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La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Transition. Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Essay. Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Essay Conclusion Words. Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Ib Environmental Systems Extended. . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Conclusion Transition. Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. Literature Coursework. Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for essay words Respondents, Hamdan c. Creating An Introduction Essay. Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Essay Conclusion Transition. . Ib Environmental Essay. En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Conclusion Transition. 22. Creating Essay. . Words. Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Creating An Introduction For An Essay. 38. Conclusion Transition Words. . Ib Environmental Systems. Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Transition Words. « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . On Usefulness Of Animals. D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Transition Words. Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Samurai Research Paper. » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Essay Words. cit., pp. Essay. 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. Conclusion Transition Words. La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of child labour Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Essay Conclusion Words. La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for masters Use of conclusion transition words Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Percentage Gcse Coursework. Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. Essay Conclusion. . Sample Thesis Proposal. L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan. Transition Words. Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. Ib Environmental Extended Essay. La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Essay Conclusion. Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. An Introduction For An Essay. Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration.

Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Transition. Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Sample Masters. La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Essay Transition. La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Labour Thesis. Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ». L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Essay Conclusion Transition Words. Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. Percentage English Literature Gcse Coursework. A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for essay words Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Masters Thesis. Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. Conclusion. Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for essay on usefulness of animals Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present.

La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Essay Conclusion Transition. La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […]. Masters. Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Conclusion. Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Ib Environmental Extended Essay. En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Transition. Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Research Paper. […] Le delit dont on essay conclusion transition words accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Sample Masters. Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Essay Conclusion Transition Words. Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on systems extended essay encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Conclusion. L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of for an essay war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. Essay Conclusion Words. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. An Introduction. , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Transition. […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Research Paper. Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Words. […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for for an essay Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Essay. […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Samurai Research Paper. . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve.

Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande. Essay Conclusion Words. En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. On Usefulness Of Animals. La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Essay Conclusion Transition. Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Research Paper. De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Conclusion Transition. La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Creating For An Essay. Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Essay. qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Sample Thesis Proposal. L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Essay Conclusion Transition. La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Thesis. La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Essay Transition Words. Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. On Usefulness. Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Essay Transition. Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. An Introduction. L’article 3, auquel on essay conclusion words se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Child Labour Thesis. L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Essay Conclusion. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. Sample Proposal. 73. Essay Transition. . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. On Usefulness Of Animals. Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Essay Transition Words. L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Creating Essay. Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire. Conclusion Transition Words. Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. On Usefulness. Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue.

Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Essay Transition Words. Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. English. . Essay Conclusion Transition Words. Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Percentage Literature Gcse. Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Essay Transition Words. De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of an introduction for an War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Conclusion Transition Words. Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Child Labour. . Essay. Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. Creating For An Essay. Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Essay Transition Words. La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Percentage English Gcse. . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Essay. Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». Creating For An. Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Words. 5. Samurai Research Paper. . Essay Conclusion Transition. Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Proposal. Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Essay Transition Words. 1 ; . Gcse. . Essay. Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. Sample Proposal. 2. Essay. . Masters. C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». Conclusion. « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in child labour thesis Congress Over Military. Essay Conclusion Words. , souligna Dell’Orto. Percentage Literature Coursework. Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Essay Conclusion Words. Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to essay on usefulness of animals Change. Transition. . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration. English Literature Gcse Coursework. Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Conclusion Transition Words. Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. An Introduction For An Essay. Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. Essay Conclusion Transition Words. . Research. Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Essay Conclusion Transition Words. Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. Research. . Essay. Pour John D. Child Thesis. Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable.

Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on conclusion transition ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Extended. Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Essay Conclusion Transition. . For An. Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the essay transition words Name of literature gcse coursework National Security. Transition. . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. Samurai. Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. Essay Conclusion Transition Words. Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Essay On Usefulness Of Animals. La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee.

Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client. Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Transition. La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Essay On Usefulness. L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Essay. Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Percentage English Literature Coursework. Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution.

Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir. L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. Essay Conclusion. Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of samurai research Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Essay Transition. Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. Of Animals. Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Essay Transition. Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Coursework. Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Transition. Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Thesis. Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre.

Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Essay Conclusion Words. Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ». Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. Creating For An. Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Essay Transition. L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Sample Masters Proposal. L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Essay Transition. Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Percentage Literature. Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Essay Words. « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. Ib Environmental Systems Extended. 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol.

152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Conclusion Words. . Of Animals. C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Transition Words. La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Ib Environmental Systems Extended. Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres. Essay Conclusion Transition. Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter.

Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on extended Detainees Intensifies”. Conclusion. . Samurai Research Paper. D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Essay Conclusion Transition. Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Labour Thesis. Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Essay. . Child Thesis. Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Essay Conclusion Transition Words. . Research. L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. Conclusion. Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. On Usefulness. . Essay Conclusion. Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. Creating An Introduction For An. Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Essay. . Percentage Literature. Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in essay Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. Percentage Literature. Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in essay conclusion Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Extended. . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Essay. Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires.

Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense. Percentage English Coursework. Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Conclusion Transition Words. Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. Samurai. Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Essay Conclusion. Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Systems. Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives.

Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». Conclusion Transition Words. On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Ib Environmental Systems Extended Essay. Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Conclusion Transition Words. L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Samurai Paper. Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Essay. Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Thesis. L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Essay Conclusion Transition. L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Labour. En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Essay Words. Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Samurai Research. Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Words. Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Labour. Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Conclusion Words. Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Samurai Research Paper. Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». Essay Conclusion. Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Samurai Research. Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Essay Conclusion Words. « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Sample Thesis Proposal. La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the essay transition Decider”, The Washington. Essay On Usefulness Of Animals. . Essay Conclusion Words. Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Samurai. Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Essay Conclusion Words. Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Essay On Usefulness. L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. Essay Conclusion Transition. Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. An Introduction For An. A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . Essay Conclusion Transition Words. Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes.

Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies. On Usefulness. Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Conclusion Transition. L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. English Coursework. Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. Transition Words. Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Ib Environmental Systems Extended Essay. En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. Essay. Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive. Samurai. Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Conclusion. Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Proposal. En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Conclusion Transition Words. Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. Percentage Literature Coursework. Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres.

Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Essay Words. En 2000, les presses de la State University of child thesis New York ont edite Politics and essay transition words Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Creating For An. 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Essay Words. A 01. Labour Thesis. Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. Conclusion Transition Words. Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Samurai Research. John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Essay. Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Ib Environmental Essay. 41-51. Brief for essay words Respondents, Hamdan c. Sample Masters Proposal. Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Essay Conclusion Words. 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Samurai Paper. cit. Essay Transition Words. , pp. An Introduction. 44-45. Hamdan c. Conclusion Words. Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Labour Thesis. Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. Essay Transition. Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Samurai Research Paper. 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in essay conclusion transition Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. An Introduction For An Essay. A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to essay conclusion transition words Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. Percentage English. A6. R. Essay Words. Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for samurai paper Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Essay Words. A11. R. An Introduction Essay. Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of essay conclusion transition words Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Research Paper. A4. Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the transition words Name of english literature National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and transition words the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. English Literature Gcse. 230-240.

Congressional Record , vol. Conclusion Transition Words. 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Percentage Literature Gcse. S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on essay conclusion transition words Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. Essay On Usefulness Of Animals. A1. “How 3 G.O.P. Essay Transition Words. Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Labour Thesis. 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to conclusion words 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. Samurai Research Paper. A6. John M. Essay Transition. Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to samurai paper Bush proposal on essay conclusion terrorist suspects keeps issue at essay, cutting edge of essay security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. For An Essay. 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Essay. 2624. “Profiles in samurai research Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. Conclusion Transition. B6. Eugene Robinson, “Checking the percentage gcse coursework Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. Words. A27.

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dave ross essays Ethical Theory Based on transition words the Ethics of. Last Revision: August 10, 2004. The purpose of percentage english coursework, this essay is to introduce a simple ethical theory and to give credit to the thinker who is the essay conclusion transition source of most of the sample ideas in it. This essay does not pretend to essay fully set forth W. Systems Extended? D. Ross?s moral intuitionist theory, which is considerably more sophisticated than a brief discussion can show. Essay Conclusion Transition? Direct references below to Ross's words refer to percentage english literature coursework The Right and the Good (2002).

For more on Ross, see the essay items by Ross, Regan, and percentage literature gcse, Stout in the Bibliography. Contents. The Prima Facie Duties or Moral Guidelines. By contrast with prima facie duties, our actual or concrete duty is the duty we should perform in the particular situation of choice. Whatever one's actual duty is, one is morally bound to perform it. Prima facie duties relate to actual duties as reasons do to conclusions of reasoning. Note: The term duty in prima facie duty is slightly misleading. The prima facie duties are understood as guidelines, not rules without exception. If an action does not correspond to a specific guideline, one is conclusion words, not necessarily violating a rule that one ought to follow. However, not following the labour thesis rule one ought to follow in a particular case is failing to do one's (actual) duty. In such cases it makes sense to talk about violating a rule.

The rule might be the same in conclusion words words as a prima facie duty (minus the phrase unless other moral considerations override), but it would no longer be merely a guideline because it describes what one concretely should do. The prima facie duties include. 1. Fidelity. Duties of fidelity are duties to keep one?s promises and contracts and not to engage in deception. Ross describes them as those resting on a promise or what may fairly be called an for an, implicit promise, such as the implicit undertaking not to tell lies which seems to essay transition be implied in the act of entering into conversation . . . or of writing books that purport to be history and not fiction (Ross, 21) 2. Systems Extended? Reparation. This is a duty to make up for essay words, the injuries one has done to others. Ross describes this duty as resting on a previous wrongful act (Ross, ibid.)

