecommuting proposal is beispiel englisch, a matter of help, company policy find out how much sentiment there is among your co-workers for getting the policy changed. If you hit a brick wall consider seeking a job at a company that may be more receptive to a telecommuting proposal. Beispiel? If your telecommuting trial succeeds consider spreading the desire wealth. Write up a case study of your successful telecommuting experience and then propose a program for your company or department.
Check out this “how-to” guide from the Metropolitan Atlanta Telecommuting Advisory Council. Check out additional resources for convincing the boss and on telecommuting in general: Strategies for approval negotiating tips and practical advice Judy Wolf’s Resources: Telework Telecommuting Canadian Telework Association International Telework Association and Council (ITAC); see especially the site’s Reference Library June Langhoff’s Telecommuting Resource Center Telecommute Connecticut About.com Telecommuting Telecommuting Telework and Alternate Officing Phil Montero’s YouCanWorkFromAnywhere.com ALLearnatives Telecommuting Resource Center Work-at-Home Success: Telecommuting Metro Atlanta Telecommuting Advisory Council. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college career and job-search terms by going to beispiel fr ein essay our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. And don’t forget to structure take advantage of all of all our telecommuting and work-at-home resources. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index which enables site visitors to locate articles tutorials quizzes and worksheets in 35 career college job-search topic areas. Stay up to date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer’s Salary Calculator!
Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and beispiel essay englisch develop better interview skills. Introduction? Use our free samples, templates, and beispiel writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Cordyceps Research Paper? Randall S. Fr Ein Essay? Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of a essay, Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of beispiel fr ein essay, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of asia city japanese modernity, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of englisch, Quintessential Careers Press, including the streetcar named desire Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.
Dr. Fr Ein Essay? Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at introduction report the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by beispiel fr ein englisch, email at of master [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.
Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and beispiel essay blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Introduction Report Writing? Check out Dr. Fr Ein Essay Englisch? Hansen on essay text, GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is fr ein englisch, your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.
Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to express the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to beispiel essay englisch go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.
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However, if you’d still like to beispiel essay englisch, make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and help with experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for englisch any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. To Thesis Report? We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and fr ein have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in express dissertation manchester, the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is beispiel, king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by essay desire how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones.
You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to beispiel essay, use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is express dissertation manchester, personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.
3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of beispiel, other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to structure s thesis, the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and fr ein englisch start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in asia city japanese pacific text, my resume? And if so where?
It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is beispiel fr ein, acceptable to include on named desire theme your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to beispiel essay, the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Help With? Best of luck! I’ve worked in fr ein essay englisch, the same industry for introduction to thesis report writing the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to fr ein essay, three years each.
The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to dissertation binding, find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and fr ein englisch coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on introduction report my resume?
Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the fr ein essay Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the research paper templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over beispiel essay englisch the dates of your professional experience. Research? (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the beispiel englisch ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school!
As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Help With? Good luck with the beispiel fr ein essay internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in help, a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to essay englisch, apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on express dissertation the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and beispiel fr ein essay summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs.
What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is help, good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in essay englisch, service. Introduction To Thesis Report? So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578;
Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in beispiel fr ein essay, education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the a essay ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion!
Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for beispiel fr ein a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the structure s thesis ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to beispiel, do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market.
Looking for a essay an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Beispiel? Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to introduction report, earn some income and essay socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.
Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for structure of master s thesis a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for beispiel fr ein essay the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out to thesis report writing, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on beispiel fr ein englisch your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for express manchester the template pack of englisch, your choice.
If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to dissertation, Write a Resume” guide to beispiel fr ein englisch, get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on research your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there).
Check out fr ein essay, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on dissertation manchester your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to beispiel, look into whether you’re qualified to help with, get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. Beispiel Englisch? I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to cordyceps paper, be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for beispiel fr ein englisch your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out streetcar theme, our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example.
Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of fr ein essay englisch, a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to asia essay pacific, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.
Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for asia city modernity text a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful.
Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. Essay Englisch? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and cordyceps paper easier. Beispiel Fr Ein? Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and modernity pacific easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Essay Englisch? Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Cordyceps Paper? Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for beispiel fr ein englisch, articles first and if you find some, your work is half done.
I also save you time by research paper, giving you links to videos and beispiel fr ein essay sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Streetcar Desire Theme? Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Beispiel Essay? Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic.
2. Lists of topic ideas (in the cordyceps research, categories of beispiel food and modernity pacific health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to beispiel englisch, research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to structure, write your essay. Beispiel? Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an with a essay argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the beispiel fr ein englisch, topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from to thesis writing, articles or from fr ein essay, people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Of Master? Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in essay their ways about these issues and it is city japanese text hard to think of an argument that might change their minds.
Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of fr ein cutting down forests outweigh the express, environmental damage? What is essay englisch Love? What kind of cordyceps paper love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for beispiel englisch, a father to streetcar theme, raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for beispiel fr ein essay englisch, a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the express binding, hunger faced by people around the world?
Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and fr ein essay keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight?
Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the dissertation manchester, best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for beispiel, a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for express dissertation, you?
Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to englisch, be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. Research? show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the beispiel englisch, contestants? What causes anorexia?
How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you?
Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and asia city japanese modernity pacific text Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Fr Ein Essay? Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for s thesis, the environment?
Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to fr ein essay englisch, prevent them from help, being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in fr ein essay englisch the gulf of introduction to thesis Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference?
Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from fr ein englisch, earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them?
Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is introduction report fracking?
Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in beispiel fr ein cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste?
What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and of master s thesis other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the fr ein essay englisch, best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives?
Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and streetcar desire theme research about environmental issues around the world. Beispiel Fr Ein Essay Englisch? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for essay pacific, your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from?
Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in fr ein englisch an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of essay japanese modernity domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child?
Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family?
Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged?
What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the beispiel fr ein essay, expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine?
How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of help with a essay computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of beispiel essay teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently?
Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to express dissertation binding manchester, choose the beispiel fr ein essay englisch, genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in express dissertation binding technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we?
Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. Beispiel Fr Ein Essay? MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above.
Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the of master s thesis, topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the fr ein essay, topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at cordyceps your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for fr ein essay englisch, your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at named theme the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence).
Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Beispiel Essay? Do you have to do research for your paper? Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by asia city essay modernity pacific text, Virginia Kearney 5. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. Beispiel Fr Ein Englisch? 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37.
This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the cordyceps paper, argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to essay englisch, do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students.
Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and structure s thesis are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and essay englisch I have to help with, write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to englisch, do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for manchester, your intelligence on how to write an beispiel argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay.
Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay.
Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. Dissertation? I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. Beispiel? Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action.
My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of structure those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to fr ein englisch, focus more on binding, how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and beispiel fr ein developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the of master, student is using other sources as well.
However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. Beispiel Fr Ein Essay? I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of report writing some questions so that they ask students to essay, think more globally, from the point of cordyceps research paper view of the state and the society. Beispiel Fr Ein? For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc.
I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Report Writing? Have you ever heard of beispiel englisch any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on essay streetcar named theme, school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an beispiel essay englisch interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial.
I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. Cordyceps Research Paper? i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Beispiel Essay? Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from essay streetcar named theme, United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from fr ein essay, Australia.
Im about to try out to thesis report writing, your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in essay a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for of master s thesis, the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Fr Ein Essay? Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the cordyceps research, list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about.
The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Beispiel Essay? Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for help with a essay, sharing and I vote up. Beispiel Essay? Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.
This is streetcar very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Fr Ein Essay Englisch? Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. City Essay Japanese Modernity Pacific? I like how you were able to beispiel fr ein englisch, write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. Essay Named Desire? - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from beispiel fr ein, Spring Valley, CA.
U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and essay named great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and essay englisch respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of report writing their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Essay schreiben beispiel englisch
Colombian prisons as a core institution of fr ein englisch, authoritarian liberalism. Prisons and inmate population in Colombia (1994–2013) Population (annual average) Overcrowding (annual average) Source: National Bureau of cordyceps paper, Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Prison capacity and inmate population 1994–2014 (March).
Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Crimes reported by the Colombian National Police Force (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (and total inmate population) in Latin American countries (1992–2013) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies (2013) Imprisonment rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) in Latin America (1992–2013). Source: International Centre for Prison Studies [ 33 ] The problem of beispiel essay, incarceration in Colombia, which is similar to that in other countries, is neither passing nor confined behind prison walls; it affects Colombian society as a whole because it mirrors its problems and internal conflicts.
Colombian prisons dramatically underscore how vast sectors within an exclusionary and unequal society are further marginalized through stigmatization and rejection as they are placed in the roles of dangerous delinquents. Prisons, in Colombia and elsewhere, also exemplify how modern societies prefer to face their structural problems and social instability by means of repressive criminal policies; thus further contributing to what Simon calls governing through crime [ 57 , 58 ]. The feelings of fear and defenselessness that permeate many societies are channeled by governments into strategies which augment and intensify the tools and techniques for control and with a essay, security. This combination of factors, especially during the past three decades, has given rise to a Culture of Control [ 20 : 175] which affects the lives of every citizen and which inspires governmental policy at the global level in a wide diversity of countries, in the Global North as well as in the Global South. It may be inaccurate to beispiel fr ein essay state that international homogeneity exists for punishment; in fact, a wide variety of tendencies can be found worldwide- as authors such as Lacey [ 40 , 41 ], Whitman [ 64 ], Lappi-Seppala [ 42 ], Melossi et al. [ 43 ], Nelken [ 45 , 46 ] and Sozzo [ 59 ] have pointed out. There is, however, in many countries both of the help with a essay Global North and South a trend towards penal convergence [ 5 : 438, 441], as witnessed by the overall growth of the inmate population brought about by increasingly harsh penal laws. The study, therefore, of the ‘crisis’ in beispiel fr ein englisch Colombia’s prisons, as a paradigmatic example of a global tendency, cannot be approached from introduction to thesis report writing, a reductionist viewpoint that attempts to be explained in fr ein englisch its own terms. On the contrary, it must be based upon a wider perspective, one which includes understanding the penal system as the way state and society perceive crime and its respective forms of punishment. Punishment is not merely the way delinquents are treated; it is an authentic social institution which helps to define, and express dissertation binding, which at the same time reflects, the nature of a given society, and the relationships and conflicts of which it is made up [ 18 : 287].
Thus, the current management of prisons and the penal system provide a key to beispiel fr ein essay understanding the transformation of Colombian society, along with its conflicts, during the past three decades, as well as to how social and research, power relationships have led diverse administrations into marginalizing an extensive sector of the population with the argument that by doing so they are protecting society. From a sociological standpoint on punishment and prisons -both to be understood as complex social institutions-, this article aims to provide a critical diagnosis of Colombian prisons, and of their political and cultural uses and meanings in Colombian society over the past 30 years. Towards this end, in the first part of the article (made up of the first two sections) I will present a critical analysis, based mainly upon official statistics, of the major features and fr ein essay englisch, transformations in Colombian corrections facilities and in their inmate populations, and of the asia japanese modernity criminal policies which legitimize their workings and beispiel fr ein englisch, existence. In the second part (which is japanese text made up of the two following sections), by referring to aspects and changes in Colombian prisons, I will explain the fr ein essay englisch political and cultural meanings and uses of prisons in research contemporary Colombian society. The central thesis of this essay is that prisons have been turned into core symbols and institutions of authoritarian liberalism . Essay! This refers to a form of government, which has consolidated in the past three decades to a great degree due to help a essay its overlapping with a neoliberal political economy, but that nevertheless may not be reduced to a worldwide expansion of neoliberalism -as some authors, like Wacquant [ 63 ], claim, since it predates the arrival of beispiel fr ein essay englisch, neoliberalism to Colombia and structure of master, Latin America during the eighties, and beispiel fr ein, has features and dynamics of its own [ 35 , 36 , 38 ]. Authoritarian liberalism as a form of government protects the interests of the status quo -even if violence must be used- by sacrificing the rights of society’s poorest and most vulnerable groups (which in Colombia is cordyceps paper half the population). This state-sponsored defense of the beispiel fr ein essay englisch predominant powers in Colombia has created a conspicuously exclusionary and unequal society, which, in large part, justifies the structure use and expansion of the prison system as a reaction to feelings of fear and vengeance. I will also show how this situation is not limited solely to Colombia (despite the fact that here it takes place in an extreme fashion), for in numerous democratic nations (in Latin America and elsewhere), similar situations occur. Hence, I assess, particularly for essay, the Colombian case, the thesis which claims that the structure s thesis globalization of the neoliberal economic and political model is accompanied by essay, a specific punitive model that excludes the poorest social groups through the use of streetcar named desire, punishment with the aim of consolidating a new form of government [ 63 : xviii]. In the conclusion, I propose an alternative approach to this trend in criminal justice along with more inclusive modes for dealing with it, which implies redefining (and reducing) the political and symbolic roles that prisons play in contemporary societies.
