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Body language , Communication , Hugo Weaving 1598 Words | 6 Pages. ?Kierra Johnson February 24, 2015 Interview of essay a HR Manager / Specialist For my interview of a HR . manager or specialist I chose to interview someone from homeworl, a popular company who has a plant local to pick topic where I live in homeworl, Oxford, PA. I interviewed Eric Maholmes the Human resource director for pick essay Tastycake which is now Flowers Baking Company of paper beatles Oxford, Inc. I asked Eric a variety of questions from his educational background, to topic his duties as director, and what the hardest parts of his job are. Mr. Employment , Human resource management , Human resources 1015 Words | 4 Pages. THE MANAGER : OMNIPOTENT OR SYMBOLIC? How much affect does a manager inflict on an organizations outcome? There exist two . traditional views about paper beatles traducida, this question. * OMNIPOTENT VEIW OF THE MANAGER : According to topic essay this view, the manager has the ultimate power. They are held responsible for coupon 2012 the success or failures of the entire organization. * SYMBOLIC VEIW OF MANAGEMENT: As per this view, the outcomes of the organizations are basically influenced by the external factors, whereas the. Culture , Management , ManaGeR 763 Words | 4 Pages.
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Are you overqualified for. Employment , Greatest hits , Interview 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Why Do We Need Appraisal Interviews? it important to conduct appraisal interviews ? Appraisal interview is a process that involves the employee and his or . her manager sitting face to face to discuss all aspects of the employees past and pick topic future expected performance. Essayedge 2012. As many sources state appraisal interview should be on the first stage of performance appraisal process. However, in pick, my opinion, the paper interview should be conducted at pick topic essay, the last stage of the evaluation process.
Appraisal interview is dedicated to discussing the past. Better , Debate , Employment 769 Words | 3 Pages. The Career Interview must be uploaded to LiveText as a Microsoft Word Document or an Adobe PDF file. You can access LiveText via Moodle. . Career Interview is worth a possible 100 points Career Interview Students should interview a person of their choice who has earned a college degree and 2012 is in a position in which they hope to topic essay obtain after graduating from essayedge, college. If you are having a difficult time finding someone to essay interview please contact me as soon as possible via email (with your intended . Decision making , Documentary film techniques , Employment 936 Words | 4 Pages.
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article review Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the pick Assessment of Managers Moral Reasoning. James Weber (1991). Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers Moral Reasoning 293-313 Introduction This review intents to . summarize and essay evaluate the adaptions of Lawrence Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Standard Issue Scoring method by James Weber. The article Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of topic essay Managers Moral Reasoning by James Weber mentions four different adaptions of the moral judgment interview and the standard issue scoring method. These modifications have. Ethical dilemma , Ethics , Kohlberg's stages of moral development 777 Words | 3 Pages. ?Management Principles Assignment 2 Interviewing a manager The following survey includes interviewing a manger under . For An. specific management styles. I chose a friend of mine to interview as share a house together, so it was quite easy for me to interview him and plenty of time to pick topic essay ask all the question been listed in the textbook on page 291. My friend Zahid Khan is about, working as a sales manager for McDonalds Blackburn branch Melbourne.
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A set of activities planning and. Goal , Leadership , Management 334 Words | 3 Pages. Job Interview Questions and How to Answer Them Q What interests you about this job? A great way to a thesis for an prepare for this question is to essay connect . the homeworl job posting with your skills and background. The employer wants to topic essay see whether or not you have the qualifications to do the job and if you really know about the coupon 2012 job you are being interviewed for. For example, if you are being interviewed for pick topic essay an HR job and the position requires you to for an essay be responsible for recruiting, orientation and pick training, you should discuss.
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Where does that name originate? (2 marks) Answer: It is a thesis essay, inappropriate to topic ask such questions. Answer , Arrest , Crime 611 Words | 3 Pages. The top reason why people decide to leave their jobs are because of essayedge 2012 ineffective managers . Managing people can be a complex and intimidating . task, especially for the inexperienced. Keeping a workforce motivated and engaged requires careful planning, and consideration. Essay. Being an effective manager is about supporting, coaching, directing and engaging employees.
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Boss , Communication , If You Have to Ask 1660 Words | 4 Pages. ? Managers are responsible for pick topic essay ensuring that tasks are performed by people or employees in an organisation. There are three ways to understand . managers . A classic way of analysing the task of essayedge management is by examining management from the point of the essay functions performed by managers . Thesis. The second approach is to observe the roles of managers while the topic third is to coupon 2012 analyse the skills required by managers . A manager is a person whose job it is to oversee one or more employees, divisions, or volunteers to. Control , Leadership , Management 2504 Words | 5 Pages. SOC 324 Mock Interview Essay Rubric Your Name: Chanelle Walton Instructions: Read through all documents on pick topic essay, interviewing inside . Homeworl. Required Readings, plus the 30-Second Biography in pick topic, Materials on Interviewing and the Mock Interview Essay, before you complete this essay! 1. Save this rubric to your computer. Paper Beatles. Do not delete or alter any portion of the pick essay rubric in the process of responding to the questions. If you delete or otherwise alter the rubric in any way other than adding your. Answer , Documentary film techniques , Employment 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? Interview Project Report Your name: Your partners name: PART 1. IntervieweE report Name of the company: Ritz Carlton Note: . The company must be the making organization you chose for your Media Case Project.
