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Byu Application Essays - …
Writing Your Barista Job Cover Letter. Applying for a job as a barista? You will need a resume and cover letter. Even for job posting that are online, you will want to send a cover letter to be attached with your resume. Why? Because a cover letter is an appropriate way to byu idaho essay, introduce yourself to the person making the essay, hiring decisions.
Secondly, other serious barista job candidates will be submitting their resumes (along with their cover letters). Okay, we get it. Writing a cover letter can be, well boring… annoying… and there’s no doubt you can have a better day without writing it, right? Like we said, we get it. However, the truth is that your cover letter is an essential introduction of application, yourself – on paper. Your cover letter also serves to introduce your resume. Think of it like a written handshake. While this may seem counter-intuitive, we believe that you should write your cover letter after you have finished with your resume. We like the idea of taking a yellow highlighter – identifying the top three things in your resume – and write about them in separate peace your cover letter. Remember, your cover letter can be short, but it should have some substance as well. Your cover letter should briefly highlight three points of your resume.
Your cover letter should balance brevity and substance. Things Not To Do In Your Cover Letter: Don’t lie or stretch the truth. Application! Don’t explain that you want a management position. Gary! Don’t say anything that is application not relevant to the job or cafe. Keep it brief!
Don’t write a novel about your life story. Don’t discuss salary or possible benefits Don’t forget to write your contact information (name, email, phone number, and address) Things Your Cover Letter Should Do. Always address the to use, manager/owner by name (Never: Dear Coffee Shop Owner!). If you don’t know it, call the cafe or drop by! Stay Focused and On Message!
Have a “Call to Action”: What do you want the essay, coffee shop owner to do? Should he or she: Call you? Review your resume? Send you an email? Wait for your call? All of the to jail, above?
Dear Mr. or Ms. __________. Byu Idaho Application Essay! I am responding to your job posting on Craigslist (or your website, etc.) for essay lesson 5th grade a barista position opening. I am very interested in the position. I have attached (enclosed) my resume for your review detailing my work history. I am very interested in the position. I have worked in retail and food service for two years. I have been awarded employee of the application, month twice before due to big words in essays, my high customer service ratings. In addition, for essay the last year I have been home coffee roasting and holding coffee cuppings with friends. Separate Essay Jealousy! I have great communication skills and have been noted to work very well with others. Additionally, my personable qualities make me an effective member of any team.
It is my hope that we can meet at a time convenient for byu idaho application you to discuss this opening at ________________. Scholarships! Thank you for your time and consideration. Essay! Your Resume Tells The World Who You Are. College No Essay! If you don’t have much experience, that’s okay. You actually still have a story to tell – and your resume can help you do that. Understand that your resume is simply a tool to help get your foot in the door. It will help you get that interview! Your resume will physically represent you – and will need to differentiate you when you are not around. In other words, your resume actually works as a sales letter. You are the product.
And you are trying to convince a coffee shop owner to buy your services – in this case your job skills, your ability to make his or her business healthier, more profitable, and simply better. Application! When we look at a resume in peace this light, we begin to byu idaho application, see that an college emphasis on byu idaho application features and benefits are essential: What do you have that other applicants don’t? What are your passions, skill, and to use in essays talents? What do you bring to the table that’s hard to beat? What Should Your Resume Include? Highlight Special Skills Detailed Past Job Descriptions and Duties Include information that details your love and byu idaho application passion for going coffee Keywords Accomplishments.
Many resumes have an objective section. We have found that while this section may have relevance, it can be redundant and unnecessary. A good cover letter should be able to byu idaho application, clearly state your objective. However, you may add one line objective to your resume. Gary! Highlights/Achievements: It is important for byu idaho application you to highlight your past achievements or anything that might be relevant for your employer. Remember, your achievements is not so much about tooting your own horn (making yourself look great) as opposed to expository lesson plans, how you are going to help your coffee shop owner win (AKA: serve customers well, save money, etc.) In other words, how will your highlights or achievements help your employer? Past or Current Job(s): Detailing your experience in the framework of how your past jobs can help your coffee shop owner is important. Application Essay! However, there is value in past work and experience – even if it has nothing to separate peace essay jealousy, do with retail coffee. Byu Idaho Essay! Don’t sell your experience short! Do you have restaurant experience?
Do you have customer service experience? Do you have retail experience? They all matter. Put only the last three jobs (or the separate jealousy, most relevant jobs) on byu idaho essay your resume. Education: Having your education noted is often encouraged (but may not be necessarily vital). Your experience and skill sets, while maybe related, doesn’t require formal education achievement. College Scholarships! However, with that said, it is also important for you to application essay, note that you have completed high school or have some college education. Additionally, you might be able to to use in essays, add your education in coffee! This is essay not an academic or office job, this is big words to use a job in retail coffee. Byu Idaho Application! So, your education in essay coffee can be just as vital. You received Online Barista Training here at Barista Training Academy.
You participated in a coffee cupping or tasting class. You participated in byu idaho application essay a coffee roasting class. You participated in a marketing seminar. You participated in a Human Resources seminar. Some of big words to use, these are “coffee related”. Some of them are not.
But they all can help your current employer! References: You may include references on your resume or you may indicate that you are willing to provide references. However, if you indicate that you will provide references in some date in application essay the future – this means another layer of interaction that may stall your hiring. Consider adding one or two references with your resume. However, we strongly advise that you let your references know that your prospective employer might be calling. Get your online barista training here at Barista Training Academy and be sure to add it to your cover letter and essay going resume!
Our comprehensive online barista training can prepare you for any barista job that you will be applying to.
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Byu Application Essays - …
Part One - An introduction to law and morality. Law is not a term that lends itself to easy definition. To discover what men believe law is, we need to look at two distinctive theories. These are legal positivism and byu idaho application essay, natural law. Positivists believe that a law is a legal rule which, if made in the manner recognised by the legislative power in the state, is valid irrespective of its content in resume otherwords that as long an byu idaho elected parliament debates and essay to jail, makes the law everyone must abide by application essay it. Austin is perhaps best known for developing the command theory of law . Going? He argued that a law is a command from a sovereign whom the population at large is in the habit of byu idaho application obeying, and it is reinforced by the availability of lesson plans a sanction. Put simply, laws are orders backed by threats. A law, therefore, is the expressed wish of the sovereign and as such is distinguishable from other commands such as those from God or from an byu idaho application employer. The sovereign is the person or body whom others habitually obey, and gary born, who is not in byu idaho the habit of giving obedience to anyone else. Austin has been criticised for this rather simplistic view of big words in essays law, particularly by Professor H.L.A.
Hart , partly because it is difficult to byu idaho essay identify a sovereign in many states, but also because many areas of law such as contract, which grant powers to people, do not fit neatly into such a definition. As a legal positivist, he insisted on the separation of law and morality. However, he developed a much more sophisticated model than Austin’s to essay to jail explain the nature of law. There are, he argued, two categories of application rules, called primary and secondary rules, which, in combination, form the basis of a functioning legal system. Primary rules either impose legal obligations, as in criminal law, or they grant powers, as in the power to make a will in essay lesson plans 5th grade the law of succession, or the power to enter into a contract. Secondary rules are concerned with the operation of essay primary legal rules. Hart identified three specific secondary rules.
Firstly, the plans, rule of byu idaho application essay recognition sets criteria for identifying primary legal rules. These criteria would include reference, for example, to Acts of Parliament and judicial decisions. Secondly, rules of change identify how legal rules can be formed, amended or repealed. Going? For example, in the case of an Act of Parliament, reference would be made to the various readings in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and to the need for royal assent. Thirdly, rules of adjudication enable the courts not only to settle disputes, but also to interpret the law. Hart argues that a legal system is established by the union of these two sets of rules. However, two further conditions are required for this system to function.
Firstly, people in general must be in the habit of obeying the primary rules. Secondly, public officials must accept the rules of recognition, change and adjudication. As a legal positivist, Hart does not accept any necessary connection between law and morality. In other words, the validity of a law is not dependent upon its moral acceptability. Application Essay? Even a morally repugnant law may be legally valid.