3. Gratitude. The duty of gratitude is a duty to be grateful for benefactions done to oneself and if possible to show it by benefactions in return. 4. Essay? Non-injury. The duty of non-injury (also known as non-maleficence) is the duty not to words harm others physically or psychologically: to avoid harming their health, security, intelligence, character, or happiness. (21-22) Added August 2004: Jacques Thiroux (2001, 65) claims that Ross' duty of essay on usefulness of animals, non-injury includes a duty to prevent injury to others. Conclusion Transition Words? This seems to be wrong regarding Ross, but it might be reasonable to add such a prima facie duty to research paper the list. Non-injury in Ross' strict sense is distinct from the transition words prevention of harm to others. Non-injury instructs us generally to avoid intentionally, negligently, or ignorantly (when ignorance is avoidable) harming others. Harm-prevention instructs us generally to on usefulness of animals make a real effort to prevent harm to others from causes other than ourselves. See also the essay conclusion transition words comment following the discussion of beneficence. 5. Harm-Prevention . Once again, this is the prima facie duty of a person to prevent harm to essay others from conclusion transition, causes other than him- or herself.

6. Paper? Beneficence. Words? The duty to do good to extended essay others: to essay conclusion transition foster their health, security, wisdom, moral goodness, or happiness. This duty, says Ross, rests upon the fact that there are other beings in the world whose condition we can make better in respect of virtue, or of intelligence, or of labour, pleasure (Ross, 21-22). Added August 2004: Beneficence and harm-prevention are clearly related. There is an obvious sense in which to prevent harm to persons is to do them good. But this is trivially true, normally not even worth saying (just as it's normally not worth saying that there is at least one person in the room when we already know there are two persons in the room). How, if at conclusion transition words, all, can we distinguish between harm-prevention, on the one hand, and beneficence in the strict sense, on the other, that is, beneficence that is not primarily harm-prevention? And why should we bother? Let's answer the second question first: We should bother because frequently harm-prevention is morally more demanding than beneficence. If the alternative is between preventing a toddler from wandering into a busy street and playing catch with her sister, it is clear what should take priority.

But how can we distinguish harm-prevention from beneficence in the strict sense? Loosely, harm seems to sample masters thesis be whatever significantly degrades, or risks degrading, our health or other capabilities for coping with and conclusion transition, getting the most out of life. Systems Extended? By contrast, benefit seems to be whatever enhances, or is likely to enhance, those same things. 7. Self-Improvement. The duty of self-improvement is to act so as to transition words promote one?s own good, i.e., one?s own health, security, wisdom, moral goodness, and happiness. Ross himself mentions virtue or intelligence in this connection (21). 8. Justice. The duty of justice requires that one act in such a way that one distributes benefits and burdens fairly. Ross himself emphasizes the negative aspect of this duty: he says that this type of essay of animals, duty rests on essay transition the fact or possibility of a distribution of pleasure or happiness (or the means thereto) that is not in accord with the merit of the creating for an essay persons concerned; in such cases there arises a duty to upset or prevent such a distribution (21). Thus the duty of conclusion transition words, justice includes the duty, insofar as possible, to prevent an unjust distribution of benefits or burdens. 9. Respect for freedom.

So far as possible we should avoid coercion of others and, insofar as we are able, provide conditions of empowerment especially to those who radically lack them. (Ross might say that these duties are contained in non-injury and beneficence, respectively.) Respect for freedom requires, negatively, that we not enslave or kidnap others or force them to participate in the activities of our particular religious group. It also requires, positively, that, if we are able, we support efforts to ensure basic health and samurai research, educational opportunity for those unable to essay transition secure them for themselves. 10. Percentage English Gcse Coursework? Care. A second possible prima facie duty not mentioned by Ross is the duty to care, a duty reflecting concrete relationships such as occur within families or between close friends. Some moral philosophers favor adding Care to the list, while others warn that it will be misapplied if used too often to essay conclusion words override other prima facie duties. According to one formulation, a duty to care can be stated in part thus:

We should exercise special care for [persons] with whom we are concretely related, attending to their own needs, values, etc. and responding positively to these needs, etc., especially of those most vulnerable (Velasquez 2002, chapter 2). See, if you wish, Care Ethics, for a discussion of an entire ethical theory based on this idea. 11. Non-parasitism. An Introduction? This is the principle of not being a free rider.

This guideline asserts that, as a general rule, we should do our part to abide by conclusion transition the rules of an institution in labour which we willingly participate and from which we willingly accept benefits. This prima facie duty weighs against plagiarism and activities that violate laws. Ross might say that this is included in his Principle of essay transition words, Justice. Non-parasitism could support the more concrete duty not to steal the property of others. If I benefit from the respect that others have for my own property (they do not take it or use it without my consent), I am a beneficiary of the institution of respect for personal property.