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Communication , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 1422 Words | 5 Pages. Interview and Senior Capstone Experience. goals and work past rejection or tribulation. Pick Topic Essay. Employees that take accountability and responsibility for essayedge coupon their actions are more likely to seek . self-improvement and to address mistakes and weaknesses proactively. Pick Topic. Excuse-makers are an annoyance to managers because they commonly fail to correct mistakes and making a thesis essay are less concerned with self-development. Employers generally appreciate when, even though mistakes are made, the employee assumes the responsibility to resolve them and avoid future mistakes. I.
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Answer , Board of directors , Confidence 1311 Words | 4 Pages. The One Minute Manager One Minute Manager is a short story written by Kenneth Blanchard and topic Spencer Johnson. The story is . about a young man who is in search of an effective manager because not only did he want to work for on downsizing one but he is also wanted to become one. His search for this ideal manager took him to many places and made him interact with a lot of essay different individuals. He wasnt pleased with what he encountered and he began to notice that most of the people he interviewed would fall into. Employment , Goal , Ken Blanchard 1123 Words | 3 Pages.
Sample Question and Answer in an Interview. can either be for homeworl hardware, software, use or application of different pieces of pick topic essay equipment, from home appliances, to homeworl commercial equipment to industrial . machinery.CheersMalcolm. Helianthusdd Started The Discussion: Below 37 Technical support interview questions samples. Topic. 1. Tell me about yourself 2. What are your greatest weaknesses? 3. Why are you leaving this position? 4. Homeworl. What are your career goals for technical support? 5. What experience do you have in pick topic, technical support field? 6. What. All That You Can't Leave Behind , As You Like It , Debut albums 2483 Words | 7 Pages. Functions of Managers in a Modern Organisation. Critically asses and evaluate what functions Managers Perform in a Modern organisation and on downsizing strategy what skills they require?
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A study to investigate the role of the essayedge coupon 2012 managers in pick topic, controlling and homeworl preventing financial fraud is helpful in understanding the issues of . concern in pick, stakeholder equity. Therefore, this report seeks to help the reader understand the managerial decisions concerning stakeholder equity and in reducing fraud (Peck, Jamie and Nikolas Theodore 23). This is on downsizing, based on the perspective of the manager . Pick. The assumptions made during the study are that managers are the only employees that encounter fraud in. Business ethics , Decision making , Management 964 Words | 5 Pages. Autocratic Manager William Neely Dr. Strong Principles of Management BUSI-310-D08 Liberty University Online July 1, 2013 Discussion . Board Thread Re: Autocratic Manager Definition: Organizational Management and Leadership defines autocratic manager as one who makes a decision and then informs the group about the decision. Anita Satterlee (2013). Organizational Management and Leadership. In Classroom. Ch. Pick Topic. 1, Pg.
4. Synergistics International Inc. Summary: Olivier Mesly is a professor of marketing. Leadership , Management , ManaGeR 820 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1 Five Minds of a Manager Systems Approach to essay art education Organizational Change January 5, 2014 2 . In todays ever changing global economy, managers need to pick essay be able to deal with the about art education changes that are taking place such as technology business processes, job descriptions and skill sets. Companies are developing programs in order to keep up with the constant change.
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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and essay motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in art education, social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. In theoretical ethics, the dominant issue in recent years has been how to place limits on the scope of beneficence. In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of pick essay biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence.
The term beneficence connotes acts of paper writer beatles mercy, kindness, and charity. It is pick essay suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to homeworl, include effectively all forms of topic action intended to homeworl, benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of pick topic essay a principle or rule of thesis beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to pick essay, incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in in classroom, factories, the ultimate goal of the criticisms is usually to obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for workers.
Whereas beneficence refers to an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to pick topic, benefit others. Many acts of beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by in classroom principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to a morality of meritorious aspiration in pick topic, which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is required. Making A Thesis For An! This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to pick topic essay, high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Such ideals of action and moral excellence of character need not rise to the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by degrees.
Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky. Examples of less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of homeworl ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the extreme end of topic a continuum of beneficent conduct and commitment. This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. It is a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from paper writer, strict obligation (grounded in the core norms of beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to topic, a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. Homeworl! The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of pick topic essay supererogation such as helping a stranger who is lost find a desired location in a city. An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in the moral life, even if not a failure of obligation. About! The continuum ends with high-level acts of pick essay supererogation such as heroic acts of thesis self-sacrifice to benefit others. Essay! Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum.
However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on the continuum. A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for him at an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of heroic or saintly conduct. The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and benevolence.
Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and moral analyses. Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the central “principle” of human nature in essayedge coupon, his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the topic principle of utility is itself a strong and essayedge 2012 demanding principle of beneficence. Beneficence in these writers is close to the essence of morality. Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in moral life.
He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of topic morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to theories of strategy psychological egoism. Topic Essay! Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of human nature. Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the term “benevolence” to designate a class of virtues rooted in goodwill, generosity, and love directed at others. Coupon 2012! Hume finds benevolence in topic essay, many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of both benevolence and for an justice as social virtues, only pick topic, benevolence is a principle of human nature. Rules of justice, by making a thesis essay contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into pick topic essay, the principle of homeworl self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation. He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the topic dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the mixture of elements in essayedge, our nature.
Principally, he sees human nature in essay, the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and essay about self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and ungenerous. Essay! He maintains that these elements vary by degree from paper, person to person. Lacking distinctive information about a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and controls self-love, or the pick essay converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of unconvincing and incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by a single standard of beneficence that allows us to thesis strategy, decide objectively what is right and wrong. He declares the principle of utility, or the pick “greatest happiness” principle, to be the basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in proportion to their promotion of happiness for all beings, and wrong as they produce the reverse. This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an action or practice is about art education right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of pick topic essay beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for homeworl Mill).
Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and pick essay right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes. The principle of utility is presented by Mill as an absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the one and only supreme principle of ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of essay about art education morality is welfare-oriented at its core because moral rightness is essay determined by goodness, which is on downsizing strategy itself to be understood in topic, terms of the welfare of individuals. It is writer traducida a consequentialist theory because the topic essay moral rightness and obligatoriness of actions are established by essayedge their beneficial results. It is an pick topic aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the effects of different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over all persons affected. Thesis Strategy! Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory.
Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in the moral life for beneficence. He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of topic duty, and a thesis for an beneficence is one such principle. A motive of essay benevolence based on sentimentso admired by Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the motive behind benevolent action is a motive of duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to others according to essayedge, one's means, and without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby.
Benevolence done from friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Nonetheless, the limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in Kant. Pick Topic Essay! While we are obligated to some extent to sacrifice some part of our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on how far this duty extends. We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an paper writer beatles unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to specify the pick limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by thesis obligations of beneficence. Topic Essay! Some ethical theories insist not only paper beatles, that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Some formulations of utilitarianism, for pick example, appear to derive obligations to give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of our income, to devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is essay about art education likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at least abstractly, by a number of moral philosophersarguably even on Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence.
We have only duties deriving from specific roles and assignments of duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. These philosophers hold that beneficent action is virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and pick essay thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals. Of Technology In Classroom! The only obligations in the moral life, apart from duties encountered in professional roles and other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. Essay! In Gert's theory, the general goal of homeworl morality is to minimize the causation of evil or harm, not to promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to all persons with the aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for all persons at pick topic, all times.
Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of thesis beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and pick essay other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the actions one is obligated to perform within the roles are merely moral ideals for any person not in the specific role. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at obligations of nonmaleficence. Strategy! That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to them. Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of life,” and the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in essay, the theory of obligation. However, the mainstream of moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two.
This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of making beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and pick essay rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and paper beatles traducida that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. By contrast, rules of beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to pick essay, abide by homeworl the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of beneficence that we are obligated to pick, follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.
Significant controversies have arisen in 2012, both law and moral philosophy about how to formulate and defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to topic essay, argue that a person P has an a thesis for an obligation of beneficence to help another whenever the other is at risk of pick topic significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the loss or damage; and P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to incur. 4. The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and far-reaching principles of obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to prevent something bad or evil from thesis, happening if it is in their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of topic comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and poverty, for example, we ought to donate time and resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by homeworl giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to pick essay, invest heavily in rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at the level of local communities and of technology in classroom political states.
This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the demand is topic essay placed not only on individuals with disposable incomes, but on of technology in classroom, all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. Topic! All of these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to determine expenditures, and one is to give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished. Singer has not regarded such conduct as an enormous moral sacrifice, but only coupon 2012, as the discharge of a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and pick essay a significant departure from the demands of ordinary morality. A Thesis! This assessment has generated a number of criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Pick Topic Essay! Critics continue today to argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and plans in making for an, order to benefit the poor and underprivileged exceeds the essay limits of essay of technology ordinary moral obligations and have no plausible grounding in moral theory. They argue that the line between the obligatory and the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of real moral obligation.
Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. Pick Essay! He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to draw the essay of technology in classroom correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces. Later in pick topic essay, his series of strategy publications on pick, the subject Singer attempted to paper writer traducida, take account of objections that his principle sets an unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of topic essay beneficence. Thesis! He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the minimum that we ought to do to conform to obligations of beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to pick topic, analyze and evaluate the commitments of a principle of beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on agents' life plans and homeworl make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to essay, a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and practical limits of donation and sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence.
It only follows that establishing the writer beatles traducida moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to essay, fix the limits of individual beneficence to making a thesis essay, meet global problems of pick topic essay need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in homeworl, which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome. An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to give their fair share. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is intuitively attractive, but it may not have the topic essay necessary moral punch to address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and levels.
If, as is to be expected in virtually all situations of global poverty, others fail to of technology in classroom, comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is pick topic essay set only by essay the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to topic essay, say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the less likely are people to comply with its demands. Also, at an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beatles traducida beneficence should not increase to pick topic essay, fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on on downsizing strategy, Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the essay Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of emphasis emerged in his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Making A Thesis! Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision.
Singer responds to critics such as Murphy by conceding that perhaps the limit of what we should publicly advocate as a level of pick topic giving is no more than a person's fair share of what is on downsizing strategy needed to relieve poverty and the like. Unless we draw the line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. A fair share is a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic. The emphasis on motivation is presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and limits of pick essay beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on our obligations than exists in essay of technology, ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the limits of beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of beneficence. 5. Topic! Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of justifiable social control over the individual. He argues that the measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior.
Various principles commonly assumed to be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the view that only one principle validly limits liberty. Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by essay art education that person. Mill and pick topic Feinberg agreed that the principle of paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to essay about, benefit another person when the other does not prefer to receive the benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. Essay! The analogy with the essay about art education father presupposes two features of the topic paternal role: that the father acts beneficently (that is, in accordance with the interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to make those decisions. Coupon! On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the topic intentional overriding of one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the person who overrides justifies the action by the goal of substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of essayedge coupon 2012 beneficence.
Philosophers divide sharply over topic whether some restricted form of making a thesis paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of paternalistic actions places benefits on topic essay, a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and the benefits for that person decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and that person's interests in about, autonomy decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible. Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over the justification of paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at least the pick topic essay following conditions are satisfied: A person is at essay of technology in classroom, risk of a significant and preventable harm or loss of a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of preventing the harm or obtaining the essay benefit. The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts. Often health policies have the goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in essayedge, which most affected parties are not consulted.
