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An analysis of huckleberry finn a novel by mark twain

The adventures of huckleberry finn thesis statements

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bookreport In his latest surefire bestseller, Coben explores the big secrets and the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis statements, little lies that can destroy a relationship, a family and even a town. Denise Kiernan Tells the this i believe plan Fascinating Story Behind the Nation#039;s Largest Residence. The story of the Gilded Age mansion Biltmore spans World Wars, the the adventures finn statements Jazz Age, the Depression and generations of the famous Vanderbilt family. Art Garfunkel Has Written a Memoir (of Sorts) WHAT IS IT ALL BUT LUMINOUS is a lyrical autobiography chronicling Garfunkel#39;s time as one half of dissertation sections one of the most successful musical duos, his solo career, and his musings on life, love, marriage and fatherhood. Michael Korda Chronicles the finn thesis statements Outbreak of this lesson plan WWII and the Great Events that Led to Dunkirk. Of Huckleberry Finn? ALONE captures the enveloping tension that defined pre-Blitz London and the remarkable events that would alter the course of the dissertation 20th century.

A Magical, Provocative Tale of Forbidden Love and the adventures of huckleberry thesis, One Girl#039;s Struggle for assignment, Liberation. In HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY, Christopher Meades takes readers on an emotional journey into a fascinating, unknown world. The Adventures Finn Statements? We#039;re Giving Away a Different Book on Select Days in September and October. Today#39;s prize book is ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS by Bryn Greenwood. Enter by Friday, October 6th at 11:59am ET.

Does reading news and articles online and apa format writing assignment, being active on social media take time away from your book reading? Please check all that apply. Of Huckleberry Finn? Tell us about the books you’ve finished reading with your comments and a rating of 1 to this i believe 5 stars. During the contest period from September 22nd to October 6th at of huckleberry thesis statements, noon ET, three lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win a copy of DON#39;T LET GO by Harlan Coben and about, MANHATTAN BEACH by the adventures of huckleberry statements, Jennifer Egan. Tell us about the about art education audiobooks you’ve finished listening to with your comments and a rating of 1 to the adventures finn thesis 5 stars for both the performance and the content. Essay Literary Criticism? During the contest period from October 2nd to November 1st at noon ET, two lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win the the adventures finn statements audio versions of Dan Brown#39;s ORIGIN, read by Paul Michael, and John Grisham#39;s THE ROOSTER BAR, read by writing, Ari Fliakos.

Our Bookreporter newsletter has a new mobile-friendly format that is getting raves from the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements readers! Not signed up yet? Subscribe here. Literary Criticism? Curious about what books will be released in the months ahead so you can pre-order or reserve them? Then click on the months below. The following are lists of new paperback releases that we think will be of interest to you.

October#39;s Books on Screen roundup includes the feature films The Mountain Between Us , Wonderstruck and the adventures thesis, The Snowman ; the season finales of Get Shorty and Chesapeake Shores, along with the season two premiere of The Shannara Chronicles and the continuation of the second season of Queen Sugar; and the DVD release of The Wizard of Lies . Each month we spotlight a selection of Young Adult (YA) titles that we believe are great reads for adult readers. Explore our picks here!;s Fall Preview Contests and Feature. Fall is known as the biggest season of the year for books. The titles that release during this latter part of the year often become holiday gifts, and many are blockbusters. To celebrate the arrival of fall, we are spotlighting a number of outstanding books that we know people will be talking about in the days and months to come. We are hosting a series of 24-hour contests for these titles on select days in September and October, so you will have to check the site each day to see the featured prize book and enter to win. Write? Today#39;s prize book is ALL THE UGLY AND WONDERFUL THINGS by Bryn Greenwood. Of Huckleberry Finn Thesis? The deadline for entries is Friday, October 6th at 11:59am ET. New Release Spotlight: HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY by Christopher Meades.

Hanna has never been outside her secluded community of Clearhaven. She has never questioned why her father has four wives or why she has 14 brothers and this lesson plan, sisters. The Adventures? And in only one week, on apa format assignment her 18th birthday, Hanna will follow tradition and become the fifth wife of of huckleberry finn thesis statements a man more than twice her age. But just days before the wedding, Hanna meets an enigmatic stranger who challenges her to question her fate and to follow her own will. And when her mother reveals a secret --- one that could grant her the freedom she#39;s known only in her dreams --- Hanna is forced to decide whether she was really meant for something greater than the claustrophobic world of Clearhaven. Bets On: BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda. In BEST DAY EVER by apa format writing, Kaira Rouda, Paul Strom, an the adventures of huckleberry statements advertising executive, has planned a wonderful day for his wife, Mia, keeping in mind all of the things that will make her happy. They head towards their lake home for a getaway where he has planned every romantic gesture. I found myself thinking how lovely it would be to have someone plan a day like this for me.

But as they drive, readers see sparks of an idea that things may not be as harmonious as we thought. A prisoner in writing assignment, a secret cell. The guard who has watched over him a dozen years. An American waitress in of huckleberry finn thesis statements, Paris. A young Palestinian man in Berlin who strikes up an odd friendship with a wealthy Canadian businessman. And The General, Israel#39;s most controversial leader, who lies dying in a hospital, the only man who knows of the prisoner#39;s existence. From these vastly different lives, Nathan Englander has woven a powerful portrait of a nation riven by insoluble conflict, even as the lives of its citizens become fatefully and inextricably entwined. A Hungarian warehouse owner lies in paper for sale add, the middle of his blood-sodden office, pierced through the chest with a bayonet and eerily surrounded by 17 candles, their wicks dipped in blood. Of Huckleberry Finn Statements? Suspecting the murder may be rooted in ethnic prejudice, Commander William Monk turns to London’s Hungarian community in search of clues but finds his inquiries stymied by its wary citizens and write to file, a language he doesn’t speak. Only with the help of a local pharmacist acting as translator can Monk hope to penetrate this tightly knit enclave, even as more of the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis its members fall victim to admission add identical brutal murders.

But whoever the killer --- or killers --- may be, they are well hidden among the city’s ever-growing populace. The stories in FIVE-CARAT SOUL --- none of them ever published before --- spring from the place where identity, humanity and history converge. James McBride explores the of huckleberry thesis statements ways we learn from the world and the people around us. An antiques dealer discovers that a legendary toy commissioned by Civil War General Robert E. Lee now sits in the home of a black minister in Queens. Five strangers find themselves thrown together and face unexpected judgment. An American president draws inspiration from a conversation he overhears in a stable. And members of The Five-Carat Soul Bottom Bone Band recount stories from their own messy and hilarious lives.

Alex Blum had one goal in life: endure a brutally difficult selection program, become a U.S. Army Ranger, and fight terrorists for his country. Admission For Sale? He poured everything into the adventures thesis, achieving his dream. Admission For Sale? In the first hours of his final leave before deployment to finn thesis statements Iraq, Alex was supposed to fly home to see his family and girlfriend. Instead, he got into his car with two fellow soldiers and two strangers, drove to for sale add a local bank in Tacoma, and committed armed robbery. Why would he ruin his life in such a spectacularly foolish way? In the the adventures thesis statements midst of his own personal crisis, and in the hopes of helping both Alex and his splintering family cope, Ben Blum, Alex’s first cousin, delved into art education, these mysteries, growing closer to Alex in of huckleberry finn thesis statements, the process. Based on true events in paper for sale, 19th-century Ireland, Hannah Kent#39;s new novel tells the story of three women, drawn together to rescue a child from a superstitious community.

Nora, bereft after the death of her husband, finds herself alone and caring for her grandson Micheál, who can neither speak nor walk. A handmaid, Mary, arrives to the adventures thesis statements help Nóra just as rumors begin to spread that Micheál is a changeling child who is essay art education bringing bad luck to the valley. Determined to banish evil, Nora and Mary enlist the help of the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements Nance, an elderly wanderer who understands the magic of the dissertation old ways. Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. The Adventures Finn? But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in essay, the employ of the Invisible Hand, an ancient society of spies wielding magic in statements, a centuries-spanning war. Now the Golden Dawn --- the shadowy cabal of witches and warlocks responsible for about, Daniel Bishop’s murder, and the death of Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in their sights. His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements training. Jason#39;s journey through the realm of magic will be fraught with peril.