However, that does not mean we must obey laws that are morally repugnant. Obedience remains a matter of personal decision or conscience. Natural lawyers reject this: they believe that the validity of man-made laws depends upon their compatibility with a higher, moral authority: where laws do not satisfy the requirements of this higher moral authority, then those laws lack validity. There are two main types of natural lawyers, those that believe in laws from a god and those that do not believe in god but that society has an unwritten moral code that laws should follow. Thomas Aquinas was a 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian, who devoted his life to scholarship, in college no essay particular to the study of byu idaho application essay Aristotle. His major work, the Summa Theologica , contains his explanation of four different types of law.
One of them, Divine law is concerned with the standards man must conform to in order to attain salvation. These are revealed to mankind by inspiration or revelation, as for example the Ten Commandments contained within the Bible. Divine law removes the plans 5th grade, need for mankind to be in any doubt about the moral rules he should be following for his own good. Natural law is derived from essay, eternal law and deals with general rules of conduct that govern the behaviour of essay ‘beings possessing reason and byu idaho, free will’, i.e. College No Essay? humans. It is application implanted in to use in essays us by God as part of our nature, and application essay, so we have a natural inclination to behave in a way that fulfils our purpose in life. These include the inclination to preserve life, procreate, and live within society. By reasoning upon natural law, certain general rules of conduct can be developed. The first of gary these is to ‘do good and avoid evil’. Some others are ‘not to commit suicide’, reflecting the inclination to preserve life; to ‘rear and care for offspring’, reflecting the inclination to procreate; and to essay ‘develop our rational and moral capacities’. Human law is derived by big words to use reason from natural law. It is the result of a process of applying the principles contained within natural law to particular geographical, historical and social circumstances.
Lon Fuller was Professor of byu idaho application Jurisprudence at Harvard Law School. He is known as a natural lawyer in that he rejected legal positivism: he refused to essay accept the belief that law has no higher authority than that of a sovereign authority. Fuller views law as serving a purpose. In his case, that purpose is to ‘achieve social order through subjecting people’s conduct to the guidance of general rules by which they may themselves orient their behaviour’. For laws to be able to achieve this purpose, they must satisfy eight particular principles . These principles make up an ‘inner morality of law’ which Fuller describes as a procedural version of natural law. According to these eight principles, laws should be: 1 in existence, not ad hoc. 2 promulgated, i.e. published. 3 prospective, rather than retrospective.
4 clearly stated and comprehensible. 5 consistent with each other. 6 possible for people to obey. 7 constant, i.e. relatively long-lasting and not constantly changing. 8 applied and administered as stated. Failure to comply with these eight principles doesn’t render an individual law invalid, rather it results in something that cannot be properly called a legal system at all. Professor Hart , while not critical of the byu idaho, eight principles themselves, argued that Fuller was not justified in resume calling them a morality. He illustrates his objection by reference to the art of poisoning.
Like law-making, poisoning is an activity with a purpose. The poisoner will develop principles to render his art effective. However, nobody would consider calling these principles the application, ‘inner morality of poisoning’. Peace? In other words, he accuses Fuller of confusing efficacy (how effective is the legislative system?) with morality (is it good or bad?). The word morality derives originally from the byu idaho, Latin word mos (plural: mores). The standard meaning of this word is a custom, habit or usage that is determined by man’s will rather than by law. The Roman statesman and orator Cicero once wrote that law and custom (mos) must both be obeyed, illustrating their parity. Custom formed the bedrock of college scholarships no essay Roman society in Cicero’s day, with duties and obligations balanced by rights and privileges. Emile Durkheim, a sociologist, would later refer to as a traditional society.
In such a society people had much in byu idaho application common. However, by Durkheim’s day, society was becoming more fragmented. First, labour was becoming specialised, with workers developing expertise in increasingly narrow fields, thereby becoming alienated from gary, each other. Byu Idaho Application? Secondly, a common religious and ethnic background could no longer be taken for granted within society. Expository? These factors served to promote an individual consciousness at application the expense of the collective consciousness.
The speed of essay to jail change, Durkheim argued, led to confusion in moral outlooks, and to the breakdown of traditional norms of behaviour. Durkheim used the word ‘anomie’ to describe this result. He believed that society would disintegrate unless a strong collective consciousness, with shared values and beliefs, was maintained. One of the functions of education, therefore, is to strengthen the common morality and reduce individual consciousness. This can in part be achieved by a pledge of allegiance to the state, an idea recently promoted for byu idaho application, all school leavers in Britain. All of these factors are more and more apparent in pluralist societies today. Part two - The relationship between law and morality. Shared characteristics of legal and moral rules. They are both concerned with setting standards, which are essential for governing the behaviour of individuals within society. For example, in order to avoid unnecessary death and injury, the law requires us to drive on the left.
However, it is a long-established custom, part of to use our morals that drivers slow down to allow ambulances to pass when their emergency lights are flashing. Both rules are concerned with the behaviour of drivers and byu idaho, the saving of life. Legal and moral rules employ similar language: they distinguish between right and peace, wrong, and they speak of duties, obligations and byu idaho essay, responsibilities. College Scholarships No Essay? For example, murder is regarded as wicked under both the legal and moral codes of conduct; parents have a legal duty and a moral duty to ensure that their young children are provided with shelter and nourishment. Law and application essay, morality often coincide or overlap: for example, the Ten Commandments, given to Moses on Mount Sinai, continue to serve as a moral code for many today. Indeed, these commandments contain a number of prohibitions, which are to be found in the laws of even the most primitive societies. In our age, the order: ‘Thou shalt not kill’, is born resume reflected in the common law on murder; the command: ‘Thou shalt not steal’, is currently contained within ss16 of the Theft Act 1968; and the principle of the virtue of honesty, which lies behind the command not to give false witness, can be seen in the development of the law in areas such as fraud (crime), misrepresentation (contract), and byu idaho application essay, defamation (tort). Where Legal rules and college scholarships, morals seem at odds. When legal rules are out of kilter with morality, obedience to byu idaho application essay them becomes more difficult to defend. It might be argued that strict liability offences are like this. In Smedleys Ltd v Breed (1974), the discovery of a caterpillar in a tin of college scholarships peas does not seem to byu idaho essay breach any moral rule, nor does the selling of a lottery ticket to a 15-year-old boy who had the appearance of someone much older.
It is therefore not surprising that the principle of strict liability is my playground essay controversial: legal rules are given greater validity by their moral content. There are many moral rules which are not enshrined in law. There is no liability in English criminal law for omissions, unless the failure falls within one of the byu idaho application, recognised exceptions where there is a duty to act, such as a duty to children (R v Gibbons and Proctor (1918)), or a duty through a contract of employment (R v Pittwood (1902)). In other words, there is no requirement in English law to act as the ‘good Samaritan’. Clearly there is a potent moral argument that we should provide assistance to to use the man beaten and left to die, or rescue the child drowning in a pool of water, or prevent a blind old person from being hit by a speeding lorry.
However, the fact that there is no legal obligation to assist our neighbour will enable us to escape criminal liability, but it will not lessen the contempt in which we might be held for our failure to do so. Sometimes a defendant will accept the byu idaho application essay, existence of going to jail a moral obligation, but argue that this does not imply any legal liability, as occurred in R v Webster (2006). The case concerned a duplicate medal awarded to Captain Gill for byu idaho application, services in Iraq. College Scholarships No Essay? Captain Gill received a medal early in 2005, but six months later received an unsolicited duplicate medal. He gave the duplicate to his staff support assistant, Webster, who promptly sold it on eBay for £605. Webster accepted that he had a moral obligation to return the medal to the medals office, but did not accept he was under any legal obligation to do so. However, the court decided that the medals office retained a proprietary interest in this particular duplicate medal and was therefore entitled to call for byu idaho application essay, its return. The influence of law and morality upon each other. Changing moral values can lead to developments in the law. Rape within marriage: In the to use in essays, History of the Pleas of the application, Crown (published in 1736, although Hale had died 60 years before this date), Sir Matthew Hale had declared that ‘a man cannot rape his wife’.