Some percentage of the population will not support the policy, for topic essay example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is intended to benefit all members of paper beatles traducida a population without consulting the preferences of pick essay individuals affectedall the for an while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in pick essay, fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Strategy! Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control. In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in topic, light of other standards the person is regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an about art education informed and competent person chooses to do is generally the pick topic essay best evidence we have of his or her values. For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the religion, his departures from dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of art education his true values on pick, the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Because it seems correctshort of essay of technology in classroom counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of pick topic essay a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is misguided in any given case. 6. Beneficence in essay in classroom, Biomedical Ethics.
Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to prevent or reduce harm and to topic essay, produce a positive balance of goods over 2012 inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the nature and goals of pick medicine as a social practice. If the end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking. If so, beneficence grounds and determines the professional obligations and virtues of the physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to the end of healing and not to any other form of essay benefit. The category of essay medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and homeworl maintenance of health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.
This thesis is controversial. Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. Pick Topic! If beneficence is a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to paper beatles traducida, the single benefit of pick healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in dying by hastening death, and the like. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of essay benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is this activity a beneficent component of the pick essay practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in some split decisions of the U. S. Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to a thesis for an essay, the medical-ethics notion of the pick topic proper ends of essayedge coupon 2012 medicine. The court notes that there is reasonable disagreement in the community of pick topic essay physicians regarding the on downsizing appropriate process for determining the boundaries of medical practice and that there is disagreement about the extent to which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree.
This court opinion allows that, depending on state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to help bring about the death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and competently requested this assistance from the pick physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from 2012, that of the essay patient, but the health professional's understandings of benefits also often depend on the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and essay when each view is pick reasonable it is essayedge 2012 morally unacceptable to maintain that the notions of medical benefit and harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by pick request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of this problem. Homeworl! Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide.
These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. This consensus began to topic, be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to on downsizing, the formation of this consensus. Topic Essay! A clear part of the consensus is that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is hastened in this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent. However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the purported distinction between killing and letting die, the issue presses the question of a thesis for an what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and when a harm? Is the answer to this question determined by topic essay the method used to about art education, bring about death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and essay Public Policy.
A number of controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of social beneficence were given more strength in policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an coupon instructive example. Established legal and policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. Pick Essay! A near absolute right of essay art education autonomy to decide about the disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and tissues and the inefficiency of the system have prompted a spate of proposals for topic reform of the current system of procurement, with the essay goal of creating more space for social beneficence.
One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the routine retrieval of pick topic organs and essay about art education tissues. In this system of procurement, a community is permitted to, and pick encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the state. The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the a thesis for an essay deceased is unjustified on traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. However, advocates of the topic essay policy of routine retrieval argue that members of making a thesis for an essay a community have an pick obligation to provide other persons with objects of essay lifesaving value when no cost to themselves is required. That is, the justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy.
The debate will continue for pick many years about essayedge whether beneficence or respect for autonomy should prevail in public policy governing organ retrieval. Advocates of the current system argue that individual and essay family rights of consent should retain dominance. Advocates of routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in coupon, conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured. Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in pick topic, need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice.
Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. However, at the hands of many writers, social justice is notably similar to social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is how to structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of health and access to about, health care. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in pick essay, discussions of these problems in 2012, biomedical ethics. Pick Topic! Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the good of all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of making the making unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal. His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and pick topic essay biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and essayedge coupon Madison Powers and topic Ruth Faden. One of Daniels' main questions is “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of thesis strategy “reasonable limits to resources” is closely tied to the problems of the limits of beneficence mentioned previously.
Daniels argues that because health is affected by pick essay many social factors, theories of justice should not center entirely on access to health care, but also on writer beatles, the need to reduce health inequalities by improving social conditions that affect the topic health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the essayedge well-being of the worst-off members of global society as the proper starting point for a practical theory of pick justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an art education argument from social beneficence. Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of global poverty and its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to the theories of Singer and Powers and Faden. The consequences of essay extreme poverty for of technology health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and essay justice. Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the making a thesis essay theory. They demand that persons have access to basic goods of housing, food, and health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice and beneficence. This type of theory focuses on distributions intended to topic essay, enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by social institutions, The idea is to start with an understanding of health and individual well-being and then to connect that account to basic capabilities for achieving levels of functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for essay about example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and essay adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to homeworl, bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.
Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is pick concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of beatles well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination. Pick Topic! Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. Paper Writer Traducida! While this list of six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the target of a theory of justice. Theirs is a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and being respected are desirable states of pick topic essay being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to be well-nourished, but to essayedge coupon 2012, be well-nourished. Justice is concerned with the achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the justice of societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in their political structures and social practices.
The job of justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to alleviate the social structures that cause the corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in moral theory and pick topic essay social policy could also be expressed in terms of the role of social beneficence. Business ethics is a second area of applied ethics in which questions about beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of paper writer beatles traducida benevolence that has influenced a number of essay writers in business ethics. Smith argued that the wealth of about art education nations and pick topic the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon social cooperationfundamentally, political and essayedge coupon economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on the benevolence of moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to expect benevolence in market societies.
In commercial transactions the only successful strategy in motivating persons is to topic, appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only a regard to their own interest. Making For An Essay! Market societies operate not by pick topic essay concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in coupon, business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the role of the corporation in society and pick the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is paper not disputed that the purpose of pick topic essay a for-profit corporation is to writer beatles, make a profit for pick topic essay stockholders, but there is an paper traducida intense debate about whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.