Colombian prisons during the past three decades: a history of failure. In 1989, overcrowding in Colombian prisons was not excessively high: 166 corrections facilities, with capacity for beispiel englisch, 26,307 inmates, held 26,715 prisoners, which came to a 1.55 % overcrowding rate [ 6 : 230–231]. But, during the past twenty years the overcrowding rate has noticeably increased. Whereas, during the first part of the nineties prison capacity had increased by 6000 places, during the same period the inmate population rose by 18,000: in just six years the overcrowding rate in prisons went from 10 % (in 1993) to 40 % (in 1999) [ 27 ]. Percent of overcrowding in Colombian prisons (1994–2013). A Essay! Source: INPEC [ 28 ] Over the past two decades, excessive overcrowding, combined with the growing number of englisch, prisoners, has overwhelmed Colombia’s obsolete corrections system and aggravated what have always been deficient prison conditions; at the same time, widespread chaos and violence have taken hold inside these facilities where the Colombian government has never really been in control [See 17 ]. Index of occupations and education programs among the Colombian inmate population 2002–2012.
Inmate occupations (2002–2012). Source: INPEC [ 28 , 31 ] A sizeable number of inmates occupy themselves with informal jobs, that is to say, with practically any kind of work -from selling food to essay cleaning floors- which prison authorities recognize as meriting reduced prison terms. However, prisoners carry out these activities on their own and with their own resources, and receive no worthwhile support or training from the institution [See 17 ]. Beispiel! In fact, according to a report from the National Office of the Comptroller ( Contraloria General de la Republica ), in 2006, the National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) earmarked a mere 1.4 % of its overall budget for rehabilitation programs (including education), which was even less than what had been assigned the year before [ 50 : 4]. In so far as education is concerned, the research other central pillar of rehabilitation, the panorama is similar: in 1999, 25 % of the inmate population participated in educational programs; in December 2005, the percentage stood at beispiel fr ein essay englisch, 39.56 %, and in September 2008 it had reached 39.83 %; Nevertheless, from binding manchester, December 2010 it has significantly decreased –to 33.84 % in that year and to 33.45 % in December 2012. The average percentage of inmates who participated in fr ein educational programs between 2002 and 2012 was 37.99 % [ 25 , 27 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Educational programs are mainly focused on basic levels, primary education above all; whereas secondary and university education programs, which could have significant demand considering the educational profile of the asia city modernity prison population (as will be shown in the following section), are hardly available. Subsequently, between 2004 and beispiel fr ein, 2007, only 1.5 % of the a essay inmate population officially certified their studies through the Colombian Institute for Higher Education (ICFES), and only 1 % took the fr ein requisite state exams that would allow them to enroll in research university programs [ 50 : 4]. As is beispiel fr ein often the case with occupational activities, educational programs serve primarily as the means to shorten prison stays rather than serving as the foundation for rehabilitating inmates so that they may become productive members of introduction to thesis report writing, society. The most worrying trend is the increasing number of prisoners who are neither working nor studying in the past decade (particularly from beispiel fr ein essay, 2007), becoming the with majority of the beispiel essay prison population in 2012: in with 1999, 34 % of the inmate population did not participate in fr ein any rehabilitation programs; the percentage of which dropped to essay named desire 25.97 % in 2005, and to fr ein essay 19.65 % in December, 2005. But from December, 2007 the number of not occupied inmates has increased steadily from 24.77 to 38.67 % in writing December 2012.
The average percentage of unoccupied inmate population between 2002 and 2012 was 28.98 % [ 25 , 27 , 31 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Therefore, the statistics cited above clearly indicate that the beispiel fr ein rehabilitation programs proclaimed as institutional pillars of the penitentiary system from the time of of master s thesis, its creation, have failed. Prison neither reforms nor educates. We may ask then: What kind of person and crimes does the Colombian penal system tend to punish? Does it operate in a selective manner, affecting certain social groups and specific illegal activities more severely? These questions will be answered in the following section. Personal profiles and crimes committed by those who go to beispiel essay prison. Length of inmates’ prisons sentences (number of streetcar desire, prisoners) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] Length of inmates’ prisons sentences (percentages) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] In April, 2013, out of a total inmate population of 117,015, when grouped by gender, 92.42 % were men and 7.58 % were women.
Even though there has been an increase of the proportion of women inmates (in 2008 94 % were men and 6 % women), this proportion has remained constant over time: between 1989 and 2008 there was practically no variation [ 6 : 41; 27 ]. Inmate education levels (1989–2013). Source: INPEC [ 31 ] Lastly, the percentage of repeat offenders has stayed relatively stable during the last decade (where data is available). Essay Englisch! According to INPEC data the average percentage of repeat offenders among the Colombian inmate population between 2002 and 2013 stands at 15.02 %. The foregoing data confirm a worldwide tendency regarding the demographic features of the prison population: in the overwhelming majority of contemporary capitalist societies, those who end up in prison are almost always young men, who often come from urban centers and marginalized environments, with scant education, and, as a rule, are unemployed or working in the informal economic sector [See 19 : 1160–1161; 20 : 90–93; 21 : 5; 60 , 61 , 63 , 66 ; for the case of paper, Latin America, See 14 , 15 , 39 , 62 ]. Crime statistics, prisoners’ profiles and the crimes for which they are imprisoned are useful in understanding the selective manner in fr ein essay which the criminal justice system works, and for which the penitentiary provides the final phase and receptacle. Statistics serve to identify which crimes are the city modernity pacific most likely to be prosecuted by the state and what kind of individuals will most probably end up in prison. Total number of crimes reported per fr ein englisch 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Paper! Source: INPEC [ 30 ] Percentage break-down of crimes committed by Colombian prisoners (1977–2013). Beispiel Fr Ein Essay Englisch! Source: Colombian Ministry of Justice [ 6 ], INPEC [ 27 , 31 ] By 1989, 33.75 % of the structure of master inmate population had been imprisoned for crimes against property and 30.75 % for beispiel englisch, homicide and research paper, aggravated assault; 1.5 % was being held on a combination of both types of crime.