This was based upon the doctrine of big words in essays implied consent, i.e. that a woman, by entering into marriage, gives indefinite consent to sexual relations with her husband. Essay? During the 20th century the courts succeeded in in essays removing this immunity where there was a legal separation order (R v Clarke (1949)), where a decree nisi had been issued (R v O’Brien (1974)), and where a non-molestation order had been imposed (R v Steele (1977)). In these decisions the courts were eager to limit the application essay, moral outrage that an acquittal would arouse. This immunity was weakened even further by the trial judge in R v R (1991), a case involving a recently separated married couple. Owen J declared: ‘I find it hard to believe that it ever was common law that a husband was in effect entitled to beat his wife into submission to sexual intercourse.’ He therefore ruled that the husband, because of the extreme violence he had used, did not enjoy immunity from conviction. Before the case arrived at the House of Lords on appeal, the Law Commission had produced a report recommending that ‘the present marital immunity be abolished in all cases’. The House of Lords followed this recommendation.
Lord Lane declared that ‘the idea that a wife by marriage consents in advance to her husband having sexual intercourse with her whatever her state of health or however proper her objections is no longer acceptable’. My Playground Essay? In this way the law eventually caught up with perceived public morality. The Abortion Act 1967 represents an application essay area of statutory reform introduced as a result of public concern over the existing law. Under s58 of the expository lesson, Offences against byu idaho, the Person Act 1861, abortion was punishable by separate essay up to life imprisonment, even if performed for good medical reasons. The Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 allowed a limited exemption from this general prohibition in cases where the abortion was carried out in good faith for the sole purpose of preserving the life of the mother. In R v Bourne (1939), however, Bourne, an essay eminent surgeon carried out an abortion on a 14-year-old girl who had become pregnant as a result of a violent gang rape by soldiers. At his trial, Bourne argued that the expository essay plans 5th grade, operation had been necessary to preserve the mental health (but not the life) of the girl.
The trial judge proved sympathetic to application this argument. Big Words? The acquittal in this case led to wealthy women finding acquiescent psychiatrists in order to have their abortions, while other women continued to byu idaho application undergo back-street abortions, resulting in many deaths every year and increasing public concern. The Abortion Act in 1967 introduced a wider range of grounds upon which abortions could be carried out, although the decision remained with doctors. Since abortion is an issue that polarises public opinion, the Act did not enjoy universal public support. Expository Essay Plans? However, the law had changed in response to changing public concerns. Sometimes the reverse occurs: legislation is introduced ahead of, and in order to promote, a change in the collective consciousness. Anti- discrimination legislation is often placed within this category. For example, the Race Relations Act 1965 was passed in byu idaho application essay order to counter overt discrimination in public places. Prior to this Act, colour prejudice, as it was then called, was widely practised in Britain, with signs such as ‘No Blacks’ seen on the fronts of guest houses, and expository essay plans 5th grade, non-whites turned away from some restaurants and public houses. The 1965 Act, passed in spite of fierce opposition within Parliament, forbade discrimination ‘on the byu idaho essay, grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origin’. However, it applied only to public places, such as hotels and restaurants, and not to college scholarships places of employment.
The powers of enforcement were also minimal: a Race Relations Board was empowered to listen to complaints, and to essay attempt to negotiate with the parties to stop further discrimination. Where the discrimination continued, the essay plans, matter could only byu idaho be referred to the Attorney-General who could seek a court injunction. Three years later, in 1968, jurisdiction was extended to cover both housing and jealousy, employment. Byu Idaho Application? Although these two Acts did not eliminate discrimination, they made a robust official statement about the values of to jail British society. It was not until the Race Relations Act 1976, however, that significant powers of enforcement were added. Byu Idaho? This Act established the Commission for Racial Equality to replace the Race Relations Board, and gave it extensive powers.
It distinguished between direct and indirect discrimination: direct occurring where a person is treated less favourably than another in similar relevant circumstances on gary born the grounds of colour, race, nationality, ethnic or national origins. Byu Idaho Application Essay? Indirect discrimination, which is much more subtle, occurs when a condition is applied equally to all employees, but one racial group is disadvantaged because it cannot comply as easily as other groups with that condition. These provisions have done much to mitigate harsh, overt racism. On the fortieth anniversary of the gary born resume, passage of the 1965 Act, Trevor Phillips, chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality, stated, ‘The fact that we have strong anti-discrimination laws has led to byu idaho application the near disappearance of college no essay commonplace practices which disfigured our society. That doesn’t mean that they don’t ever happen, but today they are the exception rather than the rule.’ Such comments reflect the application essay, belief that legislation, particularly when it is robust, can have an essay impact upon public morality. Changes in the law can produce changes in morals. One of the most heavily legislated areas in the last 50 years has been the law on homosexuality. In 1957, the Wolfenden Report (see later for more details of this) recommended that ‘homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in byu idaho application private should no longer be a criminal offence’. The committee further recommended that the age of no essay consent be fixed at 21, which at that time was the byu idaho essay, age of majority in Britain. Ten years were to pass before the Sexual Offences Bill was presented to Parliament, time enough for many to reflect on the principles underpinning Wolfenden, and time perhaps for Parliamentarians to muster up the boldness required to secure the big words in essays, passage of the Bill in the face of some earnest opposition.
The Bill contained the two most significant recommendations of the Wolfenden Committee: first, that homosexuality be decriminalised for private consensual homosexual activity; and byu idaho essay, secondly, that the age of consent be set at peace essay jealousy 21. A quarter of a century was to pass before the age of consent was reduced to byu idaho application essay 18 in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, but only six years until it was further reduced to 16 under the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000, thereby equalising the age of consent for heterosexual and no essay, homosexual activity. This last reform attracted determined opposition within the byu idaho application, House of Lords, and to use in essays, the powers of the Parliament Acts had to be invoked to application essay secure passage of the measure. It is difficult to gauge whether those promoting or those opposing these Acts more accurately reflected public opinion on this issue, but what is evident is that the years since 1957 have seen not only substantial legislative activity, but also a major shift in public attitudes in this area. Now we have the no essay, Civil partnership Act 2004 allowing same sex unions to be legally recognised and currently the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013, which will allow same sex couple to be legally married. Part Three Does and should law reflect moral values? Britain is a pluralist society containing a diversity of moral views. This section explores the questions of whether, and to what extent, the law should seek to enforce any particular moral views. This is not merely a subject of academic debate: judges are often forced to essay consider these questions before determining the law.
John Stuart Mill Law should only reflect moral values if a person can harm others. John Stuart Mill, a 19th-century philosopher states that protection is still necessary against suppression by the elected majority: limitations on the power of the government are still needed to prevent the ‘tyranny of the majority’. Nevertheless, Mill accepted that rules governing an individual’s conduct must be imposed. The problem, though, is identifying where society should, and going, where it should not, be permitted to interfere with individual liberty. Mill developed the ‘harm principle’ as the appropriate test to be used when considering this issue. Where the law should only intervene where individuals positive actions (not omissions) are likely to cause harm to others. This is regarded as a liberal approach between law and morality, in byu idaho otherwords the gary born, state should not make any laws against an individual unless it will cause harm (used in a wide sense) to another. Mill answered such objections by making a distinction between the harmful act itself and its particular consequences. For example, society has no right to interfere with drunkenness itself. However, it does have the right to interfere where a man, through his drunkenness, is in breach of application essay his duty to his family or his creditors, or if he was a soldier or a policeman on duty.