This question is normative, but there is also the question of moral psychology raised by pick topic Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of making a thesis for an essay business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An example is topic essay found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to essayedge 2012, remedy the root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress.
The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and topic the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. These programs, by design, make life better for various members of the community who have suffered misfortune. They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of benefits. It has been questioned, however, whether programs of even this description are instances of pure benevolence. In the making for an precedent U. S. Topic Essay! case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Art Education! Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by the A. P. Pick Topic Essay! Smith Co. On Downsizing Strategy! was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers.
However, the judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an act taken in the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by corporations are nothing more than clever ways to maximize profits, then these actions seem to satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is topic essay whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in the affirmative. In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to making a thesis essay, benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Essay! Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders. About! Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and other stockholders.
Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to contribute to pick essay, social awareness and public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and Johnson is in classroom responsible to the communities in which it thrives, and indeed to topic essay, the world community. Beatles! The company asserts an obligation to be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of civic progress, the bettering of public health, and the improvement of pick essay education. Johnson and Johnson and strategy many other companies assert that they have obligations to these ends, but to many writers in pick topic essay, business ethics this claim of obligations is homeworl either misguided or overstated. Essay! They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is often found in the practices of business and in government regulation of business. Writer Beatles Traducida! For example, many businesses require employees to essay, deduct money from their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pay for a life insurance policy.
If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Art Education! Paternalism is pick here assumed to be an appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. Essay Of Technology! If an employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for pick essay paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in on downsizing strategy, video stores. Customers may wish to purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Pick Essay! Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is a general principle governing sales: A buyer is responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the purchase or not make it.
Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive. For example, the control and inspection of homeworl pharmaceutical products and controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by appeal to paternalism. Many believe that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is pick topic fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to know their products and to tell the truth about them. Essay! An enduring question in business ethics is whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to water his grove of evergreens. He loves the sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and cypress. Should a salesperson insist on pick topic essay, selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to homeworl, the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice?
Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of pick topic essay Beneficence?” in The Ethics of on downsizing Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of topic essay Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. In Classroom! 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628.
Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of pick topic essay Management Review , 20: 6591. A Thesis For An! Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the pick Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Essay In Classroom! Freeman, R. Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press. Pick Essay! Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of essay in classroom Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. M. Pick! Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for essay about Research with Human Subjects , pp. 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of Social Philosophy , 35: 304317.
Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969. Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and topic essay David Thomasma, 1988, For the essay art education Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Essay! Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed. London: John Wiley Sons.
Pogge, Thomas W. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to essayedge 2012, the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and essay Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Paper Beatles Traducida! Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 12447.
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Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and pick, loss projections, and financial statements. You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step. Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the paper writer One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from essay your business overview to homeworl, finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more.
Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from pick essay a variety of vendors for free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and thesis on downsizing, online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. Essay! When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of thesis on downsizing strategy, Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for pick essay the 700th time.
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Writing essays: Choosing an essay topic - Solent Online Learning
dissertations in ict I have collected a list of relevant Thesis (and possibly Doctoral dissertation) topics and titles for Masters Students in ICT field of study. Pick. These Thesis topics come from varieties of sources including my own experience during preparation of Thesis and making Special Study. Feel free to topic essay, add or comment your thesis or dissertation topics in ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) Field of Study. This article shall be updated with newer list of thesis, thesis topics for pick, Masters and Doctoral degrees in 2012, ICT as soon as I come across your suggestions and new happenings in the field. Cognitive Radios Cooperative Relay Networks performance evaluation Disaster Warning Post-disaster Communications (this is really a vast topic) Applications of ICT in Sustainable Development (find any specific topic to work on) Ad-hoc network based Social Network and iMANET P2P Systems Social Networks, Internet of Things ( Social Networks on contribution after thesis) Wireless Mesh/Sensor Network energy harvesting, security, mobility, self-configuration (be precise on ay specific topic under WSN) 3D Internet and VirtualWorlds (Green ITS) OpenEnergySim: an open source platform for exploringGreen ITS (Intelligent Transport System) and eco-driving in the Unity3D virtual world (immersive drivingwith game wheel, traffic simulation, CO2 emission simulation, collaborative evaluation framework of ITS measures, modeling driver behavior, etc) http://www.prendingerlab.net/globallab Protocol design in pick essay, Resource management and QoS control in wireless networks Networks of the Future and paper beatles traducida Cloud. Advisor prof. Djamal Zeghlache . Web 2.0 as leverage force to automate enterprise tacit interactions. Advisor prof. Walid Gaaloul/Bruno Defude . SOA and Web 2.0 have coexisted as integration paradigms on pick, the Web for some years now.
SOA is typically applied in business contexts, while Web 2.0 is an informal approach for essayedge coupon, ad hoc integration. The two approaches reflect the topic essay, IT/people duality: while people require well presented knowledge and implicitly coordinate their cooperation through data/knowledge communication, machines deal rather with structured data and essayedge coupon explicitly coordinate their interactions. This PhD proposal tries to reconcile these conflicting requirements by combining the complementary strengths of SOA (processing automation) and pick topic Web 2.0 (user centric practicality) in order to enable end users to cooperate and manage domain specific processes on the Web. Homeworl. Having a process driven approach and topic an enterprise centric context, we aim to deal with methods and tools for supporting organization tasks achievement. Semantic Workflow Mining. Advisor prof. Walid Gaaloul/Bruno Defude . The term mining means different things to different people.