But if I myself steal from others, I am acting as a parasite on that institution. Several of the prima facie duties listed above (or principles quite like them) have been proposed at various times to be the samurai most basic insight or principle of ethics. Even if we agree with Ross that no single general duty is applicable in every situation that calls for moral choice, we can still learn from theories that have more fully explored the potential implications of each duty. Essay Conclusion Words? See Correlating Prima Facie Duties with Ethical Theories. How do we use this approach when faced with a situation of moral choice? In the simplest cases, if we have had a decent moral upbringing, we can simply see what moral rule is relevant and apply it.

If you are carrying a heavy load into a building and essay, a passer by holds the door open for you, you can see immediately that an expression of gratitude is in order. (You are directly applying the relevant prima facie duty where it is applicable and discovering your actual duty in essay conclusion the circumstances.) If you are an of animals, able-bodied passer-by not carrying anything yourself and you notice someone trying to carry a heavy load into transition words a building, you might see immediately that you ought to hold the door open for creating for an, him or her. (You would be directly applying the prima facie duty of beneficence.) A normal ten-year-old may observe a neighbor child?s toy and be tempted to add it to her collection, but she sees that doing so, even if she could get away with it, would violate the principle of non- injury (it would in a way harm the conclusion words neighbor child to make off with her toy), justice (it would improperly distribute benefits), and non-parasitism (it would be doing unto others as she would not want any other to do to samurai research paper her). She can perhaps see that these three prima facie duties dictate her not taking the neighbor child?s toy. Her actual duty is not to take the toy. Every prima facie duty is general but has exceptions. In the simpler cases, prima facie duties directly guide us to choose our actual or concrete duty, what we should do here and now, in the particular case at hand. Suppose you observe an elderly neighbor collapse with what might be a heart attack.

You are a block away from the nearest phone from which you could call for help. Essay Conclusion Transition Words? A child?s bike is close at hand and no one but you and the collapsed elderly person is around. One or more duties seem to say take the bike and go call for for an, help, while others seems to say taking the conclusion transition words bike is wrong. On the don't take side are justice and non-injury (it seems unjust to the owner of the bike and an injury to an introduction him or her). On the take side lies harm-prevention. It is widely known that people die from heart attacks that are not treated quickly. (Note that this seems to be a case of harm-prevention rather than beneficence in the strict sense.) The solution might be to recognize that in this circumstance, harm-prevention takes priority over what on the surface looks like injustice and injury. Conclusion Transition Words? So the actual duty is probably to take the samurai bike and get help. Besides, it should not be difficult to make up the conclusion words temporary bike loss to thesis its owner, that is, there might be an actual duty of reparation. The point is essay words, that prima facie duties by themselves are often not enough to determine what we should do. Labour? We have to transition see which prima facie duties have priority in essay the situation we face, and which do not. Besides the basic prima facie duties, there are also priority rules that can give us guidance when the basic prima facie duties seem to essay transition give conflicting guidance.

For example, other things equal, it is more important to avoid injury than to do positive good. In fact, 1) Non-injury normally overrides other prima facie duties. 2) Fidelity normally overrides Beneficence. For example, keeping contracts (which falls under Fidelity) normally overrides random acts of kindness. Beneficence, non-injury, harm-prevention, and self-improvement in relation to lasting positive qualities such as knowledge, moral character, and skill often override any conflicting prima facie duty we might think we have to give each other (or ourselves) short-term pleasure or avoid causing each other (or ourselves) short-term pain. Thus, persons cannot be educated or mature without occasional discomfort or the pain that comes with admitting truths we might prefer to deny, yet we gain from such sometimes unpleasant experiences in our ability to cope with difficulty, in moral goodness, and in systems essay wisdom. However, according to this view, not only is conclusion transition words, no prima facie duty is without exception, but also no priority rule is without exception. You just have to see or recognize the exception when it occurs.

The Importance of english gcse, Being Wary of conclusion words, Misuse. In ethics, as probably in everything else, there seem to be no good general ideas that cannot be perverted, i.e., that are immune to misuse. Ross was especially well aware of essay, this. That is why his moral guidelines are prima facie , not exceptionless, rules. The duty of self-improvement, especially in moral habits, is transition words, a more continuous actual duty than most of us realize. Paper? Moral improvement consists largely in growing awareness (based on experience) of what traps to avoid. Alas, there are many. For instance, the prima facie duty of beneficence is misapplied when the desire to promote happiness (or to save souls) leads one to violate an actual duty to respect persons' freedom or an actual duty not to conclusion words physically or psychologically injure them. The prima facie duty of beneficence is misapplied if we allow the intention to promote the child labour pleasure of transition, others to override an actual duty of non-injury, respect for freedom, or promotion of child labour thesis, moral development and intelligence. The prima facie duty of fidelity may be misapplied if one thinks one has a strongly binding moral obligation to keep a promise one has made under coercion. Essay Words? (But don't count on exploitive people appreciating this point!) The prima facie duty of care may be misapplied if it leads a person to samurai research cover up or excuse moral wrongs of others, say, wrongs by members of your family or friends involving injury to outsiders.

The prima facie duty of non-injury may be misapplied if one uses it to justify refraining from transition, telling a person what she needs to know for the sake of her future moral development or long-term well-being because it may distress her or somebody else in the short run. The prima facie duty of respect for freedom may be misapplied if one appeals to it to justify letting a child take risks that have a significant chance of permanently injuring her. The prima facie duty of self-improvement may be misapplied if one prefers pleasure to other benefits to oneself (health, moral improvement, intellectual improvement) or allows the prima facie duty of self-improvement in areas other than moral character to override a high presumption of duties relating to fidelity, non-injury, justice, or respect for freedom, i.e., high-priority prima facie duties directly involving others. Moral intuition or perception has three functions in this approach: 1) It tells us when one prima facie rule, which at first seems to apply, does not apply because another overrides it. In other words, moral insight tells us when we have exceptions to specific guidelines.

This type of moral intuition requires sensitivity to the morally significant aspects of the situation in which the essay of animals chooser is located. The other two functions are related not to the situation directly but to the general rules. 2) Moral intuition tells us what the essay conclusion prima facie duties themselves are. We just see , by moral intuition, that generally, non-injury is a good rule to child labour follow. 3) Moral intuition tells us what the conclusion transition priority rules are. We just see , by moral intuition, that generally non-injury takes precedence over beneficence. Note that the moral intuition or perception about which we are talking is not the same as perceiving a color, a sound, a taste, a texture, or a smell; nor is it the same as perceiving physical thing. It is a grasping of a truth. When it picks out essay morally relevant parts of a sitution, it makes use of perceptions of the essay transition nonmoral kind, but it goes beyond them to certain features as morally relevant, features that call for essay, applying a prima facie duty to the situation.

When moral intuition grasps the transition prima facie duties themselves, it is creating an introduction for an, a grasping of a moral general truth. The simple theory explained above leaves unanswered the transition words basic question about sample thesis proposal where these moral intuitions come from. This question can be answered in transition words part by the theory of Virtue Ethics, which we will discuss later in the course. Our abilities to have correct moral perceptions depend upon creating an introduction essay our moral upbringing, the essay transition words moral habits we have formed. Have we formed virtues or vices? Moral perception can be corrupted or distorted. We can imagine people who always follow a distorted version of the duty of self-improvement and ignore the other principles; for instance, they promote their own pleasure (taking that to be the essay essence of happiness) and do not care whether they injure others or are unjust in essay conclusion transition their dealings with others. Systems? One might plausibly say that these people have formed defective moral habits, vices. We can also imagine people who technically adhere very well to the duty of non-injury but never make positive contributions to the well-being of others and do nothing else to promote justice in essay conclusion transition their community.

One who follows a theory of the english literature sort being outlined here could say that such people also have defective moral habits and essay conclusion transition words, perceptions. An Incompleteness in the Simple Theory. Students find that their application of this theory works quite well for percentage english gcse coursework, many moral problems and that it allows them to reach a remarkable degree of agreement with other people. But it does not yield such a satisfying result in essay conclusion some discussions. For example, when people discuss abortion, some will dig in their heels and insist that non-injury (in relationship to the fetus) applies in almost all cases and overrides any other consideration, while others will say that respect for freedom (of the mother) should almost always override non-injury to the fetus, at least in the first months of pregnancy. Labour Thesis? This debate reveals that when people place different degrees of value upon fetal life and adult freedom (and ignore less obvious considerations such as the long-term effects of reproductive choices), the approach outlined here will be inconclusive. Similar inconclusive results may occur if we attempt to use the approach outlined here to resolve debates between persons who are vegetarians out of essay conclusion, respect for animal rights and those who wish to defend their meat-eating habits. Regan, Tom, 1992. An Introduction? W. D. Ross.

In Encyclopedia of words, Ethics . Eds. L. C. and C. Creating An Introduction Essay? B. Becker. New York: Garland Publishers. Page 1111. Ross, W. Essay Words? D., 2002. An Introduction For An Essay? The Right and the Good. Edited, with an Introduction, by Philip Stratton-Lake. New York: Oxford University Press; rpt. of original 1930 edition. Stout, A. K., 1967.

William David Ross. In Encyclopedia of essay transition, Philosophy . Ed. Paul Edwards. Sample Masters Thesis? New York: MacMillan. Vol. 7: 216-217. Thiroux, Jacques, 2001. Ethics: Theory and Practice . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Velasquez, Manuel G., 2002. Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

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English Learning Literature – Text and Context. This was published under the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and essay conclusion transition words, Liberal Democrat coalition government. Speech to Belarus State Linguistic University that Ambassador Bruce Bucknell delivered at samurai, the Biennial National Conference of English teachers. People have entire relationships via text message now, but I am not partial to texting. I need context, nuance and the warmth and tone that can only come from a human voice. There is essay conclusion no evidence that texting teaches people to percentage literature spell badly: rather, research shows that those kids who text frequently are more likely to be the most literate and the best spellers, because you have to know how to essay transition words manipulate language. ¢ : - ³ iiii. Until relatively recently the text of English – as other languages - came to us from books and letters.

Then, just under a century ago, as the world turned to mass media of broadcasting (ie radio and television), text also came from the transcripts of speech. Now most text is in an introduction for an essay, digital form, often typed up text, but not necessarily. Speech and language is starting to be generated by words somebody (or something) called “Siri” and her friends: other “natural language processing” software. Context is changing too. Child? Until relatively recently, English was the language of Britain, the conclusion, United States, and a few other countries; and business, diplomacy, and other forms of international exchange. Now English is the second language of labour, choice throughout the world: more English is transition words spoken in conversations between second language speakers than between native speakers. Together, these changes - in how text is assembled and the context in which English is being used - are changing the nature of systems, my language.

While I leave you to ponder these thoughts, let me first thank Natalia Petrovna and the Linguistic University for conclusion words inviting me to speak today. I’m delighted to be speaking to so many teachers of my language from all over Belarus. I hope you enjoy listening to me. I think that I’m very lucky to be the ambassador of the country which gave the world its pre-eminent language. Everybody, it seems, wants to learn my language, or at least feels they have to say a few words. It’s my excuse for not passing my Russian language exams. But English does allow me to speak to the Head of the labour thesis, Confucius Centre here in Minsk, who speaks excellent English. My role today is to stir you up, and make you think about my language.

To be a . I hope to provoke some ideas on how you can improve the teaching of English in your schools, and conclusion transition words, other educational institutions. I live in the centre of Minsk. I spend much of my time in the city centre. I have also judged on samurai the national competition organised by the English Speaking Union. The quality of spoken English amongst some of the people I meet in the centre of Minsk is very high. I’m constantly surprised by transition words how many of the waiters and waitresses speak and understand English. The use of English is widening.

The future of Text – recap of where English is now. To return to the issue of text – the samurai, essence of a language. Almost exactly a year ago I spoke to an audience here about the future of my language. Essay Transition? I apologise to child anyone who may have heard me before, and I have tried to limit the repetition of what I said. The biggest obstacle to learning English is essay conclusion words that it is a non-phonetic language. It must frustrate many people who are introvert and prefer to learn a language from on usefulness of animals, texts. The only way to learn English is to speak it, and speak it again, and speak it yet more. Like with all languages, there are many differences between English as it is conclusion transition spoken, and as it is written.

The divergence between American English and British English in the 19th century, as shown by sample thesis separate vocabularies for essay conclusion the new technologies of percentage coursework, that period, has turned to convergence in essay transition, the era of sound recordings and systems essay, mass broadcasting. Indeed the standardisation of pronunciation in the last 100 years has put regional dialects and accents under attack in both the UK and the US. Essay Conclusion Words? But such regional variations still exist. Yes, Americanisms, even in British English, are strong. We talk about the essay on usefulness of animals, guys, rather than the chaps or the blokes, and curve balls coming out of the essay words, left field rather than sticky wickets. But there are strong reverse influences, starting with Harry Potter. As long as we have the likes of Benedict Cumberbatch to play the role of Sherlock Holmes, then a more British style of pronunciation stands a chance. Child? Currently, one of the most successful American television series of recent years has been performed by British actors, to scripts produced by Americans based on the books of an American novelist: Game of Thrones. At the same time, we have had the development of many other types of English with their own grammar and vocabulary as has happened in Australia, and in such large and populous countries where English is a national and unifying language, for conclusion transition example India, Nigeria and South Africa. International language of exchange.

The leading British academic who studies the development of English is David Crystal. He noted we live in on usefulness, a world of conclusion words, three main types of English: those who speak it as a mother tongue, or first language (L1); those who speak it as a second language (L2); and those who use it as a necessary language of exchange (ELT). He has suggested that a WSPE (World standard printed English) and systems extended, WSSE (World Standard Spoken English) are emerging. English has great advantage because it is a living language. There is very little prescription in conclusion transition words, how we use our language.

Our tradition is of descriptivism in our dictionaries. Perhaps due to the principle of masters proposal, least effort, English has long evolved. It has become simpler grammatically but with a wider vocabulary through subsuming words from transition words, other languages, starting with French. Masters Thesis? It still does. Until about essay conclusion words 20 years ago, texts were exclusively produced by humans. Now we humans face competition from computers. Perhaps the creating an introduction essay, biggest threat to language teachers is MT – or machine translation. It is essay transition words still in its early days, and to be honest, isn’t proving to be much of a threat at the moment. That might change - it is still too soon to say what will happen. What we know as “text” – written or printed words put together to communicate - is not as clear cut as it was. On Usefulness Of Animals? We have wikis that anyone can edit so that text is produced and constantly altered by different writers.

And we live in essay transition words, a world where data, and those who know how to child labour use it, are taking over. It’s mathematicians who write the conclusion transition words, algorithms that drive spell checkers, predictive text and Google translate, and other MT systems. And these algorithms are also driving voice recognition computer programmes that people are beginning to use. So if like me you had no idea who Siri is, she is a software application of Apple with a voice user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Web services. We don’t yet know whether the algorithmic tools, and samurai research paper, the software that transcribes what we say will start to conclusion transition prescribe the masters thesis proposal, English generated digitally, or whether they will simply describe the English we use. But this is the future we all face. Let me turn to the issue of context – which I suppose I could say how and why English is essay conclusion transition used. The English that I use, and that used by my fellow Britons, and by many Americans, has changed a lot in child, the age of mass broadcasting, and the standardisation of pronunciation. But even before that period, the written language was already undergoing great change in transition, the later 19th century, as the effects of urbanisation and compulsory education and mass literacy was introduced in sample, our societies. In fact, England was one of the last European countries to conclusion transition bring in compulsory education. Scotland had far better education because of child labour thesis, laws passed in the 17th century which obliged every parish – in other words, every village with a church – to provide a school.

This may explain why the Enlightenment first came about in essay, Scotland in the early 18th century with such thinkers as Adam Smith and David Hume. Frederick the Great introduced a compulsory education system in Prussia in 1763, and percentage english, parts of the Habsburg empire introduced mandatory primary education under the Empress Maria Theresa in 1774. It was nearly another century before an act of essay transition, 1870 forced all areas in masters thesis, England and Wales to set up a school. The effects of urbanisation and compulsory education on publishing were startling in Anglophone countries. The later 19th century was a golden era of publishing of all sorts of essay conclusion, new materials: books, magazines and newspapers, that catered for the new generation of readers who had been to school. There was a huge increase in publications catering for all sorts of tastes and interests.

So appeared the “penny dreadful”, mostly fiction in serial form featuring lurid stores costing all of one penny. They were printed on cheap paper and aimed at young males. The equivalent for women followed much later, perhaps because girls were often discouraged from staying at school. This was an extension of the creating, Dickens effect. Charles Dickens wrote for the middle classes in the 1830s onwards. Conclusion? His serial novels sold for much more (and he became much richer). In the samurai research, United States, the later 19th century was filled with cheap publications glorifying the settlement in the new territories of the west, in conclusion transition words, other words the westerns that portrayed cowboys as heroes, perhaps the first and only time in sample, history when agricultural workers were heroes. The texts of “penny dreadfuls” and other types of “pulp fiction”, and the newspapers and other publications that started publication towards the end of 19th century, were far simpler than the texts in essay words, such as the Times, or as produced even by Dickens himself. Sentences were shorter, there were few subordinate clauses, and syntax was simplified. The convoluted sentences combining several thoughts and ideas, that the likes of Samuel Johnson, arguably the greatest English stylist of his day or indeed in thesis, any era and one whose sentences if read aloud could go on words for several breathes and could even cause one to lose one’s place amongst those thoughts tumbling out of his erudite mind – those long sentences being producing in the 18th century for the delight of a limited if high educated elite, were no longer being written. Or perhaps I should say, they faced new competition.

The best English prose style tended towards simplification, direct statement and on usefulness of animals, brevity. Its epitome was the style George Orwell proposed as set out in his 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language”. What we are witnessing now, with the massive expansion of the numbers of people learning English, may not be so different. Let me remind you of the power of English. English currently dominates most international exchange: in international organisations – not only the UN family, but also European organisations; in international commerce; in transport; in education and scientific research (95% of scientific papers are published in English); and in technology. But it is also a language of national exchange: English is an essay conclusion transition official language in 88 sovereign states and territories.

Within the European Union, the English language is creating an introduction used so much that the European Commission even produces a style guide for non-native speakers because, in their words: “European union institutions have developed a vocabulary that differs from that of any recognised form of English”. Possibly as many as 1.5 billion people are using English on a regular basis. They easily outnumber the native speakers – who number around 420 million. Conclusion Transition? Maybe as much of 80% of spoken English is between non-native English speakers. Nicholas Ostler, a historian of the development of languages, noted that English is actually shrinking in percentage terms as a mother tongue. Labour Thesis? Until a few years ago, it was still very much the language of Britain and America, and so sometimes was seen as a language of colonialism. But as more L2 and essay conclusion transition words, ELT users speak English, it becomes much less a political issue and more of a practical issue. Countries like Norway and Denmark now teach English from the first year of ib environmental systems extended essay, compulsory schooling. English is a medium of exchange that allows individuals to meet, and barter their knowledge, their goods or their ideas. But it is a chaotic market place, and transition, made all the more complicated by the explosion of essay, communication from digital social media, that allows us to essay words today to chat globally.

Let me steal a few thoughts published recently in The Economist. It has looked at the dominance of English. For An Essay? It noted the research of John McWhorter, of Columbia University, that showed modern English, Arabic, Mandarin and Persian are all simpler and conclusion transition, less grammatically complex than their ancient varieties. His conclusion: the samurai research, more people who speak one language, the greater then need for simplicity, so more people can understand. The simplification of English has already to essay conclusion words have gone further than many other languages. We have lost many inflections ie modifications of a word to reflect different grammatical usages. We’ve lost gender, case and many prefixes and suffixes, and have simple singulars and plurals. Thesis? We still have inflected pronouns but far fewer than other European languages. The Economist suggests that the English could become yet simpler. There is still some English grammar that causes problems, above all tenses.

When I was preparing for this speech, I thought that I had some idea about our tenses. But I’ve learnt that we might have only two or twelve or thirteen. We use those short words: is, will, was, has and had. Essay Conclusion Words? But what complication we can make by using: been, do, may, might, would, should, could indeed any number of compound verbal expressions. But we are living - only in creating an introduction essay, the present continuous.

Then there remains the trauma of prepositions – although they should perhaps be called adpositions, because not all come before a word. English is particularly rich in transition, short words, but add a preposition, and meanings change. One example: to put (), usually used to samurai state placing something somewhere. As in to conclusion put in something or put out something, or put under somewhere or put on somewhere. I can also put to you my ideas, put up with you, put you down, put on for an something (not just clothes, but also airs and graces), put off (usually something nasty I don’t want to do), put through (or perhaps push through) the essay transition words, wringer, put over my idea. Almost anywhere except “put from” or (better “put aside”). The Economist concluded this summer that it is the expressiveness of modern English that makes it so flexible, supple and ready for systems use by so many people. Who am I to tell you about how best to teach English? To quote to you the Economist’s headline, English may yet be “simpler, but more foreign”.

In the internet age, it isn’t my language any more but yours too. As part of essay transition, your continuing professional development – and yes, even diplomats like me have to undertake our CPD – please spend time looking at the vast array of material on the internet to learn English. Of course, I very much hope you look for better quality sources, such as those provided by the British Council and the BBC. There are multiple opportunities for child labour thesis students of the language to listen to all types of speakers. Conclusion? The opportunities to engage learners in different, more interactive ways are a great bonus. And please follow our Facebook page – we run competitions from time to ib environmental time and plan more on the English language early next year. I think you may need to work out what you are teaching English for. Given the essay conclusion, vast numbers of people speaking English, most of your students are likely to be learning English for future use in sample thesis proposal, exchange. This is conclusion important – because they need to make themselves understood to essay other non-native English speakers.

In Belarus you are particularly lucky because you have a strong IT sector and essay conclusion words, such companies as EPAM, Wargaming / World of Tanks, and the like. I’m surprised by how important English is for these companies, but you have a great asset and demand for thesis proposal your graduates. I hope you know what they want. Turning more to the text itself, I very much hope you can embrace simplicity. Clear, understandable prose ensures you communicate a message effectively, as well as being a courtesy to words readers. Samurai Research Paper? I don’t necessarily live by Orwell’s six rules, but they are a good start: Use short words not long; If you can cut a word, cut it out (usually unnecessary adjectives or adverbs). Use direct expressions (active not the passive) Avoid figures of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Avoid foreign or jargon words - if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.

Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. A good tip for all that Orwell might have endorsed: try to keep sentences to less than 20 words. I think it is all the more important that learners speak it more - and write it less. Essay Conclusion Words? I realise that this may be difficult in a culture that, like Britain, is less extrovert than in other countries. But there is no substitute for speaking. I realise I have concentrated nearly all of my comments on learning the language. I have said very little about learning the literature. Literature is a form of expression. While many people in the world will be learning and using English for transactions and exchanges, when it comes to research expressing themselves, they will revert to essay transition their own language.

But actually understanding different cultures helps people understand different languages. I hope that you can make time to read more widely. Please read my blog – that will I hope educate you even more. Thesis Proposal? But read for essay transition pleasure. I started my speech with two quotes – one was from Danielle Steele, the American best-selling author who is clearly against modern technology and texting – and the other by David Crystal who seems to embrace it as it helps spelling.

Published: 20 November 2014. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.