In Mill’s words: ‘Whenever there is definite damage to an individual or to the public, the case is college scholarships taken out of the application, province of liberty, and placed in that of morality or law’. However, where there is no such breach of duty to separate peace essay jealousy society and the damage affects only the individual himself, then ‘the inconvenience is one which society can afford to byu idaho application essay bear, for the sake of the greater good of human freedom’. In other words, the gary born resume, liberty of the individual is too precious to be sacrificed merely to ease another’s feeling of revulsion or repugnance. The HartDevlin debate - Must be in your essay! Devlin Law should reflect society’s morals. This argument has endured. In the byu idaho application, 20th century it blossomed in big words in essays the debate between an eminent Law Lord, Patrick Devlin, and the academic H.L.A Hart, a debate sparked by the publication in 1957 of the byu idaho application, Wolfenden report on homosexuality and prostitution. The committee had concluded that the law has a role in preserving public order and essay, decency, but ‘it is not, in our view, the function of the law to intervene in the private life of citizens, or to seek to enforce any particular pattern of behaviour’. Application Essay? Furthermore, there ‘must remain a realm of private morality and immorality which is, in brief and crude terms, not the law’s business’. It therefore recommended the decriminalisation of consensual homosexuality for men over the age of 21. Lord Devlin wrote that a society means a community of ideas: ‘without shared ideas on to use in essays politics, morals, and ethics, no society can exist’.
Society, therefore, is byu idaho essay constituted in part by its morality. In language reminiscent of Durkheim, Lord Devlin argued that the fabric of my playground essay society is dependent upon a shared or common morality: where the bonds of that morality are loosened by private immoral conduct, the integrity of society will be lost, and society will be liable to disintegrate. Byu Idaho Application Essay? Society therefore has the right to defend itself against big words in essays, immorality. Even private wickedness and immorality may be punished because they are harmful to society. In Lord Devlin’s own words, ‘The suppression of vice is as much the law’s business as the suppression of subversive activities.’ However, Lord Devlin recognised that there are limits to the right of society to interfere with private immoral conduct: ‘there must be toleration of the maximum individual freedom that is consistent with the integrity of society’. He accepted that personal preferences, or likes and dislikes, should not form the basis for byu idaho essay, decisions about what immoral conduct should be outlawed. He therefore developed an apparently objective test , that of the reasonable or ordinary man, to help decide where the boundaries are to be drawn: only where immoral conduct is regarded by this ordinary man with ‘intolerance, indignation or disgust’, should it be prohibited by essay law.
It is worth noting that Lord Devlin’s morality is essay based upon convention: in other words, it is jealousy based upon byu idaho essay, what is generally regarded by my playground essay society at large as being the acceptable and desirable state of byu idaho application affairs. It is therefore a relative rather than absolute morality, as it is not based upon any higher authority regarding good and bad, or right and wrong. Conventional morality serves to maintain the status quo within society. Interestingly, it would allow for the continuation of practices that might be regarded as morally repugnant by other societies: for example, it could be used to preserve practices such as polygamy, apartheid and slavery as long as they were not regarded with intolerance, indignation or disgust by the ordinary person within the society that practised it. Extension : Read the following article published by separate peace essay Harvard Law school in 1966 criticising Devlins view. Then summarise the key aspects of the argument in 500 words . Byu Idaho? lord-devlin-and-the-enforcement-of-morals.pdf. Hart Laws should not reflect society’s morals. Professor Hart proposed a more limited role for big words, the law in the enforcement of morality.
Whereas Lord Devlin started from the application, general principle that society has a duty to enforce its dominant morality, and then limited the application of this general principle to acts that the ordinary man regards with intolerance, Professor Hart started from the opposite end of the college scholarships no essay, spectrum, that society should not interfere with private moral or immoral conduct. However, Hart then limited the application of this general principle by sanctioning the enforcement of morality in certain situations. First of all, he accepted that enforcement is byu idaho essay permitted when one of society’s dominant moralities is expository essay lesson plans 5th grade being eroded by a true threat to the cohesion of society. Such a threat, though, has to byu idaho application essay be more than merely a challenge to society’s code of conduct: there must be evidence that it creates a genuine public nuisance. Hart’s discussion of the offence of bigamy illustrates this approach. To Use In Essays? He wrote that, in a country where deep religious significance is attached to monogamous marriage and to essay the wedding service, the law against bigamy should be accepted as an attempt to protect religious feelings from offence by a ‘public act desecrating the ceremony’. According to Hart, the bigamist is punished not for the act of jealousy bigamy itself, but for the offence he causes to the feelings of others. Hart applied the same reasoning to public sexual intercourse between a man and his wife. The act of intercourse, he states, is not in itself immoral, but if it takes place in public, it is an affront to decent people, and, as a nuisance, deserves to be punished under the application, law. Devlin accused Hart of separate peace jealousy being inconsistent.
He challenged Hart, saying: ‘Bigamy violates neither good manners nor decency. When committed without deception, it harms no one.’ Although Devlin is not necessarily arguing here in byu idaho application essay favour of essay going to jail legalising bigamy, it is at least ironic that he seems to essay be adopting a more liberal stance than Hart on this issue. Hart also accepted the legal enforcement of morality in areas other than those creating a public nuisance. On some issues he adopted a paternalistic approach. The taking of drugs and consensual euthanasia are two areas where he believed people need to essay going to jail be protected against themselves. Byu Idaho? This stance seems less liberal than that adopted by Mill. On the specific issue of homosexuality, Hart attacked Devlin for believing that it threatened society with disintegration. He argued that Devlin’s position was tantamount to declaring that any change in morality threatened the disintegration of society. Furthermore, he pointed out.
that Lord Devlin’s approach would cause society’s values to stagnate, to become permanently fixed at one point in time. The HartDevlin debate reflected through examples. Judges and Parliament are often forced to confront complex moral issues. In Shaw v DPP (1962), which concerned a magazine advertising the services of prostitutes, Shaw was convicted of ‘conspiracy to going to jail corrupt public morals’ a previously unknown offence. Application? The House of Lords confirmed the my playground, existence of this new common law offence. Viscount Simonds declared: ‘there remains in the courts a residual power to enforce the supreme and fundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the safety and byu idaho application, order, but also the moral welfare of the State’. Lord Devlin would have approved. Also see the development of the defence of Duress of Circumstance through the case of Martin and Pommell. Note that eventhough parliament has recognised a defence of Necessity in criminal law, principally for the emergency services need to break traffic laws (enshrined in the Road Traffic Acts) and acknowledged by Lord Denning in Buckoke v GLC , judges have repeatedly resisted creating a common law defence of necessity in criminal law, eg Quayle Others (2005) for possessing cannabis in order to stop the pain from an born resume incurable disease.
But see the civil cases of R v A (conjoined twins) 2000 and Re F (1989), the forced sterilisation of a 26-year of female with the mental age of byu idaho 5. In R v Gibson (1990), an artist was convicted under the common law offence of outraging public decency for exhibiting earrings made from freeze-dried human foetuses. No doubt Devlin would maintain that this is exactly the type of immoral conduct that would arouse the intolerance, indignation and disgust of the ordinary person, and so should be subjected to the full rigour of the criminal law. My Playground Essay? Hart might well arrive at the same conclusion, accepting that such an exhibition creates a public nuisance which causes significant offence to essay others. In the resume, celebrated case of R v Brown and Others (1993), the defendants were convicted under s47 and s20 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 after engaging in violent sado-masochistic activities. All these activities were conducted in private, with no complaints from the victims and no medical attention ever sought. There were no permanent injuries. The activities came to the attention of the police as a result of a tape recording the men had made of the application essay, event. The House of Lords declared that consent is not available in cases of such serious injuries, subject to certain exceptions of which sado-masochistic behaviour was not one. Speaking for the majority, Lord Templeman declared that the issues of policy and public interest must be taken into account before deciding whether the separate, defence of consent should be extended to sado-masochistic activities.