But with enemies and allies on essay literary criticism both sides of the adventures of huckleberry statements this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in a high-end robbery that went wrong. Abandoned by his partners, he was captured and imprisoned, his family disgraced, his wife absconded, his infant daughter Jessie left an orphan. Two decades later, with 11 years still to serve, all Axel wants is to see the woman his daughter has become. This I Believe? When the chance comes to escape in the company of Cacho, a young Mexican inmate with ties to a major cartel, Axel takes it. But a startling discovery reignites an the adventures of huckleberry finn statements old passion and sends Axel headlong toward reckonings many years in the making. A whaler#39;s daughter, Flora Mackie first crossed the Arctic Circle at the age of 12, falling in love with the cold and unforgiving terrain and forging lifelong bonds with the Inuit people who have carved out an existence on its icy plains. She sets out to become a scientist and dissertation, polar explorer, despite those who believe that a young woman has no place in this harsh world, and in 1892, her determination leads her back to northern Greenland at the head of a British expedition.

Yearning for wider horizons, American geologist Jakob de Beyn joins a rival expedition led by the furiously driven Lester Armitage. When the path of the adventures Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. Hope is like a road in the country; there was never a road, but when many people walk on it, the road comes into existence. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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What is the main theme of The Adventures of Huckleberry …

michael essay It has been suggested by thesis Helga Kuhse and write dissertation, Peter Singer in their article #039;Active Voluntary Euthanasia, Morality and the Law#039; (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 129, that the primary focus in determining the legal possibility of medical end-of-life decisions should be the issue of patient consent rather than the subjective intention of the doctor or nurses. Comment critically with reference to of huckleberry finn thesis, the current legal position in Victoria and contrast this with the approach taken in some overseas jurisdiction. Whether or not euthanasia is being practised in the community is no longer a topic of debate. Surveys of Australian doctors and i believe, nurses have established that requests by patients for the adventures finn thesis, a hastened death are commonplace and that compliance with them occurs in around half of these cases 1 . At present, Euthanasia is hidden behind the how to write to file notion of double effect, that is, that a doctor may legally administer drugs that he or she knows will hasten death if his or her primary intention is to alleviate the pain of the patient 2 . This is a flawed notion in that it is almost impossible to disprove a doctor#039;s assertion of the adventures finn what his or her primary intentions were. It lends itself to apa format writing, the abuse of the adventures statements doctors who seek to hasten the death of a patient without their consent, no matter how altruistic their intentions for doing so are. It is completely undesirable for essays, the death of a patient to be brought about or hastened without their consent, and we must therefore change the the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis statements way we view the issue of the legal-permissibility of euthanasia. Our focus must no longer be on the intentions of the doctors making medical end-of-life decisions, but on whether the rational consent of the patient whose death is writing assignment being hastened has been obtained. Active voluntary euthanasia has become accepted by the majority in the community and the adventures of huckleberry finn statements, can no longer be branded as an immoral and i believe essays plan, illegal practice.

Just as a there is a clear distinction between making love and rape, and finn statements, between a gangster stabbing someone maliciously and a doctor making an incision during surgery, there is a clear difference between culpable murder and this i believe lesson, active voluntary euthanasia 3 (see below for definition.) In all three cases the consent of those involved deprives the of huckleberry thesis act of its anti-social character. 4. Euthanasia is often used as an umbrella term that lends itself to confusion. This I Believe Essays! For clarity#039;s sake it is important to the adventures of huckleberry finn, distinguish between the different types that exist: (Please note that since non-voluntary and involuntary forms of euthanasia do not involve the procuring of consent, they will be disregarded in this essay.) Passive voluntary euthanasia: An omission or inaction by a doctor holding the consent of the how to write patient that results in death. For example, the withholding of life-prolonging treatment. Active voluntary euthanasia: An act by a doctor who has the patient#039;s consent that results in their death. Assisted suicide: The doctor provides the means by which the patient can commit suicide. 5. In this piece I will be mostly concerned with Active Voluntary Euthanasia, although references will also be made to the other two forms as well. In Victoria, those who practise active euthanasia can be prosecuted for murder or manslaughter and those who assist a terminally ill person to commit suicide can be sentenced to up to 14 years imprisonment under the Victorian Crimes Act.

6 While it is the same legal position as that for finn statements, normal homicide and assisted suicide 7 , the way in which they are judicially treated differs. Most cases are not prosecuted at the discretion of either the literary criticism police or the crown prosecution. The few cases that do make it to trial are treated extremely leniently, with either the the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements jury returning a #039;sympathy verdict#039; of not guilty or the judge imposing an extremely lenient sentence for those who are found guilty. 8. In 1988 #039;The Victorian Medical Treament act#039; was enacted to clarify the common law position regarding the refusal of how to to file treatment by a patient. Of Huckleberry Thesis Statements! The position is that a patient has an inalienable right to refuse any form of medical treatment notwithstanding the likely consequences of their doing so. 9 It is write sections interesting to note that withholding treatment necessary to preserve life is a form of passive euthanasia, and that patients are therefore already able to consent to a form of euthanasia. As yet, however, the realms of the law have not been extended to permit a terminally ill patient from consenting to the adventures of huckleberry statements, active euthanasia. In Holland (The Netherlands), euthanasia has still not formally been legalised. They have, however, implemented a policy by which doctors who comply with strict regulations and guidelines will not be prosecuted for practising active euthanasia or assisting a patient to commit suicide.

10 The guidelines that were put in place by the courts and the Dutch Medical Association are as follows: there must be physical or mental suffering that is unbearable to the patient. the decision to die must be the patient#039;s own. the essay art education patient must fully and correctly understand his or her situation and the adventures of huckleberry thesis, must be capable of assessing the options available. there must be no other solution acceptable to the patient. the paper for sale add suffering and desire to die must be lasting and not transient. the time and the way the patient dies must not cause unavoidable misery to others the doctor involved has to consult another professional. a medical doctor must be involved in of huckleberry thesis the decision and in prescribing the correct drugs. the decision process and this lesson, the actual treatment given to help the patient die must be carried out with the utmost care. the the adventures of huckleberry thesis person does not have to be terminally ill. For example, they could be quadriplegic. the doctor must keep a full written record of the case the death must be reported to for sale, the prosecutorial authorities as a case of euthanasia or assisted suicide, and not as a case of the adventures death by this i believe essays lesson plan natural causes. Of Huckleberry Finn Thesis! 11. There was a concern that the Dutch experiment would lead to an increase in the number of cases of involuntary euthanasia, but this has not been substantiated in any way. On the contrary, according to the Remmelink report the implementation of the new policy has reduced the paper number of involuntary (i.e.- without the patient#039;s explicit consent) cases from 0.8% to 0.7% of the total number of deaths in of huckleberry finn Holland. 12. Intention and the notion of double effect Intention bears considerable significance not only in the Criminal Law, but also in about the way members of the general community assess the conduct and character of others. 13 Our continuing focus on the adventures thesis statements, the intentions of doctors involved in the treatment of the for sale add terminally ill is perhaps therefore understandable. The Adventures Finn Statements! At present, however, such a focus is misguided and requires urgent assessment. In order to highlight this problem, take the following examples:

Dr. Essay Art Education! E is treating a terminally ill cancer patient. The Adventures Finn Thesis Statements! She is in considerable distress and pain and makes several explicit requests to admission for sale, have her life terminated. In the believe that her request is rational and that terminating her life is in her best interest, Dr. E rapidly increases his patient#039;s morphine dosage and she dies within three days, a week earlier than would have normally been the the adventures finn statements case. Dr. M is treating a patient in a similar situation. She is in a great deal of write sections pain and seems close to death. In order to alleviate her suffering he decides to considerably increase her morphine dosage in the knowledge that it may decrease her life expectancy.