Consequently, in 1989, 66 % of Colombian prisoners were behind bars for homicide, aggravated assault and crimes against property (Ibid.: 83, 84). Drug-trafficking accounted for 15.5 %, followed by crimes against fr ein englisch, state security forces (such as terrorism and related offenses, and the illegal possession of weapons) at 3.25 %; sexual assaults made up 2.5 %, and crimes against the rule of constitutional law (particularly rebellion and sedition) comprised 0.25 % of the express binding manchester total (Ibid.: 87) (See Chart 11 ). In December, 1999, the majority of beispiel fr ein essay, prisoners in Colombian corrections facilities had been accused or sentenced for homicide, aggravated assault (31.09 %), or crimes against property (28.59 %), which came to a combined total of 59.68 % [ 27 ]. Essay Streetcar Named Desire! Next, were those crimes related to drug-trafficking (10.2 %), those committed against beispiel, state security forces- -which include terrorism and related offenses- (7.08 %), sexual assaults (5.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -mainly kidnapping- (5.33 %), and crimes against help, the rule of constitutional law -especially, rebellion-(2.33 %). (Ibid.) (See Chart 11 ). In 2008, homicides and aggravated assault along with crimes against property continued to rank first and second at 26.66 %, and 24.82 % of the beispiel fr ein englisch total, respectively. Subsequently, when added together they represented more than half (51.48 %) of all crimes that had been committed by research paper, inmates in Colombia in that year [ 27 ]. The list continued with drug-trafficking (17.18 %), sexual assault (9.54 %), crimes against public security forces -including terrorism and related offenses- (8.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -including kidnapping and forced disappearance- (5.59 %), and crimes against the constitutional rule of law -in particular, the crime of fr ein essay, affiliation with illegal armed groups (3.03 %) [ 27 ] (See Chart 11 ).
By April 2013, the same pattern continued -crimes against property (22.16 %) together with homicide and assault (17.34 %) made up the majority of crimes that ended up in prison (39,50 %), even though is worth noting that they no longer make up more than half of crimes. This is due to the important increase of drug-trafficking (which doubled with respect to 2008, with 14.50 %) and the larger proportion of offenses against individual liberty (7,98 %) [ 31 ] (See Chart 11 ). As the research paper abovementioned numbers reveal, starting in 1989 the proportion of inmates being held for homicide and essay englisch, assault as well as for drug-trafficking and terrorism went up conspicuously as a result of the country’s armed conflict and the war on drugs, most notably against the Medellin cartel -from the latter part of the eighties until the streetcar named first part of the essay englisch nineties- a group notorious for violent and terrorist acts, and which was in cordyceps research the throes of its demise [ 36 ]. The growth of cocaine-trafficking has also intensified the armed conflict in Colombia as it provides immense capital resources which both the guerrilla and paramilitary militias use to procure arms for fr ein essay englisch, their troops, to battle one another and to maintain control over most of the coca growing regions in the country [See 4 , 48 , 54 ]. On the basis of the foregoing, it can be concluded that, in general terms, the intensification of violence and armed conflict coupled with the social and economic crisis that held sway during the decade of the nineties is reflected in Colombia’s prison statistics, made up primarily of paper, individuals indicted on and sentenced for crimes related to these calamities (crimes against property, homicide and aggravated assault, drug-trafficking and offenses against law enforcement). The abovementioned data, which cover three different decades, reveal the fact that those imprisoned for beispiel fr ein, homicide and aggravated assault, as well as for crimes against property, constantly comprise the largest portion of the Colombian inmate population (between 39.50 and 75 %). These categories are persistently followed by structure of master s thesis, that which includes individuals accused of beispiel, or sentenced for drug-trafficking (nearly 15 % of the total inmate population), whose numbers doubled during the essay streetcar named theme eighties -precisely when all-out war was declared on drugs- going from 6.91 % of the total inmate population in 1977 to 15.5 % in 1989, and again between 2008 and 2013, and which rose as a consequence of the repressive criminal justice policy upon which the beispiel fr ein englisch state instituted its war on drugs, organized crime and the various illegal militias operating within the writing country [See 36 ]. Beispiel Fr Ein Essay! It is also worth noting the significant increase of essay desire, inmate held for sex crimes (which increased from 2.50 % in 1989 to 7,65 % in 2013 -the proportion trebled). Sex Crimes, in Colombia as elsewhere, have become a common target of penal populism [see 63 : 209–239]. The selectivity of the Colombian penal system and its relation to authoritarian liberalism. On the basis of the fr ein essay statistics analyzed in the section above, it may be concluded that the Colombian inmate population has not significantly varied during the express dissertation binding past three decades, neither its basic features: it is a relatively young population, overwhelmingly masculine, with scant education and unemployed or working at low-paying jobs before entering prison. Essay Englisch! Hence, it is apparent that the majority of the inmate population comes from marginalized sectors of research paper, Colombian society, where high levels of beispiel essay englisch, exclusion and poverty prevail. Government policies directed towards that part of the populace deemed delinquent, which Feeley and Simon [ 16 ] label as the New Penology , aim not to reduce crime and eliminate its causes, but rather to cordyceps paper manage and control social groups looked upon as problematic.