Then, in byu idaho essay words resonant of Lord Devlin, he expressed his own opinion: ‘Society is entitled and going, bound to protect itself against a cult of violence. Pleasure derived from the infliction of pain is an evil thing. Cruelty is uncivilised.’ He dismissed the men’s appeal. Lord Mustill, dissenting, declared, in words reminiscent of Professor Hart, that: ‘the state should interfere with the rights of an individual to application live his or her life as he or she may choose no more than is necessary to ensure a proper balance between the special interests of the individual and the general interests of the individuals who together comprise the populace at large.’ He conceded that many people would find the scholarships, defendants’ conduct repulsive. Nevertheless, that feeling of repulsion did not, in essay his view, justify the men’s conviction. The defence of consent was also considered in the case of big words R v Wilson (1996). Byu Idaho Application Essay? At his wife’s request, Alan Wilson branded his initials (‘AW’) on her buttocks. Hearing the appeal against conviction for ABH, Russell LJ explained: ‘Consensual activity between husband and going to jail, wife, in the privacy of the matrimonial home, is not, in our judgment, a proper matter for criminal investigation, let alone criminal prosecution.’ It is possible that this result would be welcomed by both Devlin and Hart, the former because the ordinary man might well regard Wilson’s conduct with amusement rather than disgust, the latter because such activity falls within the realm of private morality and does not create a public nuisance.
This case illustrates concern for byu idaho, the autonomy of the individual, a concern also evident in born the Court of Appeal judgment in St George’s NHS Healthcare Trust v S (1998). In 1996, a woman who was approximately 36 weeks pregnant was diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and advised that she needed urgent attention, otherwise her life and byu idaho application essay, that of the unborn child would be in danger. When she rejected this advice, she was detained under s2 of the Mental Health Act 1983, and a court order was granted to going carry out a caesarean section operation without her consent. The Court of Appeal ruled that an adult of sound mind is entitled to essay refuse medical treatment, and this entitlement is not reduced because her decision might appear morally repugnant, bizarre or irrational. The right to refuse medical treatment in this situation is only available where the woman is deemed to be competent. This language is reminiscent of the decision of the House of Lords in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and the DHSS (1985). The mother of girls under the age of consent had sought a court declaration that their doctors would not be allowed to prescribe contraceptive pills to her daughters without her knowledge. To Use? The House of Lords declared that a ‘competent child’, who had sufficient understanding of the issues involved, could decide for herself without her parents being informed. The decisions in essay both these cases illustrate how the autonomy of the individual can override other considerations, such as the interests of the essay to jail, unborn child, and parental responsibility. However, such autonomy is not absolute.
Diane Pretty suffered from motor-neurone disease, a terminal condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to help her to end her life peacefully and byu idaho, with dignity. Separate Peace Essay Jealousy? In 2001, the House of Lords and the European Court of Human Rights rejected her application, ruling that a right to life does not include a right to end life. Her application conflicted with broader issues of public morality. Parliament must also confront issues of public morality. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 introduced regulations for the creation, storage and use of human embryos outside of the application, human body. It also introduced a statutory licensing authority to oversee the operation of the Act. In 2004, as a result of advances in reproductive medicine and changes in public morality, the government began a review of the 1990 Act, leading to expository lesson plans the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill 2008.
Among its features are: 1 a new concept of parenthood for byu idaho application, a mother’s female partner: 2 statutory approval to be given to ‘saviour siblings’, i.e. children born from born resume, embryos that have been genetically screened to ensure they share the same tissue type as the sick, live sibling. 3 in byu idaho application essay relation to children born after surrogacy arrangements, same sex couples and unmarried opposite sex couples to enjoy the same rights to parenthood as married couples now an increase in the type of embryo research that will be permitted, including the use of hybrid embryos. This Bill has been described in Parliament as ‘a pragmatic fusion between science and the social morals of today’. Big Words To Use In Essays? Elements of it are certainly consistent with other recent legislation. In 2004, the Civil Partnership Act allowed partners of the same biological sex to enter into a civil partnership giving them the byu idaho application, same rights and big words, responsibilities as heterosexual married couples. These include property rights, exemptions on byu idaho application essay inheritance tax, pension rights, and big words to use, next-of-kin rights. In 2006, Parliament passed the Equality Act. Application Essay? This forbids schools, businesses and other agencies from discriminating on the basis of age, disability, gender, race, religion or sexual orientation.
Under the terms of expository essay 5th grade this Act, adoption agencies have to essay consider applications for adoption from homosexual couples. The Roman Catholic Church sought an exemption from this provision, arguing that this went against its teachings. However, the government refused to plans yield ground, instead granting religious adoption agencies 21 months to prepare to implement the new rules. Task : Complete the activity on Law and morality and topical issues by completing the attached research activity. The research activity page with links to all relevant issues in byu idaho application essay the word document. Below are two video clips that may help you understand the issues: Mandatory life Sentence and the European Convention on Human Rights.
Anti terrorsm Laws and search and arrest procedures. Task: Write the following essay on Law and Morality using the essay going, essay plan at this link. Consider the view that there is a close relationship between law and morality. Examine the debate as to whether the law should reflect moral values, and discuss issues which show the continuing importance of that debate. (30marks + 5 QWC)
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a dollhouse essay Role play seems to be the name of the game in Henrik Ibsen#8217;s A Doll#8217;s House . Essay! The main characters in the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves. My Playground Essay! The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Nora. She is application essay, Torvald#8217;s loving and childish wife, and resume unknowingly, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Nora#8217;s persona shifts from that of the everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of a self-empowering, willing woman. Nora#8217;s first impression on the audience is of an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the essay first act, Nora seems to just want money from her husband Torvald. In the first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for their kids, she doesn#8217;t delay herself in asking for money. Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, #8220;my little lark mustn#8217;t droop her wings like that. What? Is my squirrel in the sulks?#8221; (Ibsen 842).
It seems as if he is talking to a little child. And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter. All of essay, which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in marriage. This is how Ibsen first introduces Nora to the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife. Little does the audience know, though, this is but the role Nora plays in the household. Byu Idaho Application! As the play progresses, the audience comes to learn that due to my playground, a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvald#8217;s life was forced to application, take a loan from a rich man known as Mr. Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvald#8217;s back, but in the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to the circumstances, to separate jealousy, forge a signature so that she could get the money in time to save her husband#8217;s life. It is essay, impressive that Nora was able to get the big words in essays loan as Nora#8217;s friend, Mrs.
Linden, remarks #8220;a wife can#8217;t borrow [money] without her husband#8217;s consent#8221; (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by essay, her husband, but she is a willing and born determined individual who does what is needed for the best of her loved ones. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is one of the employees of Torvald, and Torvald plans on byu idaho essay firing Krogstad. Krogstad knowing now of the forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesn#8217;t persuade Torvald to big words to use, not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora. Byu Idaho Essay! Yet most significant to peace, Nora, knowing Torvald#8217;s abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is essay, her fear of ruining her family#8217;s image. The revelation of this secret to the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldn#8217;t have had to carry on her own. Not only is she paying back for a debt that shouldn#8217;t be hers, but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing #8220;a heap of copying#8221; (Ibsen 849) books. It is lesson, admirable what is now known of Nora.
She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by working on the side without letting others know of the byu idaho application troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the money she got she didn#8217;t use for clothes or drinks; the money was used to save her husband#8217;s life. Some may say it is going to jail, cowardly of her to hide the reality from her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to byu idaho application, face this debt by herself without the help of anyone is mind-blowing. Picture a 1700#8217;s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at separate peace essay, you. Instead of asking for help to pay it back and byu idaho telling Torvald it was money used on him and for him, she takes the hard road by choosing to essay plans 5th grade, work what little she can by earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an integrous character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of the debt and Nora#8217;s forgery, he rages on at Nora for what she has done. It is byu idaho, then when Nora finally seems to come to an understanding of what she has lived and what is to expository essay lesson, be done. She now understands that she hasn#8217;t been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on her actions she states, #8220;When I look back on it now#8230; I lived by performing tricks for you, Torvald.
But you would have it so#8221; (Ibsen 885). It is clear to her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and such. And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for performing those tricks he loved of her. Nora#8217;s ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by asserting that she must learn about herself, that she #8220;shall try to learn. I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I#8221; (Ibsen 886).
Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. She understands there are aspects of society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. Torvald then offers to teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself or at application essay, least away from him. She also points out that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the reason why she believes he isn#8217;t right to teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on to jail her since they#8217;ve met. In the end, Nora comes out as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is not only Ibsen#8217;s vessel to show women#8217;s strong character, but serves the application essay purpose of showing women as equal human beings. Nora also helps point out going, that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the byu idaho perception of women as the less sharp sex; the law of those days for example.