She dies a week later. 14. While there is little difference in the results of their actions, according to the law as it stands the two doctors#039; conduct would theoretically be treated differently. The Adventures Finn! While Dr. M was attempting to kill the pain rather than the patient and would not be criminally liable, Dr. E intended to kill his patient directly and could therefore theoretically be held criminally liable. The fact that Dr.

E#039;s patient made an how to write, explicit and rational request to the adventures, have her life terminated would theoretically bear no significance in the eyes of the law. Despite the fact that Dr. E#039;s actions are illegal, however, it would be quite difficult to secure a conviction, even if his patient had not consented, for the following reasons: the majority (78%) in the community have overall come to accept mercy killings as being morally acceptable. 15 It would therefore be difficult to envisage a jury convicting Dr.E given that they are a representative body of the community. the test for criminal culpability is a subjective one and it would be difficult to paper add, disprove a doctor#039;s assertion of his medical intentions. 16. That there is little chance of a conviction in such a case sends a clear message to medical practitioners that active voluntary euthanasia is acceptable even in the adventures of huckleberry finn non-consensual cases. While it would be quite possible to discern the motives of a doctor who had used a non-therapeutic barbiturate from one who had used morphine, 17 those who use therapeutic drugs such as morphine even with the admission paper for sale primary intention of killing their patient face little risk of statements prosecution.

It is submitted that there is therefore an unacceptable risk of essay literary abuse by doctors who seek for whatever reason to terminate the the adventures finn thesis life or hasten the essay literary criticism death of a patient without their consent. Moreover, where the illegal death of a patient is of huckleberry statements disguised by the notion of double effect, the infringement on the rights of the patient whose life is terminated puts at how to write to file risk the rights of the adventures finn us all. 18. The fact that conviction of those who practice active euthanasia at essay present is a rarity contradicts a basic principle upon which the Criminal Law was based: that criminal culpability should serve and be premised upon community interests and values. 19 Culpable homicide is rightly forbidden by the Criminal Law, but Active Voluntary Euthanasia should remain criminal only if the community#039;s morality is opposed to its practice. 20 Morgan Opinion Polls indicate that support amongst Australians for active voluntary euthanasia has been growing steadily over the past two decades, with 78% in support and the adventures finn statements, only 13% against this lesson plan its practice in the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements 1995. (8% were undecided). 21 Clearly there is overwhelming support in the community for active voluntary euthanasia and convincing arguments must therefore be provided to justify its continued prohibition. Consent and essays plan, the issue of morality. Consent has already been accepted as bearing legal significance in end of life decisions: it has long been a principle at of huckleberry statements Common Law that one may refuse any form of life-prolonging treatment, and the enactment of the Medical Treatment Act in 1988 affirmed this position in Victoria.

One can therefore consent to what would otherwise amount to unlawful homicide by a doctor who is under a professional duty of care. The question may then be asked why one can consent to art education, one form of homicide but not to active voluntary euthanasia? Why are such arbitrary limits being placed on our consent? It is the adventures of huckleberry statements generally the case that where an act is essay about considered to be at odds with the morality of society, consent is the adventures finn not an acceptable defence. 22 Therefore, while one can consent to writing assignment, being kissed on the adventures statements, the cheek notwithstanding that the kiss would otherwise constitute a common assault, one cannot generally consent to conduct that results in essay about bodily harm. Statements! 23 There are some notable exceptions such as surgery, tattooing of adults and legal sporting activities that are seen as acceptable and necessary in the public interest. For all three activities consent can be used as a defence. 24. Lord Devlin#039;s comments in The Enforcement of about Morals (1965) are quite pertinent when addressing the thesis issue of consent: There are certain standards of behaviour or moral principles which society requires to writing assignment, be observed; and the breach of them is an offence not merely against the person who is of huckleberry thesis statements injured, but against society as a whole.

25. The question is whether active voluntary euthanasia should fall into the category of writing offences described by Lord Devlin as against society as a whole? Morality is ultimately determined by the general values and beliefs of a society, and since according to opinion polls the majority of Australians approve of active voluntary euthanasia, it would seem to have become a morally acceptable practice in Australia. The Adventures! 26 The only other possible justification that the government can have for continuing to prohibit active voluntary euthanasia is assignment that it is harmful to society in ways that cannot be appreciated by finn statements the general public. But when a terminally ill adult of sound mind makes a carefully considered decision to have his or her life terminated by a medical practitioner also of sound mind, how can this be harmful to the community as a whole? There is literary no evidence that the Dutch have taken a slide down the proverbial slippery slope as a result of the implementation of their more liberal euthanasia policy. The Adventures Thesis Statements! In fact, the number of paper add cases of non-voluntary/involuntary euthanasia in Holland has decreased slightly according to the Remmelink report. 27 Rather than declining as a result of more liberal euthanasia laws, society will be enriched by the compassion and respect for the adventures thesis, the autonomy of the individual that such a change of approach will encourage.

28. There seems no compelling reason why the practice of active voluntary euthanasia should remain criminal. It is essay criticism considered to be a morally acceptable practice to which competent and informed adults should be allowed to the adventures thesis statements, consent in a democratic society. There is a concern that terminally ill patients are in a state of depression and are therefore incapable of essay art education making such an important and significant decision. It is understandable that a terminally ill patient will experience depression, and if the patient is in the adventures finn thesis a persistent depressed state as a result of their gradual physical degeneration then surely this can be seen as just another symptom of their debilitating illness. Like pain, a feeling of essay depression is likely to statements, influence their decisions, but as long as reasonable efforts are made to manage it, a patient#039;s depression should not be viewed as a reason to dismiss their continued pleas for a hastened death as irrational. The issue of depression is not raised in relation to the right of admission add a patient to refuse life-prolonging treatment under the Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic), and it therefore follows that it should not preclude a terminally ill patient from seeking the positive assistance of the adventures finn thesis statements a medical practitioner to end their suffering. 29 To deprive them of such a right to choose is the ultimate act of unjustifiable medical paternalism.

A common argument against the legalisation of active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is that it is unnecessary; that greatly improved palliative care techniques can now cater for the majority (around 95% 30 ) of terminally ill patients. Just because physical pain can be reasonably managed, however, still does not mean that patients are able to die comfortably and essay, with dignity. To think that we can eliminate all suffering is an unattainable dream. Of Huckleberry! Most patients suffer from progressive weakness and degeneration of their quality of life that results from drug dependence and loss of function. In some cases patients can suffer from essay art education nausea, suffocation, incontinence, psychological distress and confusion, not to mention the discomfort that those 5% for the adventures finn thesis statements, whom palliative care is ineffectual experience. 31 The cry for dissertation, legalisation of the adventures of huckleberry finn voluntary euthanasia is this i believe lesson a cry for the freedom to take control of ones time of death; a cry for a dignified end in a society where the thesis ideological imperative to treat at all costs is essay about art education compromising the quality of life of the terminally ill individual. 32. The answer lies in a change of the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements focus. No longer can we continue to make futile attempts to ascertain the write intentions of doctors treating their terminally ill patient in the view that it makes a significant moral difference.

Such a focus is at odds with society#039;s values and of huckleberry finn statements, lends itself to the abuse of doctors who seek to terminate the life or hasten the death of a patient without their consent. What we should strive for instead is dissertation sections that doctors act in the best interests of their consenting, terminally ill patients in assisting them to die a dignified death. Voluntary euthanasia is no longer considered morally unacceptable by Australian Society, and no arguments have been put forward that reasonably justify the continued stifling of the consent of thesis terminally ill patients to such a practice. With similarly strict restrictions as those implemented in the Northern Territory in 1995, active voluntary euthanasia will provide, in addition to write sections, palliative care, a carefully monitored means for finn thesis statements, terminally ill patients to find a peaceful and dignified end to their suffering. Baume P and assignment, O#039;Malley E, #039;Euthanasia: attitudes and practices of the adventures medical practitioners#039; (1994) 181 The Medical Law Journal of Australia 137 Johnstone M. J, Bio-ethics, a nursing perspective , (1st ed, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Group, Sydney, 1989) pp. 262-266 Hunt Dr. R, #039; The Limits of Palliative Care #039; (1996), [Internet- vesv/RogerHuntOct96.htm (accessed 13 May 2000.)] Young P. W, The Law of Consent , (1st ed, The Law Book Company Limited, Sydney, 1986) p.131 Sayers M, #039;Euthanasia: At the intersection of jurisprudence and the criminal law#039; (1997) 21 Criminal Law Journal 81 #039;The Legal Situation#039;, Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Victoria , [Internet- vesv/legal.htm (accessed 1 May 2000)] Crimes Act 1958 (Vic.), s.3, s.5, s.6B(2) Otlowski M, #039;Mercy Killing Cases in the Australian Criminal Justice System#039; Crim L J (1993) 17: 10-39 as cited in Sayers op cit 80 Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic) #039;The World#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society , [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)] Id #039;Guidelines#039;, Euthanasia in Holland , [Internet- (accessed 25 April 2000] #039;The World#039;, loc cit Gillet G. R, #039;Intent in law and medicine#039; (April 1991) New Zealand Law Journal 116 Kuhse H and essay criticism, Singer P, #039;Active Voluntary Euthanasia#039; (1995), 3 Journal of the adventures finn thesis statements Law and Medicine , 129 Johnstone, op cit pp.253-254 Kuhse and Singer, op cit 133 Ashby M, Hard Cases, Causation and Care of the Dying (1995) 3 Journal of Law and writing, Medicine 160 Sayers, op cit 80 Waller L and Williams C. R, Criminal Law: Texts and Cases , (8th Ed., Butterworths, Melbourne, 1997), p.4 Biggs H, #039;Euthanasia and Death with Dignity: Still Poised on the Fulcrum of Homicide#039; [1996] Criminal Law Review 888 #039;Morgan Opinion Poll#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society , [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)] Young, loc cit Waller and Williams, op cit , pp.75-79 Young, op cit 122 Lord Devlin, #039;The Enforcement of Morals#039; (Oxford University Press, 1965) pp 6-7, as cited in Young, op cit , p.132 #039;Morgan Opinion Poll#039; loc cit #039;The World#039;, loc cit Hunt, loc cit Kuhse and Singer, op cit 134 Hunt R Palliative Care- The Rhetoric-Reality Gap in H Kuhse (ed), Willing to Listen, Wanting to Die (Penguin, Melbourne, 1994), pp.115-137, as cited in H. Kuhse and P. Singer, #039;Active Voluntary Euthanasia#039; (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 130. Hunt, loc cit McNamara B, Waddell C and Colvin M, The Institutionalisation of the of huckleberry thesis statements Good Death, Social Science and Medicine , (1994) Vol. 39, No. 11, at write dissertation sections pp.1501-1508, as cited in Biggs, loc cit.

Johnstone M.J, Bio-ethics, a nursing perspective, First Edition, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Group, Sydney, 1989 Jonsen A.R, Siegler M and Winslade W.J, Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1992 Kennedy I. and Grubb A, Medical Law: Text and Materials, First Edition, Butterworths, London, 1989 Waller L and Williams C.R, (Brett, Waller and Williams), Criminal Law: Texts and Cases, Eighth Edition., Butterworths, Melbourne, 1997 Young P.W, The Law of Consent, First Edition, The Law Book Company Limited, Sydney, 1986. Ashby M, Hard Cases, Causation and Care of the Dying (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 152 Baume P and O#039;Malley E, Euthanasia: attitudes and the adventures statements, practices of medical practitioners (1994) 181 The Medical Law Journal of Australia 137 Biggs H, Euthanasia and Death with Dignity: Still Poised on the Fulcrum of Homicide [1996] Criminal Law Review 878 Buchanan J, Euthanasia: The Medical and Psychological Issues, (1995) 3 Journal of Law and literary criticism, Medicine 161 Cipriani T, Give Me Liberty and Give Me Death, (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 177 Freckelton I, Withdrawal of Life Support: The #039;Persistent Vegetative State#039; Conundrum, (1993) 1 Journal of the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements Law and Medicine 35 Gillet G. R, Intent in law and about art education, medicine (April 1991) New Zealand Law Journal 115 Gillett G, Ethical Aspects of the the adventures thesis statements Northern Territory Euthanasia Legislation, (1995) 3 Journal of Law and paper for sale, Medicine 121 Kuhse H. and Singer P, Active Voluntary Euthanasia (1995) 3 Journal of finn Law and literary criticism, Medicine 129. Mullen P.E, Euthanasia: An Impoverished Construction of Life and Death (1995) 3 Journal of Law and Medicine 121 Sayers M, Euthanasia: At the Intersection of Jurisprudence and the Criminal Law (1997) 21 Criminal Law Journal 80. #039;Guidelines#039;, Euthanasia in Holland, [Internet- (accessed 25 April 2000)] Hunt Dr. R, #039;The Limits of Palliative Care#039; (1996), [Internet- vesv/RogerHuntOct96.htm (accessed 13 May 2000.)] #039;Morgan Opinion Poll#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society, [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)] #039;The Legal Situation#039;, Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Victoria, [Internet- vesv/legal.htm (accessed 1 May 2000)] #039;The World#039;, The Voluntary Euthanasia Society, [Internet- (accessed 12 May 2000)]

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An analysis of huckleberry finn a novel by mark twain

Analysis of Michael Pollan’s essay “Why Bother?” Analysis of Michael Pollan’s essay “Why Bother?” Michael Pollan, in of huckleberry thesis his essay “Why bother” published last April 20, 2008 in paper the New York Times , is convincing the public to the adventures of huckleberry statements do their own individual share of essay, averting climate change by bothering to do what they may think as insignificant activities yet nevertheless would help decrease the release of CO 2 into the atmosphere. Of Huckleberry Finn Statements! In his essay he tackles the dilemma of how difficult that task is considering that the heart of the problem is i believe lesson plan, a crisis of character; a fault on modern man’s ingrained way of thinking and doing things. Pollan asserts in his essay that the difficulty to avert climate change is not because it needed massive human acts and sacrifices but because it demands a collective insignificant individual change in daily human activities; a change however that is finn statements, not seen as an obvious solution to the problem by most people. Need essay sample on Analysis of Michael Pollan’s essay “Why Bother?” ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for essay literary, you for only $12.90/page. The above assertion points out three claims made by Pollan in the essay. First, the task of contributing individual share to avert climate change is so ordinary, simple and of huckleberry finn thesis statements, utterly useless that it may be regarded as a bother. Second, man’s countless everyday acts and choices is what had put him into the crisis of climate change and that radically changing his everyday acts and choices may well save the planet. Third, modern man does not realize that a personal change is demanded of him to solve the problem of climate change. For the first claim, Pollan derive his evidence from quotation, feedbacks from scientists and reasoning. He quoted former Vice-President AL Gore’s documentary movie, “An Inconvenient Truth”, where in the closing credits it asked the viewers to change their light bulbs (Pollan 1).

Even though the problem of climate change or global warming seems daunting, Al Gore’s documentary proposes that merely changing a light bulb may help solve the problem. What a very simple and ordinary solution to a big problem! But, in Pollan’s reasoning, the dissertation ordinariness and simplicity itself is finn thesis, actually what had made it more difficult to undertake since the task looks insignificant and useless. Instead of being seen as a solution, it is regarded more as a bother, an unchallenging interruption to everyday ways of about, living (Pollan 2). Moreover this little seemingly insignificant task looks more insignificant considering the fact that something radically big needs to be done as soon as possible to finn thesis save the Planet otherwise it will be too late to write dissertation sections save it. Pollan supported this fear by drawing evidence from scientist projections who declared that the the adventures finn statements warming and the melting is occurring much faster than the models they had predicted , stating that “climate change is upon dissertation us and it has arrived well ahead its schedule” (Pollan 1) . The second claim is the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements, supported by citing physical evidence, analysis and reasoning. It is not as though something awfully huge made by some particular individuals had caused this crisis but that it had accumulated through the years as each individual collectively encouraged the production of CO 2 through his daily lifestyle. Admission Paper For Sale Add! Pollan points out several examples of of huckleberry statements, man’s daily ordinary activities such as driving, using light and essay literary criticism, eating—activities, that upon careful analysis, directly and indirectly causes the the adventures finn statements increase of write, CO 2 in the atmosphere (Pollan 1-2). According to Organization for the adventures of huckleberry statements, Economic Co-operation and writing, Development “ the transport accounts for between 55% and 99% greenhouse gases…two-thirds of it are attributable to the private car in the form of CO2” ( OECD 17). Pollon reasons that as long as man rides a car or patronizes these products he is actually encouraging the increase of CO 2 in the atmosphere. If all of these daily individual activities are summed up together, by mathematical reasoning, the consequence is magnified.

Pollan supported his third claim based on physical evidence and reasoning. He points out that modern man is used to the adventures solve his big problem by write dissertation the implementation of legislation or technology, or to look for leaders and of huckleberry finn thesis, experts rather than by actually thinking he needs to change his lifestyle. Paper For Sale Add! As evidence, he cites modern man’s reliance and dependence on the adventures finn, specialists such as agribusiness for meals, doctors for health, teacher for education, and environmentalist for the care of the environment (Pollan 2). As a generalization from admission for sale these examples, Pollan concludes how unimaginable then for modern man to think that he really has the the adventures finn thesis statements personal responsibility to prevent climate change by making changes in the level of his everyday living. Logically, based on the preceding examples, man would naturally think that it is the government, scientists or environmentalists that take care of the problem of climate change and not himself. Personally, this is what I had thought before, that the big responsibility does not rest on me but on others who have the “official” responsibility. Apa Format Assignment! What is being warranted in Pollan’s assertion is that all of humanity causes the problem and should therefore as a whole must work together to of huckleberry finn statements solve the problem.

Modern man should not expect that only a few people or agencies are needed to prevent climate change. As long as the source of the add problem is not removed, the problem will always persist. In this essay, Pollan make use of the three types of appeals (pathos, ethos and logos) to convince his listeners to take his side; to really bother. In using the ethos appeal, he derives credibility to his arguments by quoting or citing statements from reliable sources and individuals who have the authority to speak about the issue such as then Vice President Al Gore’s documentary movie “The Inconvenient Truth” as well as scientists. In the logos appeal, he engages his audience in an intellectual discussion, using a lot of thesis statements, mathematical or logical reasoning or generalizations to make his point and arrive in conclusions. He also make use of pathos appeal; in one point he stirs up the audience to admission paper for sale fear when he describes the terrifying threats of the exponential increase of CO 2 concentration in the arctic and then proceed to ask “Have you looked into the eyes of a climate scientist recently?

They look really scared” (Pollan 1). At the same time he motivated his audience to action by reminding them how beautiful, rewarding and accomplished they would feel if they do bother (like bothering to plant a garden) (Pollan 4). In the essay, “Why Bother” Michael Pollan is the adventures of huckleberry, trying to make each person see their responsibility in preventing climate change and that what an individual can do may look insignificant but collectively can make a huge difference. Writing Assignment! He claims that all of humanity causes the the adventures finn thesis problem and therefore must do their share to about solve it. In convincing his audience to believe his arguments, Pollan uses evidence to finn statements support his claims through quoting reliable sources as well as using physical evidence, and observation. To convince his audience , he use a lot of reasoning based on the evidence as well as using a language that would motivate and stir up his audience to action. OECD. Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Road Transport: Analytical Methods. Essay Literary! Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

OECD Publishing, 2002.

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Child Murder by Mothers: A Critical Analysis of the Current State of Knowledge and a Research Agenda. OBJECTIVE: Maternal filicide, or child murder by finn thesis statements mothers, occurs more frequently in the United States than in other developed nations. However, little is known about factors that confer risk to children. The authors review the literature to dissertation sections, identify predictors of maternal filicide and of huckleberry finn thesis statements identify gaps in paper add knowledge about maternal filicide. METHOD: Databases were systematically searched for the adventures finn studies of maternal filicide and neonaticide (murder in the first day of life) that were conducted in assignment industrialized countries and were published in finn peer-reviewed, English-language publications after 1980. RESULTS: Women who committed filicide varied greatly by the type of sample studied. Essay Literary. Neonaticide was often committed by young, poor, unmarried women with little or no prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the review suggest that little is known about the predictors of of huckleberry thesis statements maternal filicide and that a systematic, focused program of research on reliable markers for maternal filicide is needed to better prevent these events. Among children under age 5 years in the United States who were murdered in the last quarter of the 20th century, 61% were killed by criticism their own parents: 30% were killed by of huckleberry their mothers, and 31% by their fathers (1).

Estimates by the Centers for for sale Disease Control and Prevention for 1994 indicated that homicide was the of huckleberry finn fourth leading cause of death for essay art education preschool children and the third leading cause of death among children from ages 5–14 years (2). In the United States, the incidence of homicide of children less than 1 year old has increased over the past quarter-century (1). Compared to other developed nations, the thesis statements United States has the highest rate of write dissertation sections child homicide: 8.0/100,000 for infants, 2.5/100,000 for of huckleberry thesis preschool-age children (age 1–4 years), and 1.5/100,000 for school-age children (age 5–14 years) (3). In contrast, Canada’s reported rate for homicide of infants was less than half that of the write dissertation sections United States: 2.9/100,000 (3). Furthermore, multiple authors have suggested that rates of child murder by parents are underestimated in epidemiological studies of child death (4–6). Maternal filicide, defined as child homicide by thesis statements mothers, is a problem that transcends national boundaries. However, little is known about the circumstances and factors associated with its commission, and write dissertation this lack of knowledge makes prevention difficult. Two early seminal works, by the adventures finn thesis statements Resnick in the United States and apa format writing assignment d’Orban in the United Kingdom, are often cited. In 1969, Resnick (7) reviewed the world psychiatric literature on filicide and found a high frequency of depression, psychosis, prior use of psychiatric services, and finn thesis suicidality (suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, intent, or plan) among mothers who commit filicide.

Resnick (8) later coined the term “neonaticide” to describe murder of a neonate within the first 24 hours of essay literary criticism life. Mothers committing neonaticide were typically younger and unmarried. The Adventures Finn Thesis. They had unwanted pregnancies and no prenatal care. In 1979, d’Orban (9) studied filicide by mothers admitted for psychiatric observation to the hospital ward of admission for sale a prison. The findings suggested an association between maternal filicide and the presence of certain stressors in the mother’s life, such as being a survivor of domestic violence, early parental separation, and suicidality. The Adventures Statements. In the case of neonaticide, d’Orban confirmed an association with unmarried status and younger mean maternal age and found a lack of association with depression or psychosis. Although women who kill their children are often labeled as “mad” (mentally ill) or “bad” (chronically abusive) (10), no consistent approach exists for defining the population of offenders. Essay About. Data have rarely been collected on the basis of a priori theories. Nevertheless, theories regarding the of huckleberry finn thesis psychological bases for write dissertation sections filicide are abundant (7, 11, 12). To advance the knowledge base about the predictors of maternal filicide and neonaticide, we addressed three questions through a critical analysis of the extant research literature: 1) What are the predictors or risk factors for maternal neonaticide and filicide? 2) How do these risk factors vary by the type of population studied? and 3) Which mentally ill mothers are at risk for committing neonaticide or filicide?

The analyses were based on extensive database searches, including searches through PubMed (Medline), PsychINFO, the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and Sociological Abstracts. Of Huckleberry Finn. Search terms included “filicide,” “infanticide,” “neonaticide,” and “fatal child maltreatment.” The studies that were selected for review had the following characteristics: They dealt with maternal filicide only or separated maternal filicide offenders for some portion of analysis. This distinction was made in essay criticism the selection because of the likelihood that different risk factors exist for paternal and maternal filicide.

They were conducted in industrialized countries. We focused on these settings because of the likelihood that different risk factors for infant homicide exist in the adventures of huckleberry underdeveloped countries (13). In underdeveloped countries, varying cultural, legal, and/or economic factors could constitute an external incentive for filicide unrelated to this essays lesson, the mothers’ psychological state. For example, a preference for male rather than female offspring in certain societies could influence filicide. They were published in of huckleberry finn English-language, peer-reviewed journals or books after 1980, and they included contemporary samples. The selected studies were grouped according to population type, age of child victims, and geographic location. General population studies may yield different results than studies of specialized populations, such as prison or psychiatric populations. Essay. Administrative record samples were defined as being more generalized, often including both psychiatric and correctional populations, as well as cases of the adventures of huckleberry maternal filicide-suicide, and were not weighted toward subjects who were adjudicated guilty or those with psychiatric dispositions. Writing Assignment. These studies cited coroners’ records, newspaper reports, home office reports, or national statistics as data sources. The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Thesis Statements. Populations classified as corrections samples were diverse, ranging from women who were incarcerated (14, 15) to those described in judicial papers (16).

Psychiatric populations were defined as mothers who were psychiatrically hospitalized or who were sampled from a setting that was likely to include subjects with psychiatric disorders, such as mothers referred for psychiatric evaluations subsequent to neonaticide or filicide. We distinguished between children killed when they were neonates and those killed when they were infants (within the first year of life), because neonaticide and infanticide may be influenced by different factors, compared to other filicides (8). Geographic locations were classified as those inside or outside the essay about art education United States. Rates of homicide and of filicide vary by country (17) and by culture. Furthermore, more than 20 countries have legislation that makes special provisions for maternal infanticide (18). The database search yielded more than 250 references in the extant literature. The majority consisted of case reports, reports on series of of huckleberry finn thesis filicide cases, and conceptual theoretical papers, and sections these publications were excluded.

Eighty-three studies of of huckleberry finn child homicide were identified (4, 5, 10, 14–99 [some studies were described in write to file more than one publication]). Forty-two of these 83 studies reported on child homicide but did not distinguish maternal filicide from paternal filicide or murder by a stepparent or a nonparent (4, 57–81, 83–89, 91–99). Those studies were not included in our analysis because they did not yield specific information about maternal perpetrators. The Adventures Of Huckleberry Thesis Statements. Two studies of admission paper maternal filicide were excluded because they presented data that were primarily historical (dating to 1850 or the early 1900s) and of huckleberry statements did not separately consider more recent data (82, 90). After exclusions, there remained 39 studies that were appropriate for use in our analysis. The characteristics of essay criticism those 39 studies (5, 10, 14–56 [some studies were described in the adventures finn statements more than one publication]) are listed in Table 1. All 39 studies we reviewed were retrospective in design. Ten included retrospective interviewing of mothers. Twenty-six included a comparison group.

Many of the studies included intragroup comparisons. Of the essay 39 studies specifically reporting on the adventures maternal child homicide, 13 were conducted in admission paper for sale add the United States and 26 were conducted in other countries. Thirteen other nations were represented: Canada (five studies), nations within the United Kingdom (five studies), Australia (four studies), Finland (three studies), Japan (three studies), with one study each conducted in Austria, Brazil, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Sweden, and the adventures finn thesis Turkey. Four U.S. studies addressed neonaticide; three analyzed data from samples of administrative records, and one analyzed data from a psychiatric population (Table 1). Of the studies conducted outside of the essay about United States, 11 addressed neonaticide; seven of the adventures of huckleberry finn statements those studies were based on administrative records, three examined data from art education psychiatric populations (either hospitalized or psychiatrically evaluated women), and one analyzed data from a correctional population.

With regard to maternal infanticide (maternal filicide within the first 12 months of life, often defined by thesis statute in countries outside the United States), one study of an administrative records sample was conducted in the United States and admission add five were done in other countries.Studies of maternal filicide had various inclusion criteria for the child’s age. Many studies combined analysis of neonaticide with that of the adventures of huckleberry finn statements other filicides. Ten such studies of how to maternal filicide were conducted within the the adventures thesis statements United States: two with administrative records, five in psychiatric populations, and admission for sale add three in correctional populations. Nineteen such studies were conducted outside the United States: 10 with administrative records, seven in psychiatric populations, and thesis two in correctional populations. The three administrative record sample studies of neonaticide in the United States revealed that maternal perpetrators were likely to be unmarried, to have a mean and modal age in essay the late teenage years, to have low socioeconomic status, and to the adventures thesis, reside with parents or other relatives. The perpetrators had high rates of denied or concealed pregnancy and a relative lack of prenatal care. In the paper for sale single U.S. study of a psychiatric population of women who committed neonaticide (49), the mothers had an older mean age (24 years) and middle to low socioeconomic status. The subjects in this study exhibited denial of pregnancy and frequently reported depersonalization, dissociative hallucinations, and intermittent amnesia. Multiple studies of neonaticide from outside the Untied States were based on administrative records samples.

They revealed that the maternal perpetrators were largely unmarried young mothers who lived with their parents, lacked prenatal care, concealed or denied their pregnancies, and showed no evidence of premorbid axis I psychiatric disorders. In non-U.S. studies of psychiatric populations of of huckleberry finn mothers who committed neonaticide, the samples consisted primarily of unmarried women with an paper add, older mean age (20–26 years) and infrequent prenatal care. Some studies of non-U.S. psychiatric populations of the adventures of huckleberry statements mothers who committed neonaticide reported a relative lack of mental illness after psychiatric evaluation in the mothers (9, 22, 25), while another reported a high rate of personality disorders or psychosis in the mothers (43). The non-U.S. correctional studies (including historical data correlated with current data) revealed that neonaticidal mothers generally were single, illiterate, nulliparous, younger (mean age=22 years), and essay art education without prior mental illness. In a study in Japan, neonaticide was further classified into cases of “anomie,” in which the mothers had the general characteristics just described, and “mabiki” (“thinning out”), in which impoverished married women or couples killed neonates because of poverty (44). The mothers in cases of mabiki did not deny their pregnancies. The single U.S. Thesis Statements. study that presented separate data concerning infanticide (filicide in first 12 months of how to life) was a macro-level study that revealed a relationship of maternal infanticide to economic stress (25).

The non-U.S. administrative records sample studies of the adventures of huckleberry thesis infanticide revealed that the mothers had a mean age in write the early 20s and low rates of employment. Many mothers had psychiatric disorders. The Adventures Of Huckleberry Thesis. For example, 72% of the mothers in the study conducted in Japan had psychiatric disorders (44). There was a high frequency of physical anomalies among the child victims in the study conducted in Japan (44). Studies based on admission administrative records samples of of huckleberry statements maternal filicide occasionally included cases of filicide-suicide, and these mothers, for obvious reasons, would not be part of psychiatric or prison samples. The two U.S. administrative records sample studies of filicide (reported separately from neonaticide) found that the mothers were often poor, full-time caregivers who were socially isolated and may themselves have been victims of domestic abuse. Neglectful and this essays lesson plan abusive mothers often had problems with substance abuse as well. Certain studies divided mothers into of huckleberry statements groups on essay criticism the basis of a proposed typology. This strategy found groups of mothers with variable rates of both mental illness and of huckleberry finn statements previous abuse of the child. Groups of mothers who committed “purposeful homicide” often killed their children in how to to file the context of mental illness, failed relationships, and “devotion” to the child (41).

Studies of maternal filicide offenders drawn from psychiatric populations in the United States noted high rates of psychosis, depression, suicidality, prior use of psychiatric services, and, in some studies, decreased intelligence. Mothers who committed filicide were more frequently married, compared with neonaticidal mothers, and had a high frequency of unemployment, alcohol use, and personal history of abuse. Maternal filicide offenders in the studies of U.S. correctional populations were frequently victims of abuse themselves. Many had limited education, poor social support, and a history of substance abuse. In addition, they were often unmarried and unemployed, and some viewed the child they killed as abnormal. Administrative records sample studies of maternal filicide conducted outside the United States found mental illness (psychosis, depression with suicidality) in statements approximately one-half of the mothers.

Some of admission paper for sale these studies noted histories of the adventures of huckleberry finn child abuse and domestic violence, and some noted child-related factors, such as persistent crying, as precipitants of the mothers’ violence. Mothers who committed filicide were frequently socioeconomically disadvantaged and apa format writing had primary responsibility for their children. The Adventures Finn. Studies of psychiatric samples conducted outside the United States noted high rates of paper psychiatric symptoms, particularly depression and psychosis, as well as prior use of finn thesis psychiatric services, prior psychiatric admissions, and suicidality. The mothers often experienced considerable life stress, including being abused themselves. Filicidal mothers in non-U.S. correctional populations were also likely to have a history of previous use of psychiatric services and about high rates of mental illness (depression and psychosis). The mothers in these cases of filicide were likely to have social and economic stresses, a history of abuse, unsupportive partners, primary caregiver status, and difficulties caring for the child. In this critical analysis, we used these studies to identify factors that distinguish mentally ill mothers who are more likely to kill their children. We reconsidered the the adventures of huckleberry 14 studies of filicide in write samples from psychiatric populations to identify studies that used control groups that were appropriate for the determination of possible risk factors. Although many of these studies included comparison groups, such as other female homicide offenders, there were no studies that compared mentally ill filicidal mothers with mentally ill mothers of similar socioeconomic status who did not kill their children. In the study with the most suitable design, which compared abusive mothers with mothers who committed filicide, data for only eight maternal filicides were analyzed (28).

Because of the limitations of the available studies, we were unable to of huckleberry thesis statements, identify the situational or personal factors that put mentally ill mothers at sections risk for filicide. We found that the research on child murder by mothers, especially within the United States, was sparse. The Adventures. Studies of neonaticide that used administrative records samples and this lesson plan correctional populations both inside and outside the United States had fairly consistent findings. They frequently showed a pattern of powerlessness, poverty, and alienation in the lives of the women studied. The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn. However, the common factors, such as being young, poor, and undereducated and how to write living with one’s parents, describe a huge segment of the female population. There were virtually no distinguishing features to suggest which young, poor, and undereducated women with poor prenatal care were at risk for neonaticide. It is not surprising that the samples of neonaticide offenders from psychiatric populations differed from those in statements administrative records samples regarding the presence of mental illness, but data on this characteristic were sparse, and the results differed across countries. Some of these studies noted that women who committed neonaticide had a high probability of plan denying or concealing their pregnancy.

Denial or concealment of pregnancy may indeed be a predictor of neonaticide, but such behavior would be difficult to identify prospectively. The lack of prenatal care may also be a valid predictor of neonaticide. Additional, careful study is the adventures, needed to elucidate factors related to essay, denial of pregnancy in women who receive no prenatal care. Knowledge about maternal filicide after the first day of finn life is even more meager. Offenders in psychiatric populations in the United States and other nations had high rates of previous mental health services use, depression, suicidality, and psychosis, as expected of psychiatric patients.

Studies of maternal filicide in corrections populations noted social disadvantage in offenders. Apa Format Assignment. Studies conducted outside of the United States documented more mental illness in offenders. England’s Infanticide Act, the modern version of which became law in of huckleberry thesis 1938, was based on the concepts of puerperal and lactational insanity (18). The Act reduced the charge from murder to manslaughter for a woman who killed her infant under age 1 year if “the balance of her mind was disturbed by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to essay about, a child or by reason of the effect of lactation” (100). More than 20 countries currently have such legislation, including Canada and much of Australia, but not the United States (18). In these countries, infanticide laws often result in the woman’s receiving probation or referral to mental health treatment rather than incarceration (18). It is noteworthy that such legislation does not require that the mother have a formally diagnosable mental illness.

Therefore, a nondepressed and finn thesis nonpsychotic mother who commits neonaticide may be shown greater lenience than a psychotic and depressed mother who kills her 13-month-old child. Many severely mentally ill mothers may not be considered under legislation that applies only to death of assignment children under age 1 year; a recent study found that the mean age of child victims of mothers found not guilty by reason of insanity in two states was older than 3 years (101). We would expect findings to be somewhat skewed when considering study results from statements various countries. However, samples in these studies often included mothers who killed children older than age 1 year. Specifically, one might expect that women in the United States who successfully plead insanity and procure a psychiatric disposition would be more psychiatrically ill than those with a psychiatric disposition in countries with infanticide laws. Likewise, women who had criminal dispositions in art education countries with infanticide laws might be less likely to be mentally ill. However, other things being equal, results from the more general administrative records samples may be similar.

Maternal filicide studies based on samples of the general population within the United States are sorely needed to develop strategies for prevention. Thesis. Several studies of how to to file maternal filicide separated results on the basis of proposed typologies of motivations among mothers who commit filicide. In some studies, the the adventures of huckleberry thesis age of the child that was killed was reported, but there was no discussion of the child’s age in relation to the common factors in the lives of lesson plan their mothers. The inclusion criteria for the age of the child victims varied drastically across studies, making the development of conclusions difficult. Because of the the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis statements differing legal definition of infanticide among countries, comparison to U.S. incidence rates of essay filicide may be difficult. Based on our understanding of childhood abuse, we hypothesize that after the first day of life, risk factors for filicide are related to the age of the child. The literature supports the the adventures finn supposition that fatal abuse may be more likely to occur in younger children and that older children are more at risk from purposeful homicides. However, the existing research on filicide cannot be used to affirm this supposition. The nature of filicide varies within the population of women studied. Consideration must be given to literary criticism, the appropriateness of the the adventures questions asked about the population and essay criticism the selection of finn statements comparison groups. For example, within a mentally ill population, data should be sought to help inform clinicians why one mother with psychotic depression is more likely to kill her child than another mother with psychotic depression.

What we know about apa format writing assignment maternal filicide is specific to the population studied. Few factors are consistent across populations; thus overall, we know very little about thesis statements which children are at risk for death at the hands of their mothers. All of the studies reviewed here were retrospective, and most were descriptive. None of the studies included calculation of art education relative risks for filicide in women with specific disorders or maternal characteristics strongly associated with filicide. The Adventures Of Huckleberry Thesis Statements. However, they did provide general descriptions of mothers who had committed filicide, and from these descriptions we can extrapolate some potential risk factors. Women at risk for essay neonaticide are often young and unmarried, deny or conceal the pregnancy, and lack prenatal care. The factors associated with maternal filicide appear to be nonspecific but seem likely to include past use of psychiatric services and a history of statements suicidality and depression or psychosis.

However, the factors associated with maternal filicide are likely to be different for women who are psychiatrically ill, compared to those who are not psychiatrically ill. Investigators who conducted research in psychiatric populations often had access to detailed psychological information about the maternal perpetrators of filicide, but their conclusions are limited in generalizability. Maternal mental illness appears to play a varying role in essays lesson filicide. Descriptions of filicidal mothers were highly dependent on the adventures thesis statements the source of the this i believe sample. Of Huckleberry Finn Statements. Imprisoned U.S. Apa Format. perpetrators of maternal filicide were understandably less likely to finn thesis, be mentally ill than mothers who were psychiatrically hospitalized. These differences in study populations make it difficult to draw general conclusions about which mothers are at art education risk. Furthermore, although there were few studies, some were difficult to categorize because they were based on very specific populations that may have had some overlap.

For example, a study of women referred for psychiatric evaluation after commission of neonaticide (49) was classified as a psychiatric population study because it would have included a preselected group of women who were more likely to the adventures finn thesis statements, have psychiatric disorders than would a general correctional population, although it could be argued that such a population should be considered a correctional population because the women were pretrial detainees at the time. This critical analysis suggests that clearer parameters are needed for research in this area. There is a lack of standardization in filicide research regarding the age of children who constitute filicide victims. The children in the studies we reviewed ranged from neonates to write, young adults as old as age 29 years. We propose that future filicide research consider including only children under age 18 years, because they are minors and still of school age. The existing studies did not examine the possibility that contextual factors may vary according to the age of the the adventures finn thesis statements child victim. No study reported on apa format writing assignment characteristics of the mothers based on the age of the child who was killed, other than in the adventures finn thesis cases of this lesson neonaticide or infanticide. It is interesting to note that when study population samples were separated by country, different factors appeared to emerge. Less variability occurred in the findings of neonaticide studies among nations than among population sample types.

Very few American general population studies were conducted. The epidemiological studies that do exist do not differentiate maternal filicide from other child homicides (69, 93). American infants at risk of statements homicide are known to be born to young, undereducated mothers with low socioeconomic status who do not obtain timely prenatal care. Write Dissertation Sections. However, this research is limited by lack of classification of the homicide perpetrator as the mother, the father, or a nonparent. Of Huckleberry Finn Statements. Psychiatric diagnoses are frequently made after the homicide, when women may develop depression or posttraumatic stress disorder in reaction to commission of the filicide. These diagnoses may not necessarily reflect the women’s psychiatric status before the filicide. Furthermore, it is often unclear how rigorously the psychiatric diagnostic criteria were applied. In a closely related area of essay literary research, two studies found a high incidence of filicidal thoughts in the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis statements mentally ill women (102, 103). Essay Literary Criticism. The study by Chandra et al. (103) of postpartum severely mentally ill women in the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis India found that 43% had infanticidal ideation and 36% exhibited infanticidal behavior.

Infanticidal behavior was associated with female gender of the infant, adverse maternal reaction to separation from the infant, and dissertation sections psychotic ideas relating to the infant. These findings are a step toward developing a profile of mentally ill mothers who may be at risk for filicidal deeds. Further descriptive research is needed to the adventures of huckleberry finn statements, explore the character and quality of apa format writing assignment parenting by mentally ill women (104). The Adventures Thesis Statements. This area of how to to file research is important because approximately one-quarter of the women referred to the adventures statements, psychiatric services have a child under age 5 years (104). Paper Add. Similar studies of women who are not mentally ill—particularly women who are young, poor, and undereducated and who fail to obtain prenatal care—are also critical.

For example, a study in a nonpsychiatric population found that 70% of mothers of colicky infants had explicit aggressive thoughts toward their infants, and 26% of these mothers had infanticidal thoughts during the infant’s episodes of colic (105). Development of the adventures finn statements intervention strategies depends on a better understanding of the prevalence of these thoughts and the characteristics of mothers who are likely to act on these thoughts. Given that the reported incidence of filicide is admission, increasing and given the limitations of the research literature, what are the of huckleberry finn most important research needs in this area? Although prospective studies are considered stronger than retrospective studies for establishing risk relationships, the literary rarity of the adventures of huckleberry filicide makes such studies impractical. However, well-conceptualized cross-sectional studies, with contemporaneous investigation of the circumstances surrounding all child deaths in a given catchment area, are feasible. These investigations could examine factors associated with different types of filicide (e.g., filicide resulting from negligence, recklessness, or intentional acts).

In addition, case-control studies examining features of filicide victims whose mothers were reported to child protective services for abuse could be compared to apa format writing assignment, those of abused children who are not killed. The findings could point to characteristics that may identify women who are at high risk for killing their children. Future studies of the adventures thesis statements filicide in the United States should build on write dissertation sections the knowledge gained from studies in other nations and should strive to meet the following criteria. First, the studies should contain comparison groups, such as mentally ill mothers or abusive mothers who do not kill their children. We need well-controlled studies comparing mothers in finn the general population who did and did not commit filicide, as well as mentally ill mothers who did and did not commit filicide. Second, future studies should examine specific perpetrator subpopulations that would include mothers with and without key risk factors. An optimal strategy would be to examine such factors across the children’s life span. Groups that should be targeted for study include women with no prenatal care, abusive mothers, and admission paper for sale add mentally ill mothers. Finn. These focused studies might allow the construction of risk profiles for filicide. Third, future studies should investigate a large number of possible risk factors. Write Dissertation Sections. Some factors, such as depression and social problems, have a widespread presence in the general population.

Therefore, for mothers who commit filicide, a constellation of risk factors is the adventures thesis statements, likely to be more important than the presence of a single factor. Art Education. Clusters of thesis significant risk factors for filicide may include demographic factors, social milieu, psychiatric history, victim characteristics, specific situational factors, prior family conflict and violence, and a history of contact with social service agencies. All of these factors have all been suggested as candidates needing further study in the context of filicide risk (5). In future studies, researchers should seek to delineate which abusive mothers are most at write risk for committing filicide. Fourth, studies in the national U.S. population would be optimal to the adventures of huckleberry thesis statements, gain a sufficient sample size for about art education this relatively infrequent crime. Statements. Although some potentially informative trends have been noted from international studies, different homicide and filicide rates across nations make inferences about risk factors somewhat problematic. Finally, an important area of research concerns mothers who kill their children and themselves (filicide-suicide), because these mothers are not included in either correctional or psychiatric samples. Historically, they represent a significant proportion (16%–29%) of filicidal mothers (23, 48, 106). To facilitate such studies, death records of filicide victims should be augmented with information about perpetrators.

This goal would be accomplished by examining the records of all filicide deaths reported to coroners. Standard reporting systems often do not provide specific data regarding filicide. Although current state and national databases link infant birth and essay art education death records, information about the identity of the homicide perpetrator is not similarly linked. Also, there is no current linkage of birth and death records for children over the age of 12 months. This limitation effectively eliminates critical information from the database in the adventures finn the case of older filicide victims. How To To File. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is developing the National Violent Death Reporting System, which is funded in some states (107). When this system is in operation, it will link coroner, judicial, and law enforcement records, which will facilitate study in this area of homicide. Also, the the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis U.S.

Federal Bureau of Investigation has begun examining data for a large sample of mothers who have killed their children; this project makes use of information from the essays investigating law enforcement agencies and of huckleberry finn thesis prosecutors’ offices (K. Beyer, personal communication, 2004). To facilitate understanding and to potentially intervene in admission add this public health issue, certain states are also taking an active role. All 50 states have Child Fatality Review teams (108). The Adventures Of Huckleberry Thesis Statements. In Ohio, for example, an interdisciplinary team evaluates the deaths of children age ?18 years and examines factors that may relate to prevention. However, the teams do not necessarily investigate the literary criticism child’s death until after prosecution of the perpetrator, which could delay review of many maternal filicide cases. Of Huckleberry Statements. For optimal data collection, every filicide case that is evaluated by coroners should be contemporaneously investigated by coroners’ inquests. Also, a survey given to new mothers, PRAMS (the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System) (109), does not routinely include questions about mental health concerns, although states may opt to how to write to file, add such questions. The office of the U.S. The Adventures Of Huckleberry. Surgeon General is planning prevention strategies for child maltreatment (110, 111). Psychiatry, public health, and the social sciences should collaborate across the traditional disciplinary boundaries to share approaches and resources that would improve our knowledge of the determinants of filicide.

Without adequate data about who is at write to file risk, preventive interventions cannot be developed. With the exception of data for neonaticide, public health data supporting targets for intervention to finn statements, prevent filicide are lacking. Researchers in public health should be guided to apa format assignment, modify data collection and organization to include specific data about perpetrators of child homicide. Their efforts should also include follow-up of cohorts of mentally ill mothers, with inquiry about filicidal intentions as an indicator. More data must be gathered before more appropriate prevention efforts can be targeted to avert these family tragedies. Received Aug. 29, 2004; revision received Jan. 7, 2005; accepted Feb. 23, 2005. From the the adventures thesis Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of paper add Cleveland.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Friedman, Department of Psychiatry/Hanna Pavilion, University Hospitals of Cleveland/Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44106; [email protected] (e-mail). The authors thank Dr. The Adventures Of Huckleberry Thesis Statements. Penelope Friedman and Dr. Jill Korbin for their insights. No financial support was given for this review. We have redesigned the delivery of The American Journal of Psychiatry’s continuing medical education courses (AJPCME). AJPCME courses are available through the American Psychiatric Association’s online education portal. Access to write sections, courses requires a account and an active AJPCME subscription. With your personal account at, you will have:

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