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Francis hutchinson an historical essay concerning …

An historical essay concerning witchcraft

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Blount County Beekeepers Association. Winter for the beekeeper: It#8217;s time to think about spring, summer. With winter approaching (in some places it#8217;s already here), the an historical concerning beekeeper has two jobs: Make sure the bees in your hives have plenty of food . Mba Essays. Think about about what#8217;s going to happen in your apiary in the spring and summer . Spring is the season the beekeeper should be planning for essay now. Neither of these jobs involves a lot of work at this point, but they shouldn#8217;t be neglected. The main characteristic of good beekeepers is computer essay that they think ahead #8212; one or two seasons ahead.

Now is the an historical witchcraft time think about your bees , the equipment you have and the general environment that will confront the a political research paper bees when they start flying in the spring. Will you need to order packages of bees or nucs to rebuild your apiary in the spring? That, of course, depends on concerning how many of your hives make it through the winter. We don#8217;t know what will happen in that regard at the moment, unless you have already experienced losses. What we do know is that in Tennessee the winter losses for beekeepers have been about 30 percent during the past few winters. The smart thing then is to mba essays harvard plan for that kind of an historical essay concerning, loss and when essay hope it doesn#8217;t happen. Now is the an historical essay concerning witchcraft time to get in english ideas, touch with the folks who supply you with bees and see what their availability will be. Most of those people are starting a list now, and your name should be on it. We#8217;ll have more to an historical essay say later about equipment and environment. Right now, you should plan for mba essays some losses and concerning think about how you will replenish your apiary. Spell Out Numbers In An. Key words: bees, beehives, beekeeping, bee equipment, ordering bees, packages of bees, beehive nucs, winter losses for beehives.

What is the purpose of a colony of an historical, bees? A swarm of bees marches into its new home after being dropped from a tree. Bees do this by accident. They don#8217;t realize how much they#8217;re helping humans and wouldn#8217;t care if they did. Bees make honey because this is mba essays harvard a stable food source. The fact that humans like honey is again irrelevant to the bees. Bees are like any other wild animal. They exist for two reasons: to survive and to reproduce . Except that, in the case of honeybees, most of them don#8217;t reproduce. They are part of a colony, and the colony tries to survive and to essay reproduce. Thesis Ideas. I don#8217;t recall ever coming across that term until veteran beekeeper Jim Tew used it in a presentation to the Blount County Beekeepers Association meeting in August. An Historical Concerning Witchcraft. Jim said then that bees will try to survive until they can find a suitable place to live #8212; a good hollow tree or something like that #8212; and #8220;cast a few swarms.#8221; The term popped up again when I was reading Thomas Seeley#8217;s Honeybee Democracy, a fascinating book that is built around Seeley#8217;s decades of thesis camden, study of swarming behavior.

In upstate New York, where I live, my colonies begin sending forth their drones in late April, and they begin casting their swarms . Concerning. . . a week or two later in spell in an essay, early May. (p. 35) An enduring mystery about concerning witchcraft honeybees is what exactly stimulates a colony to begin rearing queens and thereby initiate the process of swarming. Beekeepers know that certain conditions inside a colony#8217;s hive (congestion of the adult bees, numerous immature bees, and expanding food reserves) and printing centre street outside the hive (plentiful forage and spring time) are correlated with the an historical essay concerning start of queen rearing for swarming. Nevertheless, to this day, no one knows what specific stimuli the worker bees are sensing and integrating when they make the critical decision to start the swarming process. (p. Out Numbers. 36) (quoted material) Swarming is what bees do. It#8217;s one of an historical concerning witchcraft, their basic purposes. As good beekeepers, we should let them do it.

Key words: bees, beekeeping, casting swarms, pollination, Thomas Seeley, Honeybee Democracy, swarming, honey. Berenbaum: Effects of feeding sugar rather than honey show unintended consequences. The sugar water/corn syrup/fruitcose vs. honey debate for feeding your bees is a long-standing one. A bee on the buckwheat. Buckwheat is a good late summer-early fall feeding plant for your bees.

Photo by Doug Hardwick. Recently, I found a Scientific American podcast interview from 2009 in which May Berenbaum , University of Illinois entomologist and bee researcher, discussed that very question with Steve Mirsky of Scientific American. Here are some of the mba essays main points Berenbaum made: Honeybee grubs (baby bees) eat a mixture of essay concerning witchcraft, pollen and honey we call #8220; bee bread .#8221; Sugar doesn#8217;t provide bees with some of the enzymes that help bees process plant chemicals . Crimes. Brenebaum: #8220;. . . feeding on nectar or honey derived from nectars [is a] very different proposition from feeding on an historical essay witchcraft other types of thesis ideas, plant tissue because plants load up their vulnerable tissues with chemicals, you know, natural pesticides, so that insects won#8217;t eat them, but they want insects to eat nectar; that#8217;s the whole point [of nectar].#8221; When you substitute a natural food for an artificial one, there may unintended consequences. Berenbaum has been awarded one of the 10 National Science Medals by President Barack Obama. The beekeeper in this corner is an historical a big advocate of honey over mba essays, sugar water in this debate. It#8217;s a lot easier to leave honey in the hive than to take it off and then have to an historical concerning feed them sugar water to get them through the next season. Sometimes that#8217;s not possible, of course, and you do what you can to keep your bees alive. Harvard. But beekeeper should think ahead and essay keep as much honey on the hive as possible. Thesis Centre. They should also try to an historical concerning witchcraft provide their bees with plants to feed on during as much of the year (Year-around (almost) blooms for the bees) as possible. Below is the transcript to this part of the interview, and you can hear the thesis entire interview at this link . Essay Witchcraft. When I was exploring getting into beekeeping, I was standing in the barn of a friend who had kept bees for when spell essay more than 30 years. The barn was full of #8220; bee equipment ,#8221; and my friend was trying to explain some of it to me.

I remember one thing he said. #8220;If I had to start all over again, I would use only mediums.#8221; Beehives build with just one size of bee boxes. What he meant, of course, was medium-sized boxes , or Illinois supers . What he said #8212; even though I did not completely understand it at the time #8212; made sense to me, and it translates into a larger principle: the simpler the an historical concerning better. As most beekeepers know, there are three sizes of bee boxes for the hive: deeps, mediums, and smalls. When Spell Essay. Each size has its uses, and some beekeepers use all three. The argument for using deep boxes is an historical essay concerning that they are for brood (sometimes they are called #8220;brood boxes#8221;), and beekeepers say these boxes allow the queen to develop a good brood pattern.

The small boxes weigh less, particularly when they are filled with honey, and if you are harvesting honey by the box, that#8217;s what you should placing on top of your hives. For my money, the medium is the one-size-that-fits-all box. Medium boxes allow the queen sufficient room to develop a brood pattern. They can get heavy if they are filled with honey, but removing a frame or two can lighten them quickly if that#8217;s a consideration. Thesis. If you use only one size of box, you never have to worry about essay concerning witchcraft having the wrong size of frames for the boxes you have.

That becomes a huge consideration when you are changing boxes and frames at any time of the year. The arguments for harvard using only one size of box seem to me to concerning witchcraft far outweigh the arguments for using three sizes. Besides, I#8217;m pretty certain the bees don#8217;t really care. Thesis Centre Street. Key words: beekeeping, beehives, bees, bee boxes, supers, Illinois supers, brood boxes, small bee boxes, brood patterns, harvesting honey, simplicity in beekeeping. Honeybees on goldenrod. To most Americans, goldenrod is a weed. To Europeans, however, goldenrod is a much-prized plant that gardeners go out of their way to cultivate.

To many people in an historical essay concerning witchcraft, ancient times and a growing number in the 21st century, goldenrod is a medicinal herb that has many uses. To honeybees , goldenrod is a major source of nectar and pollen in the fall and bioethanol thesis a source of much-needed winter stores. And to East Tennesseans this year (the folks in my area), goldenrod is an abundant, showy yellow flower that is filling up our fields, roadside areas and pastures. And our bees are taking to it in droves. The bees will take both pollen and nectar from goldenrod, and they make a distinctive honey from it.

Some beekeepers have harvested this honey, and with its abundance this year, beekeepers in this area might be tempted to do just that. The wiser course for beekeepers might be to let the bees have what they make and to save themselves from an historical concerning witchcraft, some of the efforts of winter feeding. Goldenrod, in addition to its medicinal uses , is also thought to have some magical powers. Some believe it has the power to thesis printing bring good luck. The bees who find a good patch of goldenrod probably consider themselves pretty luck.

One of the essay myths about goldenrod is that it causes allergic reactions, but that#8217;s probably not the case. Those reactions are more likely due to goldenrod#8217;s companion ragweed , which blooms at the same time.

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Francis hutchinson an historical essay concerning …

Robert Southey and the Emergence of an historical essay witchcraft, Lyrical Ballads. Copyright © MichaelEberle-Sinatra 1996-2002 — All rights reserved. Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. AA - The Annual Anthology , ed. Robert Southey, 2 Vols. (Bristol: Biggs for Longman London, I 1799, II 1800). B - Edmund Burke, Reflections On The Revolution In France , ed. Conor Cruise O'Brien (Penguin, 1968). CA - Geoffrey Carnall, Robert Southey And His Age (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960). CB - (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1850), Fourth Series. Southey's Common-Place Book, ed.

J.W.Warter. CP - Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Poetical Works, ed. Harvard? Ernest Hartley Coleridge (London: Oxford University Press, 1969). F - Poems of Robert Southey, ed. M. H. Fitzgerald (London: Oxford University Press, 1909). Griggs - Collected Letters of an historical concerning witchcraft, Samuel Taylor Coleridge , 6 Vols., ed. E.L.Griggs (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956).

G - Geoffrey Grigson, A Choice of thesis, Southey's Verse (London: Faber and concerning, Faber, 1970). J - The Letters of Robert Southey to John May 1797 to 1838 , ed. How To Write? Charles Ramos (Austin Texas: Jenkins Publishing Company, The Pemberton Press, 1976). JAC - Mary Jacobus, Tradition and Experiment in Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads (1798) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). L - Molly Lefebure, The Bondage of Love (New York: W. Essay Concerning Witchcraft? W. Norton Company, 1987). LC - The Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey , ed. Spell Out Numbers Essay? C.C.Southey, 6 Vols., 2nd edn. (London: Longman, Brown, Green and essay concerning witchcraft, Longmans, 1849-50). MP - The Contributions of when spell in an essay, Robert Southey to the Morning Post , ed. Kenneth Curry (Alabama: University of essay, Alabama Press, 1984). N - Hoxie Neale Fairchild, The Noble Savage. A Study In Romantic Naturalism (New York: Russell and Russell, 1928).

NL - New Letters of Robert Southey , 2 Vols., ed. Kenneth Curry (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1965). Poems 1795 - Poems: Containing The Retrospect, Odes, Elegies, Sonnets, c. , by Robert Lovell, and Robert Southey, of Baliol College, Oxford (Bath: R.Crutwell, 1795). Poems 1797 - Poems by Robert Southey , Ist edn. (Bristol: J.Cottle, 1797); facsimile (Oxford: Woodstock Books, 1989). Poems 1799 - Poems By Robert Southey , The Second Volume (Bristol: Biggs and Cottle, 1799). PW - The Poetical Works of thesis ideas, Robert Southey, Collected by essay witchcraft Himself , 10 Vols. (London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, Longmans, 1843-45).

R - A Memoir Of The Life And Writings Of The Late William Taylor Of Norwich , 2 Vols., ed. J.W.Robberds (London: J.Murray, 1843). RO - Derek Roper, Reviewing Before The Edinburgh 1788-1802 (London: Methuen, 1978). Simmons - Jack Simmons, Southey (London: Collins, 1945). W - Selections From The Letters of Robert Southey , edited by his son-in-law John Wood Warter, in four vols. (London: Longmans, 1856). Southey acquired fame, and infamy, early in his poetic career.

His first volumes of thesis centre street, poetry which were published in the late 1790's were all reviewed with some measure of favour as well as becoming targets for satire. Southey's output remains impressive and his range of poetic genres and sub-genres is some indication of the virtuosity and facility of the poet often working within fashionable parameters or upon the borders of metrical experiment. Southey's modes of expression and poetical subjects are equally wide-ranging. He employs sensibility, horror, the picturesque or political debate; he writes about slavery, injustice, women, his own development, historical events, to underline only a few categories of focus. By early 1797 Coleridge could write that he was jealous for witchcraft Robert Southey's fame ( Griggs I, 320) but that he feared the fluency and facility of the harvard, poet might result in an early decay of his work. Besides, he added, I am fearful that he will begin to rely too much on story and event in his poems, to the neglect of those lofty imaginings , that are peculiar to, and definitive of, the poet. Story and event were of course essential factors in the ballad idiom which saw a revival in an historical witchcraft, the 1790s. Southey exploited story and event in many of his smaller poems, but often produced work of a high standard and not devoid of lofty imaginings, albeit in his own style. In this article I would like to explore the english thesis ideas, relationship of Southey's writing to the emergence of Lyrical Ballads and an historical essay concerning, other poems. I want to show Southey as a practising writer and as a domesticated poet. I would like to suggest that his volume of Poems 1799 is computer crimes essay, some ways an an historical essay, 'answer' to Lyrical Ballads and to english thesis ideas, describe the contents of that volume.

Finally, in a piece which brings together comments by Jonathan Wordsworth, Donald Priestman and others, I would like to give as an illustration of Wordsworth and Southey's intertextual 'conversation' regarding Southey's Inscriptions from Poems 1797 one example of poetry from Lyrical Ballads . [1] 1 - Southey And Lyrical Ballads 1798. The Lyrical Ballads are by Coleridge and Wordsworth. The Nightingale, the Dungeon, the Foster Mothers Tale, and the long ballad of the Old Mariner are all that were written by Coleridge. The ballad I think nonsense, the Nightingale tolerable. The other two are pieces of his tragedy. For Wordsworths poems, the last pleases me best, and tho the Idiot Boy is sadly dilated, it is very well done.

I reviewed them two months ago. to Charles Wynn, NL I, 176-77, 17 December 1798. There is still an amusing sense of outrage in an historical concerning, the way in which some critics write about harvard, Southey's attitudes to and borrowings from Coleridge and Wordsworth, particularly when Lyrical Ballads , one of essay witchcraft, our cultural icons, is examined. Yet Southey, Coleridge (especially) and Wordsworth all indulged in the textual interactivity which was part of the late eighteenth-century literary scene, and which remains one of the mba essays, chief accusations against Southey at the time of Lyrical Ballads' publication. If Coleridge is seen as the an historical, covert plagiarist, Southey is the unabashed textual pirate.

But all three men had given themselves to that natural exchange of poetical ideas at least since 1795, [2] and it would not be an exaggeration to say that Southey's small poems, especially inscriptions, ballads and poems on computer essay, popular superstitions supply Wordsworth and essay, Coleridge in bioethanol, part with models for their joint collaboration in Lyrical Ballads . I would not wish to defend Southey's methods in an historical essay, his ruthless drive for publications in 1798-9, the urgency of which I have tried to sketch elsewhere. He was supporting a household by his pen and therefore all sources of copy were fair game in the struggle. One of the additional reasons for any exploitation of the Lyrical Ballads volume of 1798 would have been Southey's personal interest in the ballad form, and certainly in the stories and situational events therein. We ought also to remember that Byron thought of the poet, however distortedly, as the ballad-monger Southey and of Wordsworth as the when spell essay, dull disciple of Southey's school of poetry and that this was perhaps indicative of the fashionable attitude to these poets by concerning 1809. [3] Southey's 1797 Poems included (163-198) three ballads; Mary , Donica and english thesis, Rudiger . They lie amongst the an historical essay witchcraft, variety of write a political research, forms and styles of the volume and illustrate his early preoccupation with German-influenced stories of essay, frisson and horror popularised by Burger, Lewis and mba essays harvard, others.

Southey's attitude to Mary is very interesting: The Maid of the Inn you selected for censure, and in my own mind it values little; yet how popular it has become! and an historical concerning witchcraft, where one person reads the english, Hymn to the Penates, unquestionably the best piece in the volume, fifty can repeat that foolish ballad. He obviously still valued his most domestic poem, Hymn to the Penates in an historical essay concerning, which, as Fairchild says: Southey represents himself as a disillusioned idealist who heals his soul by cultivating the domestic affections in their appropriate environment of natural simplicity. And this simplicity is not, as in pantisocratic days, regarded as an initial step forward to a higher perfection: it is in itself perfection.

But during the Westbury period, the commercial aspects of write research, writing began to an historical concerning, gain an increasing hold upon his work. In 1798-9, the popularity of the foolish ballad was exploited by the poet to the full. Southey could not afford to harvard, scoff at its potential for pleasing an audience. An Historical Essay Witchcraft? He began to take a more serious view of the mba essays, ballad for commercial reasons alone, and he enjoyed rooting out an historical witchcraft bizarre stories from avowedly authentic antiquarian sources. Under his enduring contempt for Mary , [4] which ( JAC 216) provides an obvious parallel for The Thorn , we can perhaps discern a certain amazement about its vulgar fame as late as 1809: They have made a melo-drama of Mary the Maid of the Inn, at one of the Strand theatres. Did I ever tell you that the story is in Plott's Staffordshire? The scene of it was the Black Meer of Morridge, near Leek; the chief personage a man, and mba essays harvard, the murder not discovered, but prevented.

If you have the book, you will find it on page 291. An Historical Essay Concerning Witchcraft? I verily believe that at least half my reputation is owing to that paltry ballad, which is bad enough to spoil a very fine story. The strolling players recite it here about the country. W II, 181, December 1809. Southey obviously loved the source-hunting and the story-moulding, but held the medium of ballad-metre in some disdain, despite linking it to mba essays harvard, part of his poetical reputation. This rather careless or insensitive attitude to an historical essay concerning witchcraft, metrical work (which can also be seen in thesis ideas, the 1799 volume of an historical witchcraft, Poems ) had already cost him dear.

But in 1798-9 if the ballad could be used as a popular vehicle for saleable work, then he would continue to use it. It was an easy container for social comment, and for the old tales that he and Charles Lamb loved. Something of the continuing popularity of the thesis, form is evident here in the fate of The Old Man's Comforts which had originally appeared in the Morning Post on 17 January 1799: I have met a very odd person, by witchcraft name Worgan. Essay? He does wonders on the pianoforte. Oddly enough, he played and witchcraft, sung The Old Man's Comforts in a large company; and after praising the crimes essay, music, they fell to praising the poetry, which nobody knew to be mine. He himself fancied it was Bowles's; so I set him right. W I, 289, November 27, 1804. The trite moral reassurance which closes the an historical witchcraft, Old Man's Comforts and the love of antiquarian tales of crimes, horror, is characteristic of an historical essay concerning witchcraft, much of Southey's work in the more stylistically coherent 1799 volume of Poems , and here he seems to function best when he is dramatic, dialogic, idiomatic and vernacular. If he saw himself as something of english thesis, a proven pioneer, an concerning witchcraft, experimenter, and an authority in 'ballad-work' by the time of the publication of Lyrical Ballads , this might account, in another sense, for the corrective strain in his borrowings, a wish to show his peers how it should be done.

Mary Jacobus and others [5] provide us with a list of Southey's borrowings from Lyrical Ballads the thesis printing centre camden street, manuscript of which was in Cottle's hands by the end of May 1798 and which Southey seems to have read very soon after, because his Morning Post poem The Idiot , based around Wordsworth's The Idiot Boy , [6] appeared on 30 June 1798. Over half of the Jacobus list of an historical essay witchcraft, borrowings, to english thesis, which I have made several additions, appeared initially in the Morning Post, other borrowings were re-vamped for inclusion in the 1799 volume of Poems and an historical, beyond. Southey's adaptions from Lyrical Ballads and other works in 1798-9. W.Wordsworth and S.T.Coleridge——- Robert Southey: Yew-Tree Lines (from 1797)——- Henry The Hermit ( Poems 1799, 177) The Idiot Boy (written spring 1798)——- The Idiot ( MP , 30 June 1799)

We Are Seven (spring 1798)——- The Battle of Blenheim ( MP , 9 August 1798) Old Man Travelling (late 1796-1798)——- The Sailor's Mother ( Poems 1799, 206, circa December 27 1798) Goody Blake and Harry Gill (first half of 1798)——- The Witch (Westbury 1798, Poems 1799, 216) The Thorn (March/April/May 1798)——- The Circumstance On Which The Following Ballad Is Founded Happened Not Many Years Ago In Bristol ( MP , 11 June 1799), and Annual Anthology Vol.II, 70 as The Mad Woman (MP , 11 June 1799) and computer crimes essay, it also supplied material for A Landscape ( MP , 26 October 1799) The Ryme of the essay witchcraft, Ancyent Marinere (winter and a political research, spring 1797-8)——- The Sailor who had served in the Slave Trade (from an actual event in September 1798, Westbury 1798, Poems 1799, 107), The Murderer ( MP , 14 July 1798)

The Complaint of a forsaken Indian Woman (spring 1798?) and an historical, Simon Lee (spring 1798?)——- The Song Of The Old American Indian ( MP , 16 July 1799) Simon Lee (spring 1798?)——- The Old Mansion-House, ( Poems 1799, 183) Expostulation and Reply ——- Night ( MP , 26 September 1798) Expostulation and Reply The Tables Turned ——- The conversational form/metre of The Morning Mists ,( MP , 11 October 1798) , Stanzas (MP, 28 September 1798) Outside Lyrical Ballads: Peter Bell of the summer of 1798——- The Secret Expedition ( MP , 17 August 1799) The Ruined Cottage begun in thesis ideas, 1795——- The Ruined Cottage ( Poems 1799, 226), Henry The Hermit ( Poems 1799, 177) Frost At Midnight (February 1798)——- Night ( MP , 26 September 1798), and influenced To A Friend ( MP, 18 September 1798) , Stanzas (MP, 28 September 1798) I have noticed similarities between The Complaint of a Forsaken Indian Woman (spring 1798?) and an historical essay concerning, Southey's The Song Of The Old American Indian ( MP 161, 16 July 1799) - Southey wrote several more Songs of the American Indians at Westbury and Exeter in 1799.

He translates Wordsworth's abandoned female into a male lamenting old age, and he imitates the short couplet lines of his model to produce a rather sentimental poem showing how Indian society rejects the mba essays, old hunter. An Historical Concerning? There is nothing of the thesis camden, blank desertion found in his model, though, simply the imitative refrain Alas the an historical essay, burthen of old age, which also makes links between Southey's poem and Simon Lee. Mba Essays Harvard? [7] Southey's poem does not of course catch the reader up in the intervening mattock-blow that brings out the pathetic gratitude of the struggling Simon Lee, crippled by aristocratic servitude. The reader remains at a distance, listening to a lament for an old Indian who cannot even bend a bow, reinforced in the notion that old age in itself is a bad thing because it renders us useless, rather than being implicated ourselves as readers in concerning, the idea that society itself, to which we all belong and have responsibilities in, can produce versions of old age which are lamentable. It is a general involvement with suffering, as Mary Jacobus notes (ibid.24) when speaking about out numbers essay, his version of The Ruined Cottage , that Southey avoids here and in much of his other work: Southey's adaptation of material from Lyrical Ballads is, however, of two sorts. Despite the evidence of his 'Ruined Cottage' one has to essay concerning witchcraft, concede the possibility that his other borrowings represent a deliberate attempt to put right what he had criticised in his review. In some cases, poems from Lyrical Ballads are returned firmly to the level of the magazine poetry from which they had been raised, stripped of their new thematic depth and narrative sophistication. In other cases, what is thesis, idiosyncratic or disturbing in the poetry of Wordsworth and essay concerning, Coleridge is replaced by topical or humanitarian interest of a quite straightforward kind: the poems become not simply shallower, but more public. It is true that Southey converts the disturbing open-endedness of computer crimes essay, Wordsworth and Coleridge's work to sententious, clear-cut, rapidly-moving stories, or emblems of suffering. Yet one other dimension needs to be included in this analysis of his corrective borrowing, and that is the famous summary of his poetical character by his friend William Taylor:

You have a mimosa-sensibility, which agonizes in so slight a blast; an essay witchcraft, imagination excessively accustomed to summon up trains of melancholy ideas, and marshal funeral processions; a mind too fond by a political half, for its own comfort, of sighs and sadness, of pathetic emotions and heart-rending woe. You miss-see the dangers in an historical, expectation through the lens of a tear. R I, 256, March 4 1799. Southey's reply is equally famous, R I, 262, March 12 1799: Once, indeed, I had a mimosa-sensibility, but it has long been rooted out: Five years ago I counteracted Rousseau by dieting upon Godwin and Epictetus; they did me some good, but time has done more. I have a dislike to all strong emotion, and spell in an, avoid whatever could excite it; a book like 'Werter' gives me now unmingled pain. In my own writings you may observe that I dwell rather upon an historical essay concerning what affects than what agitates. March 12 1799, LC I, 13. Mary Jacobus is certainly correct in representing the borrowings as stolen copy for magazine poetry (though the 'borrowing' was not always one way), and to notice the removal of idiosyncrasies and disturbing qualities from the borrowings, but Southey's comments add to how to write a political, her appraisal. The way in which Wordsworth draws the reader into concerning witchcraft imaginative involvement with his subject time and again is exactly what Southey shies away from.

His borrowings may affect the magazine or anthology audience, but they do not always powerfully agitate in thesis, the way that the poems in Lyrical Ballads may still do. Essay? Southey rejects the thesis centre street, crucial sense of involvement in an historical witchcraft, poems like The Ryme of the Ancyent Marinere and english ideas, The Idiot Boy and replaces this with an immediacy which is an historical concerning witchcraft, as Mary Jacobus says of mba essays harvard, a shallower and more public kind. An Historical Witchcraft? This has the added effect of shortening the shelf-life of the poetry. William Taylor's summary of Southey's imaginative tendencies show the latter as a poet of sensibility, whose use of Godwin and Epictetus has not quite obscured the apparently habitual turmoil which strong emotions wrought upon him and Southey's reply appears contradictory. When Spell In An? If he had rooted out an historical witchcraft his mimosa sensibility then surely he could read Werther without unmingled pain? I suggest, then, another hidden aspect of Southey's borrowings, which lies in the corrective diffusing of this agitatory involvement demanded by the Lyrical Ballads experiment. Southey takes a step back from the harvard, intensity of the subjects which he claims to have found uninteresting whilst plundering what he could re-use. He was much easier with poems deriving from Cowperian domestic interiors or conversations of advice. In Night ( MP 103-4), Southey apparently combines elements of Coleridge's Frost At Midnight with part of Wordsworth's Expostulation and Reply [8] and extracts from CB 106, describing poplar trees and a sunset which corresponds roughly to lines 18-21 ( MP 103) of his poem. His phrase The lovely landscape is a stock-in-trade lifted ( Poems 1797, 154) from an historical concerning witchcraft, his own Musings on a Landscape of Gaspar Poussin . Spell? We should also remember that Coleridge's admiration for essay witchcraft some of Southey's poems is thesis, rarely credited, as here in Griggs I, 297: bye the bye what a divine poem his Musings on a Landscape after Gaspar Poussin is! - I love it almost better than the Hymn to the Penates.

He adds ( Griggs I, 300) that the two poems deserve to have been published after the Joan of Arc, as proofs of progressive genius. Coleridge went on to use some of the tonal qualities of the Hymn to inform his own Frost at Midnight . In Night ( MP 103-4), Southey emphasises the absolute quiet of evening, suggesting the evening of human life, and his poem, with its resigned passivity, looks to the stoical wisdom of old age, rather than retrospectively upon his own life and forward into his child's life as does Coleridge's. An Historical? Here in fact lies the great distance between Frost At Midnight and bioethanol, Southey's Night . Essay Witchcraft? The real nucleus of english thesis, domesticity, a child, is absent from Night which evokes the acceptance of rest, tranquillity or death. An Historical Witchcraft? Echoes of when out numbers essay, Coleridge's phrasing and vocabulary, as well as the an historical concerning, attempt to convey an extreme stillness link the two poems strongly: HOW calm, how quiet all! still, or at times. Just interupted by such stirring sounds. As harmonise with stillness; even the bark. Of yonder watch-dog, heard at english thesis intervals, Comes form the distance pleasantly.

Where now. The lovely landscape! hill and an historical concerning, vale and wood, Broad oak, high tufted elm or lighter ash, Green field and how to write a political research paper, stubble meadows sapless grey, Or brown variety of new plough'd land? A dim obscurity o'ermantles all, An undistinguished greyness, save that near.

The church tower seems in heavier gloom to rest. More massy, and those light leaved poplars rise. Dark as a Cypress grove. How fair at morn. It opened on the eye as the grey mists. Roll'd off, how bright at noon, how beautiful. Its evening glories, when more radiant, Of majesty more visible, the Sun. Beyond the brow of yonder western hill. Blazed o'er the cluster'd clouds! nor charmless now.

The scene so dim, nor idly wanders there. The unprofitable eye; earth, air and heaven, Earth so o'ershadowed, air thus void of sounds, And yonder moonless vastity of heaven, With all its countless worlds, all minister. To fill with soothing thoughts the ready mind. No dissipating objects now distract. Her calm employ; the essay, stir of this low earth. Is silenced, and the bodily powers subdu'd.

By the day's business, leave her tranquiliz'd, And aptest for such feelings as this hour. Inspires, nor light, nor fruitless; for as now. The lively hues of crimes, nature are all fled, Gone with the light that gave them; so the toys. The puppetry of an historical essay, life have lost their glare, Their worthless splendour.

Wise is he who lets. The influence of this spirit-soothing hour. Fill all his thoughts, who passively receives. The calmness that descends upon his soul, That like the how to research paper, sober wisdom of old age,

Softens and purifies the an historical witchcraft, hallow'd heart. Southey's phrase save that near / The church tower recalls Gray's Elegy, l.9 [9] Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower and brings Coleridge's line save that at thesis street my side / My cradled infant slumbers peacefully back in line with its literary source. Essay Concerning Witchcraft? Coleridge's living domestic vignette is returned to its graveyard origins. Spell In An Essay? Southey's Night by concerning comparison with Frost At Midnight is a childless, Godless, tranquillised, passivity, a true nocturne in the Graveyard tradition. Inchoate feeling takes the place of how to write a political paper, wandering thought, in a kind of an historical essay witchcraft, stoical melancholy without past or future reference.

Two years earlier, in spell out numbers in an essay, October 1796, he had described a similar existential inertia to Bedford: If you were married, Grosvenor, you would know the an historical essay witchcraft, luxury of sitting indolently by the fireside. Write A Political Paper? There is a state of complete mental torpor, very delightful, when the mind admits no sensation but that of mere existence. Southey's phrase hill and vale and an historical essay concerning witchcraft, wood echoes the Coleridgean Sea, and hill, and research, wood ( CP 240) and seems to have been a favourite borrowing as it occurs in To A Friend [10] ( MP , 18 September 1798) as hill, vale, and wood, art hidden from thy sight and also in essay, Stanzas ( MP , 28 September 1798) as Hill, vale, and camden street, wood, and the broad sea. He also extracts the beneficial depiction of passivity from an historical, Wordsworth's Expostulation and Reply st.6, so that where Wordsworth writes about wise passiveness, Southey incorporates this as: Wise is he who lets. The influence of this spirit-soothing hour. Fill all his thoughts, who passively receives.

The calmness that descends upon his soul, That like the sober wisdom of old age, Softens and purifies the hallow'd heart. Night has a rather terrifying blankness, a joyless quality, where home becomes synonymous not just with rest after toil, but with an isolation from the community quite different in quality to that found in Frost At Midnight . Wisdom and essay, purification are high goals, but comfortless housemates and the evocation of calm in this poem is the silence of absolute retreat. In sum, this is an excellent example of essay concerning witchcraft, Southey's working methods in the production of magazine verse, and other poetry. 2 - Southey on Lyrical Ballads in the Critical Review xxiv, October 1798.

Derek Roper's comments upon Lyrical Ballads by way of contemporary reviewers' opinions show that the bioethanol, volume did not emerge into an entirely antagonistic critical atmosphere as has been sometimes stated: Lyrical Ballads came before the critics as a small anonymous volume of no particular prestige. Its Advertisement was somewhat provocative, and its contents uneven in quality. Witchcraft? Wordsworth had not yet, to use his own phrase, created the taste by which he was to be relished. Nevertheless, the when out numbers in an, reviews given to Lyrical Ballads average six pages in witchcraft, length, much more than was usually given to volumes of verse - twice the thesis camden street, space given to Rogers's Pleasures of an historical, Memory , or Moore's Thomas Little volume. All reviewers expressed strong interest, and their reaction was generally favourable. The Monthly bestowed praise and blame in roughly equal proportions, the Analytical was preponderantly favourable, and the British Critic gave almost nothing but warm praise. The only review in which adverse criticism predominated was that in the Critical , written by the third member of the supposed Lake School, Robert Southey. His was the when spell out numbers in an essay, earliest review to an historical witchcraft, appear; but except for one comment on The Ancient Mariner repeated in the Analytical , no critic seems to have followed his lead.

Southey (197-204) disliked the experimental poems in english thesis ideas, the volume including what he saw as the wasted effort (200) of The Idiot Boy , and tiresome loquacity of an historical witchcraft, The Thorn . Harvard? In the case of The Idiot Boy , this did not stop him from quoting sixteen stanzas and giving a full synopsis of the an historical essay witchcraft, events in the poem. But he thought it, and other poems, bald in harvard, story. In Southey's eyes Goody Blake was perhaps a good story for concerning witchcraft a ballad in the sense that it was a well-known tale and would have had an immediate popular appeal. But he criticised the harvard, poem by casting doubts upon its authenticity and because it might promote superstitious belief in witchcraft. This, in the light of his own (often obscure and an historical essay concerning witchcraft, supernaturally horrific) ballad-work sounds somewhat hypocritical, even if he had in The Witch shown up the brutal stupidity of persecution with (humorous) reason. He also attacked The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere because it did not conform to his idea of authenticity (it claimed to display the style and spirit of the elder poets), and affronted Southey's confidence in his own reading. He had not seen its precursor in the early English poets, therefore it was a bad poem. It seemed to crimes essay, him perfectly original in essay concerning, style as well as in story with many laboriously beautiful stanzas which were unfortunately absurd or unintelligible when put together. In dealing with both The Idiot Boy and The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere Southey makes the point that genius (a word very much in vogue with reviewers) has produced worthlessness.

On The Idiot Boy he pronounces: No tale less deserved the labour that appears to mba essays harvard, have been bestowed upon this. An Historical Essay Witchcraft? It resembles a Flemish picture in the worthlessness of its design and the excellence of crimes essay, its execution. From Flemish artists we are satisfied with such pieces: who would not have lamented, if Corregio or Rafaelle had wasted their talents in painting Dutch boors or the witchcraft, humours of a Flemish wake? On The Rime of the computer essay, Ancyent Marinere he admits: We do not sufficiently understand the story to analyse it. It is an historical essay, a Dutch attempt at write a political research German sublimity.

Genius has here been employed in producing a poem of little merit. So Wordsworth, referred to in this rather brilliant painterly allusion, has metaphorically left the path of the high art of Corregio (c.1489-1534) and Raphael (1483-1520) for an historical essay witchcraft imitations of the essay, low genre scenes of the seventeenth century Netherlandish painters. Continuing this thread, Coleridge has put aside the sublime, authentic and successful models from German ballad-work, to substitute his own Dutch attempt, whose storyline is an historical, unintelligible, double-Dutch, a verdict ( RO 100) voiced by every contemporary critic except Charles Lamb. Southey was at least consistent in thesis, his opinions, as this extract from a letter of September 1798 to William Taylor indicates: Coleridge's ballad of The Ancient Mariner is, I think, the clumsiest attempt at German sublimity I ever saw. Essay Concerning? Many of the bioethanol, others are very fine; and some I shall re-read, upon the same principle that led me through Trissino, whenever I am afraid of essay witchcraft, writing like a child or an old woman. Overall, both authors it is implied, are damned for quitting the computer crimes, poetical renaissance for essay concerning a failed experiment upon the uninteresting subjects (204) of genre-painting. I say both authors. Southey writes ill as the author has employed his talents, (my emphasis) in an apparent attempt to out numbers in an, cover the fact that he knew there to be two authors when he reviewed the volume? Or was he genuinely unaware of essay, this fact? All in all, his verdict upon thesis Lyrical Ballads , though hard upon certain poems does indeed give praise for The Foster-Mother's Tale , The Dungeon , the Yew-Tree Lines , The Female Vagrant and witchcraft, Tintern Abbey , of which he said: the author seems to discover still superior powers in the Lines written near Tintern Abbey.

On reading this production, it is impossible not to lament that he should ever have condescended to write such pieces as the Last of the Flock, the Convict, and most of the ballads. English Thesis? In the whole range of English poetry, we scarcely recollect any thing superior to a part of the concerning witchcraft, following passage. Southey quotes lines 66-112 of Tintern Abbey which delineate the change in the persona's character from youthful wildness in nature to profound sobriety informed by nature. Perhaps here we might recall the earlier passage in which Southey explains the thesis ideas, chastening of an historical essay, his own Rousseauistic impulses and the purported calming of his own character. He responds to that dignified tone of wisdom in Wordsworth's poem suggestive of computer crimes, a similar maturity, if not of a similar frame of mind. That Southey was so quick to essay concerning witchcraft, blame and praise Lyrical Ballads is another factor in harvard, his own lost poetical reputation, another instance of self-injury. His praise for essay Tintern Abbey and other poems in the volume is buried under the fact that he, who should have been sympathetic to thesis, the aims of the two collaborators, failed to respond generously or perceptively to the experiment and went so far as to scorn The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere , a poem which retains its spellbinding powers of fascination to this day. It is not hard for an historical witchcraft the reader to take an immediate dislike to Southey on these grounds alone, and to cast him, as so many critics do, as the black sheep of the Lakers. But Wordsworth also came to believe that The Rime of the crimes essay, Ancyent Marinere had hindered the sales of the an historical essay, volume for similar reasons to the ones that Coleridge himself had already stated here, ( Griggs I, 332-33) in July 1797 in a letter to Southey, who was editing Chatterton: You are acting kindly in your exertions for Chatterton's sister: but I doubt the success.

Chatterton's or Rowley's poems were never popular - the ideas, very circumstance which made them so much talked of - their ancientness - prevented them from being generally read - in the degree, I mean, that Goldsmith's poem or even Rogers's thing upon memory has been. - The sale was never very great. In the light of the above comment it does seem slightly perverse that Coleridge should have set the poem in an historical, a mock old English, especially when Wordsworth was so keen for when spell essay the volume to succeed. Wordsworth, who was easily put off the an historical concerning witchcraft, idea of publication altogether, was rightly offended by the review: . Southey's review I have seen. He knew that I published those poems for money and money alone. He knew that money was of importance to me. If he could not conscientiously have spoken differently of the volume, he ought to have declined the task of centre camden street, reviewing it.

The bulk of the poems he has described as destitute of merit. Am I recompensed for this by vague praises of my talents? I care little for the praise of any other professional critic, but as it may help me to pudding. [13] Seen in this very un-romantic light, it is not impossible to regard Southey's review of Lyrical Ballads as the tactics of someone already in the ballad market as I have suggested, also in pursuit of pudding and quite prepared to put the opposition in its place, and even damage it a little. Critics have seen the review as revenge for Coleridge's Nehemiah Higginbottom sonnets and on the other hand as having no impact whatsoever on the sale of Lyrical Ballads . [14] But if Southey could not have been expected to write the puff that Wordsworth seemed to want, his review was certainly not what one would have expected from a friend, assuming that Southey knew who the essay concerning, authors were. Computer Crimes? One further negative aspect here is that Coleridge and the Wordsworths were away in Germany whilst Southey's review came out, [15] so that his behaviour would appear both hostile and sneakish. Indeed, D. F. Foxon suggests that Southey, acting in his traditional role as Cottle's adviser had advised the publisher to rid himself of the volume before the review appeared so that he would not lose money if the book failed to sell [16] whether from aesthetic considerations or as a result of an historical essay, his review.

Then with a deep heart-terrifying voice, Exclaim'd the Spectre, Welcome to these realms, These regions of DESPAIR! O thou whose steps. By GRIEF conducted to mba essays harvard, these sad abodes. Have pierced; welcome, welcome to this gloom. Eternal, to this everlasting night, Where never morning darts the enlivening ray, Where never shines the an historical concerning witchcraft, sun, but all is dark, Dark as the bosom of their gloomy King. The Vision of the Maid of Orleans , Poems 1799, 11-12.

Geoffrey Carnall (CA 54) speaks of Southey's poetry as having a joyless quality which sets him apart from Wordsworth. Though this is by no means completely true, it may serve as a general comment upon this volume: There is thesis centre street, little joy in an historical, Southey's poetry. Mba Essays? When one turns from him to Wordsworth, it is the warmth and tenderness which is more welcome than anything. Southey is obsessed by insecurity and concerning witchcraft, death - the obsession makes his idiot poem extremely powerful. Yet the volume of Poems 1799 has to be viewed largely in this light, because there is indeed a fascination with death and spell, horror which vies with Monk Lewis and the German ballads and goes against the anti-Germanic flavour of Lyrical Ballads . One of these strands of horror takes its cue from The Idiot ( MP , 30 June 1798) in which the son Ned digs up his mother's coffin, takes out the corpse and seats it by essay the fire: He plac'd his mother in her chair, And in her wonted place, And blew the kindling fire, that shone.

Reflected on her face; And pausing now, her hand would feel, And now her face behold, Why, mother, do you look so pale, And why are you so cold?

This scene, with its motif of a kind of how to research, return from death (worthy of concerning witchcraft, Hitchcock's film Psycho ), is one keynote of the volume with its expected quota of social protest, parody and experimentation. In some ways the volume is Southey's answer to Lyrical Ballads , and I will explore the poems with this in mind. His idea of interesting subjects, it appears, hinged primarily around outrage, horror and death, a kind of poetical extremis, which usually draws attention by shock. Both The Vision of the Maid of Orleans (5-69) and The Rose (75-80) which begin the english thesis, volume, contain violent scenes where young women are about to be burned, but are presented as heroines with miraculous events surrounding their lives. Presumably Southey thought that supernatural was admissible as long as it appeared to have a reliable source and narrative coherence understandable to essay witchcraft, the reader. In his anxiety to please an audience, the poet dilutes the depth of his work, as in The Complaints of the Poor (81-84), which is, as Carnall ( CA 53) notices, is a distant observation of frozen, diseased and ragged poverty from the vantage point of the harvard, well-dressed. It is obvious why the old bare-headed man (81), the young bare-footed child (82), the woman with the baby (82) and the girl with the sunken eyes (83) are out in the streets in bad weather, but Southey's questions to each character provoke a restatement of their plight from an historical, each character's own mouth. He acts as the tour-guide of misfortune, and points out to harvard, the rich man that (84) these have answered thee. It is not possible to misunderstand his message, but it is hard to engage any feelings for concerning witchcraft the sufferers using the poem's language.

The eight 'Ballads' forming the central section of Poems 1799 are a mixture of entertainments of varying seriousness, including poems of computer, social protest, inscripsive epitaphs, horror-stories and a parody of the same genre. Southey's fascination with authenticity is again revealed, as in his epigraph to witchcraft, The Cross Roads (93-102): The circumstance related in the following Ballad happened about forty years ago in a village adjacent to Bristol. A person who was present at essay the funeral, told me the story and the particulars of the interment, as I have versified them. This ballad is concerning, one extra dig at the superstitious notions of witchcraft found particularly in village life. Southey borrows the essay, nightingale motif contained in William Taylor's translation of The Lass of Fair Wone , [17] signifying death and sorrow - and especially the persecution of women: I have past by about that hour. When men are not most brave,

It did not make my heart to fail, And I have heard the nightingale. Sing sweetly on her grave. He sets out a dialogue on an historical essay concerning witchcraft, a hot day between an old man breaking stones and a passing soldier who covets the thesis, post against which the old man leans as a resting place. When the old man has moved for an historical the soldier, he reveals: There's a poor girl lies buried here. Beneath this very place.

The earth upon her corpse is prest. The stake is mba essays, driven into her breast. And a stone is on her face. The post is the rather grisly mode of contact with the dead girl's story and it transpires that she was a servant to some wicked farming folk, and was found hung up one day behind a stable door. But it is the method of burial that Southey wishes to expose: And there were strange reports about. That the coroner never guest.

So he decreed that she should lie. Where four roads meet in essay witchcraft, infamy, With a stake drove in her breast. This was of thesis printing centre, course the traditional way to bury witches, vampires and other unfortunates in order to prevent them from returning to trouble the living. The way that the soldier edges away from the essay witchcraft, post is intended to show not just the bioethanol thesis, superstitious nature of soldiers perhaps, but that superstitious persons do not really have any faith in their own barbaric methods against the victims of their fears. The old man, however is essay concerning witchcraft, quite unafraid of the dead girl, fearing instead her killer one who like a Christian lies (97) in hallowed ground. Bioethanol Thesis? Superstition has led to an historical essay concerning, social injustice, and the girl assumes the thesis, symbolic quality of slighted Justice herself, remaining in the last line of the ballad with the metaphorical stake in her heart and the stone on her face. This sense of social outrage is an historical essay witchcraft, continued in The Sailor who had served in the Slave Trade , where again, by epigraph, Southey protests the authenticity of his story: In September, 1798, a Dissenting Minister of Bristol, discovered a Sailor in the neighbourhood of that City, groaning and praying in a hovel. Mba Essays? The circumstance that occasioned his agony of mind is detailed in the annexed Ballad, without the slightest addition or alteration.

By presenting it as a Poem, the story is an historical, made more public, and such stories ought to be made as public as possible. This then, is one answer to The Ryme of the Ancyent Marinere : an intelligible, authentic story of contemporary social concern publicly told without embellishment, with the when spell essay, reinforcing statement that such tales need publicity. An Historical Essay Concerning Witchcraft? In this, it continues the anti-slavery theme of how to write a political research, Poems 1797, and is one more example of the an historical essay concerning, very common theme of thesis printing centre camden, violence against women in Southey's work. He regularised the rather shifting metre of Coleridge's poem and gave a picture of a sailor cursed, not because he had shot an albatross, but because, more understandably in terms of cause and effect, he had been forced to whip a female slave until she died. But the parallels between the two poems are obvious, and here is just one very Coleridgean example from the guilt-ridden sailor's story: Oh I have done a wicked thing! It haunts me night and day, And I have sought this lonely place. Here undisturbed to an historical concerning, pray.

Following Coleridge's cue of the mba essays harvard, haunted mariner, Southey captures very well the an historical essay concerning witchcraft, agonised grief of the man who is followed everywhere by the wicked one (109) waiting for his soul, and then goes further by explicitly describing the flogging: She groan'd, she shriek'd - I could not spare. For the Captain he stood by – Dear God! that I might rest one night. From that poor woman's cry! She twisted from her blows - her blood.

Her mangled flesh I see – And still the Captain would not spare – Oh he was worse than me! After the exposure of the brutality from the superior ranks which has in its turn brutalised the sailor and the slave, the poem's dismissal of the man by the Minister to the house of prayer, transfers the man's problem to thesis, God, and rather ruins the effect. This is also true of The Victory (174-76), which is nevertheless a touching poem based upon essay a true story of bioethanol thesis, a midshipman who was killed serving alongside Southey's brother Tom on an historical essay concerning, the Mars . Southey told Wynn that: he was pressed into the service ( W I, 55), and left behind a wife and family. In the poem he contrasts the way that Old England triumphed! (174) with the in an essay, description of the man, his family and his horrific death. The poem falls into the category of epitaph rather than ballad, and the central part would have made a successful blank-verse inscription: There was one who died. In that day's glory, whose obscurer name. No proud historian's page will chronicle.

Peace to his honest soul! I read his name, 'Twas in concerning witchcraft, the list of slaughter, and blest God. The sound was not familiar to mine ear. But it was told me after that this man. Was one whom lawful violence had forced. From his own little home and wife and when spell in an, little ones, Who by his labour lived; that he was one. Whose uncorrupted heart could keenly feel.

A husband's love, a father's anxiousness, That from the essay concerning, wages of his toil he fed. The distant dear ones, and would talk of mba essays, them. At midnight when he trod the silent deck. With him he valued, talk of concerning witchcraft, them, of joys. Which he had known-oh God! and of the hour.

When they should meet again, till his full heart. His manly heart at ideas last would overflow. Even like a child's with very tenderness. Peace to his honest spirit! Suddenly. It came, and merciful the ball of death, For it came suddenly and shattered him,

And left no moment's agonizing thought. On those he loved so well. The sentiments here have direct connections with those in Joan of essay witchcraft, Arc 1796 upon the effects of war, and with some of the poems ridiculed by the Anti-Jacobin . The sailor's wife is another war-widow, handed over to the divine for comfort. Southey does not exactly blame Old England for ideas this situation, nor does he praise it wholeheartedly, he is an historical witchcraft, content to tell the story plainly and mba essays harvard, let the reader draw his or her conclusions, which are not difficult to come to. He underlines the cost of essay concerning witchcraft, patriotism to the English cause in the struggle against thesis France. If the above pieces were claimed as authentic stories, then the ballads Jaspar and Lord William were by contrast stated to be products of witchcraft, imagination: The stories of the two following ballads are wholly imaginary. I may say of each as John Bunyan did of his Pilrim's Progress, It came from thesis, my own heart, so to my head, And thence into my fingers trickled;

Then to my pen, from whence immediately. On paper did I dribble it daintily. In Jaspar , Southey again uses the rather Gothic nightingale motif as a prelude firstly to a murder, and then as a signal of the denouement. Jaspar's victim is essay, thrown into the water, and years pass. Later he tries to persuade an honest but financially troubled man, Jonathan, to kill his landlord, but Jonathan fears God's all-seeing eye and the revealing supernatural light which suddenly appears leads to thesis printing centre, the madness of Jaspar:

His cheek is pale, his eye is wild, His look bespeaks despair; For Jaspar since that hour has made. His home unshelter'd there. And fearful are his dreams at an historical essay night. And dread to him the day; He thinks upon his untold crime. And never dares to crimes essay, pray.

Southey's echo of the essay concerning witchcraft, opening lines of Wordsworth's The Mad Mother is set into centre camden street a much more straightforwardly cause and effect ballad. Hidden crime is revenged by divine intervention, unlike the loose ends which inhabit the an historical essay concerning witchcraft, psychologies of real life situations. This neatness of thesis, plot, by no means out of place in an historical essay, the fragmentary nature of the traditional ballad is repeated in Lord William . William is also a murderer, who does away with his brother's orphan and is visited by the spirits of both brother and child. The child Edmund is drowned by William, so it is fitting that at the poem's end, William himself, escaping from how to write a political paper, a flood drowns also. He goes to rescue a child who turns out to be the ghostly boy: Then William shriek'd; the hand he touch'd. Was cold and damp and dead! He felt young Edmund in his arms. A heavier weight than lead. The boat sunk down, the concerning, murderer sunk. Beneath the avenging stream;

He rose, he scream'd, no human ear. Heard William's drowning scream. These descriptions of supernatural justice, as a way of explaining and mba essays, punishing guilt, are similar to the events in George Crabbe's later account in The Borough of the violence and murder perpetrated by Peter Grimes. Grimes suffers persecution by an historical essay concerning the ghostly forms of the boys he has beaten and drowned: There were three places where they ever rose,-

The whole long river has not such as those,- Places accursed, where, if a man remain, He'll see the things which strike him to thesis centre camden, the brain; And there they made me on my paddle lean, And look at them for hours; - accursed scene! [18] Crabbe continues in his own way the neat revenges of the ballad scene of the 1790s. An Historical Essay Witchcraft? Southey, though, has a flashy jocularity in mba essays, his ballad work which is quite unlike the sombre tone of Crabbe's heroic couplets. Southey's adaptation of a story from Olaus Magnus, A Ballad, shewing how an old woman rode double, and who rode before her , is another supernatural revenge, a fashionable abduction story, like William Taylor's version of the Lenore of Burger. Again, and unlike the essay, heroine Burger's ballad, the old woman has committed horrible deeds, and is punished accordingly: I have suck'd the breath of sleeping babes, The fiends have been my slaves,

I have nointed myself with infant's fat, And feasted on rifled graves. And the ideas, fiend will fetch me now in fire. My witchcrafts to an historical, atone, And I who have rifled the dead man's grave. Shall never have rest in my own. The old woman of Berkeley's coffin is chained down, and research, mass is sung to essay, keep off the powers of evil, until at last the how to research, Fiend prevails. The old woman's corpse rises and an historical essay witchcraft, groans, and write a political paper, then: She followed the an historical essay, fiend to the church door, There stood a black horse there,

His breath was like red furnace smoke, His eyes like a meteor's glare. The fiend he flung her on the horse. And he leapt up before, And away like lightning's speed they went. And she was seen no more. Southey's parody of this poem, The Surgeon's Warning, following this supernatural romp, reduces superstitious beliefs in the undead to how to a political research paper, the level of an historical concerning, simple rational explanation. Graves do not open by themselves, but by the agencies of body-snatchers, in mba essays harvard, this case with the an historical essay witchcraft, help of the Surgeon's own zealous 'Prentices. Southey inserts a ludicrous feature into the ballad about patent coffins which seems to how to write a political research, fascinate him enough to allude to this invention in the epigraph, alongside an anti-popish dig:

Respecting the patent coffins herein mentioned, after the manner of Catholic Poets, who confess the actions they attribute to their Saints and Deity to be but fiction, I hereby declare that it is by no means my design to depreciate that useful invention; and all persons to whom this ballad shall come, are requested to take notice, that nothing here asserted concerning the aforementioned Coffins is true, except that the maker and patentee lives by an historical concerning witchcraft St. Martin's lane. Southey's surgeon initially inhabits a deathbed scene, as did the old woman of Berkeley, but is then buried with much fuss in a patent coffin, being wrapped in lead and being watched over by three men who are on the look out (168) for the resurrection man. Thesis? The Surgeon retells his crimes in the cause of anatomical research: I have made candles of infants fat. And the Sextons have been my slaves, I have bottled babes unborn, and dried. Hearts and essay, livers from rifled graves.

And my Prentices will surely come. And carve me bone from bone, And I, who have rifled dead man's graves. Shall never rest in my own. His apparent scientific interest in the uses and abuses of the human bodies he has stolen is made to seem like the work of a witch. The men who guard the body are bribed after three attempts by thesis printing centre Joseph the rogue prentice to release the Surgeon's corpse: The watchmen as they past along. Full four yards off could smell, And a curse bestow'd upon the load.

So they carried the essay concerning witchcraft, sack a-pick-a-back. And they carved him bone from bone, But what became of the bioethanol, Surgeon's soul. Was never to mortal known. So the Surgeon, who has not sold his soul to the devil as did the old woman, finds himself anatomised in the rational quest for knowledge, with the consequent (but not proven) dispersal of essay concerning witchcraft, his soul. It is a fate almost worthy of Voltaire's pen, and bioethanol thesis, lively, if revolting, entertainment. Jaspar , Lord William , The Surgeon's Warning and the old woman of Berkeley all fall into this category of 'entertainments', lively episodic tales which begin in medias res and essay concerning, swiftly run their course.

They are quite different from most of the poetry of Lyrical Ballads , and if their details are not instantly forgotten, because they are disturbing or vile, they do not make the thesis printing centre street, same demands upon the reader that Wordsworth's poems do. But then that was not their intention. An Historical Essay Witchcraft? They do however, reflect part of the fashionable taste of the period and indicate something of Southey's ideas about what was marketable verse. But in the last section of Poems 1799, Southey moves much closer to crimes, the world of Lyrical Ballads with his experimental English Eclogues that largely centre around themes of domestic unrest. Southey's too-honest epigraph, like the introductory paragraph in Poems 1797, has a kind of hauteur and belligerence peculiar to the poet, claiming originality. His third paragraph is very important, as it stands as an answer to witchcraft, Wordsworth's 1798 Advertisement : The following Eclogues, I believe, bear no resemblance to any poems in our language. This species of composition has become popular in Germany, and I was induced to attempt it by an account of the German Idylls given me in conversation. They cannot be properly styled imitations, as I am ignorant of the language at present, and have never seen any translations or specimens of when spell out numbers essay, this kind. With bad Eclogues I am sufficiently acquainted, from an historical essay, Tityrus and Corydon down to our English Strephons and spell out numbers in an essay, Thyrsises. An Historical? No kind of poetry can boast of printing centre camden, more illustrious names, or is more distinguished by the servile dulness of imitated nonsense.

Pastoral writers, more silly than their sheep, have like their sheep gone on in the same track one after another. Essay Witchcraft? Gay stumbled into a new path. Centre Street? His eclogues were the only ones which interested me when I was a boy, and did not know they were burlesque. The subject would furnish matter for a long essay, but this is not the place for it. How far poems requiring almost a colloquial plainness of language may accord with the public taste, I am doubtful. They have been subjected to able criticism, and revised with care. I have endeavoured to essay concerning witchcraft, make them true to nature. To Wordsworth's announcement in centre, his 1798 Advertisement to Lyrical Ballads that the following Poems are to be considered as experiments, Southey responds with an explanation of experimental originality. To Wordsworth's interest in ascertaining how far the language of conversation in the middle and lower classes of society is adapted to the purposes of poetic pleasure, [19] Southey responds with open doubts about public taste and an historical concerning witchcraft, colloquial plainness of language. Essay? In this, he goes beyond his statements in the Critical Review that: The 'experiment,' we think, has failed, not because the language of conversation is little adapted to an historical concerning witchcraft, the 'purposes of poetic pleasure,' but because it has been tried upon uninteresting subjects.

He now appears very doubtful about the employment of plain or conversational speech altogether in the face of the public taste which, like Wordsworth, he is actively courting. In what senses the subjects of his Eclogues have interesting subjects, I will explain. Southey responds to when essay, Wordsworth's demand that the reader search Lyrical Ballads for an historical concerning witchcraft a natural delineation of human passions, human characters, and human incidents, by merely stating of his own poems: I have made them true to nature. His linking together of the idea of originality and essay, his open comments on essay witchcraft, his German models, are perhaps a direct slap in the face for Coleridge whose Rime of the Ancyent Marinere Southey thought perfectly original in style as well as story (200) but a clumsy adaptation of other German models. This seems an instance of centre, Southey trying to concerning, correct Coleridge's methods of how to paper, presentation. The English Eclogues begin with The Old Mansion-House , a poem in blank-verse continuing Southey's interests in old mansions and hospitality which he first published in the 1795 volume of Poems . Essay Concerning? The eclogue also contains a central metaphor explored in The Retrospect of 1794, the changing fortunes of a mansion reflecting the changing fortunes of humankind. Southey's method however is the conversational method of the German idylls, such as the famous Der Wandrer (1774) of Goethe (between Woman and Wanderer) which was translated by mba essays William Taylor and appeared in witchcraft, the Monthly Magazine xxxv, 120-21, for August 1798. The poem's central character, the english, Old Man (185) nearly threescore and ten, is reminiscent of Wordsworth's Simon Lee, not just in terms of age, but in the sense that he is an historical essay, doing hard physical work (breaking stones) and he has served the mba essays harvard, local aristocrats all his life. His greatest fear is an historical, that now the english thesis, old occupants of the mansion have both died, that the new squire will change everything he is familiar with.

This work is already underway. The Old Man is, however, talking to the new Squire without knowing it, and the new occupant generously assures him that though the exterior of the witchcraft, house is changed, inside the camden street, old hospitality still reigns: All this from a child up, and an historical essay witchcraft, now to lose it, 'Tis losing an old friend. There's nothing left. As 'twas;- I go abroad and computer crimes, only meet. With men whose fathers I remember boys; The brook that used to run before my door,

That's gone to the great pond; the essay witchcraft, trees I learnt. To climb are down; and I see nothing now. That tells me of old times, except the stones. In the church-yard. You are young Sir and write research, I hope, Have many years in an historical, store,- but pray to God. You mayn't be left the last of all your friends.

Well! well! you've one friend more than you're aware of. If the Squire's taste don't suit with your's, I warrant. That's all you'll quarrel with: walk in and taste. His beer old friend! and see if your old Lady. E'er broached a better cask. Centre? You did not know me,

But we're acquainted now. 'Twould not be easy. To make you like the outside; but within- That is an historical, not changed my friend! you'll always find. The same old bounty and old welcome here. Again the familiar pattern emerges.

Where Simon Lee's plight is left as an unresolved state, the Old Man's fears are soothed, and his agitations are smoothed over by the new order. Despite being childless like Simon Lee, his attachment to write research, the aristocracy has not resulted in him being left as useless in essay concerning witchcraft, old age. Computer Crimes Essay? It is, however, a patronising solution to the problem. Could mere hospitality make up the loss of the Old Man's intimately-loved world? Or is Southey criticising the an historical essay witchcraft, new Squire as a second version of Gay's profligate in The Birth of the camden street, Squire. An Eclogue ? This same apparently cheerful and superficial answering of problems is found in The Sailor's Mother , another blank-verse eclogue which picks up the journey to hospital theme of Wordsworth's Old Man Travelling . Here Southey has a dialogue between a Woman and a Traveller about the woman's son, who is now in Plymouth hospital. And here more doubts begin to arise again about an historical witchcraft, Southey's trite answers. The Traveller cheerfully tries to rouse the Woman by offering her food and rest and then launches into a consolatory speech:

Perhaps your fears. Make evil worse. Even if a limb be lost. There may still be enough for comfort left. An arm or leg shot off, there's yet the heart. To keep life warm, and he may live to talk. With pleasure of the glorious fight that maim'd him, Proud of his loss.

Old England's gratitude. Makes the maim'd sailor happy. This speech could be viewed as a piece of patriotic jingo, or as a ludicrous satire upon the way government forces try to when spell out numbers in an essay, justify war-wounds to the maimed. The same kind of an historical essay, nervous conversation is echoed in Edward Thomas's poem As the Team's Head-Brass : [20] I could spare an arm. I shouldn't want to lose. A leg. Mba Essays? If I should lose my head, why, so, I should want nothing more.

The sailor's wounds are more horrific than simply losing limbs, he has lost his eyes in a sea-fight from some appalling secret weapon (208) used by the French forces, some cursed thing / which bursts and an historical essay concerning witchcraft, burns. Computer Crimes Essay? Southey inserts a footnote: The stink-pots used on board the French ships. Essay? In the engagement between the Mars and L'Hercule, some of our sailors were shockingly mangled by them: One in particular, as described in the Eclogue, lost both his eyes. It would be policy and humanity to employ means of write a political research paper, destruction, could they be discovered, powerful enough to destroy fleets and armies, but to use any thing that only inflicts additional torture upon essay concerning witchcraft the victims of our war systems, is cruel and wicked. This footnote undercuts the entire poem altogether, indeed the subject is spell in an essay, scarcely fit for witchcraft reassuringly genteel poetry at all because it is so explicit. At the side of Old Man Travelling , which draws back from the particularities of horrific detail, Southey's poem reads like an item on the agenda of the Cabinet of mba essays harvard, War. The Woman pours out her grief to the Traveller, telling him how this is her only child, the history of the boy's life, and the fact that he was forced into an historical essay concerning witchcraft service because of his love of trapping animals: He did what he should not when he was older: I warn'd him oft enough; but he was caught. In wiring hares at last, and mba essays, had his choice.

The prison or the ship. His replies about the leniency of the sentence, about patriotic glory and the fact that the country takes care of its bereaved mothers, set against the Woman's plight read like stark insensitivity or intended burlesque. An Historical Essay? Is it a sophisticated attempt at another anti-war poem, which seems to resist reading to bioethanol thesis, closure and remains in an undecidable state? It could be seen as either as a patriotic gesture for king and country, or born of a patriotism which rests upon a concern for humanity. Is Southey hedging his political bets, whilst foregrounding the an historical, condition of the victim? A similar kind of conversation occurs in crimes essay, The Witch , but here the interpretation of the poem is more obvious.

This poem is essay witchcraft, Southey's answer to Goody Blake and Harry Gill which he condemned in his review. Bioethanol? The characters of Nathaniel and his Father discuss old Margery, who is thought to be a witch, with a Curate. Nathaniel thinks it a shame that in a Christian country they should let / Such creatures live! (219) and the Father sees his proof of witchcraft: And when there's such plain proof! I did but threaten her because she robb'd. Our hedge, and next night there came a wind. That made me shake to hear it in my bed! How came it that that storm unroofed my barn, And only mine in the parish? look at her. And that's enough; she has it in her face-

A pair of large dead eyes, sunk in her head, Just like a corpse, and witchcraft, purs'd with wrinkles round, A nose and chin that scarce leave room between. For her lean fingers to squeeze in the snuff, And when she speaks!

I'd sooner hear a raven. Croak at when in an essay my door! Goody Blake's hedge-robbing is an historical essay concerning, repeated here and also the righteous indignation of Harry Gill, which is ever the voice of the haves against the have-nots. Southey's solution to the situation comes from reason and pity. There is no possibility that Margery can bring down curses by prayer, although Wordsworth's poem only write a political paper hints at that possibility, and Harry Gill's Lear-like discovery of what wretches feel is replaced by the ridicule of country thickheads like Nathaniel and his father. The Curate's depiction of the old woman is rational: Poor wretch! half blind. And crooked with her years, without a child. Or friend in her old age, 'tis hard indeed. To have her very miseries made her crimes!

I met her but last week in that hard frost. That made my young limbs ache, and when I ask'd. What brought her out in essay concerning, the snow, the poor old woman. Told me that she was forced to crawl abroad. And pick the hedges, just to keep herself. From perishing with cold, because no neighbour. Had pity on her age; and then she cried, And said the children pelted her with snow-balls, And wish'd that she were dead.

Wordsworth's rather rollicking metre is put aside for the relative calm of mba essays harvard, blank verse, where the situation is taken away from any hint of moonlit superstition into the light of day to plainly expose the yokels' stupidities. An Historical Essay Witchcraft? And the poem's comic finale rubs in the message. When the Curate leaves to when spell out numbers in an, visit the dying old woman the Father insists (225) that Nathaniel drive t'other nail in! to the horseshoe which is set up against witches, after all She may recover. The kind of brutality that these yokels are only concerning witchcraft inches away from is explored more fully in The Grandmother's Tale , which is another tale of murder and revenge focused upon a female victim, though this time she is not a defenceless old woman. This poem, Southey's second Eclogue is far from just being the harvard, tale for essay children which it purports to be. It concerns the story of a woman, Moll, who because of her ugliness had in one escapade passed for a man when the press-gang arrived and saved her husband from write research paper, military service. An Historical Essay Concerning? She now kept asses, which she loved tenderly, and when she threatened a smuggler that if he molest them again she would inform upon him, he murdered her: he provoked her, She laid an information, and one morn. They found her in the stable, her throat cut. Form ear to ear, 'till the a political, head only concerning witchcraft hung. Just by computer a bit of concerning, skin.

The man suffers in the same way that the printing camden street, slave-sailor did, namely he is an historical concerning witchcraft, haunted by the sight and the cries of the woman until at last he confesses his crime. He is Hung and bioethanol, anatomized in an historical essay, the words (201) of the Grandmother. Southey's footnote relates the truth of the events: There must be many persons living who remember these circumstances. They happened two or three and twenty years ago, in the neighbourhood of Bristol. The woman's name was Bees. Computer Crimes Essay? The stratagem by which she preserved her husband from the an historical concerning witchcraft, press-gang, is computer, also true.

True horrors are then represented alongside horrors in the fictive gothic mode. The explicit nature of the poems is indeed shocking or harrowing, and Southey no doubt had confidence in an historical essay concerning witchcraft, his market when he published this volume. As Robert Mayo has shown, [21] the distress-ridden situations which centre around female figures in the magazine verse of this period were very saleable indeed. The subject-matter of Lyrical Ballads was therefore in mba essays, line with this fashion, but the poetical treatment of its subjects was different. Mayo draws attention to Southey's Hannah, A Plaintive Tale , which had appeared in the Monthly Magazine for October 1797 (286-7) as a classic example of the kind of poem to which later works like The Thorn or The Mad Mother were closely related.

Southey's blank-verse poem re-titled The Funeral , appeared as one of the English Eclogues in the 1799 volume. Hannah, like Martha Ray, is left alone as an unmarried mother to endure the scorn of the local community and Southey's speaker, as Mayo points out, resembles the concerning, narrator of The Thorn in having a kind of how to write research paper, character of his own. [22] We may deduce that the an historical essay witchcraft, poem grew from essay, one of Southey's experiences when he was living in Burton near Christchurch in Hampshire in 1797: It is proper to remark that the story related in this Eclogue is strictly true. I met the funeral, and an historical essay, learnt the circumstances, in a village in thesis ideas, Hampshire. The indifference of the child was mentioned to me; indeed no addition whatever has been made to the story. An Historical Essay Concerning Witchcraft? I should have thought it wrong to have weakened the how to a political research, effect of a faithful narrative by adding any thing. These constant protestations of truth about local events are in a sense analogous to essay witchcraft, the use of political and historical material in some of Southey's Inscriptions . It is as if the Inscriptions had gone more completely commercial. In poems like The Funeral , Southey seems to extend his inscription-work to local popular tales, another form of historical reference.

Hannah was a creation from the period before Southey's exposure via William Taylor to the varieties of bioethanol thesis, German literature. Mary Jacobus ( JAC 169-172) attaches considerable importance to an historical essay, the poem which she feels can find room only in the meditative mind and which despite Southey's limited ability to portray suffering does mark the out numbers in an essay, transition between the pathetic episodes of the eighteenth century and Wordsworth's poetry of suffering. The poem is really a blank-verse epitaph, drawing somewhat upon the inscription voice of Poems 1797, a vivid episode of contemplation in a tone of extreme meditative quietness, much different from many of the other Eclogues in the volume. Its political elements are muted into allusions to poverty. Southey manages to create a kind of an historical essay concerning witchcraft, immediacy of narration in the poem's opening lines: The coffin as I past across the lane / Came sudden on thesis camden street, my view, (202) which he sustains for most of the poem. He disappoints only in the areas where the description of suffering is wanted, and in the final lines where God's mercy lifts the poem away from the human context and abruptly closes down any imaginative sympathies. In a similar blank-verse vein The Ruined Cottage which closes the volume treats another widow's plight alongside the humiliation of her daughter Joanna (a name echoing 'Hannah') and an historical, the consequent ruin of her home. It is the end of a long list of tales which loosely chart the ruin of crimes essay, domesticity and community, the obverse of the quest for an historical essay home. How To A Political Paper? The poem found an able and attentive critic in Charles Lamb, who said: I find no fault in it, unless perhaps Joanna's is an historical essay, a catastrophe too trite, and this is not the first or second time you have cloth'd your indignation in verse in a tale of ruined Innocence.

The Old lady spinning in the Sun, I hope would not disdain some kindred with old Margaret. October 29 1798 [23] Lamb's critiques spotted Southey's hidden and indignant social agendas, noticed how Southey had responded to computer, the details of his own Rosamund Gray of 1798, and went on: but the old Lady is so great a favourite with me, I want to hear more of her, and of Joanna you have given us still less.- But the picture of the rustics leaning over essay concerning the bridge the old Lady travelling abroad on summer evenings to see her garden water'd, are images so new and true, that I decidedly prefer this ruin'd cottage to crimes essay, any poem in witchcraft, the book. Indeed I think it the only one that will bear comparison with your Hymn to the Penates in thesis camden street, a former vol.-I compare dissimilar things, as one would a rose star for essay witchcraft the pleasure they give us. Lamb's connection of this poem with the english thesis, Hymn to the Penates makes an interesting oblique link between the domestic centres of both poems, and an historical concerning, exposes the radical point of spell out numbers in an essay, departure for essay much of Southey's work. He is how to a political research, not simply fascinated by essay concerning death and horror, but by the twists and turns of domestic fortune which suffer the impact of those adverse events. The poem's opening has the gravity of an inscription: Aye Charles! I knew that this would fix thine eye, This woodbine wreathing round the broken porch, Its leaves just withering, yet one autumn flower.

Still fresh and fragrant; yon holly-hock. That thro' the how to research paper, creeping weeds and nettles tall. Peers taller, and uplifts its column'd stem. Bright with broad rose-blossoms. I have seen. Many a fallen convent reverend in decay, And many a time have trod the an historical witchcraft, castle courts. And grass-green halls, yet never did they strike. Home to the heart such melancholy thoughts. As this poor cottage. Look, its little hatch.

Fleeced with that grey and wintry moss; the roof. Part moulder'd in, the english, rest o'ergrown with weeds, House-leek and long thin grass and greener moss; So nature wars with all the works of man, And, like himself, reduces back to earth. His perishable piles. The details of the an historical essay concerning witchcraft, ruined cottage bear some comparison with those in Wordsworth's poem of the same name, for example: Stripped of its outward garb of household flowers, Of rose and jasmine, offers to the wind. A cold bare wall whose earthy top is tricked. With weeds and the rank spear-grass. [25]

But it is english thesis ideas, not enough to merely restate the fact that Southey's poem fails to travel across the range of an historical essay concerning witchcraft, emotions discovered in Wordsworth's The Ruined Cottage . English? Again, it would be more appropriate to view Southey's work in the light of his own poetic developments, especially his Inscriptions . This poem is another example of his epitaphic and elegiac mode, given a kind of lapidary polish in essay, places with reference to predecessors like Akenside. Computer Crimes? Southey inscribes the concerning, tale like a man working against computer crimes stone, marking a monument. But, again, The Ruined Cottage is a direct relation of essay, nature inscriptions like For the Banks of the HAMPSHIRE AVON ( MP , 19 November 1799), where Southey's own abilities for the recording of natural details are manifest. [26] His attempt to in an, lump together the range of styles and subjects in his English Eclogues is an historical essay, rather amateurish, and he is wrong to say that poems such as The Funeral and The Ruined Cottage bear no resemblance to printing centre, any poems in concerning witchcraft, our language (183) because at the very least The Funeral had already been published before his German-influenced phase, and mba essays, the poems bear resemblances to his own inscription work. This, then, is how Southey stands in regard to witchcraft, the experiment of Lyrical Ballads - not simply as a kind of precursor-poet, nor simply as piratical hack who shamelessly borrowed, but as an established commercial writer and social commentator eager to maintain his own growing literary reputation in the experimental cutting-edges of the poetry of the crimes essay, 1790s, a man inside the debate, not upon its periphery. 4 - Southey and Wordsworth: Style-Wars and Inscripsive Intertextualities.

In Notes and an historical witchcraft, Queries 224 (1979) 229-31 Donald G. Priestman draws our attention to the way in which Robert Southey functions as an early imitator and parodist of Wordsworth's poetry. Priestman gives examples of two of Southey's poems: In A Forest and Inscription Under An Oak which he compares interestingly to Wordsworth's Yew-Tree Lines which appeared in a political research, Lyrical Ballads . Like many critics, he portrays Southey as a literary thief, one who admires, imitates, eviscerates and then, as here, parodies Wordsworth's work. An Historical Concerning Witchcraft? It is almost as if Southey had waited for the publication of Lyrical Ballads before he wrote anything at english ideas all. There is of course a different story to an historical concerning, tell. As I have said, from mid-1798, Southey was a successful and notorious author domesticated at Westbury-Upon-Trym near Bristol, having his annus mirabilis during which he wrote an enormous amount of poetry. His work for The Morning Post , which has been edited by Kenneth Curry [27] is testament to the poetical hack-work he undertook during that time - In A Forest and printing street, Inscription Under An Oak are part of this hastily assembled work, examples of concerning, magazine poetry which had to how to write research, be immediate, fashionable and often funny. Whilst we can agree with Priestman that Southey was a borrower or a textual bricoleur at least, we must also acknowledge that Wordsworth also undertook a certain amount of literary shoplifting. In his Yew-Tree Lines , Wordsworth not only supplied material for an historical witchcraft Southey's magazine imitations of 1798, but set out thesis his own parodic lines which he borrowed from the Inscriptions in Southey's Poems 1797. [28] What we observe in Mr Priestman's article is half the story of a stylistic literary exchange, a common enough occurrence in any literary progress - what needs to be added is a fuller account of the Southeyan material which Yew-Tree Lines , incorporates and challenges, and to see how In A Forest and Inscription Under An Oak are really Southey's response (or part of his response) to Wordsworth's poem.

Geoffrey Hartman's essay upon inscription poetry showed amongst other things how Wordsworth made the nature-inscription into a free-standing lyric and gave Southey a muted, yet significant, place in the increasingly direct voicing born of this metamorphosis. An Historical Essay? Southey's political stridency and essay, un-Hellenic sententiousness coupled with his borrowings from the classical models differs tonally and an historical essay concerning witchcraft, stylistically from the inscripsive Wordsworthian voice of the mid to late 1790s. In the 1797 Inscriptions and in later examples, Southey generally makes use of well-known or even glamorous historical episodes and personages to make moral and political points in a political, which he acts as a kind of master of ceremonies. He also trades off the fact that the inscription form was both familiar and fashionable in circles of readership, so that in his hands it becomes almost a scurrilous disguise, a passport into the establishment he criticises. Hartman, it seems, places Southey's nature-inscriptions somewhere between his second and third categories, between the tradition of iconic verse and essay witchcraft, the plain speaking voice of the genius loci.

He also shows (Hartman, ibid 393 400) how Wordsworth in how to a political paper, his Lines left upon a Seat in a Yew-Tree uses the traditional Siste Viator of the epitaph to inscribe his poem before our eyes involving the an historical, reader actively in the process, rather than merely pointing out information with imperatives. Wordsworth's natural scene is composed of a rugged barrenness and distant beauty, and it contains natural description lifted from wandering experience which opposes loco-descriptive cliches deliberately placed within the poem. The poem is an how to write a political research, answer to depictions of nature found in precursor-poems such as Southey's Inscription III here, For a CAVERN that overlooks the River AVON : [29] Enter this cavern Stranger! the ascent. Is long and steep and toilsome; here awhile. Thou mayest repose thee, from the noontide heat. O'ercanopied by essay concerning witchcraft this arch'd rock that strikes. A grateful coolness: clasping its rough arms. Round the rude portal, the centre camden street, old ivy hangs. Its dark green branches down, and the wild Bees,

O'er its grey blossoms murmuring ceaseless, make. Most pleasant melody. Essay Concerning Witchcraft? No common spot. Receives thee, for the Power who prompts the song, Loves this secluded haunt. Printing Centre? The tide below. Scarce sends the essay witchcraft, sound of waters to thine ear; And this high-hanging forest to the wind. Varies its many hues. Gaze Stranger here! And let thy soften'd heart intensely feel.

How good, how lovely, Nature! When from crimes, hence. Departing to the City's crowded streets, Thy sickening eye at an historical every step revolts. From scenes of vice and wretchedness; reflect. That Man creates the evil he endures.

Though Southey's poem has a pleasant Akensidian sharpness and brightness about it, its landscape details are derived from thesis, previous literary models, and an historical concerning, it implies that recourse to nature is when spell, always beneficial against unstated city evils. Wordsworth's Yew-Tree Lines seek to combat the melancholy use of nature (Hartman, ibid.398) and contain jibes at the merely literary inscription fashion. Wordsworth writes like a man indignantly defending natural landscape from the bookish writer, trying to wake up the reader to the realisation that Neo-Classical ideal landscape casually slipped into essay concerning witchcraft inscription poetry is as false a path as the selfish tendency of mba essays harvard, making nature merely a mirror of individual mood. Some passages in Yew-Tree Lines may be compared with Southey's early inscription work, which was published by December 1796, and to which Wordsworth responds. His opening lines emphasise the simple solitary isolated yew, the graveyard tree far from an actual graveyard, in an historical essay concerning, acute contrast to the attributes of the mba essays, ideal retreat-environment that he then lists in negative: Nay, Traveller! rest.

This lonely Yew-tree stands. Far from all human dwelling: what if here. No sparkling rivulet spread the verdant herb? What if the bee love not these barren boughs? Yet, if the wind breathe soft, the curling waves,

That break against the shore, shall lull thy mind. By one soft impulse saved from vacancy. He got these elements from Southey's work, drawing out concerning witchcraft details from the three nature-inscriptions in Southey's 1797 Poems . Wordsworth picks upon computer the way Southey uses natural imagery to an historical concerning, cast the essay, natural world in the role of concerning, pleasure-garden or soothing anodyne, and questions the centre camden street, optimistic quality of the encounters of traveller with nature. Wordsworth's sparkling rivulet and an historical, verdant herb echo the rivulet that sparkles o'er the shallows and the healthful herb in Southey's Inscription VII here For a TABLET on the Banks of a Stream : STRANGER! awhile upon this mossy bank. Recline thee. If the Sun rides high, the how to write research, breeze, That loves to ripple o'er the rivulet, Will play around your brow, and the cool sound. Of running waters soothe thee.

Mark how clear. It sparkles o'er the shallows, and behold. Where o'er its surface wheels with restless speed. Yon glossy insect, on essay, the sand below. How the swift shadow flies. The stream is pure. In solitude, and many a healthful herb. Bends o'er its course and drinks the vital wave: But passing on amid the haunts of man,

It finds pollution there, and rolls from thence. A tainted tide. Seek thou for HAPPINESS? Go stranger, sojourn in mba essays harvard, the woodland cot. Of INNOCENCE, and thou shalt find her there. [30] Wordsworth's bee-less barren boughs over concerning witchcraft curling waves draw upon the wild Bees murmuring over dark green branches and the tide below found in the Avon Cavern example, and his soft breathing wind is mildly parodic of the softening effects of nature, the soft rustling of the correspondent breeze in thesis, Southey's Inscription VIII For the CENOTAPH at ERMENONVILLE : STRANGER! the MAN of NATURE lies not here: Enshrined far distant by an historical his rival's side. His relics rest, there by the giddy throng. With blind idolatry alike revered! Wiselier directed have thy pilgrim feet.

Explored the scenes of Ermenonville. Mba Essays Harvard? ROUSSEAU. Loved these calm haunts of Solitude and Peace; Here he has heard the murmurs of the stream, And the soft rustling of the poplar grove, When o'er their bending boughs the passing wind. Swept a grey shade. Here if thy breast be full, If in thine eye the tear devout should gush, His SPIRIT shall behold thee, to thine home.

From Hence returning, purified of heart. [31] Wordsworth continues his use of Southeyan material to describe the actions of the reclusive figure. Again he plunders the Avon Cavern inscription: And, lifting up his head, he then would gaze. On the more distant scene, - how lovely 'tis. Thou seest, - and he would gaze till it became. Far lovelier, and an historical witchcraft, his heart could not sustain. The beauty, still more beauteous! [32] Wordsworth's repetition of the thesis, word gaze and his amplification of lovely to lovelier and beauty to an historical witchcraft, more beauteous is a borrowing and thesis centre camden street, a criticism of Southey's instructions for the Stranger to be healed by exposure to essay concerning witchcraft, nature:

Gaze Stranger here! And let thy soften'd heart intensely feel. How good, how lovely, Nature! Wordsworth's recluse follows Southey's instructions but instead of being soothed by what he sees, is thrown into a mounting agony of yearning for the loveliness he cannot enjoin. His panic is thesis, powerfully observed. The man can perceive the loveliness of the scene, but cannot let his soften'd heart move beyond envy for the happiness of others, or break the an historical, psychological reflecting mirrors of his mind which make his surroundings into a mere emblem of his own barren life.

Nature is not a guarantor of health for one whose own nature is cauterised against humanity. Wordsworth follows Gray under the elegiac shadow of the yew to computer essay, present his lost man, a man who has even lost his name and unlike Gray's illiterate buried swains we sense that this man's anonymity is the result of his own writing out of the self from society, from an historical concerning, community, from friendship. His failed, panic-ridden attempts to inscribe what he sees in nature upon his own nature, do not exactly regain that lost health, that lost name, save that his ghostly presence is rehearsed as a warning to each reader. So, if Wordsworth in Yew-Tree Lines (1797 following) has already incorporated material from Southey's 1796 Inscriptions , then the seeming imitations and parodies by Southey indicated by Priestman form a kind of how to write a political paper, intertextual dialogue between poets. Southey dated his In a FOREST ( AA I, 72) Westbury 1798 and concerning, published it in the Morning Post on 13 April 1799: Stranger! whose steps have reach'd this solitude, Know that this lonely spot was dear to one. Devoted with no unrequited zeal.

To Nature. Write Paper? Here, delighted he has heard. The rustlings of these woods, that now perchance. Melodious to the gale of summer move, And underneath their shade on yon smooth rock. With grey and an historical essay concerning, yellow lichens overgrown, Often reclined, watching the silent flow. Of this perspicuous rivulet, that steals. Along its verdant course, till all around. Had filled his sense with tranquillity,

And ever sooth'd in spirit he return'd. A happier, better, man. Stranger, perchance. Therefore the write a political, stream more lovely to thine eye. Will glide along, and to the summer gale. The woods wave more melodious. Cleanse thou then. The weeds and essay, mosses from this letter'd stone. Priestman sees the poem as wholly a Southeyan imitation which reverses the how to write research, rule in Wordsworth's later Preface of 1800 that the an historical essay concerning witchcraft, feeling therein developed gives importance to the action and the situation and not the action and when spell in an essay, the situation to the feeling. Southey had seen Lyrical Ballads by at least early September 1798, [33] and Priestman argues, In a Forest is a poem imitating the Yew-Tree Lines , which indeed is most strongly born out by an historical essay concerning witchcraft Southey's words verdant and rivulet which do take Wordsworth's third line into account.

But, as I have indicated, what Priestman misses is the way which Southey looks back to his own nature-inscriptions for when spell in an rustling trees, shady rocks, invitations to recline, rivulets, soothed minds returning home and lovely vistas. Essay Concerning Witchcraft? He takes back the very elements that Wordsworth's Yew-Tree Lines had selected for thesis printing camden street censure from essay concerning witchcraft, his own 1797 Inscriptions . It is a gentle tug of war, not simply a one-sided re-rendering of poetic style. Southey's sheer optimism in his nature inscriptions is mba essays harvard, intriguing. He does not look to present the unhealable courses that life sometimes can take: there is no Wordsworthian misanthrope here. Nature in the poem is essay concerning witchcraft, both reflected in the external details inscribed and a reflection of the poet's own stoical character. Southey has moved from the research paper, earlier more dogmatic position in an historical, the 1797 Inscriptions of giving information, to a growing delight in landscape detail, doubtlessly encouraged by bioethanol Wordsworth's example, but also centrally fostered by his own life at Westbury, as the concerning witchcraft, beautiful observations in his Commonplace Book show. [34] The request to the reader to cleanse the inscription implies that a joining of nature (as weeds and mosses) with the human text (this letter'd stone) has already taken place. Thesis? Our poet-inscriber pretends to risk obliteration, or asks fellow strangers to come to him (the stone, the inscribed word) through nature, through the moss and concerning, weeds. Conversely, this cleansing could more appropriately be seen as the reader's act of write, purification, the re-inscription of the self before the beautiful loneliness of the text. This conversational process can also be seen in the parodic Inscription Under an Oak ( MP 139-40) of 27 February 1799, where Southey re-uses the an historical concerning, phrase if the write paper, sun ride high which is almost identical to part of the an historical essay, second line of his For a TABLET on the Banks of write paper, a Stream , and witchcraft, again includes the cliches of natural loveliness, the computer crimes, wind as motive force, fruitful boughs and the softening feelings of place. However, he goes on to use the motif of retreat under trees per an historical concerning se , as a good-humoured parodic gesture not just at Wordsworth's expense perhaps, but also at how to a political research paper his own.

Southey's second edition of Joan of Arc which emerged in 1798, contains passages which continue my illustration of the witchcraft, poet's self-plundering tendency. In the preface to Joan of Arc , Southey writes: Upon showing it to the friend in conversation with whom the design had originated, he said, 'I am glad you have written this: it will serve as a store where you will find good passages for better poems'. Essay? [35] This is borne out by several passages which bear similarities to poems that Southey wrote between 1794 and 1796. Joan begins her life as a shepherdess (as a prelude to shepherding the French cause) in the arms of the landscape:

I have laid me down. Beside yon valley stream, that up the ascent. Scarce sends the sounds of waters now, and watch'd. The tide roll glittering to an historical essay witchcraft, the noon-tide sun, And listened to its ceaseless murmuring, Till all was hush'd and tranquil in my soul,

Filled with a strange and undefined delight. That pass'd across the mind like summer clouds. Over the lake at eve. Here in solitude. My soul was nurst, amid the loveliest scenes.

Of unpolluted nature. Line 3 echoes once more to the Avon Cavern Inscription III: The tide below / Scarce sends the sounds of when out numbers essay, waters to thine ear [36] indicating the important place that this poem occupied in the author's canon. An Historical Essay? Southey's cavern was in fact an actual place well-known to the author. In 1793 Southey wrote to Bedford: I am doomed to be pestered by mba essays wasps -the other day I was posting to my cave to sit half an essay concerning witchcraft, hour in the sun eat blackberries - I had got within five yards found a thousand devils with stings in their tails flying about me - like a prudent general when it is impossible to computer crimes essay, advance I retreated - now were not this so far off and were poor Shad well we would sally forth exterminate the invaders. An Historical Essay Concerning? [37] It is not therefore correct to ideas, regard Robert Southey as just a slavish imitator or parodist of the other Lakers, nor as a man who was entirely bookish in his inspirations, this is simply not the case. Southey's varied experimental poetry of the mid to late 1790s helped considerably to pave the essay witchcraft, way for experiments such as Lyrical Ballads themselves. It would be fair to say that Wordsworth in the above exchange (for that is what we have observed) needed Southey's example to partly define his own position and his own more tentative emergence as a poet. And it would seem from the above that Southey in 1798-9 was often not so much 'imitating' Wordsworth as hastily recycling his own output.

[1] This article appears in another form in chapter eight of my book A Quest For Home: Reading Robert Southey (Liverpool University Press, 1997). [2] Southey even supplied Wordsworth with lines for a satire in imitation of Juvenal, PW I, 302. [3] See 'English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' Byron, Poetical Works , edited by Frederick Page John Jump (O.U.P., 1986) 116, ll.202, 237. [4] Mary Jacobus 217, also considers the ballad owes a stylistic debt to when spell out numbers in an essay, Des Pfarrers Tochter von Taubenheim , by an historical concerning witchcraft Burger which had appeared in when in an, translation in the Monthly Magazine in April 1796. Essay Concerning? See also LC I, 287 in reference to this poem: But the other ballad of Burger, in thesis, the Monthly Magazine, is most excellent. An Historical? [5] Grevel Lindop, TLS (October 12 1984) 1170. [6] See B.R. McElderry 'Southey, And Wordsworth's The Idiot Boy' Notes Queries N.S II (Nov 1955) 490-91 and Elizabeth Duthie A Fresh Comparison Of The Idiot Boy And The Idiot Notes Queries Vol. 223 (June 1978) 219-220, and MP 67-9. See also CA 54. [7] Compare Southey's lines when I was young, / My heart was glad, my arm was strong and the burthen of old age with Wordsworth's When he was young he little knew / Of husbandry or tillage and Of years he has upon his back / No doubt a burthen weighty. Lyrical Ballads ed. Michael Mason (London: Longman, 1992) 147-8. [8] The Morning Mists ( MP 112-3) with its addressee, William may possibly be one William Bowyer Thomas, a friend Southey had made in Portugal, and with whom he and Edith stayed in the autumn of 1798, in Hereford ( Simmons 75, and harvard, NL I, 175), but it also strongly recalls the concerning, William of Expostulation and Reply . [9] The Poems of Gray, Collins and Goldsmith , ed.Roger Lonsdale (London: Longman, 1969) 119. [10] Lines. To A Friend ( MP 128), makes the point that his friend should rouse himself from despair, strive to achieve against the negative current of the world, because age does not spring back from the harvard, shocks of an historical essay concerning, life as does the strength of youth. Southey urges a change of attitude to thesis, adversity, recalling the Epictetan maxim from the Enchiridion translated by Mrs Elizabeth Carter: The Condition and Characteristic of a vulgar Person is, that he never expects either Benefit or Hurt from himself; but from Externals.

The Condition and Characteristic of a Philosopher is, that he expects all Hurt and Benefit from himself. An Historical Concerning Witchcraft? All The Works Of Epictetus (London: S.Richardson, 1758) 460-61. [11] Lamb may have influenced Southey's review by printing centre his phrase Fleming painter in a letter to the poet, October 29 1798. See Edwin J.Marrs Jr., ed. The Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb , 3 Vols. Concerning? (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1975-78) I, 137. [12] Giangiorgio Trissino (1478-1550), referred to here, exerted a hellenising influence on Italian literature in the 16th century, concerned to break the Romance tradition and exalt the epic as the supreme literary genre. His L'Italia liberata dai Goti (1547-48) is how to write research, a meticulously historical, didactic and realistic work - but very unpoetical. [13] The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth The Early Years 1787-1805 2nd edn., ed. E. De Selincourt E. C.L. Shaver (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967) 267-68.

To Cottle, summer 1799. [14] See Robert W. Concerning? Daniel, 'The Publication of the Lyrical Ballads,' MLR , Vol.33 (1938) 406-410. Thesis? [15] During this period Coleridge particularly, was on Southey's mind because of the tragic death of his son Berkeley. Sara Coleridge wrote to an historical, Thomas Poole on Monday 11 February 1799 ( Minnow Among Tritons ed. English? Stephen Potter [London: Nonesuch Press, 1934] 1): Oh! my dear Mr Poole, I have lost my dear child. Southey has undertaken the business of my babe's interment and in a few days we shall remove to his house at Westbury which I shall be rejoiced to an historical essay witchcraft, do for this house at present is quite hateful to me. [16] D.F. Foxon, The Printing Of Lyrical Ballads, The Library , Fifth Series, Vol. IX, no.4 (December 1954) 240. [17] See JAC , appendix II, 284. Mba Essays Harvard? [18] Howard Mills, ed. George Crabbe: Tales, 1812 and essay concerning witchcraft, Other Selected Poems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967) 114, ll.338-343. [19] Lyrical Ballads ed. Mba Essays Harvard? Michael Mason (London New York: Longman, 1992) 34. [20] Collected Poems with a foreword by witchcraft Walter De La Mare (London Boston: Faber, 1981) 29. [21] Robert Mayo, The Contemporaneity of the Lyrical Ballads , PMLA 69 (1954) 486-522, 496ff. Computer Crimes Essay? [22] Robert Mayo, The Contemporaneity of the Lyrical Ballads 496. [23] Edwin J.Marrs, Jr., ed. An Historical? The Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb I, 137. [24] Edwin J.Marrs, Jr., ed. The Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb I, 162. [25] The Ruined Cottage and The Pedlar ed.

James Butler, (Ithaca New York: Cornell University Press, 1979) 50, ll.159-162. [26] He based the poem upon an idea jotted down in his Commonplace Book , another little poem of place: That, like a serpent, thro' the grassy mead. Winds on, now hidden, glittering now in light. Nor fraught with merchant wealth, nor fam'd in song, This river rolls; an unobtrusive tide. Its gentle charms may soothe and satisfy. Thy feelings. Look! how bright its pebbled bed. Gleams thro' the ruffled current; and that bank. With flag leaves borderd, as with two-edged swords!

See where the thesis, water wrinkles round the an historical essay witchcraft, stem. Of yonder water lily whose broad leaf. Lies on the wave, - and art thou not refresh'd. By the fresh odour of the computer crimes essay, running stream? Soon Traveller! does the river reach the end.

Of all its windings: from the an historical essay, near ascent. Thou wilt behold the ocean where it pours. Its waters and is lost. Remember thou, Traveller! that even so thy restless years. Flow to the ocean of eternity. INSCRIPTION for a tablet by the Hampshire Avon. Thesis Centre Camden? The flags' sword-leaves; the six-legged insect; the an historical essay witchcraft, freshness of running water, noticed.

From the near hill you see the ocean, to which the river is running. The trite allusion, - where'er we go, we're journeying to the tomb. But this is not the less true for being trite. CB 192 [27] The Contributions of Robert Southey to the Morning Post , ed. Kenneth Curry (Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1984). [28] Jonathan Wordsworth pointed out some of this interactivity in The Music of Humanity (London: Thomas Nelson Sons Ltd., 1969) 62-7 196-7. See also Paul D. Sheats, The Making of Wordsworth's Poetry, 1785-1798 (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1973). [29] See Poems by Robert Southey, Ist 2nd edns. (Bristol: N. Biggs for J.Cottle and G.G. J.Robinson, London, 1797) and facsimile (Oxford: Woodstock Books, 1989) 57-8. [30] Poems by Robert Southey, 1797 (Oxford: Woodstock Books, 1989) 63. Mba Essays Harvard? [31] Poems by Robert Southey, 1797 (Oxford: Woodstock Books, 1989) 64. [32] See Jonathan Wordsworth The Music of Humanity (London: Thomas Nelson Sons Ltd., 1969) 196-7. [33] D.F. An Historical Essay Witchcraft? Foxon, The Printing Of Lyrical Ballads, The Library , Fifth Series, Vol. Thesis? IX, no.4 (December 1954) 221-241. [34] See Southey's Commonplace Book , 4th sers., ed. John Wood Warter (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849-51). [35] See The Poetical Works of Robert Southey, Collected By Himself , 10 Vols. (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and an historical witchcraft, Longmans, 1843-45) I, xviii. [36] Another passage from thesis, Joan of Arc 1798 gives evidence of Southey's self-revisionary methods with particular reference to the Avon Cavern inscription: Lonely the forest spring: a rocky hill.

Rises beside it, and an aged yew. Bursts from the rifted crag that overbrows. The adder's tongue. Rich with the wrinkles of its glossy green. Hands down its long lank leaves, whose wavy dip. Just breaks the tranquil surface. Ancient woods. Bosom the quiet beauties of the place,

Nor ever sound profanes it, save such sounds. As Silence loves to hear, the passing wind, Or the low murmuring of the an historical essay, scarce-heard stream. William Wordsworth, The Five-Book Prelude . Ed. Duncan Wu.

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California State University, Northridge. In these examples, the an historical essay witchcraft, students had 120 minutes to crimes essay produce an essay on a topic given them at the test and were not permitted to use dictionaries or other aids. They were advised to plan before writing and to check their papers over after finishing but not to try to an historical recopy them because there would not be enough time. The essays are, in effect, first drafts, with such revisions and corrections as the writers found time to thesis make. All the essays printed here are informative and coherent, but even the an historical witchcraft, best are not flawless, and when, merely “adequate” papers exhibit several weaknesses and errors.

It should be understood that in passing these papers the faculty is concerning recognizing realistically the differences between an impromptu piece of writing and a paper prepared outside of class with adequate time for revising and polishing. We provide here a sample essay topic, together with the scoring guide, and three sample essays, rated 6 (High Pass - Superior), 5 (High Pass - Strong), and 4 (Pass - Adequate). Sample Essay Topic -- Sparkling Water is the english thesis ideas, New Soda. Sparkling Water is the New Soda. The hottest drink in America is an historical essay concerning water with bubbles.

Long a kitchen table staple in European households, sparkling water is making inroads in the U.S. Centre Street. thanks largely to Americans’ waning interest in soda. Between 2009 and 2014, the volume of carbonated bottled water sold in the U.S. has increased by 56.4 percent, according to data from Euromonitor International, a market research firm. Soda drinking declined sharply during the same period. Still, sparkling water sales are a fraction of soda sales. The U.S. Essay. soda market is worth about $39 billion, according to Euromonitor.

The market for bioethanol, unflavored sparkling water, flavored sparkling water and functional water -- a category that includes flavored still water and enhanced still water like Smartwater -- is just $4 billion. It has a way to go before it catches up to soda, but sparkling water is indeed having a moment. The growth in millions of liters of sparkling water sold in the U.S. According to Euromonitor International, Sparkling Water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to essay witchcraft 667 million liters per year in 2015, and are projected to grow to almost 800 million liters per year in 2019. The decline in millions of liters of soda sold in english thesis ideas, the U.S. (Note that the scale is very different from the chart above, with soda sales still dwarfing sparkling water sales.) According to Euromonitor International, soda sales fell from an historical essay concerning, 40 billion liters per year to when spell out numbers in an about 32 billion liters per year in 2015, and are projected to fall to just over concerning, 30 billion liters per year in mba essays, 2019. Americans’ growing obsession with health is the biggest reason for the shift, according to Jonas Feliciano, a global beverage analyst at Euromonitor. Coke and Pepsi have resorted to hawking products like energy drinks and even milk to boost sales as Americans become increasingly wary of the high levels of sugar in soda.

The opportunity for variety is another factor in the sparkling water boom. These beverages are available in a range of flavors, from orange-pineapple to kiwi-strawberry. Concerning. Feliciano noted that most mainstream soda comes in just cola and lemon-lime flavors. Bioethanol Thesis. One exception, Mountain Dew, has built its success in part on constantly launching new flavors. “[Americans] are turning away from things that identify with soda and instead are turning toward things that identify with water,” Feliciano said. “If I’m looking for health and I’m looking for variety, sparkling water with different flavors seems to provide that.” For some companies, Americans’ changing tastes are offering an an historical opportunity. The growth in sales at Washington-based Talking Rain Beverage Company, which makes flavored sparkling water, has pretty much directly mirrored the rise of the street, beverage's popularity. The company brought in more than $384 million in sales in 2014 compared to just $2.7 million in 2009. An Historical Essay Concerning. Sparkling Ice, a Talking Rain line of ideas zero-calorie sparkling water in flavors like pink grapefruit and peach nectarine, is responsible for most of that growth.

Kevin Klock, Talking Rain’s CEO, says the company doesn’t try to make health claims about its drinks because shoppers recognize on their own that sparkling water is an historical probably healthier than soda. “It’s great that it’s zero calories, but it’s probably not the thesis centre camden, number one thing the essay concerning witchcraft, consumer is looking for,” Klock said. “They’re not drinking it because they have to, they’re just drinking it because it’s something they find they enjoy.” Soda’s two main draws are caffeine and a bubbly sweet sensation, according to Klock. As concerns about soda’s health consequences mount, drinkers are turning to coffee and energy drinks for street, their caffeine fix, and flavored sparkling waters for that throat-tickling combination of bubbles and sweetness. “I don’t see it as a fad,” Klock said of flavored sparkling water, noting that the trend in all beverages, including liquor and beer, is toward more variety and flavor.

SodaStream is betting big that interest in sparkling water continues to an historical witchcraft grow. The at-home carbonation machine company has shifted its marketing in recent months to focus more on mba essays harvard the product's ability to make sparkling water and less on its ability to make soda. SodaStream rebranded its devices as sparkling-water makers instead of soda makers, and it has changed its slogan from “set the concerning witchcraft, bubbles free” to ideas “water made exciting.” The company made the shift in part because Americans haven’t really taken to an historical concerning the machines. Write Research Paper. In the U.S., SodaStream is probably better known for its Scarlett Johansson commercials than for its carbonation device. So far, just 1.5 percent of an historical households in thesis, the U.S. have a SodaStream, compared to about 20 percent of households in an historical essay witchcraft, Finland or Sweden, according to Daniel Birnbaum, SodaStream’s CEO. Even with the new messaging, it may be hard to achieve Birnbaum’s goal of getting a SodaStream in every home. Feliciano notes that low-income shoppers aren’t likely to make the switch from bioethanol thesis, soda to essay sparkling water anytime soon. Even those who don't shell out for a SodaStream machine -- the cheapest option on the company's website is english thesis ideas $79.99 -- will probably find better deals on soda than sparkling water. While there's not that much difference in the average price per liter ($1.10 per an historical essay liter for soda versus $1.30 per liter for sparkling water, according to Euromonitor), the supermarkets, discount outlets and how to write a political paper, convenience stores where most low-income Americans shop offer promotional deals on soda that often make it much cheaper than sparkling water, according to Feliciano. “This is still not for the masses,” Feliciano said.

But Birnbaum is confident that Americans' shift away from soda is more than just a whim. “We feel like we are now at the early stages of a revolution in the beverage industry in America,” Birnbaum said, noting that about 70 percent of SodaStream’s customers globally use the machine only for carbonating water. “The death of soda comes with the life of something else,” Birnbaum said. PROMPT: Sparkling Water is the an historical essay, New Soda. This test assesses written communication, critical thinking, quantitative literacy, and information literacy. 1. consider any cultural or social issues, including any biases of the author; 2. include your assessment of the quantitative evidence the article uses; and. 3. discuss what research strategies you would use to find additional sources of information to evaluate the claims. Each essay is read and evaluated by at least two faculty members in a carefully planned and supervised reading. Each reader scores an camden street essay on a scale of 1 to 6, and the two scores are combined. 12 is the highest possible total score.

A score of 8 or above is essay witchcraft passing. (See sample scoring guide and sample essays below.) It is the crimes essay, intention of CSUN to essay report test results that accurately reflect each student's performance. Test administration and test security standards are designed to assure that all test takers are given the same opportunity to essay demonstrate their abilities and to prevent anyone from having an unfair advantage over others because of testing irregularities. With this in mind, in rare cases in which there is a question about the validity of a student's essay, the UDWPE Advisory Board reserves the right to request that a student take a retest at no cost to the student. The student will be required to bring acceptable and specified identification. The Advisory Board will notify the student of the decision regarding the an historical essay witchcraft, retest outcome. Each essay is read and evaluated by at least two faculty members in harvard, a carefully planned and supervised reading. A High Pass Superior paper addresses the topic in a complex, meaningful way, and essay, executes its plan convincingly and mba essays, skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose through a highly-focused essay.

Topic : Addresses the concerning, topic by sophisticated employment of many issues raised in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and essay, Logic : Evaluates the concerning witchcraft, validity of the reading’s conclusions, and synthesizes information pertinent to the topic, and/or offers an alternative interpretation of the topic. Development : Shows extensive development, following a logical progression in printing camden, well-focused paragraphs exhibiting strong sentence and an historical witchcraft, paragraph-level transitions, and offers cogent sources of information that go beyond those presented in the text. Style / Usage/Grammar: Offers variety and sophistication in sentence structure, diction, and vocabulary; exhibits a strong command of written English. A High Pass Strong paper addresses the thesis printing camden street, topic in a meaningful way, and executes its plan skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose. Topic : Addresses the topic by competent employment of issues raised in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Considers the validity of the essay, reading’s conclusions, and synthesizes information pertinent to the topic. Development : Shows extensive development following a logical progression in focused paragraphs exhibiting strong sentence and paragraph-level transitions. Style / Usage/Grammar: Offers variety in sentence structure, diction, and vocabulary; exhibits a command of written English.

A Pass paper takes a satisfactory approach. Purpose : Shows an identifiable purpose. Topic : Has engaged the primary issue raised by the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Demonstrates an understanding of the reading's topic and bioethanol thesis, a grasp of its use of evidence. Development : Presents focused paragraphs in a reasonably logical sequence with adequate sentence and paragraph-level transitions. Style / Usage/Grammar: Employs adequate use of sentence structure and vocabulary; exhibits control of written English, and while the concerning, essay may contain some grammatical flaws, they do not detract from the overall effect or clarity of the writing. An Inadequate No Pass paper fails to develop or address the issue in a satisfactory way. Purpose : Shows little purpose.

Topic : May address some issues presented in the reading passage, but some significant aspects may be slighted or only marginally addressed. Critical Thinking and Logic : Fails to adequately address the thesis camden, reading and develops no relevant points of its own. Development : Has underdeveloped portions presented in unfocused paragraphs lacking adequate transitions at both the essay concerning, sentence and thesis, paragraph level. Style / Usage/Grammar: Contains sentences that are difficult to read or seem confused; may show frequent misuse of vocabulary; exhibits wavering control of written English, including major grammatical errors. An Incompetent No Pass paper fails to an historical essay concerning witchcraft develop or address the issue at how to a political research paper, all and will reveal serious and essay witchcraft, repeated problems, including confusion as to the task.

Purpose : Lacks apparent purpose. Topic : Fails to address the issues presented in mba essays harvard, the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Fails to understand the reading. Development : Is significantly underdeveloped and lacks adequate transitions at both the sentence and paragraph level. Style / Usage/Grammar: Generally consists of sentences that are difficult to read or seem confused; often shows misuse of vocabulary; exhibits little control of written English, including repeated major grammatical errors. An Incomplete No Pass paper presents too little writing for evaluation.

It may be a blank exam or one containing only a few sentences. Student Response - Score: 6. This article discusses the concerning, phenomenon of sparkling water and bioethanol thesis, its popularity, focusing on the drink's potential to drive soda out of our supermarkets. The potential take-over is one of the most significant paradigm shifts the an historical essay, beverage industry has ever seen. When Out Numbers In An. Soda has been the bully on the block for years, inventing new flavors purely for the sake of winning shelf space.

Now, for the first time, soda consumption has declined by nearly twenty-five percent, while sparkling water consumption has gone up to balance the change. While the new change is definitely worth exploring, I think the analysts quoted in the article are making black and white arguments, clearly caused by their biased positions in the beverage industry. This close-minded approach can be seen especially in their reasons behind the increase of sparkling water sales. They argue that the an historical essay witchcraft, change is being caused by health concerns, the public's desire for variety, and economic factors like low income. All of these reasons are true to centre camden some extent, but I think both drinks will exists for decades to come, once they find a way to share the market. Jonas Feliciano of concerning Euromonitor International believes that America is thesis centre street becoming more health conscious, causing them to realize that soda is not a wise decision. While this is true, and we are seeing more Americans every day taking up the vegetarian, vegan, or organic lifestyles, they are still a tiny minority. The change will not likely become a majority because America is addicted to consumption. It is part of a national mentality of excess from fast food to caffeine addiction, and no addiction is easy to kick.

The world saw a similar phenomenon when cigarettes were invented. An Historical Essay Concerning. They were believed to be healthy, then proven to be lethal, and everyone thought the. cigarette industry would die as a result. Look around. Millions of people still smoke cigarettes, and they probably always will. For the same reasons, health concerns will cause national soda sales to how to research paper decline only an historical essay slightly. It is no surprise that Soda Stream is struggling to mba essays get their product into every American home, given America's health status.

They have rebranded, hired Scarlett Johansson to witchcraft be the face of the company, and still they have only wiggled their way into 1.5 percent of American households. This is because we are one of the unhealthiest countries. In Finland and how to a political, Sweden, on the other hand, Soda Stream products can be found in twenty percent of homes, which comes as no surprise because these are two of the most highly educated countries on the planet. Furthermore, I think the sparkling water companies know that they are not much healthier than soda. Kevin Klock of Talking Rain Beverage Company does not make health claims about his company's sparkling water products. He says this is because people buy sparkling water for the taste, not the health factors. I think Kevin avoids health statements because sparkling water is essay concerning also unhealthy. The flavoring comes from english thesis ideas, sugar, just like soda. Even the zero calorie alternatives cannot be brought up as an argument because soda companies offer the same thing.

In the end of the day, the only healthy choice is unflavored sparkling water, which is an historical essay concerning hardly a significant portion of Talking Rain's sails. Bioethanol. Klock's reasoning for an historical essay, the change towards sparkling water is that people only drank soda for the caffeine and bubbles. In recent years, people have turned to coffee and energy drinks for caffeine and to sparkling water for the bubbles. This may come as a shock to Klock, but coffee and energy drinks are unhealthy addictions. Computer Crimes Essay. So even the owner of a successful sparkling water company believes that in essay witchcraft, order to knock soda off the market, the public needs to inherit new, equally unhealthy alternatives. The public will eventually recognize this hypocrisy, turn away from sparkling water, and maybe even turn back to soda. I think it is write a political clear that health concerns, if any part of the market change, are not the an historical essay, main part. Feliciano's next argument is that people buy sparkling water because it opens the door to a variety of flavors that soda companies don't offer. He claims that most sodas come in cola or lemon-lime flavors.

Last I checked, there were dozens of flavors of soda, but even if that was not true, this argument is still irrelevant. Soda companies will notice a change in the vox populi and start manufacturing the printing camden street, same flavors as the sparkling water companies. Long before their shelf space is essay overtaken, the soda companies will find a way to capitalize on the pioneer work of the sparkling water companies. Finally, there is the issue of income. Soda Stream is the cheapest alternative to soda in the long run, but the crimes, starting price of their cheapest product is about eighty dollars. This is not a price low-income households are willing to pay. Feliciano points out an historical concerning that in addition to the slight difference in production costs, soda has an centre advantage because of promotional deals that are rarely offered for sparkling water in supermarkets and convenience stores. Again, this is a very true statement, but it is only temporary. If sparkling water sales continue to increase at an historical concerning witchcraft, the rates we are currently witnessing, stores will offer the same promotions for sparkling water as they do for soda.

The difference now is when spell essay only twenty cents per liter according to Euromonitor, but with promotional sales that will likely be offered in the future, the difference between sparkling water and soda could be almost negligible. In the end of the day, all of these arguments hold some truth. Americans are definitely becoming more health conscious, and while that probably has an effect on the sales of soda, it is not a trend that will likely become a majority. Americans are addicted to being unhealthy and giving into concerning, excessive desires, and like cigarettes, soda will always be a part of out numbers that lifestyle. Sparkling water definitely offers variety that the soda companies do not yet compete with, but one day they will if the sales margins of sparkling water continue to rise. Low income families are definitely less likely to buy the more expensive sparkling water, but one day the prices may drop or the desire for social status may exceed rational spending. The future of the beverage industry is essay witchcraft not so black and white. English Thesis. I think sparkling water will continue to take over for a while, until it reaches a plateau due to the boundaries of health consciousness, competition, and income. Still, if sparkling water manages to make a significant impact on the sales of soda - and witchcraft, industry that has been poisoning Americans for generations - then it will go down in english thesis, history as one of the concerning witchcraft, most significant events in the legacy of the beverage industry. I would go try a number of things for additional information on this topic.

I would research brand name sparkling water and soda companies and try to acquire their sales reports. I would also go to big name supermarkets to see if there is truth to the change. Harvard. Perhaps these sales are only effecting small stores or online shopping. Or perhaps the soda companies are already fighting the battle and winning. Additionally, I would look for articles on consumer trends in witchcraft, other beverages in order to english thesis ideas evaluate the connection (if any) between soda and sparkling water sales. I would use the databases in witchcraft, the Oviatt Library to look for journals on that topic.

I might even search for demographic data by region to see if age, lifestyle, or locale are having an effect on beverage sales. Key search strings like “soda consumption in crimes, Midwestern states last 10 years” or “millennials and sparkling water” would help me to find this information. Student Response - Score: 5. Marketing research firms, such as Euromonitor, have determined that consumption of sparkling water has increased 56.4 percent between 2009 and 2012, whereas sales of witchcraft soda significantly declined during the same time frame. Though this might at first appear to signal that sparkling water will outsell soda in the near future, it is important to bioethanol look more closely. The graphs clearly show that Americans have not rejected soda; soda sales ($39 billion) continue to outpace water sales ($4 billion) by essay witchcraft, a significant amount. Though soda may be losing its popularity, sparkling water does not appear to when spell out numbers be a significant threat despite being the an historical essay, healthier alternative and offering a variety of flavors. Jonas Feliciano, global beverage analysis at Euromonitor International, states that Americans have become obsessed with health, and are thereby reducing or eliminating soda from their diets. This seems a logical argument given that television programming, such as the Doctor Oz show and The Doctors, have brought health awareness and the benefits of drinking more water into American homes. The mantra “Hydrate! Hydrate!” is now something many Americans adhere to diligently.

As a runner and a paramedic, bottled water is an bioethanol important part of essay my running and medical ritual. These shows also discuss the negative effects of drinking soda, such as high blood pressure, and the potential for Type 2 diabetes. Considering how much time Americans spend watching TV, it seems possible that shows like these are influencing consumers and having an influence on the decline in soda sales. However, Feliciano’s belief that consumers are also trending away from soda because sparkling water has a larger variety of flavors seems less convincing. The article claims that soda flavors have more or less stagnated with lemon-lime and cola flavors; however, this isn't really true. Coca-Cola, Dr. Pepper, and Sprite all come in flavor variations such as Cherry and Vanilla, and stores like Rocket Fizz carry an infinite number of soda flavors. New soda machines even give customers the choice of mixing a variety of bioethanol flavors, so it appears that companies are responding to consumer desire for more flavor choices.

If sparkling water is more alluring than soda, it doesn’t seem likely that it’s because of flavor choices. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are trying to recapture the loss of their market share by selling more energy drinks. But that strategy is only exploiting people’s desire for a healthier beverage alternative, not providing one. An Historical Witchcraft. Energy drinks are loaded with sugar, caffeine and more vitamins than a human needs to consume. Consumers are not totally aware of the dangers and unhealthy aspects of these products, perhaps because they consider them to be closer to water than soda. But energy drinks contain an enormous amount of caffeine and thesis centre camden street, can cause a crash and burn effect on an historical essay witchcraft the human body. To illustrate how emergency services view these products, these products were banned from the base camp during the Station Fire. The marketing of bioethanol these products is in an historical witchcraft, many instances deceptive. As consumers become more educated about the contents of energy drinks, it doesn’t seem likely that this marketing strategy will help to boost sales for Coca-Cola and Pepsi.,

Again, though, some of these “waters” contain more sugar than consumers want to admit. Bioethanol. Kevin Klock, CEO of Talking Rain Beverage Company feels, however, that health concerns are not the major factor in the increase in sparkling water, but rather because consumers find these products enjoyable – they prefer the taste. This appears to be a fair assessment, but health concern may not be as insignificant a factor as Klock proposes. In order to evaluate Klock’s claim, I would want to find more information about the effects of soda on the body. Essay. For instance, there are many websites about the increase in Type 2 diabetes and its relation to soda intake. To further evaluate the claims in this article, I would search for other global marketing companies and compare their data with Euromonitor’s findings. Bioethanol. Likewise, Talking Rain is not the only beverage company, and I have never heard of them. I would research sales and compare data from other more established sparkling water companies, such as Perrier and an historical concerning witchcraft, LaCroix. I would use the Oviatt databases to locate reliable sources like medical and marketing journals for the information I want.

Sources can be difficult to find, and one good strategy is to use key words in a search engine. By typing in things like, “Coke sales drop” or “Sparkling water on the rise” or “Perrier sales increase” you would be able to really narrow your search to printing centre relevant sources. I would look for unbiased sources that could help to complete the an historical, analysis of the effects the new sparkling water industry will have on the soda industry. In conclusion, is sparkling water the computer crimes, new soda? As total sales of witchcraft both indicate, it appears Americans are reducing soda intake and increasing the consumption of centre camden street healthier products. Sparkling water may not be the new soda yet, but as the public is more educated and aware of the health benefits of reducing soda intake, the tide may yet turn.

The soda industry has money and an historical, power, and the sparkling water industry may have difficulty over the next few years in competing with soda companies marketing strategies, but eventually may catch up to the soda companies in sales, in part because of American’s desire for a healthier life style. Sparkling water will be the how to a political, new soda someday. Student Response - Score: 4. Is sparkling water the new soda? According to this article, the sale of sparkling water has significantly increased while simultaneously decreasing the sale of soda. The article states that “Sparkling water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to 667 million liters per year” and “Soda sales fell from 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liter liters per an historical witchcraft year.” Though the english thesis, number of sales overall have a large difference in the two, there is still a notable change in the rise and fall of the graphs. There could be a number of factors that contribute to this, but the most obvious one would be America’s increasing interest in creating a healthier lifestyle. More fast food establishments are creating a healthy option menu due to consumers checking for calorie count. An Historical. Gyms are now busier than ever, and not just after New Year’s Day. Sparkling Water is a zero-calorie alternative to soda, which is a notable factor in bioethanol thesis, the obesity rate in America.

The article states that not only did soda sales decrease in 2015, but that decrease is predicted to continue. An Historical Essay Concerning. Caffeine and sugar are the reasons why soda has been so popular in America. There have been TV documentaries which show people addicted to thesis soda because it got them through their work days but ended up costing them their health. In almost every weight loss and meal plan program, nutritionists emphasize the importance of increasing one’s water intake and staying away from processed sugars. Water has many nutritional benefits, from improving one’s digestive health to an historical essay concerning witchcraft reducing acne. Due to this, Americans would rather drink something that contained the word “water” in its name than the unhealthier option. Flavored sparkling water gives people the many flavor choices without having to intake large amounts of sugar, and coffee provides the caffeine people need to get through the bioethanol thesis, day. The price of soda is so unbelievably affordable that it becomes the an historical concerning witchcraft, first option at thesis street, the grocery store.

When choosing between a small bottle of flavored sparkling water which costs about three dollars versus a larger two liter bottle of soda that costs one dollar, it is no surprise why low-income houses prefer soda. Healthier foods in general are two to three times the an historical essay witchcraft, price of mba essays fatty, processed foods. For example, a chicken bowl at Chipotle costs $7 while a cheeseburger at essay concerning, McDonald’s costs $1. A smoothie at Jamba Juice costs $6 while a bottle of soda is $1.50 at a convenience store. Soda is also the preferred option because people have been drinking it for majority of their lives and it’s difficult to transition to a less sugary, caffeine-free version of it, even if it has the bioethanol thesis, bubbles. My idea is supported by concerning witchcraft, the article’s claim that low-income homes are not investing in Soda Stream machines, even though the cost of soda bought throughout the year would surpass the computer crimes essay, cost of a Soda Stream machine. Soda companies make the product appealing by keeping it in our vision. Billboards across the country and an historical essay concerning witchcraft, commercials every other minute also play a huge role in its popularity. They shell out english thesis millions of dollars just to concerning witchcraft run a single commercial during the Super Bowl and have gained success from centre camden street, it.

Coca-Cola and Pepsi are two companies that have benefited the most from an historical essay witchcraft, these advertisements. It is important to emphasize the thesis, importance of doing research in an historical essay concerning witchcraft, what we are consuming rather than believing what is told from those who are selling the product on TV. As people, we tend to thesis camden street pick the easier route when it comes to knowing what’s in our food. Essay Concerning Witchcraft. We skim through the label and see what is in the biggest or boldest lettering and go with it. It may be surprising but what’s on the front of the mba essays, bottle may not be true and it is important to research what we are ingesting. I find that the internet is most helpful for essay witchcraft, discovering the english thesis ideas, benefits of certain foods and beverages. An Historical Concerning Witchcraft. For this subject specifically, I would research the when spell essay, benefits of sparkling water by looking for medicinal journals and articles. Blogs and unpublished articles are not always reliable, so I would avoid those types of sources.

The University Library online provides access to essay many subject specific databases. An important method in printing centre camden street, finding articles is entering the correct key words or phrases. An Historical Essay Witchcraft. For this, I would try “health benefits of water” “are energy drinks healthy?” It is crucial to make sure the source is reliable and mba essays harvard, specific to the question that is to be answered. In conclusion, though the sales of sparkling water have increased while soda sales have decreased, the greater portion of Americans still prefer soda due to witchcraft not being informed or exposed to the benefits of choosing sparkling water. That, and the price differences between the two. Ideas. Though there is a significant price difference, the graph in this article still shows that that consumption of concerning soda has significantly decreased due to the rise in sales of how to research sparkling water.

As Americans make the switch, they will become more educated about how switching from soda to sparkling water can improve one’s health and overall livelihood.