In the IT field, database was among the first discipline to embrace this term through data mining. After a while, businesses felt that mining data is not enough for of technology, discovering the good and bad practices in how they do things in terms of executed processes, arisen exceptions, and deployed solutions. As a result, process-mining discipline came into play with new hopes for businesses. Nowadays different approaches and topic essay techniques promote the use of process mining so that decision makers are in a better position to know who did what, when was it done, how did it end-up, and where did it happen. Logs that keep track of all executed activities are the essayedge coupon 2012, primary source of process mining. These activities are usually part of workflows upon which different applications like Customer Relationship Management. (CRM) and pick topic essay Enterprise Resource Planning. (ERP) are being built.
A workflow can be abstracted through three complementary and interacting models: organizational, informational, and process. The first model identifies the actors of thesis strategy, a workflow and the activities these actors can carry out. The second model structures the documents and data that a workflows processes manage. Finally the process model defines and coordinates the activities that form processes. Despite the value-add of pick topic essay, logs to workflow mining with focus on process discovery, several studies have proven the limitations of these logs when time comes to identify a workflows informational and organizational models. Both models are critical as they permit to detect what is 2012, going on pick, in a business in terms of organizational structure and information flow. To address logs limitations, one step consists of enriching logs with semantical details that will be drawn from the coupon, interactions that take place during workflow performance.
The semantic enrichment of logs should help identify the organizational and informational models of a workflow. Pick. On the one hand, the organizational model would show the types of for an, relationships (e.g. delegation, cooperation, conflict) that govern the interactions between actors in an organization or between actors from different organizations (such as hierarchy, coalition, market, sub-contracting, etc.). These relations could be static, dynamic, temporary, spontaneous, etc. On the other hand, the pick topic essay, informational model would show the thesis strategy, different data flows that interactions carry whether these flows were official or unofficial. Using of agent technology we aim at providing a new view on workflow mining. This technology handles and pick topic provides representation for organizational concepts, such as groups, roles, commitments, an also organizational structures, -such as federation, hierarchy or market-, inherited from paper, Organizational Theory.
All these concepts are useful to structure, rule or at least understand at a macro level the coordination patterns of the different partners involved in a workflow or an pick essay Inter-Organizational Workflow (IOW). PhD Research Topics CSIRO ICT Centre, Canberra: 1. Real-Time Stream Processing using GPUs. Over the last decade, data analysis has become central to important scientific discoveries. In almost every field of science ranging from astronomy to marine biology, colossal amounts of data are being generated in homeworl, very short periods of time. Modern computing resources are capable of efficiently collecting and storing vast data streams. Pick Topic. However, the scalable and distributed analysis of such large data sets in real time poses compelling research challenges. In addition, application service providers performing real time analysis of streaming data attempt to abolish the existence of erroneous data that cause uncertainty and erroneous judgments. Specifically, there exists a distinct requirement for intermediaries that easily map exhaustive computations on essay of technology in classroom, large data sets to heterogeneous and topic essay distributed computing resources by ensuring data quality and reducing errors to deliver better quality of service. As a consequence, there is an increasing need for innovative software solutions, new hardware architecture and methodologies that harvest emerging distributed computing resources in an efficient manner.
This PhD project will develop a novel set of architecture, algorithms and tools to perform real-time data stream processing, using a variant of MapReduce Programming model, running on GPUs. 2. A Thesis For An Essay. High-Throughput/High-Content Analysis in Bio-Science Applications. The Transformational Biology Platform within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia is supporting activities that aim to accelerate the topic, analysis of biological specimens. One application in view is to automatically identify protein crystals from a time series of 2D images of slowly evaporating solutions. According to the current operational flow, once images are acquired from physical specimen, downstream processing is performed for feature extraction and further analysis such as classification, clustering and ranking are performed. 2012. While the processing phase in the operational pipeline is readily parallelizable, care and planning need to be taken to realize the potential for computational speedup.
This PhD project will create approaches for efficient image data management and parallelize execution (in the form of workflows) that can be used in the development of bioscience image analysis pipelines. Two potential computational biology applications for this project are: i) high-throughput assessment of protein crystallization experiments and ii) pollen image analysis. A specific class of pick topic essay, wireless sensor networks is Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) that represent an making a thesis for an essay emerging platform for many human-centered applications, spanning from medical to gaming and social networking. This area is particularly dense of interest because foreseen real-world applications of BSNs aim to improve the quality of life by enabling continuous and real-time non-invasive medical assistance at low cost. Topic Essay. In a common health care scenario, assisted livings are monitored by BSNs able to about, gather data streams to be not only processed in real-time but also stored in remote medical data repositories. This implies a huge amount of data to topic, be transmitted, stored and analyzed. In such contexts, management of a large number of isolated BSNs as well as cooperative BSNs to support applications for e-Health, e-Society, etc will be an important issue to a thesis for an, deal with.
Moreover, both on-line and pick off-line analysis of data coming from such networks should be supported by efficient infrastructures for processing and storing data such as Clouds. This PhD project will conduct design, architecture development, analysis and art education development of topic, applications for the management of processes and data in about art education, large-scale systems based on wearable sensors, optimization of essay, sensor data streaming, and use of making a thesis essay, innovative Cloud-oriented paradigms. This work will be conducted in collaboration with Prof. Pick. Giancarlo Fortino from University of Calabria, Italy. 4. Writer Beatles Traducida. Dynamic and Scalable Replication for pick, Content Delivery Networks. Todays Internet content providers primarily use Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) to deliver content to end-users with the aim to enhance their Web access experience . Essayedge Coupon 2012. CDNs typically host third-party content including static content, streaming media, user-generated videos, and topic varying content services. With the rapid growth of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) techniques and the improvement of thesis strategy, digital content production and retrieval tools, the CDN industry, i.e. content delivery, consumption and monetization, has been undergoing rapid changes. The multi-dimensional surge in content delivery from end-users has led to an explosion of dynamic (and uncachable) content, such as such as user-generated clips, VoD libraries, and IPTV services; new content formats as well as an exponential increase in the size and complexity of the digital content supply chain. The effectiveness of existing caching mechanisms is reduced due to this dynamic content, high frequency of pick essay, content refresh, and.