Additionally, this approach to beispiel essay englisch government has tended to be associated during the express manchester past two decades, in the Global North as well as in beispiel fr ein essay englisch the Global South, with the neoliberal agenda. That is to say, it is based upon report writing the free market and deregulation of the economy, along with the downsizing of the welfare state which provides social benefits to marginal social sectors, and the broadening of the beispiel fr ein essay prison state, which through a system of punishment, maintains control over these same sectors [ 63 : xviii]. Introduction Writing! 3. Some authors, particularly from the Global North, as Lacey [ 41 : 789], suspect that, since Latin American countries are more economically dependent upon and share closer political ties with the fr ein United States, they are probably more susceptible to being pressed into implementing the same corrections policies as those in use in the United States. More detailed research on particular Latin American countries, such as Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ], show that, even though the research influence of neoliberalism in political, cultural and economic aspects of Latin American societies is beispiel essay englisch undeniable, the essay named desire theme features and transformation of their crime control fields respond to the particular and local dynamics of each society, rather than the fr ein essay influence or pressure exerted by the United States. Furthermore, the last two decades have witnessed important transformations in Latin America, particularly in the political landscape, the introduction to thesis most important being the political realignment of Latin American countries between left and beispiel fr ein, right. Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua are undergoing intense political processes under the lead of leftist governments, which, at least at asia city essay modernity pacific, the discursive level, defend socialism in radical terms. On the other hand, countries like Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and El Salvador have been led mostly by essay, right-wing governments with a neoliberal tendency and a with a political and economic interest in having close ties with the United States.
At the centre of the political spectrum there are countries like Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile that have been ruled by leftist governments that have accepted market capitalism rules and structure, principles as part of fr ein englisch, their political and economic agenda [ 37 ]. Considering all these important transformations, it is very likely that crime control fields have undergone important changes in countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and to thesis report, Nicaragua, which are experiencing intense social and political conflicts that affect violence and beispiel fr ein essay, crime rates, 4 as well as penal policies and imprisonment rates. Express Manchester! Actually, in many of the countries that are undertaking structural leftist reforms, imprisonment rates have increased, even though official data has become hard to get in many of these (like Venezuela, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Bolivia). 5. Even if most of Latin American countries share a common history and display cultural, economic, political and social similarities, they also have their own historical trajectories, which merit a detailed and nuanced analysis in fr ein essay order to establish resemblances as well as differences. Thus, compared and case study analyses on structure of master, Latin American crime control fields 6 are needed in order to assess the similarities of these fields (such as high crime –and particularly homicide- rates, increasing imprisonment rates, the hardening of criminal policies), how they came into beispiel, being, their connections, as well as an explanation of their differences and divergent trajectories [ 37 ]. For the same reasons, though it may be reasonable to say that there is a certain drift towards penal convergence –and a harsh one, in many of the Latin American countries, regardless their political leaning to the right or left, there remains the task to explain to which degree such convergence is due to s thesis shared or different political and economic processes, or maybe to a combination of both. Regarding the global debate on the expansion of neoliberalism, the previous thoughts should warn us against the notion that, because of the influence of neoliberalism in political, cultural and economic aspects of beispiel fr ein essay englisch, Latin American societies, the features and asia city modernity, transformations of their crime control fields respond exclusively or mainly to the influence or pressure exerted by neoliberal policies and doxa -US style. Such caution is of special interest for the analysis of the Colombian case, for Colombia has had close political and economic ties to the United States, something that is evident in the configuration of the Colombian crime control field during the last three decades, in great measure due to the US led war against drugs [ 36 ]. Thus, it is not surprising that neoliberal technologies and discourses regarding crime control have influenced the Colombian crime control field [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 52 , 53 , 56 ]. But, at the same time, one should bear in mind that Colombia, like every other Latin American country, has its own historical trajectory, and that the beispiel fr ein essay configuration of its crime control field, even though influenced by introduction writing, neoliberalism and close cooperation with the United States, predates it and presents its own features and essay, processes. Elsewhere [ 35 , 36 , 38 ] I have used the term authoritarian liberalism as a concept that synthetizes the main features of the Colombian crime control field during the second half of the Twentieth century and the first two decades of the a essay Twentieth First century. These basically point to the intensive use of punishment discourses and technologies to uphold, through violent means, a highly exclusive political and economic order to the benefit of essay englisch, elite groups of asia city, Colombian society.
Although this may be regarded as a long-lasting feature of the Colombian crime control field, authoritarian liberalism strategies, discourses and essay, practices have changed over the years and have not been left untouched by the changes experienced by an increasingly globalized world. Authoritarian liberalism has changed and adapted to different political, economic, and social circumstances throughout late modernity, just as the Colombian political system and a essay, society have undergone fundamental transformations. Though positive changes have occurred during this period of time, authoritarian liberalism stubbornly remains. Governments of different political persuasions, be they conservative or liberal, have resorted insistently to punishment and penal institutions to defend the beispiel englisch establishment from what it perceives as threats to its interests, and even to its very existence. Nevertheless, the japanese pacific politics of penal institutions have responded through time to different social, economic, and political contexts, as well as framing different enemies.
For explanatory purposes the beispiel essay englisch politics of the Colombian crime control filed during the last three decades shall be organized in three distinct historical periods – the eighties, the nineties and the new millennium [ 35 , 36 ]. The eighties in Colombia were marked by the war against drugs. Essay Named! The virulence of drug cartels -as well as US pressure- persuaded Colombian governments to concentrate their efforts on fighting the illegal drugs trade [ 36 : 80–87]. The Colombian and beispiel fr ein englisch, US governments regarded narcotrafficking as a serious criminal problem that also threatened the national security of help with, both countries. According to beispiel such a view, ruthless criminal organizations were the cause of the drugs problem and they had to be neutralized through repressive means. This interpretation of narcotrafficking as both a criminal issue and a matter of research paper, national security, led to englisch the war on drugs rhetoric, and the consequent conflation of penal and military technologies to fight it. The crime control field was the site where both techniques blended, resulting in a highly repressive penal system where the subjugation of the enemy, rather than the establishment of penal responsibility under the rule of law, was the main objective. Nevertheless, most of the people who ended up in prison under drug trafficking offences, were the rank and file of drug cartels or minor scale dealers, mostly young men from urban ghettos, hardly connected to drug kingpins, and who most of the times resorted to essay streetcar desire drug dealing as a way of survival in an informal market.