All of these are shown with Nora#8217;s possession of born, a secret life. Byu Idaho Essay! In the peace jealousy surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to byu idaho, her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is only when they find out of her secret life when they start to appreciate her for expository plans more than a beautiful girl that she is. That second life of hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and that she is application, capable to expository essay plans, do things when she is determined. It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and learn about herself and society. Ibsen, Henrik. Application Essay! A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and David L Pike.
The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Trans. William Archer. Scholarships! 2nd Edition. Vol. E. Pearson Education, 2009. Byu Idaho Application! 840-888.
This is a very sound and well-resented essay with a perceptiveness in its thesis. There are a few glitches in some of the born resume sentences, but not enough to detract for the overall impression of byu idaho application, intelligent commentary. I think you might have made your thesis a little more clear in gary born, your opening. For instance, you might have said: Even in the life she lives with Torvald, there are signs that beneath the twitterbird and squirrel, there is a strong and byu idaho essay capable woman functioning in secret. Essay! It is this secret Nora who emerges in the end, ready to openly seek an essay, independent life where her attributes needn't be concealed. And, as I mention below, you might include some notice that Torwald himself is not altogether what he seems to big words, be. Again, some fine thinking through the implications of the play and essay a clear exposition. This is to use in essays, a good example of an A paper. I would probably give it in the vicinity of a 96. Role play seems to be the name of the game in Henrik Ibsen#8217;s A Doll#8217;s House . Essay! The main characters in the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves.
The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Nora. She is born resume, Torvald#8217;s loving and childish wife, and unknowingly, even to herself, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Nora#8217;s persona shifts from that of the byu idaho essay everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of a self-empowering, willing woman. This is a good, clear opening. Essay To Jail! As is, you are describing the story. Application Essay! You might close with a kind of scholarships no essay, thesis statement to byu idaho application, indicate what you are going to my playground, do with theis information. Nora#8217;s first impression on the audience is byu idaho application, of an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the first act, Nora seems to just want money from her husband Torvald. In the first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for expository their kids, she doesn#8217;t delay [herself] in asking for money.
Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. Byu Idaho! It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, #8220;my little lark mustn#8217;t droop her wings like that. Gary! What? Is my squirrel in the sulks?#8221; (Ibsen 842) [This sentence in which you include the quote in grammaticaly incorrect as a sentence] . . Byu Idaho Essay! It seems as if he is talking to expository essay plans, a [little] child. And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter. Application! All of which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in marriage. This is how Ibsen first introduces Nora to essay, the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife This sentence repeats phrasing you've already used. . Little does the audience know, though, this is [merely] but the application role Nora plays in the household. As the play progresses, the audience comes to learn that due to gary born resume, a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora , in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvald#8217;s life , was forced to application, take a loan from a rich man [a moneylender] known as Mr. Krogstad. There is separate peace essay jealousy, a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvald#8217;s back, but in the legal process of application, obtaining it, she was forced, due to resume, the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the money in time to save her husband#8217;s life. It is application, impressive that Nora was able to get the essay loan as Nora#8217;s friend, Mrs.
Linden, remarks #8220;a wife can#8217;t borrow [money] without her husband#8217;s consent#8221; (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by her husband, but she is a willing and determined individual who does what is application essay, needed for the best of her loved ones. Born Resume! Your explication of this aspect of Nora and byu idaho application our understanding is very clear--well presented. Essay To Jail! The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out application, that now Krogstad is one of the employees of in essays, Torvald, and Torvald plans on firing Krogstad. Krogstad knowing now of the Nora's forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesn#8217;t persuade Torvald to not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and byu idaho everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora. Yet most significant to Nora, knowing Torvald#8217;s abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is her fear of essay going to jail, ruining her family#8217;s image. This might be stated more precisely. It seems to me that what she fears is that Torvald will take the full blame for her bad actions, (which would indeed ruin the family. The revelation of this secret to the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldn#8217;t have had to carry on her own.
Not only is she paying back for a debt that shouldn#8217;t be hers (why not?) , but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing #8220;a heap of essay, copying#8221; (Ibsen 849) books. It is admirable what is now known of Nora. She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by working on born resume the side without letting others know of the troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the money she got she didn#8217;t use for clothes or drinks; the money was used to application essay, save her husband#8217;s life. Essay Jealousy! Some may say it is cowardly of her to byu idaho application essay, hide the reality from her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by herself without the help of anyone is peace, mind-blowing . (You might look for less slang-y phrses to use in your essay. is staggering to consider.) Picture a 1700#8217;s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at you. Byu Idaho Essay! Instead of asking for essay going help to pay it back and telling Torvald it was money used on him and for byu idaho application him, she takes the hard road by choosing to work what little she can by earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an integrous [not a word] character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of about the debt and Nora#8217;s forgery, he rages on at Nora for what she has done. It is then when Nora finally seems to come to an understanding of what she has lived and what is to be done.
She now understands that she hasn#8217;t been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on her actions she states, #8220;When I look back on it now#8230; I lived by performing tricks for you, Torvald. But you would have it so#8221; (Ibsen 885). It is clear to in essays, her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and such. Byu Idaho Application! And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for performing those tricks he loved of her. I think here it would show an extension of your theme to point out the Torvald, too, shows that he is not what Nora expected him to be--instead of essay, heroic self-sacrifice, he shows a petulant and cowardly desire for self-protection. Byu Idaho Application Essay! Nora#8217;s ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by asserting that she must learn about herself, that she #8220;shall try to learn. I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I#8221; (Ibsen 886). Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. watch awkward phrasing. One needn't blindly follow everything one is told or something like that.
She understands there are aspects of society and peace essay jealousy its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. Torvald then offers to byu idaho application essay, teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself , or at least away from him find herself independently of him . She also points out essay going, that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the reason why she believes he isn#8217;t right to teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on her since they#8217;ve met. In the end, Nora comes out as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is not only Ibsen#8217;s vessel to show women#8217;s strong character, but serves the purpose of showing women as equal human beings. The character of Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of women as the essay less sharp sex; the law of those days for example. All of these are shown with Nora#8217;s possession of a secret life. Born Resume! In On the surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to byu idaho, her friend Mrs.
Linden, but it is only when they find out of her secret life when they start to appreciate her for more than a the beautiful girl that she is. That second life of essay, hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and that she is capable to do things when she is determined. It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and learn about herself and society. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Application! Damrosch, David and David L Pike. The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Big Words! Trans.
William Archer. 2nd Edition. Vol. E. Pearson Education, 2009. Application! 840-888.
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coursework tips English as a First Language. This paper is 50% of your total ‘English as a First Language’ exam Grade, the other 50% is your Coursework Portfolio. The paper contains 3 questions of which you must answer all three. You have 2 hours to complete this paper. Total marks for the paper is 50 marks divided: Q1. 20 marks, Q2. 10 marks, Q3. 20 marks.
Examiner’s tips for this paper: • Do not write rough drafts. Byu Idaho Essay! You cannot afford the time to write out every answer twice, and gary born it is neither required nor desirable that you should do so; plans are sufficient. • Take two different coloured highlighters into the exam. You need to application essay, annotate all the passages, and it is especially useful to use two colours for the summary and other questions where there are two types of material asked for. But don’t go mad with the my playground highlighting! Only single words or short phrases should be highlighted in a text, otherwise you are not precisely identifying your useful phrases and will end up with a ridiculous amount of highlighted text.
• Regulate your time and keep an eye on it: in Paper 2, for byu idaho essay instance, question 2 should take half as long as questions 1 and 3, which carry double the marks and expository require more planning. • If you run out of time on the last (summary) question write notes instead of full sentences. Application! You will lose fewer marks for doing this than for continuing to write in sentences but leaving the college scholarships answer incomplete. Indicate what points you would have made and you will get some credit for them. • Suggestions for byu idaho essay length are given as a number of pages and are there to help you understand what is expected and essay going to jail what is possible within the time limit. Byu Idaho Essay! Answers which are shorter or longer will be self-penalising. • However, the exam is assessing quality rather than quantity. Do not waste time counting words either during or after you have finished your responses. The time would be better spent improving content, expression and accuracy.
• Avoid using ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘so’ and ‘then’. These are immature ways of linking ideas and events. • If you finish the exam early, go back and check your answers again; you may have missed something. • Do the questions in the order in which they are printed on each exam paper, as there is essay going to jail, a reason why they are in application, that order. To Use! In particular you should not read both passages on Paper 2 before answering question 1. • Have a pen (and a spare) for the exam with which you can write legibly and neatly. Byu Idaho Application! It is good policy to get the examiner on your side with a well-presented script. Often untidy writing is associated with poor spelling and punctuation. • Underline the key words in every question, and then use them to plan around. • Make your endings strong; they are what the my playground essay examiner has in their mind when they are deciding on a mark. There is no point in repeating anything you have said earlier.
• If you are weak on sentence structure do not attempt over-long and essay complicated ones in which you lose grammatical control. On the other hand, you should use complex sentences rather than simple or compound structures throughout the exam, as these are what formal English requires and born resume educated writers produce, and they will give concision, precision, variety and application essay maturity to your style. • Use commas to separate clauses in a sentence. It is sometimes difficult to follow meaning where they have not been used and should have been. Commas are not, however, a substitute for full-stops, and big words to use ‘comma-splicing’ is penalised heavily in this exam, as it shows an inability to application, understand what a sentence is and how the building blocks of language work.
• Detail, detail, detail. Every one of your exam answers will benefit from use of supporting detail, either textual, factual or creative. • Avoid repeating either ideas (which spoil the born resume effect of the first time you used them) or language (which gives the impression that your command of grammar is limited or your vocabulary restricted). • Copying and lifting of whole phrases should be avoided throughout the exam, except when you have been specifically requested to select quotations (i.e. Q2). Copying gives no evidence of byu idaho, understanding, rather the reverse. • Don’t guess the essay lesson plans spelling of a word you are not sure of if that word exists somewhere on byu idaho application essay, the exam paper. You should, however, try to guess the meaning of a word you don’t know if you think it is important to your understanding of a text, and you should not be put off by it being a long word. Gary! There are three ways of working out the meaning of a word: i) Is it possible to byu idaho essay, tell the approximate meaning of the jealousy word from its context?
ii) Does it remind you of another word you already know? If so it may be related. iii) Can the word be broken down into syllables? If so you may be able to work out the meaning of the different parts. • Check through your answer, pretending you are the examiner, to make sure that what you have written can be clearly read and understood. It is usually possible to improve your answer even at this stage by adding a few more words for clarification or support, or by correcting errors, or by making a word more legible. Application Essay! Use carats (^) or asterisks (*) to add extra material above the line or at the end of the piece.
• Do not be afraid to make corrections, using a line through the word(s) and making a clear substitution above or with an asterisk below. • Keep up your concentration to the bitter end. Big Words In Essays! Often students start well and then their writing declines in quality as they get tired. Application! Sentence structure, as well as tidiness of handwriting, tends to deteriorate as time passes. Keep producing mature vocabulary even when you’d rather take the easy option and write on auto-pilot; the last questions carry as many marks as the first. • Don’t ramble; the to jail longer the byu idaho essay piece of writing the more likely there are to be mistakes in it and the more time you would have to peace essay, allow for checking and correcting. Application! Say it once and then move on. • Checking is crucial for any piece of college scholarships, writing, because slips inevitably occur, particularly when one is writing fast and under time pressure. If the examiner finds the byu idaho careless mistakes you have left uncorrected, their assessment of your writing ability will inevitably be affected. Question 1 - Response to my playground essay, a Text.
This question is called ‘Response to a Text’ because you will be asked to read a passage and respond to it. 15 marks are rewarded for application essay your understanding of the text, 5 marks for the quality of writing in your answer. The passage will be literary and/or contain description of resume, a person or place or both. You will have to be sensitive to atmosphere and show appreciation of the feelings of the characters in byu idaho application, your response. • This question is rewarded not only for identification of to use in essays, relevant material in the passage but also inference, development of the ideas and byu idaho application essay use of supporting detail. There are therefore four types of content required to my playground essay, show advanced comprehension for a top mark out of 15 for Reading.
• For full marks out of byu idaho application, 5 for Writing you need to demonstrate structure, sequence, and essay going ‘a wide range of original and appropriate language’. • It will help you enormously to highlight the material you are going to use in the text, and then write a quick plan in order to organise it into essay, a logical structure before you start writing your response. This will enable you to avoid repetition and to make sure you are fully answering the question. • Use everything which is relevant, not just some of the material. On the other hand, there may be some parts which you should ignore because they are not covered by the question. • Do not drift away from the text; everything you write must be ‘tethered’ to the passage i.e. have a direct connection with it and be supported by references to it. • Before you start writing, decide how formal the task is and adopt an appropriate tone. No question in an exam assessing your ability to use educated English will expect you to peace jealousy, use slang or jargon or non-sentences, so expect to have to write in a reasonably formal style whoever your audience is and whatever the task. Even a letter to byu idaho application, a relative will be someone distant or older, such as an uncle whom you haven’t met recently, and a report to your fellow students will be official or for publication in college scholarships, the school magazine.
It is essential to remember who your audience is byu idaho essay, and to address them directly as ‘you’. • Though you can use short quotations from the passage within your response, you should not copy big chunks of text and you should use your own words when not actually giving details. • If the no essay question has several parts you can either integrate the byu idaho application two, e.g. advantages and disadvantages, or deal with them separately. You can decide on your own structure for born your answer, but what matters is that there should be a structure of some kind, and one which the reader can discern. • It is time-wasting and does not achieve anything to try to design your answer in the layout which you think might be appropriate in real life, e.g. dividing a newspaper report into columns and adding drawings and extraneous advertising material. Byu Idaho Application Essay! This cannot be rewarded and can distract you from the real task of scholarships, providing appropriate and accurate content for your response. • What is important is that your answer should be divided into paragraphs, as all continuous prose should be. • If you are given bullet points to remind you what should be included, use them to check you have covered what is required, and they can also help you to structure your answer. The material from the byu idaho passage should be put into the appropriate section and not repeated.
• Do not add extra sections, for big words instance where you are given which questions to ask in byu idaho application, an interview, stick to those questions only. It makes the in essays response too fragmented or less focused if you add more. Practise writing formal letters; it is byu idaho application essay, highly likely you will be asked to write a letter on. Letters to people in official positions and expository essay 5th grade whom you don’t know typically adopt a formal style and polite tone, and they are structured in three paragraphs: i) the topic of the letter/reason for byu idaho application writing it. ii) background information, arguments and factual details. iii) request or suggestions for future action. Practice turning passages into big words to use, reports; they have a particular style, and structure which is byu idaho application, different from separate peace jealousy, any other kind of writing: i) style - short paragraphs; short sentences; dramatic vocabulary; statistical information; stacking of adjectives and descriptive phrases before the noun (e.g. ‘The Japanese-owned lightweight racing yacht Sunshine II. ’, ‘Divorced former model and mother of two, Susan Smith. ’) ii) The expression should be impersonal (do not use ‘I’ or ‘We’ and do not give any opinions). iii) Use interview material and direct speech as well as reported speech. iv) structure - contrary to normal chronological sequence, news reports begin with the application essay very recent past (usually yesterday); go on to fill in past background prior to the event; return to my playground, the immediate present and how things are developing; then finally speculate about the future. Practice writing interviews between two people. Interviews typically adopt an empathetic tone.
i) Style – question/answer format. If you must skip a line between questions and application essay answers, or, use names in the margin like a play script to distinguish between the interviewer and interviewee. ii) The interviewer should not speak that much allowing the interviewer to speak the most. It is lesson plans, through the interviewee that you will show your understanding of the text as they will most likely be someone mentioned in the passage. iii) Write in essay, first person perspective with personal language (do use ‘I’ and ‘we’ and do give opinions. To show understanding of a viewpoint you may be asked to write a diary entry. Don’t worry , it’s easy.
i) Style – almost identical to big words to use, an informal letter, but packed full of thoughts and application opinions. ii) The audience must be yourself, not the diary. Never treat a diary like a person! iii) Always include some kind of separate essay, hpe/plan/intention for the future. Examples of essay, Q1 tasks over the last few years: Imagine you are Aunt Pegg. After one week of looking after the children, you write a letter to their parents in which you:……….. Imagine you are a schools inspector and you have recently visited the school described in Passage A. Essay! You are not pleased with what you have observed. Write your report in which you:…………
Imagine that you are Donovan Webster. You are being interviewed for a television programme about your visit to essay, Diudiu in separate essay, Mongolia. Write the words of the interview . Imagine you are a reporter, writing from the area. Application! Write the newspaper report which would have appeared a week after the eruption of Vesuvius . Write a report to the committee that organises the group. In your report give your reasons whether or not Dr. Zinc should be invited to speak at one of the debates. Write a newspaper report using the headlines printed below.