the presence of personal user information. It is further complicated by the convergence of Web 2.0 with user mobility that disrupts access locality due to user migration among edge nodes. Hence, innovative solutions integrating replication and caching are required for the management and delivery of the dynamic and personalized content. This PhD project will develop a novel suite of essayedge coupon, architecture, algorithms and practical tools to allow dynamic, scalable and essay efficient content replication and delivery mechanisms in CDNs. 5. Of Technology In Classroom. Manipulating the pick topic, Linked Open Data cloud. Linked Data technologies have rapidly gained momentum in homeworl, the last years as the primary means for publishing data on essay, the Web.
The uptake of Linked Data technologies has lead to the extension of the paper, Web with a public Linked Data space containing more than 6.7 billion pieces of information, making it by far the largest source of multi-domain, real-world data currently in existence. This data space is increasingly being used for topic, both research efforts and making a thesis essay real-world applications. As a result of pick essay, its explosive growth, several problems have emerged within the Linked Data space, including the lack of well documented tools for essay, publishing, editing and consuming the data. Currently, when publishing Linked Data one needs to first define a webpage in HTML and then uses RDF to annotate the data with semantic concepts. If RDF is used to present data, one needs to find a way to bind the data to the presentation. This Phd project will extend an RDF based User Interface language that in a similar fashion to XForms separates the pick essay, purpose (data publishing) of writer beatles traducida, a Web application from its presentation. The student will investigate how this language can be used in pick essay, combination with business process moedlling languages to develop user interfaces that can manipulate data in the linked open data cloud. Essay. The end user of these user interface should be unaware of the semantic Web language underlying this approach.
6. Distributed BPEL processes in the cloud. The Business Process Execution Language or WS-BPEL4WS is the standard process model for process execution in the Business process modelling space. As more and more businesses deploy parts of their business processes in the cloud, traditional execution models of pick topic essay, BPEL processes need to be changed. Instances of the same process might run on different machines in the cloud and even the location where the data resides for a given process instance might be unknown to the execution engine at run time. In this PhD project the student will investigate which parts of the BPEL model and essayedge its execution are affected when a process is deployed on multiple machines in the cloud and pick topic essay how to mitigate the issues by introducing language constructs and an execution modelled suited for distributed Cloud processes. 7. Social Network for services. Human powered (aka crowd-sourcing) systems gave promising solutions to problems that were unsolved for years. Crowd sourcing is used in social networks that contain large datasets about essayedge coupon peoples skills and pick topic essay work experience to match them with companies who are looking for a specific set of skills and expertise.
Employers can directly address prospective candidates via the community (a crowd), through an open call. Crowd-sourcing leverages mass collaboration enabled by Web 2.0 technologies. An example of such a social network for experts is LinkedIn, which contains an immense knowledge base created by homeworl, its users. However, for job providers it is not trivial to find the one expert that has the skills and expertise required and is also available. The goal of this PhD project is to radically leverage, and improve the utility of future Internet services by merging context-aware technologies, semantic analysis and advanced data modeling for the needs of workers, professionals and pick topic businesses. In contrast to LinkedIn, the project aims at pursuing a federated and decentralized social networking ecosystem provided that can be shared by professionals and companies. The project will push the state of the art in information and expertise management in social network by introducing a new social network paradigm that builds a Semantic Web-enabled expertise-enabled social networking infrastructure on top of a decentralized and federated Social Web architecture. That way, professional capabilities and homeworl profile information will be modeled using Semantic Web technologies and topic essay Linked Data principles, enabling interoperability with other professional applications inside and outside the enterprise. Instead of the existing friend and acquaintance model, the project aims to provide expertise-centered social networks. In particular, the social network layer proposed will be suitable for: federated deployment, across existing silos, and effective social information processing and essay discovery, both by professionals or end users.
Some of these activities and research programs are identified in the ICT-LEIT part of the work programme of Horizon 2020: The EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. Detail information on pick topic essay, ICT Masters, Doctoral and Independent research available on http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/wp/2014_2015/main/h2020-wp1415-leit-ict_en.pdf. A new generation of components and systems Advanced Computing Future Internet Content technologies and information management Robotics Micro- and nano-electronic technologies, Photonics. ICT 1 2014: Smart Cyber-Physical Systems. S pecific Challenge : Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) refer to next generation embedded ICT systems that are interconnected and collaborating including through the Internet of things, and providing citizens and businesses with a wide range of innovative applications and essay of technology services. These are the ICT systems increasingly embedded in all types of artefacts making smarter, more intelligent, more energy-efficient and topic essay more comfortable our transport systems, cars, factories, hospitals, offices, homes, cities and personal devices. On Downsizing Strategy. Focus is on both reinforcing European industrial strengths as well as exploring new markets. Often endowed with control, monitoring and data gathering functions, CPS need to comply with essential requirements like safety, privacy, security and near-zero power consumption as well as size, usability and adaptability constraints. To maximise impact and return on essay, investment in this field, the following challenges must be addressed:
De-verticalising technology solutions with CPS platforms that cut across the barriers between application sectors including mass consumer markets. Bringing together actors along the value chain from suppliers of components and customised computing systems to system integrators and strategy end users. Creating new ICT Platforms for both vertical and core markets from automotive, health , smart buildings and pick energy to wireless communications and homeworl digital consumer products and pick topic essay services. ICT 2 2014: Smart System Integration. S pecific Challenge : The aims are to thesis strategy, develop the next generations2 of smart systems technologies and solutions, based on systemic miniaturisation and integration, of heterogeneous technologies, functions and materials, and to establish European competitive ecosystems for the design, RD, prototyping and testing, manufacturing and industrialisation of smaller, smarter (predictive, reactive and cognitive) and energy autonomous Smart Systems.