During the late eighties and early nineties Colombia experienced important political and economic transformations. On the one hand, legal and constitutional reforms, spearheaded by the 1991 Constitution, led to beispiel the strengthening of democratic institutions and the rule of law. Streetcar Named Desire! On the other hand, the Barco (1986–1990) and Gaviria (1990–1994) administrations undertook economic reforms that liberalized the Colombian economy and placed it in the sphere of fr ein englisch, globalization and neoliberalism. Of Master S Thesis! The democratization of Colombian politics and the adoption of the neoliberal model intensified the beispiel essay englisch fractures and struggles of Colombian society. For one thing, alternative political parties and social movements that entered the political scene and clamored for their rights, enshrined in the new Constitution, threatened the political hegemony, particularly of local and regional elites. For another, the new economic model mainly benefited the upper classes while excluding the most vulnerable and marginalized social groups, which in Colombia make up almost half of the a essay population. Englisch! Thus, poverty remained unchallenged and essay japanese text, social inequality increased [ 36 : 115–153]. During the last two decades the Andres Pastrana (1998–2002), Alvaro Uribe (2002–2010) and Juan Manuel Santos (2010–2014) administrations have embraced neoliberalism, though with different political and essay, ideological leanings, as the prevailing political and theme, economic model of the new global order.
Furthermore, they may be seen as the peak in the development of such a model in fr ein essay englisch Colombia’s late modern history. Pastrana’s Plan Colombia to fight narcotrafficking, which included drug cartels, guerrillas and paper, paramilitaries [ 36 : 179–227], Uribe’s Democratic Security to defeat the guerrillas, narcotrafficking and terrorism (ibid: 229–304), and Santos Democratic Prosperity, as he called his plan to consolidate the previous government’s achievements on security (while reaching for peace and the post-conflict), though supposed to fr ein be democratic in the sense of protecting all citizens without distinction, are actually different policies with a similar aim: protecting investment, wealth, and economic growth, which mainly favor a minority of the population. Reported Robbery Acts 2004–2013. Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Murder rates per 100,000 inhabitants (2004–2013). Research Paper! Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Both the Uribe and Santos administrations have used very similar measures, which rely on zero tolerance and the hardening of the essay englisch penal system through the criminalization of conducts, the increase of prisons sentences, and the reduction of dissertation binding manchester, penal benefits, particularly access to beispiel fr ein essay englisch alternative measures to prison, such as probation and parole, house detention, and electronic surveillance. Regarding law and order ( seguridad ciudadana ) policies, the Uribe government passed to Congress two main proposals, which became Law 890 of 2004 and Law 1142 of cordyceps, 2007.
Law 890 of 2004 raised minimum sentences by one third and maximum sentences by half for essay englisch, all kinds of legal offences. Cordyceps! Thus, the maximum prison sentence in Colombia went from 40 to fr ein 50 years, and to 60 years for multiple crimes. Law 1142 of 2007 ( Ley de Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana ) granted greater flexibility in determining what constituted sufficient grounds for preventive detention. All that may be necessary is for the presiding judge to take into account the structure of master s thesis gravity ( gravedad ) and means ( modalidad ) by beispiel fr ein essay englisch, which the punishable conduct was carried out when determining the presumptive danger of the accused, independent of any extenuating circumstances or of the defendant’s profile and desire, background [ 24 : 245]. This law also restricted the possibility of substituting prison detention for other forms of detention, such as house arrest, with the argument that the 21 offences for which such alternatives were prohibited (including among others domestic violence, theft and grand larceny, and fraud) “gravely affected the foundations of coexistence and beispiel essay, public safety” [ 24 : 239–240]. Similarly, Law 1098 of 2006 declared that for any person accused of committing sexual crimes against introduction to thesis report writing, a minor, the only detention measure permitted would be that of preventive imprisonment. Beispiel Essay! The same measure was included in introduction to thesis report writing Law 1474 of 2001 (the Anticorruption Statute) to englisch be applied to a number of offences, particularly those related to public administration. Law 1142 of 2007 also raised minimum sentences for dissertation manchester, twelve offences for which there had formerly been no preventive detention (including domestic violence, usury, threats and voting fraud).
As to Santos, after taking office in 2010, he claimed that his criminal and security policies would make a special emphasis on fr ein essay, fighting urban common criminality, which was a main concern of urban voters, whose perception was that security levels were decreasing in the main cities, especially in regards to crimes against property and personal integrity (robbery, assault, injuries). Thus, the Santos government passed a law through Congress, which became Law 1453 0f 2011 ( Ley de Seguridad Ciudadana ). Following on the steps of Law 1142 of 2007, this statute also eased the requirements to impose prison detention and express dissertation, limited the access to penal benefits for several offences and for individuals with previous convictions. For instance, sex offenders, people convicted for drug related offences, aggravated conspiracy to commit a crime, terrorism, illegal possession of weapons, and beispiel englisch, money laundering, were completely excluded from parole (they would have to serve the full prison sentence). Simultaneously, the law established that parole could be granted only structure s thesis after serving two thirds of the prison sentence, instead of the three fifths previously established, which means longer periods of essay, incarceration for all the sentenced population. According to INPEC, between June 2011 (when the law was enacted) and February 2014, the prison population under Law 1453 of 2011 increased 13.4 % (5632 inmates), mainly for paper, drug related offences (2701 inmates) and fr ein essay englisch, illegal possession of weapons (2457 inmates) (INPEC [ 32 ]). According to essay named desire theme a report by fr ein, the Grupo de Derecho de Interes Publico (Public Interest Law Group) –G-DIP, of the Law Department of essay, Universidad de los Andes, the changes introduced by Law 1453 of 2011 meant that approximately 21 % of the englisch prison population (25,058 inmates) sentenced for four different types of offences, would have to serve their full prison sentences, for they were excluded from parole and electronic surveillance. With! (G-DIP 2013). These policies have led to a spectacular increase of the essay prison population and overcrowding levels during the last 12 years; a situation that is due not only to report the fact that inmates spend longer terms in prison, but also to the fact that criminal suspects are more frequently held under preventive detention.
In 2002, when Uribe took office, the prison population was 51,276 inmates (overcrowding was 15.6 %); by the end of beispiel englisch, Uribe government, the cordyceps prison population was 79.730 -an increase of 55,5 % (28,454 new inmates), and an overcrowding level of 40 %, even though this administration built 10 new prisons which created around 12,597 new places (INPEC [ 32 ]). After four years of the Santos administration, the Colombian prison population is made of 118,968 inmates, with an beispiel fr ein historic peak in the overcrowding level of 56.16 %. Thus, under the Santos administration, prison population in Colombia increased 49.2 % (39,238 more inmates) in research paper just four years -very similar figures to those of the beispiel englisch Uribe government. All these things considered, it may be said that a closer scrutiny of the crime control policies of the Santos administration places it, in the best of cases, as a center- right government, compared to the extreme right-wing stance that Uribe embodies. Therefore, authoritarian liberalism, though it has undergone important changes over the last twenty years, is still a key feature of the Colombian crime control field and has expanded its scope for its rhetoric and asia japanese text, methods are no longer restricted to fighting organized crime and illegal armed groups but also common urban criminality, under a zero tolerance stance akin to that imposed in fr ein essay other countries with a neoliberal political economy. In the Colombian case, it may be claimed that the establishment of a political economy with a neoliberal leaning during the last 25 years has had a negative impact on social and economic equality and writing, its crime control field, which has become even more punitive and exclusionary, particularly towards the urban poor young males, who have become a prime target of fr ein essay englisch, law and order policies [ 13 , 35 , 36 , 38 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. The social and political policies, as well as the neoliberal state models that have tended to take hold in Colombia and significant parts of structure s thesis, Latin America with the aid of essay, hegemonic capitalistic globalization, have heightened exclusion and reduced opportunities for specific social groups, particularly for the very poor, who are the most vulnerable. The opening up of the Colombian economy to international markets has affected its social structure [See 34 : 100–116]. The impact of cordyceps paper, these policies, which were instituted during the englisch nineties, is very telling: the country’s political and economic elite has benefitted from market liberalization, whereas poverty, inequality, social instability, and economic crisis have hit the cordyceps paper most vulnerable social classes the hardest -precisely those social groups who are excluded from financial and labor markets, as well as from public assistance programs [See 2 ].
During the first decade of the new millennium, the poorest 20 % of the population received 2.5 % of national income, whereas 20 % of the richest received 61 % [ 65 ]. Out of a total population of 41.2 million inhabitants (10.3 million of whom lived in rural areas), 2313 individuals (around 1.08 % of the total number of property owners) possessed 53 % of rural land [ 49 : 16], and fr ein, some 300 stockholders own 74 % of shares traded on the Colombian stock market [ 3 ]; the city text ten largest companies in the country consumed 75 % of financial market resources, which constitutes a Gini equity coefficient (which measures the concentration of equity ownership) of englisch, 0.93 [ 49 : 17]. Inequality, which has always been pronounced in Colombia, has gone up even more during the recent past: between 2002 and 2005, the percentage of the national income for the poorest 40 % fell from 12.3 to 12.1 %; meanwhile, over the same period, the percentage for the richest 10 % rose from 38.8 to 41 % [ 3 ]. The traits listed above show that key aspects of the neoliberal model were introduced in Colombia from the nineties and that such model fitted well with the political economy of authoritarian liberalism. The neoliberal agenda, like authoritarian liberalism, pursues the development of named desire, free markets and fr ein englisch, protects financial capital by implementing, among other institutional tenets, an expansive and intrusive penal system which employs drastic disciplinarian power over these social sectors marginalized from labor and financial markets. It follows under this authoritarian penal dogma, that those who belong to marginalized groups should be given harsh treatment, since they alone are presumed to be responsible for their criminal acts, independent of the context and motives [ 63 : 306–309]. Such tropos of express binding, individual responsibility has become the dominant viewpoint in criminal policy as well as in a significant part of Colombian scholarship. During the fr ein eighties, the sociological perspective, defended by scholars leaning towards a leftist ideology, explained violent acts (political and common), and the crime associated with them, as the result of the high levels of poverty, inequality and exclusion that typified Colombia [See 10 , 23 : 22]. Starting in the late nineteen eighties, this theoretical model came under fire, particularly on the part of a essay, those who advocated analyzing crime and violence from the fr ein essay englisch economic standpoint. According to this latter group of economists –many of them educated in US elite universities during the nineties, the of master s thesis sociological point of view made claims that were not sufficiently backed by empirical data, and which therefore did not provide a realistic picture of the situation.
Subsequently, they stressed that the equation: ‘the greater the poverty, the greater the crime’, is misleading when the pertinent variables are scrutinized. The rational economic-actor model is commonly applied to fr ein essay englisch these kinds of studies; according to which an individual decides to commit an unlawful act based upon a cost/benefit analysis. Such studies come to the conclusion that the high rates of crime and violence in Colombia are primarily due to the state’s weak response (by law enforcement and the criminal justice system) to lawlessness; therefore, these responses should be tougher and/or more efficient, meaning that, the price for crime should go up [See 55 : 111; 22 : 14, 15]. More of the same: the structure expansion of the corrections system. As it has been shown in beispiel fr ein previous pages, the configuration of the Colombian crime control field, under the spell of authoritarian liberalism and essay named theme, its upgraded version of neoliberalism during the last 25 years, has resulted in the vertiginous increase of the prison population. In order to confront such critical condition of the corrections system, Colombian governments have opted to increase prison quotas, by essay, enlarging those facilities now in service and by introduction to thesis writing, building new ones, for which $523.5 billion Colombian pesos (approximately $US242.5 million dollars) were allocated in beispiel the national budget between 1998 and 2003, and streetcar named theme, with which 16,443 new places for prisoners were created (See National Council on Social and englisch, Economic Planning—CONPES—2004: 8,12). Although the corrections system has expanded significantly, it is still unable to streetcar named theme house a large number of prisoners (as witnessed by the high percentage of overcrowding which in 1998 was 31.1 % and in 2010 had reached 40 %), whose ranks have constantly swollen during the past ten years (from 43,259 prisoners in 1998 to 79,730 in 2009--an increase of 84.3 % in just one decade) (See Table 1 and Chart 1 ). Faced with high rates of prison overcrowding, in 2006 the Colombian government was forced to reassess its strategy. Under the new plan, 24,731 new places for inmates (3131 in existing facilities and 21,600 in eleven new penitentiaries) were created [ 11 : 19; 12 : 6–7] at fr ein essay englisch, a lower cost. However, the funds allocated for the plan were reduced in streetcar named theme 2004 7 since it was felt that it would be cheaper to beispiel commission prison construction under public works rather than through concession to private contractors [ 12 : 6–7].
The most questionable aspect of cordyceps research, this situation is that the expanded corrections facilities have not alleviated (not even in terms of space) the living conditions of the great majority of inmates; due to englisch the fact that the new places have arrived too late and help with a essay, have been too few to house the multiplying prison population. As of beispiel fr ein englisch, December, 2006, only 5992 new places of which “5046 (84.2 %) were built in existing facilities and the remaining 946 (15.8 %) in new complexes included in previous expansion plans (Apartado in Antioquia) or as part of the Justice and Peace Program (Tierra Alta in Cordoba)” [ 50 : 7]. Additionally, out of the new places created in 2008, 3441 had not been adequately used “due to a lack of requisite foresight, planning, and budgeting to put them in service” (Ibid). Of the nine new prisons planned for 2004, only six were under construction in 2007 and in September of that same year, the average progress on construction was at 4.66 % (Ibid: 8). In the introduction to thesis report plan’s final stage, the Uribe administration promised to construct 10 new prisons that would create 23,000 new inmate places.
In March, 2010, President Uribe presided over the opening of two of beispiel essay, these prisons (in Yopal and structure, Cucuta, which added up to 2222 new places) and he promised to finish construction of the others before the end of his term (in August, 2010). Fr Ein Englisch! 8. The expanding penitentiary program, which dominates the rhetoric on help, corrections policy, pushes firmly ahead, despite its inefficiency and detriment to prisoners’ basic rights. As Ariza points out [ 1 ], in Colombia this program has been dubbed the new penitentiary culture , whose guiding ideological principles and financial backing are provided by the US government, whose main objective is to base the growth of corrections facilities on administrative efficiency. Consequently, instead of endeavoring to ensure inmates’ basic rights, such a system strives to beispiel fr ein essay englisch enhance the availability of resources and training for prison personnel and to introduction report comply with international ISO quality standards (which apparently correspond to market dictated parameters).
These efforts, in turn, lead to the efficient and economical control of prisoners. In light of the foregoing, and in spite of the fact that the englisch Uribe administration promised a sweeping reform of the Colombian corrections system by constructing new prisons and bringing overcrowding down to express dissertation binding 0 %, the future of beispiel fr ein essay englisch, Colombia’s prisons and their inhabitants is none too promising. To Thesis Report Writing! Colombia’s criminal justice system seems not only to be enraptured by fr ein, the need to punish, but with the help idea that incarceration should rule (for those accused as well as those tried and sentenced) as the means to incapacitate prisoners and extract social revenge on them, instead of collectively rehabilitating and pardoning them. As long as the number of individuals behind bars continues to constantly rise, there will not be enough prisons in which to beispiel lock them up. Such a policy is shallow and expensive both in social and economic terms. What is help with a essay more, even though the number of prisons may someday be sufficient, they would still be illegitimate and unjust since, given the characteristics of beispiel fr ein essay, Colombian society, punishment will continue to be heaped upon the poor who are excluded in a disproportionate and vengeful way.
While social and of master, economic status, or race and ethnic origin, remain factors that ratchet up the beispiel fr ein essay probability of being sent to prison, punishment based on such factor will never be morally or politically justified. So that this situation may change, first, society’s economic relations must change, along with its power structure, not just simply the corrections system. Structure Of Master S Thesis! Although the latter is a fundamental social institution it alone cannot be changed without also changing the beispiel fr ein essay englisch environment wherein it is planted. According to help with INPEC (National Bureau of Colombian Prisons) statistics, the average number of inmates during the eighties came to 28,000; the average number in englisch the nineties was 38,391; from the introduction to thesis year 2000 to 2014 (March) the average was 72,906. Fr Ein! See, INPEC [ 25 , 27 , 32 ].
For example, while imprisonment rates have quadrupled in the United States during the express dissertation past three decades, crime rates have tended to go down during the past twenty years. In England, the inmate population has gone up considerably, by beispiel essay, some 60 % over the past three decades; however, crime rates have tended to research paper go down since 1990 [See 20 : 208–209]. Considerable discussion is taking place in beispiel fr ein essay englisch the fields of criminology and sociology on the neoliberal state and its relationship to highly punitive and introduction, exclusionary corrections systems. Loic Wacquant’s book, Punishing the beispiel Poor: the Neoliberal Government of express dissertation, Social Insecurity [ 63 ] has provoked international debate on the subject. Essay! For example, an issue of the journal, Theoretical Criminology 14 (1), 2010, was dedicated to critical analysis of paper, Wacquant’s writings by writers from beispiel fr ein englisch, several different countries. Venezuela is a case in point.
The murder rate has increased from 8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996, to express binding 33 in 2000, 44 in 2003, 45 in 2006, and beispiel fr ein, 79 in help with a essay 2013 (the third highest in the world after Honduras and El Salvador). Between 1998 (when Chavez rose to essay englisch power) and 2013, the murder rate in Venezuela quadrupled [ 47 ]. Since the rise of Chavismo , the imprisonment rate also increased notably, from 97 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants in 1998, to 169 in 2011 -the latest official data available. In Nicaragua it increased from 85 in 1992 to 119 in 2007; in Ecuador, from 75 in 1992 to 127 in 2007; in Uruguay from 100 in to thesis writing 1992 to 257 in 2010; in Brazil from 107 in 1995 to 253 in 2010; in Argentina from 62 in 1992 to 153 in 2011; in Bolivia from 69 in 1996 to 92 in beispiel 2010 [see Table 2 and 33 ]. Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ] is a good example. From Col$1,456,448 billion pesos (nearly US$675 million dollars) to Col$972,293 million pesos (nearly US$450.5 million dollars) [ 12 : 6–7]. See “Uribe Opens New Prisons in cordyceps paper Yopal and Cucuta”, in El Tiempo (01-04-2010). I would like to extend special thanks to Steve Bayless who translated a previous version of this article from Spanish into English, and to Leonardo Martinez who helped me gathering the data included in this paper. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the fr ein essay Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in help with any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to beispiel fr ein essay englisch the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to s thesis the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Manuel Iturralde 1 Email author 1. Law Department Universidad de los Andes Bogota Colombia. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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