Base what you write closely on the reading material in Passage A . You have recently stayed at the Shamrock Hotel and, most surprisingly, you thoroughly enjoyed your stay. To Jail! Write a letter to Mr and Mrs Doyle explaining the application essay reasons why you liked the hotel so much. You know that the born Doyles will use your letter to advertise the hotel in future. Imagine you are the writer of Passage A. Write a diary entry in which you explore your thoughts and byu idaho application essay feelings about the separate peace jealousy trip so far. You will be sending your diary entry to your friends and family. Question 2 – Effect of Language. This question aims to determine whether or not you understand the importance of specific vocabulary. Application! Why has the writer used the word ‘fat’ instead of ‘overweight’ and how did that word change the meaning of the text.
You will be asked to look at the language that describes two different things from the gary passage. The beauty of question 2 is that it is always exactly the same ! Re-read the descriptions of: Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects. by using this language. The second half of essay, this question will be more demanding than the first. You need to give equal attention to each part and provide at least half a page for each. • You should aim for 5 relevant quotations in each part of the expository essay lesson 5th grade question. Byu Idaho! Give the quotation, in quotation marks, explain its meaning, and then explain its effect on the passage.
You cannot get higher than 3 marks if you only identify quotations, or higher than 6 marks if you discuss only meanings. • For 10 out of my playground essay, 10 you should give a full range of explained effects and link them into an overview which shows understanding of what the writer was trying to achieve in the passage as a whole. • Do not select a quotation which you do not understand as you will not be able to explain either its meaning or its effect. • When explaining a quotation do not repeat the application essay words used in it. Do not repeat quotations; you cannot get credit more than once. • Generalised and ‘gushing’ comments such as ‘The writer makes me feel as though I am there’ and born resume ‘The passage is cleverly written’ gain no marks and give the impression that you are failing to find things to say.
• There is byu idaho essay, no need to use technical terms, and they are no substitute for explaining an effect in your own words; if you do use technical terms, such as onomatopoeia, make sure they are actually correctly used. • Select brief quotations only, of between one and four words. Do not lift whole chunks of text, or clump quotations together, or list them. Each one must be focused on gary born resume, specific use of language and explained separately. • Introduce your choices of language with phrases such as ‘gives the impression of’, ‘suggests that’, ‘makes me think that.’ Do not say over and over again ‘This has the effect that. ’ • Once you have arrived at an overview, do not contradict yourself, e.g. do not say that one quotation makes a character seem physically old and another one makes her seem physically young. This is not likely therefore you need to look at the passage again. However, there are no ‘right answers’ to this (or any other) part of the exam and you can score highly by engaging with the text and byu idaho thinking about the way language is my playground, being used, whether or not your comments are what the examiner is expecting. • Things to look for essay are: use of the five senses; use of contrast; use of colour; use of expository essay 5th grade, noise; links between subject and environment; surprising, or unusual words; words which create sound effects; unusual or dramatic punctuation; imagery (similes and essay metaphors) Question 3 - Summary. Though this question is called ‘Summary’ it is expository lesson plans, not a summary in the sense of being a general description of a situation but instead it is byu idaho, a focused list of the specific ideas or details contained in the passage, after anything irrelevant to expository essay 5th grade, the two questions has been removed. Summarising a passage is a specific and almost scientific skill which, once gained, makes it easily possible to get 15 out of 15.
To get an extra 5 marks, be conscious about you writing style and A* here you come. The beauty of Q3 is that is nearly always exactly the same! Summarize the features of something in: (a) The features of byu idaho, something in passage A. (b) The features of something else in essay plans 5th grade, passage B. Here is 5-step process that will make this question a whole lot easier: i) read and underline relevant material; count that there are at byu idaho application, least 15 points altogether, and preferably 20. ii) transfer the points into a plan, whilst changing them into your own words. iii) group the points logically (using arrows/brackets); put them in order (using numbers), and my playground decide which ones can be combined into one sentence. iv) write the application summary in scholarships, two paragraphs (one for Paper 1), using complex sentences. v) check the summary for accurate expression; adapt the length and improve if necessary by adding material overlooked or by removing repetition. summaries never include: examples, repetitions, direct speech, figurative language or minor details. • Find all the points you can for each part of the question; do not stop when you get to 15 as these may not be the same ones the examiner has on their list. Essay! The only way to peace essay, be sure of getting all 15 Reading marks is to application, use everything relevant.
• To get all 5 Writing marks you need to show evidence of clear and concise summary style throughout, precise focus and the use of your own words. • Do not attempt to synthesise the two passages as this is not required, is not rewarded; it makes your task more difficult to attempt to no essay, do so as they may not be directly comparable. Treat the passages separately and focus on the exact wording of the question. • Do not give your summary in the wrong form as this is byu idaho essay, penalised i.e. do not offer bullet points or a list, or write in the first person, or comment on the content of the passages, or present a narrative, or use quotation. • The lengths of the expository essay summaries of each passage should be roughly equal. • Though you must use your own words whenever possible, you do not have to find synonyms for technical objects e.g. solar heaters. • Both halves of the question are equally important and should be done in the same way and given the same length of byu idaho, about half a page.
• Summaries much longer than half a page are no longer summaries and will be penalised in the Writing mark. • To be concise enough for summary style and to get in no essay, all the points you should use complex sentences containing two or three points in byu idaho application, each. • Do not repeat points, or express them vaguely; (these will be given an big words to use in essays R (repetition) or PNM (point not made) respectively in the margin, and discounted. • There is no need to introduce or conclude a summary, and doing so wastes time and words. Start by using the wording of part of the question e.g. ‘The features of the essay desert were. ’ Useful websites and online resources for English Students. A word of warning: these sites and links were all functional at the time of lesson plans 5th grade, posting, but it cannot be guaranteed that web addresses will not change. Sites and resources rarely disappear entirely; if a link does not work, try a Google search. - This is application essay, a gateway to essay, thousands of newspapers around the world. - Sister site to paperboy but allowing access to international magazines. - This is byu idaho, The Guardian’s archive and contains a wealth of articles from 1899-1999.
Type in key dates (or the day after) for useful resources. - A speech archive plus ideas for teachers. - This British library site gives access to pictures, biographies, text and spoken records of big words to use in essays, historical events. - Try going online to the fruit machine on this site. - Aimed at UK GCSE students. - Hundreds of language- based ‘how to’ guides and quizzes based on higher level texts. - is the application British Council’s subject gateway for literature. - A collection of online texts.
- A collection of video extracts. - Collapser is essay, a utility to turn any text into a sorted list at the click of the essay Go! button. You can use any text, including material from separate essay, a web page or a word processed document, to byu idaho essay, produce activities that give fascinating insights into vocabulary and grammar. - Hot Potatoes is a utility which enables you to author 6 different types of interactive activity: Quiz; Match; Mix; Cloze; Crossword; Sequence. - Inspiration is essay, a concept mapping tool which enables you to essay, set up frameworks such as brainstorms, storyboards, mind maps for my playground students to complete (or they can create them from application essay, scratch themselves).