These ecosystems will provide services for cost efficient access to European manufacturing capabilities and pick expertise, including training, design and pilot line production and testing, in particular for new users of Smart Systems. This specific challenge contributes to the strategy of a thesis for an essay, micro and nano electronics KET in pick essay, the area of More than Moore and complements the activities of homeworl, topic ICT25. S c ope : The focus is on: a. Research Innovation Actions for one or both of the following: To advance the state of the art of heterogeneous integration of micro and nanotechnologies (nanoelectronics, micro- electro-mechanic, magnetic, photonic, micro-fluidic, electrochemical, acoustic, bio/chemical principles and pick topic essay microwave technologies) into smart systems. Work will be driven by industrial requirements and specifically target multi- disciplinary RD in the following areas: Miniaturised systems based on high density 3-dimensional heterogeneous integration.
Autonomous deployable smart systems that include efficient energy management (Zero Power technologies) and coupon energy harvesting from their operating environment, Advanced Smart systems with multi-functional properties, including sensing, storing, processing, actuation and ultra-wideband communication. Actions may address performance, design and testing, but the pick topic, focus will be on the integration into systems, including manufacturability and packaging. A Predictive modeling by multilevel networks of wearable sensors and cell phone data Data distillation from Social Big Data stream Advanced SMT Techniques for Word-level Formal Verification (WOLF) Remote sensing techniques for digital Earth applications. You might be interested in ICT Doctoral (PhD) Research Topics from UniMore at http://www.ict.unimore.it/index.php/for-students/research-topics. Finding (useful) research on ICT use in education in developing countries.
ICT Topics for coupon 2012, Research and Thesis. With times changing constantly with the advancements in ICT and others, Im going to summarize few wider domain that could be of interest to you: E-Health Technology and essay Applications Identity and Access Management Advanced Network Technology, Security and Management (IPv4 and IPv6) Internet Backbone and making a thesis for an essay Optical Technology Futuristic and Green Network High Performance Computing Technology and Applications Grid and Cloud Infrastructure, Technology and Applications Big Data Technology and Applications E-Culture and Cyber Networked Performance Disaster Mitigation Climate Service Applications Social science with Internet Agriculture with network.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in topic between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on essayedge coupon 2012 their own pages. Essay. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on strategy p. Topic Essay. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Coupon. Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the pick following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is of technology in classroom a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. Essay. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the thesis on downsizing strategy actual running head does.
If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write.
A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for pick topic essay, your study and essay why you conducted it. Pick Topic. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. A Thesis For An. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read.
Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the pick topic essay only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of on downsizing your topic area. Although you won’t go into essay the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by essay of technology in classroom stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.
Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of topic essay “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in homeworl 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and topic think about how you want to transition between ideas. When an idea is essay complex, don’t be afraid to pick use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of coupon 2012 everything that’s been presented, so that the pick topic essay reader has the sense of, “Of course. Homeworl. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to pick topic essay summarize briefly key articles, though, and homeworl point out pick, differences in homeworl methods or findings of topic essay relevant studies when necessary.
Don’t make one mistake typical of making a thesis for an a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual). Make sure there is pick topic a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in 2012 your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to pick topic essay provide them with the complete information necessary for about art education, them to understand the topic research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of about art education your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly.
The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the pick procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the a thesis Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Pick. Remember to paper beatles traducida write numbers out when they begin a sentence.
How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for pick topic, their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych. 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth.
It is making for an unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. Pick Topic. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to paper traducida 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for pick topic, your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in thesis on downsizing detail here. Use subheadings to pick separate different types of for an essay stimuli if needed. If you are only pick topic essay, describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold)
Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the essayedge coupon eyetracking machine) and essay need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and thesis on downsizing strategy concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.
Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to topic break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the essayedge coupon 2012 exact p values. Essay. For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the essay art education finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Topic. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of about APA manual).
However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the presentation of pick topic all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the for an nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the pick topic essay same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to essay in classroom represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of topic findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Essay About. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures.
For instance, if you present a table of pick means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and about art education standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the topic trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the about art education literature in the area. A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general (funnel out) . Pick Topic Essay. Some points to thesis on downsizing consider:
Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into pick topic essay the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?
Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). Strategy. If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to pick topic essay explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. On Downsizing. What are the limitations of the study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic?
What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on pick a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into homeworl what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of topic essay human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement.
Don’t just trail off with an of technology, idea for topic, a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to strategy the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by last name of first author). Topic Essay. Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and strategy is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). Pick Topic. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Making A Thesis For An. Examples of topic essay references to 2012 journal articles start on p. 198 of the topic manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202.
Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is art education capitalized; the pick journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Trull, T. Essay Art Education. J. Topic. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the of technology in classroom chapter title and book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985).
Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of essay social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. Essayedge. See the APA manual.
Be sure to pick essay provide a table number and homeworl table title (the latter is pick topic essay italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as.
a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and coupon should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to topic include the page number.
For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the writer traducida source is cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in pick topic another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of essay of technology in classroom Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Pick Topic. Try to a thesis essay avoid using secondary sources in your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and pick topic essay read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the coupon cause of pick most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of paper writer your paper.
Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .