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calculator homework This homework will give you practice in parsing, inheritance, interfaces, event-driven programming, packages, ArrayList, and designs involving programs that use the MVC (Model-View-Controller) model of interaction. Write Winning! In case you have not already noticed, this is an essay, Open homework. You must read the Open/Closed policy before working on this project. The policy can be found at policy. Your company wants to build a suite of interactive calculators, e.g., a integer calculator, a scientific calculator, a financial calculator, etc. For this homework, you will create a generic calculator class, called GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine), which provides a general framework for the implementation of several types of calculators. By extending the GenericCalcEng you will be able to implement concrete calculators (e.g., scientific, financial, etc.). For this project, in addition to implementing the GenericCalcEng, class you will implement two classes that implement two concrete calculators. This first class is named RestaurantCalcEng, and it represents a calculator used in fast food restaurants.
The second one is named ScientificCalcEng, and write award, represents a typical scientific calculator. We will provide code to be used in the development of Graphical User Interfaces for the concrete calculator classes you will implement. The code will allow you to easily define a calculator interface in no time. More details about the program are provided in the Specifications section. Note: The bulk of the implementation associated with this project is the leapor, implementation of the logic that creates functional calculators. This logic is what the award essay, JUnit module (that you will create) will test.
Developing the actual GUIs is a minor component of this project and something that should take you almost no time. For example, if you choose not to essays implement the GUIs for the calculators you will notice that you will pass all the tests in the submit server, as we don't check for award, that component via the submit server. Critical! The graders will check the GUIs manually. Take note of the point distribution for this project as this will tell you the weight associated with the GUIs. This homework will be graded as follows: 75% - Implementation 10% - Implementation of your JUnit Test 5% - Restaurant Calculator GUI 5% - Scientific Calculator GUI 5% - Time log.
Calculator Operation Model. Note: In the write, description below an operand represents a numeric value and an operator any user-defined computation (+, -, factorial, etc.) Most numerical calculators process the following type of operations: unary operations - Those that require one operand (e.g., sine(10)) binary operations - Those requiring two operands (e.g., 10 + 30) no-operand operations - Clear operations, backspace operations, constant definition, etc. Before completing any calculations, all calculators need to identify whether a unary, binary, or no-operand operation is being requested, along with the operand(s) (if any). Once the identification has been made, the actual processing (determined by the operand) will take place. This means that, if you implement several calculators with different operands (e.g., a scientific, restaurant and aping, binary calculators), parts of your processing will be common to all calculators. Specifically, the common processing is the identification of the kind of operation requested and the operands.
To implement this common processing without code duplication, the best approach is to award winning essay define a class that provides methods that tell us what operator needs to be processed along with the operands. By using this class, we need only worry about essays on ecclesiastes, implementing the computation associated with each particular operator. For this project you will implement such a class. We name this class GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine) , because, as its name implies, it provides the generic behavior associated with any calculator. The class identifies operators and write award, operands, and provides support for common operations found in any calculator (e.g., processing of sports backspaces, reset, etc.). This class cannot generate any results. It just identifies what needs to essay be done and relies on a subclass to actually implement the processing associated with an operator. Implementing a calculator using GenericCalcEng. Let's suppose you want to implement a simple floating-point calculator that supports the operators +, -, *, /, =, backspace, and reset. To implement this calculator you just need to create a new class (let's called it BasicCalc ) which extends the GenericCalcEng.
By extending GenericCalcEng, BasicCalc doesn't need to implement the backspace or the reset operation as those are already provided by essay the base class. Furthermore, it doesn't need to implement any code to identify operands (e.g., reading digits) or code that identifies operators. All this processing is taken care of by GenericCalcEng. Award Winning! What does BasicCalc implement? It provides the GenericCalcEng with a list of the operators (the name and on ecclesiastes, type) the BasicCalc will process. Write Award Winning Essay! In addition, it provides the implementation of abstract methods present in the GenericCalcEng class. One of these methods takes care of advertising alcohol essays processing unary operations, the other takes care of binary operations and a third one is in essay, charge of processing constants. The GenericCalcEng will call these methods to process operators it identifies. As you can see, defining new calculators is advertising alcohol essays, relatively easy, once the GenericCalcEng has been implemented.
More details about the GenericCalcEng and the classes you must implement are provided in the Specifications section. The code distribution is available by write award essay checking out the definition, project named p8 . The code distribution provides you with the following: A library called cmsc131CalculatorLib . A number of Java files. PublicTests.java - This class represents the write award winning essay, set of JUnit public tests. The expected results for each test can be found in the text files with a pub prefix. A time log file. Calculator Library (We provide this.) The cmsc131CalculatorLib provides a number of culture essay support classes that you will need for this homework. The classes you will find in this package are: GenericCalcGUI : A class that implements the generic calculator GUI. GUIListener : An interface that defines the callback method used by the GenericCalcGUI class. Java Files (We provide these.) CalcOperator.java : This simple class is just a convenient encapsulation of two entities, an operator name and its type. Although its use is not required, it is likely to come in handy.
The operator name is just a single String symbol (e.g. + or /, Super, Fries). The type is write award winning, used in your processing. Essay! Types include things like whether this is a binary or unary operator (see below). The class consists of a constructor with the following prototype: public CalcOperator(String operatorName, int operatorType) This class also provides two accessor methods, getName( ) and getType( ) , which return these values.
The various operator types are encoded as symbolic constants (as int values). The operator type names for this assignment are: For example, a binary operator such as + has the operator type CalcOperator.BINARY_OP . CalcEngExample : This class provides an write essay, example of a calculator engine implemented by essays extending the GenericCalcEng class. Write Award Winning! It is provided just to help you get an idea of how to design your own calculator engine. Paper House! GUIExample : This class provides an example of essay how to implement a GUI interface and controller using the GenericGUI class. Again, it is provided to aping essay help you get an idea of how to design your own calculator GUI.
TestsSupport : This class has support code for the JUnit public tests. You will implement GenericCalcEng , a Java abstract class that represents the model component of the MVC paradigm for the generic (common) part of the calculator. The generic calculator can be tailored to recognize any unary and binary operators we want to implement. The generic calculator parses (that is, it syntactically classifies or recognizes) operators and operands and passes those values to methods in the derived classes that will take care of implementing the operator. We can classify the GenericCalcEng operators into write winning the following categories or types : Unary operators : Those requiring only one operand. (For example, cosine, square root, etc.) Binary operators : Those requiring two operands. (For example, addition, multiplication, etc.) Assignment operator (=) : Evaluates and displays the result of a binary operator. Clear operator : Clears the entire state of the calculator.
Clear last operand : Resets the last operand entered, by setting it to 0. Backspace : Erases the critical essay, last character of the display. Write Award! Constant : Initializes the current operand with a constant value, e.g., the mary essay, function associated with a PI calculator button. The GenericCalcEng operands are defined by the digits 0 through 9 and/or a decimal point. This means that the generic calculator will recognize as valid operands the following entries: 123, 123.45, 0, 0.56. There is no need for a '-' sign, since negation (if needed) is handled at award winning essay, the operator level (e.g., unary +/-).
GenericCalcEng Public Operands. The public methods of the GenericCalcEng class are: Default (no argument) constructor : Defines the calculator state to alcohol be ready to process selections. The display unit is initialized with the value of 0. addToOperatorList : Because a GenericCalcEng works with different concrete calculators, it needs to write keep track of which operators the calculator will support. The generic calculator engine does not apply these operators, since that is left to essays on ecclesiastes the derived calculator classes. But it does need to winning essay know, for example, that sqrt is the name of a unary operator. In order to know this, a GenericCalcEng object maintains a list of operators and their associated types. This list must be implemented using an ArrayList . The list starts out essay, empty, and this method is essay, called to add a given operator and its type to this list. Here is its prototype: public void addToOperatorList(String operatorName, int operatorType) The parameter operatorName is the String name of the operator (e.g., + or sqrt). The operatorType identifies the operator type as one of the types given above (UNARY_OP, BINARY_OP, etc.), as given in critical essay, the table above (see code distribution). The entire list of operators must be given before the calculator is actually used. processSelection : This method implements the action(s) that take place whenever a calculator button has been clicked. For example, to add the numbers 42 and 5 the user click the award winning essay, sequence of buttons: 4, 2, +,5, and =. This would result in five calls being made to this method, each time passing the name of the button selected as the argument.
Here is the prototype: public void processSelection(String selection) The method recognizes digits, the period and advertising alcohol essays, operators. It combines digit(s) and/or the period in order to generate operands. Essay! You may assume the operator input is valid. Critical Essay! This method will also trigger the execution of any operator once the award, appropriate operands (if any) have been identified and will update, if need be, a string object representing the calculator display. Thus, processSelection is the core method of the GenericCalcEng class.
This key method is described in greater detail below. getDisplayContents : As the calculator is used, your program must keep track of the quantity to be shown in the calculators display unit. This method returns a String that represents the calculator's current display contents. It is called by the GUI whenever the display needs to be updated. public String getDisplayContents() For example, when the essay sports, calculator starts up, a call to this function will return 0. After the user clicks on the button 4 (which causes processSelection(4) to be called) the new contents of the write award winning, display will be 4. After clicking on 5 (causing the call processSelection(5)) the display contents will be 45. processUnaryOperator : This is an abstract method that must be provided by the concrete subclass (e.g., ScientificCalcEng) public abstract String processUnaryOperator(String operand, String operatorName) This method is called by processSelection once a unary operator and its operand have been identified. The processUnaryOperator method must implement the functionality of all the unary operators provided through the addToOperatorList method. Note that the argument is passed in as a String (not double or integer).
Rather than converting digits to numbers immediately as each digit button is pressed, it is easier to concatenate the digits into a string, then pass the string to alcohol essays processUnaryOperator (or processBinaryOperator below), and then convert the write essay, result to aping a number. You may assume the operator input is valid. processBinaryOperator : This is an abstract method similar to processUnaryOperator that deals with binary operators. Winning Essay! You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processBinaryOperator(String firstOperand, String operatorName, String secondOperand) processConstantOperator : This method is called by processSelection once a constant operator has been identified. The processConstantOperator method returns a String representing the term house, constant value associated with the write award, operatorName parameter. You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processConstantOperator(String operatorName) Feel free to add any additional private methods as you see fit.
However, you may not add any public methods beyond the ones specified above. As mentioned above, the processSelection method does not apply any binary or unary operators, since this is done in the concrete derived classes (e.g., ScientificCalcEng). For example, if the operator is the binary operator +, then processSelection will call a method in the derived class to essay and health apply the award winning essay, addition operator. 3! (See processUnaryOperator, processBinaryOperator and processConstantOperator methods above). On the other hand, operators that are deemed to be common to all calculators (e.g., ASSIGN_OP, CLEAR, CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND, BACKSPACE) are implemented by this method. For purposes of testing, it is necessary that you implement your calculator functions in the same way that we do. If you consider the calculator's behavior when the user keys in the sequence 3 4 + 5 6 = the number 34 is the first operand, the operator is +, and write award winning essay, the second operand is mary essay, 56. When = is seen, the write winning essay, binary operator + is applied, and the resulting sum of 90 is displayed.
How does the calculator know that 3 and 4 are parts of the first operand and 5 and 6 are parts of the second operand? The calculator is controlled by its state, which is made up of the following variables: firstOperand : (String) The left operand of a binary operation (34 above). secondOperand : (String) The right operand of a binary operation (56 above). currentOperator : (String) The binary operator (+ above) which is to be applied to these operands. And Health! displayContents : (String) The current contents of the display unit. Write Award Winning! context : (int) Indicates the context in which the critical essay definition, calculator is currently running (see below). theOperators : (ArrayList) A list of the write award, operators and their respective types for the current calculator. Term Paper House! Keep in mind that you can add any other instance variables you see fit and you don't need to use exactly the variable names we provided. The calculator's operation depends on the context. The possible contexts (states) are: Reading-First-Operand ( RFO ): This is the default context. Any digits that are entered are stored in the first operand.
Reading-Second-Operand ( RSO ): This context is entered whenever a binary operator is entered. Digits that are entered are stored in the second operand. Error ( ERR ): You are not required to implement this context (since we will not test for it explicitly). This context is entered whenever an essay, error occurs (e.g., invalid input such as 3.4.5 or division by zero). When in this context the calculator ignores all operations until the essay definition, operation CLEAR operation is performed. Semantics of GenericCalcEng Operators. Write! The calculator starts in the default state, which is described in aping essay, the CLEAR operator below.
In the award, description below, the term current operand refers to either firstOperand or secondOperand, depending on advertising the current context, RFO or RSO, respectively. CLEAR : Sets the calculator to the default state where the display shows the value of 0, and the context is write winning, RFO. Leapor Essay! CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND : Sets the current operand to zero. Updates the display with a 0 value. BACKSPACE : Removes the rightmost character (whether a digit or a decimal point) of the current operand.
If the rightmost character is the only character, it replaces the character with 0. It updates the display accordingly. ASSIGN_OP : If the context is not RSO, this operation is write award winning essay, ignored. In the RSO context, the processBinaryOperator() method is invoked. The first operand is updated with the result of the most recently specified operator, the mary, result of the computation is write award, displayed, and we return to the RFO context. UNARY_OP : The processUnaryOperator() method is term paper, invoked on the current operand. The display is updated with the result of the write award winning, computation. CONSTANT_OP : The processConstantOperator() method is invoked. The current operand is initialized with the value returned by processConstantOperator().
The display is updated with the constant value. Essay Sports! BINARY_OP : There are two cases, depending on the current context. RFO : The first operand and current operator are saved, and the context is changed to RSO. The display is not changed. RSO : There are two cases, depending on award essay whether a second operand has yet been entered: If no input has been provided for the second operand then no calculation is performed, and the current operator is saved. (For example, the input 4 + * 6 = results in 4*6=24, and the + is ignored.) Otherwise (if the second operand is alcohol essays, nonempty) then the winning, previously saved current operator is now performed by invoking the processBinaryOperator() method.
The result is stored as the first operand, and the display is updated to this value as well. The second operand is reset to empty, and the given operator becomes the alcohol, new current operator. (This allows us to chain binary operators together, so that 3 + 4 * 5 = results in write award winning, (3+4)*5 = 35.) Creating calculator engines using the GenericCalcEng class. Term House! In order to write award winning essay have an operational calculator we must extend the aping western culture essay, GenericCalcEng class. The subclass will specify the operators and provide the implementation of the GenericCalcEng abstract methods. The class CalcEngExample, part of the write award winning, code distribution provides an example of creating a very simple calculator based on the GenericCalcEng. Once you have implemented GenericCalcEng and one of its subclasses we have a fully operational calculator. However, it is aping culture essay, not one that is easy to use. Essay! We have provided a class called GenericCalcGUI (Generic Calculator Graphical User Interface) that will enable you to create a complete calculator GUI. We will describe the process for a basic floating-point calculator ( which you do not need to implement for this project ). You will need to implement a similar process for both the restaurant and scientific calculators. The setup for these is exactly analogous to and health the basic calculator (just replace Basic with Restaurant or Scientific below).
As you read this, please refer to the file GUIExample.java (given in the code distribution). It illustrates how to create a simple GUI with a couple of buttons. The behavior of GUIExample.java is award essay, trivial, and simply echoes back the user's selection. First, you would define a class BasicCalc that implements the GUIListener interface (see the essay, code distribution). This interface requires that your class BasicCalc implement the write essay, following callback method (which is invoked whenever the user clicks on 3 a button). Its job is to process the selected operation and update the essay, calculator display contents. (More about this below.) public void buttonSelected(String selection) In your BasicCalc class define an term, instance variable, say gui , that is of type GenericCalcGUI. Write Winning! (We have provided the GenericCalcGUI class for essay, you as part of the cmsc131CalculatorLib.) Create a new GenericCalcGUI in your BasicCalc constructor, and save a reference to it in this instance variable. The GenericCalcGUI constructor takes two parameters: a String giving the calculator window title, and a two-dimensional array of String objects representing the positions and labels of the buttons in the calculator. Each row of strings represents a row of write award winning buttons in term paper house, the GUI.
This can be a ragged array, implying that some rows have fewer buttons than others. Award! Finally, you need to leapor essay inform the GUI that your BasicCalc class is the one implementing the callback method (buttonSelected). Write Winning Essay! In order to advertising do this, from within the BasicCalc class constructor, invoke the gui's setGUIListener() method as follows: In order for your calculator to award winning essay possess the desired functionality, you must create a second instance variable in your BasicCalc class. This variable stores a reference to a concrete instance of a GenericCalcEng class that implements the functionality of the basic calculator. Let's call it engine . In your BasicCalc constructor, create such a new instance and assign it to engine. Now, when the buttonSelected() callback is called, it needs to perform the following operations: invoke the engine's processSelection() method to process the selected button, get the advertising essays, contents of the calculator's display (as a String) by invoking the award, engine's getDisplayContents() method, and update the calculator's display contents. This is done by invoking the method gui.setDisplayContents() method. Its argument is the value returned from the previous step. The following figure illustrates how the various classes interact at the user-interface level for this basic calculator example.
The picture is similar for the restaurant and scientific calculator. Remember, you don't need to implement this basic calculator. We are just using it as an example of how to critical set up a GUI for any calculator. Classes you must define. For this homework you must define the following classes: GenericCalcEng : Implements the generic calculator. RestaurantCalcEng: This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of a floating-point calculator used in a restaurant.
The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from write winning essay this calculator are as follows. Alcohol! (These are registered with GenericCalcEng using the write award essay, addToOperatorList() method.) For the restaurant calculator only , result values should be displayed using two decimal points. This format requirement can be satisfied by essay sports and health using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. Award Essay! double value = 78.123; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(0.00); String valueStr = decimalFormat.format(value); A value of 78.12 will be stored in valueStr. RestaurantCalc : The RestaurantCalcEng class only performs the mary, calculator operations. The RestaurantCalc class sets up the necessary connections to the GUI to create the actual restaurant calculator. See the file GUIExample.java in the code distribution) for an example of award winning how to do this.
The GUI appearance must match the alcohol essays, GUI presented in the Sample Run section. ScientificCalcEng : This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the award winning essay, engine of a floating-point scientific calculator. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from essays 3 this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng with the addToOperatorList() method.) Most of the aforementioned operators can be found in the Java Math class. For the scientific calculator only award winning , values with no fractional part should be displayed without a decimal point.
This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. double result = 12.0; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(); String str = decimalFormat.format(result); A value of term paper 12 will be stored in str (instead of 12.0). The call to method setGroupingUsed( false ) is used to disable the automatic insertion of commas. With this call the value 12345678.9 would be converted to 12345678.9, and without it the value would be converted to write award winning essay 12,345,678.9 instead. ScientificCalc : The ScientificCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations. The ScientificCalc class sets up the GUI for the scientific calculator. See the file GUIExample.java in the code distribution) for an example of how to mary essay do this. The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in award winning, the Sample Run section. Note: For all calculators defined above, the standard arithmetic rules of precedence do not apply.
For example, in the expression 34 + -56 * .5 the first two operands are added before multiplication is essay definition, applied, so the result is -11 (not 6). Packages you must define. In order to gain experience in award winning, designing a programming project involving packages, you must create the following packages and arrange your classes as described below. The packages must be named using the names we have specified; otherwise, we will not be able to grade your project. (Remember that packages can be created in Eclipse using File → New → Package.) genericCalcEng : We have already created this package for you. Essay And Health! It contains the GenericCalcEng class and write winning, the CalcOperator.java file we provided. restaurantCalc : Contains the RestaurantCalcEng and term paper house, the RestaurantCalc classes. scientificCalc : Contains the ScientificCalcEng and winning essay, the ScientificCalc classes.
As with all programming assignments: You must use meaningful variable names and good indentation. You must avoid code duplication, by calling appropriate methods (rather than cutting and pasting code). Essays On Ecclesiastes! You may define your own private utility methods to perform often repeated tasks. Please do not change the names of any of the classes you are to implement, and write award winning, use signatures given above for your methods . Critical Essay Definition! The graphical layout of write winning essay your calculator must match those given in essay, the sample run. You must use the same package structure given above. Write Award Winning! Your operator list in GenericCalcEng must be implemented using ArrayList from the Java class library. Test your program using the JUnit module you create and test your submission using the submit server. In this section we present two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement. This will guide you in determining how to set up the 3, GUIs.
If you take a look at the PublicTests.java file and the pub*.txt files, you will be able to see the processing associated with the write winning essay, the different operators each calculator implements. As you can see, you can tests your implementation without using GUIs. Here is an example that shows two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to essays on ecclesiastes 3 implement, in their initial states. We have provided a JUnit module representing the public tests. However, you need to create your own JUnit module to test your project. Define the tests as you see fit. We expect at least three tests in the JUnit file. Name your JUnit test file MyJUnitTests.java.
Feel free to use the award, TestsSupport.processSeveralSelections method to process different key combinations, as we did in the PublicTests.java. Remember that you are not required to implement the following problem. Essays 3! Please visit the course web page for information regarding challenge problem. For this challenge problem, you have three possible choices, each for a particular number of gold stars. If you want to write winning implement them all that is fine, however we can only term grade one. IMPORTANT : For the challenge problem create a package called challenge . In that package should appear any classes needed to complete your challenge problem implementation. The challenge problems below may require you to modify the GenericCalcEng and award, other classes of your homework. Provide the modified versions of these classes in the challenge package.
Make sure you provide, in the challenge package, a Challenge.java file with a main method that allows us to run the challenge problem calculator. Essay Sports! Also make sure that your Challenge class has a default constructor. Write Winning Essay! Note: For the challenge problem you must use the scientific calculator. Make an entry in critical, the timelog indicating which Challenge problem choice you have implemented. Add an option to the calculator that allows the essay, display to essay show the results using commas. Write Award Winning Essay! For example, instead of 12345 the user would see 12,345. You should add a button to the GUI labeled com that allows the user to turn this feature on mary leapor and off. Step 2 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of award 2) In addition to critical essay definition Choice 1 , add the following memory functions to the calculator infrastructure: MS - Allows you to store in memory the element currently being displayed. MR - Allows you to use the value stored in memory as the essay, next operand.
Any retrieved value is aping western culture, immediately displayed. MC - Sets the write essay, memory to essay 0. You should add three buttons to write essay the GUI labeled MS, MR, and MC, respectively. Sports! Choice 3 (1 additional Gold Star, for award, a total of 3) In addition to Choice 1 and Choice 2 , add parenthesis semantics to the calculator infrastructure. That means your calculator can process expressions surrounded by sports and health parenthesis, regardless of the level of nesting. You should add two buttons to the GUI labeled ( and ). Feel free to place the write award, GUI buttons wherever you consider to definition be best. Submit your project using the submit project option associated with Eclipse.
Remember to complete your time log before submitting your homework.
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Not that it matters. For me, with one eye on these smooth yellow pills, the world must be written about as it is or not written about at all. Z GATOR, FEBRUARY 1994 -- By chance, Kate and I have arrived in Nuoc Man on a day of annual commemoration, a day when the graves of the local war dead are blessed and repaired and critical decorated and wept over. The village elders invite us to a feast, a picnic of sorts, where we take seats before a low lacquered table at essay, an outdoor shrine. Term House. Children press up close, all around. The elders shoo them away, but the shooing doesn't do much. Write Winning. I'm getting nervous. The food on display seems a bit exotic. Not to my taste.
I look at Kate, Kate looks at me. Number one chop-chop, an old woman says, a wrinkled, gorgeous, protective, scarred, welcoming old woman. Number one, she promises, and nudges Kate, and smiles a heartbreaking betel-nut smile. I choose something white. Fish, I'm guessing. 3. I have eaten herring; I have enjoyed herring. This is not herring. There are decisions to be made.
The elders bow and execute chewing motions. Do not forget: our hosts are among the write award essay maimed and widowed and term paper house orphaned, the bombed and rebombed, the recipients of white phosphorus, the tenders of graves. Award Essay. Chew, they say, and by God I chew. Kate has the good fortune to find a Kleenex. She's a pro. Alcohol Essays. She executes a polite wiping motion and it's over for her. Eddie Keating, the Times photographer whose pictures accompany this text, tucks his portion between cheek and gum, where it remains until the feast concludes. Me -- I imagine herring.
I remember Sunday afternoons as a boy, the Vikings on TV, my dad opening up the winning crackers and creamed herring, passing it out at halftime. Other flashes too. Essay. LZ Gator's mortar rounds pounding this innocent, impoverished, raped little village. Eight or nine corpses piled not 50 yards from write where we now sit in friendly union. I prepare myself.
Foul, for sure, but things come around. Nuoc Man swallowed plenty. HE SONG TRA HOTEL, QUANG NGAI CITY, FEBRUARY 1994 -- It's late in the evening. The air-conditioner is at full Cuban power. Essay And Health. Kate's eyes sparkle, she's laughing. Write Award. Swallowed! she keeps saying. In 1969, when I went to war, Kate was 3 years old.
Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, McNamara, Bunker, Rogers, Bundy, Rusk, Abrams, Rostow -- for her, these names are like the listings on a foreign menu. Some she recognizes not at all, some she recalls from books or old television clips. But she never tasted the dishes. She does not know ice cream from Brussels sprouts. Three years old -- how could she? No more than I could know the Southern California of her own youth. Still, it was Kate who insisted we come here. I was more than reluctant -- I was petrified, I looked for excuses. Bad dreams and aping western so on.
But Kate's enthusiasm won me over; she wanted to share in essay, my past, the shapes of things, the smells and sunlight. As it turns out, the sharing has gone both ways. In any other circumstances, I would have returned to aping essay this country almost purely as a veteran, caught up in memory, but Kate's presence has made me pay attention to award the details of here and now, a Vietnam that exists outside the old perimeter of war. She takes delight in things alive: a chicken wired to someone's bicycle, an old woman's enormous fingernails, an term infant slung casually on the hip of a tiny 7-year-old girl. Kate has the eyes and spirit of an award adventurer, wide open to the variety of the world, and these qualities have pushed me toward some modest adventurism of my own. Now I watch her fiddle with the air-conditioner.
Swallowed! she keeps saying. Later in the night, as on many other nights, we talk about the war. I try to explain -- ineptly, no doubt -- that Vietnam was more than terror. For me, at least, Vietnam was partly love. With each step, each light-year of a second, a foot soldier is always almost dead, or so it feels, and in such circumstances you can't help but love. You love your mom and dad, the Vikings, hamburgers on term house, the grill, your pulse, your future -- everything that might be lost or never come to be. Intimacy with death carries with it a corresponding new intimacy with life.
Jokes are funnier, green is write winning essay, greener. You love the musty morning air. You love the sports miracle of your own enduring capacity for write award love. You love your friends in Alpha Company -- a kid named Chip, my buddy. He wrote letters to my sister, I wrote letters to his sister. In the sports rear, back at Gator, Chip and I would go our separate ways, by award winning essay, color, both of us ashamed but knowing it had to be that way. Advertising Alcohol. In the bush, though, nothing kept us apart. Write Essay. Black and White, we were called. In May of 1969, Chip was blown high into a hedge of bamboo.
Many pieces. I loved the guy, he loved me. I'm alive. He's dead. An old story, I guess.
AMBRIDGE, JUNE 1994 -- It's 5:25 in the morning, June 7. I have just taken my first drug of the day, a prescription drug, Oxazepam, which files the edge off anxiety. Thing is, I'm not anxious. I'm slop. This is despair. This is a valance of essays on ecclesiastes, horror that Vietnam never approximated.
If war is hell, what do we call hopelessness? I have not killed myself. That day, this day, maybe tomorrow. Like Nam, it goes. For some time, years in fact, I have been treated for depression, $8,000 or $9,000 worth. Some of it has worked. Or was working. I had called back to memory -- not to memory, exactly, but to significance -- some pretty painful feelings of rejection as a child.
Chubby and friendless and lonely. I had come to write award winning essay acknowledge, more or less, the house dominant principle of love in my life, how far I would go to get it, how terrified I was of losing it. I have done bad things for essay love, bad things to stay loved. Paper House. Kate is one case. Vietnam is another.
More than anything, it was this desperate love craving that propelled me into a war I considered mistaken, probably evil. In college, I stood in peace vigils. I rang doorbells for write Gene McCarthy, composed earnest editorials for the school newspaper. But when the draft notice arrived after graduation, the old demons went to work almost instantly. I thought about mary essay, Canada. I thought about jail.
But in winning, the end I could not bear the prospect of rejection: by my family, my country, my friends, my hometown. I would risk conscience and rectitude before risking the loss of term, love. I have written some of this before, but I must write it again. I was a coward. I went to Vietnam. Y LAI, QUANG NGAI PROVINCE, FEBRUARY 1994 -- Weird, but I know this place. I've been here before. Literally, but also in my nightmares. One year after the award massacre, Alpha Company's area of operations included the village of My Lai 4, or so it was called on American military maps.
The Vietnamese call it Thuan Yen, which belongs to a larger hamlet called Tu Cung, which in turn belongs to an even larger parent village called Son My. Essay. But names are finally irrelevant. I am just here. Twenty-five years ago, knowing nothing of the homicides committed by American troops on the morning of March 16, 1968, Alpha Company walked through and around this hamlet on numerous occasions. Now, standing here with Kate, I can't recognize much. The place blends in with all the award other poor, scary, beleaguered villes in mary, this area we called Pinkville. Even so, the feel of the place is as familiar as the winning old stucco house of my childhood. The clay trails, the cow dung, the blank faces, the paper unknowns and unknowables.
There is the write award winning smell of sin here. Smells of terror, too, and enduring sorrow. What happened, briefly, was this. At approximately 7:30 on the morning of alcohol essays, March 16, 1968, a company of roughly 115 American soldiers were inserted by helicopter just outside the village of My Lai. They met no resistance.
No enemy. Write Essay. No incoming fire. Still, for the next four hours, Charlie Company killed whatever could be killed. They killed chickens. They killed dogs and cattle. They killed people, too. Lots of people. Women, infants, teen-agers, old men.
The United States Army's Criminal Investigation Division compiled a list of 343 fatalities and an independent Army inquiry led by Lieut. Gen. Essay Definition. William R. Peers estimated that the death count may have exceeded 400. At the Son My Memorial, a large tablet lists 504 names. According to Col.
William Wilson, one of the original Army investigators, The crimes visited on the inhabitants of Son My Village included individual and group acts of murder, rape, sodomy, maiming, assault on noncombatants and the mistreatment and killing of detainees. The testimony of one member of write award winning, Charlie Company, Salvadore LaMartina, suggests the systematic, cold-blooded character of the slaughter: Q: Did you obey your orders? Q: What were your orders? A: Kill anything that breathed. Whether or not such instructions were ever directly issued is a matter of dispute. And Health. Either way, a good many participants would later offer the explanation that they were obeying orders, a defense explicitly prohibited by write award essay, the Nuremberg Principles and the United States Army's own rules of war. Other participants would argue that the civilians at My Lai were themselves Vietcong.
A young soldier named Paul Meadlo, who was responsible for numerous deaths on that bright March morning, offered this appalling testimony: Q: What did you do? A: I held my M-16 on essays 3, them. A: Because they might attack. Q: They were children and write award winning babies? Q: And they might attack? Children and babies? A: They might've had a fully loaded grenade on essays on ecclesiastes 3, them.
The mothers might have throwed them at us. Q: Were the babies in their mothers' arms? Q: And the babies moved to write award winning essay attack? A: I expected at any moment they were about to make a counterbalance. Eventually, after a cover-up that lasted more than a year and after the massacre made nationwide headlines, the Army's Criminal Investigation Division produced sufficient evidence to charge 30 men with war crimes.
Of these, only a single soldier, First Lieut. Western. William Laws Calley Jr., was ever convicted or spent time in prison. Found guilty of the premeditated murder of not less than 22 civilians, Calley was sentenced to life at hard labor, but after legal appeals and sentence reductions, his ultimate jail time amounted to three days in a stockade and essay four and a half months in prison. In some cases, judicial action was never initiated; in other cases, charges were quietly dropped. Essay. Calley aside, only a handful of men faced formal court-martial proceedings, either for essay war crimes or for subsequent cover-up activities, with the end result of five acquittals and four judicially ordered dismissals. Among those acquitted was Capt. Advertising Alcohol Essays. Ernest Medina, who commanded Charlie Company on the morning of March 16, 1968. All this is history.
Dead as those dead women and kids. Even at the time, most Americans seemed to shrug it off as a cruel, nasty, inevitable consequence of war. There were numerous excuses, numerous rationalizations. Upright citizens decried even the small bit of write winning essay, justice secured by essay, the conviction of Lieutenant Calley. Now, more than 25 years later, the villainy of that Saturday morning in 1968 has been pushed off to the margins of memory. In the colleges and high schools I sometimes visit, the mention of write award winning, My Lai brings on null stares, a sort of puzzlement, disbelief mixed with utter ignorance.
Evil has no place, it seems, in our national mythology. We erase it. We use ellipses. We salute ourselves and take pride in America the White Knight, America the Lone Ranger, America's sleek laser-guided weaponry beating up on Saddam and his legion of devils. t's beginning to rain when Kate and I sit down to talk with two survivors of the slaughter here. Mrs. Ha Thi Quy is a woman of 69 years. Her face is part stone, part anguish as she describes through an interpreter the paper house events of that day.
It's hard stuff to hear. Americans came here twice before, Mrs. Quy says. Nothing bad happened, they were friendly to us. Winning. But on that day the soldiers jumped out of critical essay, their helicopters and award winning immediately began to shoot. I prayed, I pleaded. As I take notes, I'm recalling other prayers, other pleadings. A woman saying No VC, no VC, while a young lieutenant pistol-whipped her without the least expression on his face, without the alcohol least sign of distress or moral uncertainty.
Mad Mark, we called him. Write Winning. But he wasn't mad. He was numb. He'd lost himself. His gyroscope was gone. He didn't know up from down, good from essays on ecclesiastes bad. Mrs. Quy is crying now. I can feel Kate crying off to my side, though I don't dare look. The Americans took us to a ditch. I saw two soldiers with red faces -- sunburned -- and award they pushed a lot of people into the ditch.
I was in aping, the ditch. Write Essay. I fell down and many fell on on ecclesiastes 3, top of me. Soldiers were shooting. Award Winning. I was shot in the hip. The firing went on and on. It would stop and then start again and alcohol then stop. Now I hear Kate crying, not loud, just a certain breathiness I've come to recognize. This will be with us forever.
This we'll have. My notes take a turn for the worse. I lay under the dead in the ditch. Write. Around noon, when I heard no more gunfire, I came out of the critical essay definition ditch and winning essay saw many more. Essay And Health. Brains, pieces of body. My house was burned.
Cattle were shot. I went back to the ditch. Award Essay. Three of my four children were killed. I'm exhausted when Mrs. Quy finishes. Partly it's the sheer magnitude of horror, partly some hateful memories of my own.
I can barely wire myself together as Mrs. Truong Thi Le, another survivor, recounts those four hours of murder. Out of her family of 10, 9 died that day. I fell down, Mrs. Le tells us.
But I was not shot. I lay with three other bodies on me, all blood. Did not move at and health, all. Write Award Winning. Pretended dead. Saw newborn baby near a woman. Critical. Woman died. Infant still alive. Soldiers came up. Shot baby. Outside, the write rain has let up.
Kate, Eddie and I take a walk through the hamlet. We stare at foundations where houses used to stand. We admire a harsh, angular, defiant, beautiful piece of sculpture, a monument to the murdered. Mrs. Quy accompanies us for a while. Leapor. She's smiling, accommodating. Impossible, but she seems to like us. At one point, while I'm scribbling in my notebook, she pulls down her trousers. She shows Kate the scarred-over bullet hole in her hip.
Kate nods and makes sounds of sympathy. What does one say? Bad day. World of hurt. ow the rain is back, much harder. I'm drenched, cold and something else.
Eddie and I stand at write winning, the ditch where maybe 50, maybe 80, maybe 100 innocent human beings perished. I watch Eddie snap his pictures. Here's the something else: I've got the guilt chills. Years ago, ignorant of the massacre, I hated this place, and essay places much like it. Two miles away, in an almost identical hamlet, Chip was blown into his hedge of write winning essay, bamboo. A mile or so east, Roy Arnold was shot dead, I was slightly wounded. A little farther east, a kid named McElhaney died. Just north of here, on a rocky hillside, another kid, named Slocum, lost his foot to a land mine. It goes on. I despised everything -- the critical definition soil, the tunnels, the award essay paddies, the poverty and myself.
Each step was an act of the purest self-hatred and self-betrayal, yet, in truth, because truth matters, my sympathies were rarely with the Vietnamese. I was mostly terrified. Advertising Essays. I was lamenting in advance my own pitiful demise. After fire fights, after friends died, there was also a great deal of anger -- black, fierce, hurting anger -- the kind you want to write winning essay take out on whatever presents itself. This is not to justify what occurred here. Essay And Health. Justifications are empty and outrageous.
Rather, it's to say that I more or less understand what happened on write, that day in March 1968, how it happened, the wickedness that soaks into your blood and heats up and starts to sizzle. I know the boil that precedes butchery. At the same time, however, the leapor men in Alpha Company did not commit murder. We did not turn our machine guns on civilians; we did not cross that conspicuous line between rage and homicide. I know what occurred here, yes, but I also feel betrayed by a nation that so widely shrugs off barbarity, by a military judicial system that treats murderers and common soldiers as one and the same.
Apparently we're all innocent -- those who exercise moral restraint and those who do not, officers who control their troops and officers who do not. In a way, America has declared itself innocent. I look away for a time, and then look back. By most standards, this is not much of a ditch. A few feet deep, a few feet wide. Write Award Winning Essay. The rain makes the aping western culture greenish brown water bubble like a thousand tiny mouths. The guilt has turned to write essay a gray, heavy sadness. I have to take my leave but don't know how. After a time, Kate walks up, hooks my arm, doesn't say anything, doesn't have to, leads me into a future that I know will hold misery for both of and health, us. Different hemispheres, different scales of atrocity. I don't want it to happen.
I want to tell her things and be understood and live happily ever after. I want a miracle. That's the award final emotion. The terror at this ditch, the sports certain doom, the need for God's intervention. AMBRIDGE, JUNE 1994 -- I've been trying to award perform good deeds. I bought a Father's Day card three days early. I made appointments for a physical exam, dental work, a smoke-ender's program. Definition. I go for winning essay walks every day.
I work out, draw up lists, call friends, visit lawyers, buy furniture, discharge promises, keep my eyes off the aping sleeping pills. The days are all right. Now the clock shows 3:55 A.M. I call NERVOUS and listen to write essay an automated female voice confirm it. The nights are not all right. I write these few words, which seem useless, then get up and pull out an essays album of photographs from the Vietnam trip.
The album was Kate's parting gift. On the cover she inserted a snapshot that's hard to look at but harder still to avoid. Winning. We stand on China Beach near Danang. Side by mary leapor essay, side, happy as happy will ever be, our fingers laced in a fitted, comfortable, half-conscious way that makes me feel a gust of hope. It's a gust, though, here and gone. Numerous times over the past several days, at least a dozen, this piece has come close to award winning essay hyperspace.
Twice it lay at the bottom of a wastebasket. I've spent my hours preparing a tape of songs for Kate, stuff that once meant things. Essay Sports. Corny songs, some of them. Happy songs, love-me songs. Today, scared stiff, I deposited the write winning tape on alcohol essays, her doorstep.
Another gust of hope, then a whole lot of stillness. HE SONG TRA HOTEL, QUANG NGAI CITY, FEBRUARY 1994 -- Kate's in the shower, I'm in history. I sit with a book propped up against the air-conditioner, underlining sentences, sweating out award winning essay, my own ignorance. Aping Western Culture. Twenty-five years ago, like most other grunts in Alpha Company, I knew next to nothing about this place -- Vietnam in general, Quang Ngai in essay, particular. Now I'm learning. Critical. In the years preceding the murders at write winning essay, My Lai, more than 70 percent of the villages in house, this province had been destroyed by air strikes, artillery fire, Zippo lighters, napalm, white phosphorus, bulldozers, gunships and other such means. Roughly 40 percent of the write winning essay population had lived in refugee camps, while civilian casualties in on ecclesiastes, the area were approaching 50,000 a year. Write Winning Essay. These numbers, reported by the journalist Jonathan Schell in 1967, were later confirmed as substantially correct by Government investigators.
Not that I need confirmation. Back in 1969, the wreckage was all around us, so common it seemed part of the term house geography, as natural as any mountain or river. Wreckage was the rule. Brutality was S.O.P. Scalded children, pistol-whipped women, burning hootches, free-fire zones, body counts, indiscriminate bombing and harassment fire, villages in ash, M-60 machine guns hosing down dark green tree lines and any human life behind them. In a war without aim, you tend not to aim. You close your eyes, close your heart. The consequences become hit or miss in write essay, the most literal sense. With so few military targets, with an enemy that was both of and essay sports and health among the write winning essay population, Alpha Company began to term paper regard Quang Ngai itself as the true enemy -- the physical place, the soil and paddies.
What had started for write essay us as a weird, vicious little war soon evolved into something far beyond vicious, a hopped-up killer strain of nihilism, waste without want, aimlessness of deed mixed with aimlessness of spirit. As Schell wrote after the events at My Lai, There can be no doubt that such an atrocity was possible only because a number of advertising alcohol, other methods of killing civilians and destroying their villages had come to be the rule, and not the exception, in our conduct of the war. I look up from my book briefly, listen to Kate singing in the shower. A doctoral candidate at Harvard University, smart and sophisticated, but she's also fluent in joy, attuned to the pleasures and beauty of the world. She knows the lyrics to Hotel California, start to finish, while here at the air-conditioner I can barely pick out the simplest melodies of Vietnam, the most basic chords of history. Write Award Winning. It's as if I never heard the song, as if I'd gone to war in critical essay, some mall or supermarket. I discover that Quang Ngai Province was home to one of Vietnam's fiercest, most recalcitrant, most zealous revolutionary movements. Independent by essay, tradition, hardened by western, poverty and rural isolation, the award winning essay people of Quang Ngai were openly resistant to French colonialism as far back as the 19th century and were among the first to rebel against France in the 1930's.
The province remained wholly under Vietminh control throughout the critical definition war against France; it remained under Vietcong control, at least by night, throughout the years of war against America. Even now, in the urbane circles of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the award people of Quang Ngai are regarded as a clan of stubborn country bumpkins, coarse and insular, willfully independent, sometimes defiant of the mary essay very Government they had struggled to install. Like a different country, our interpreter told us after a long, frustrating session with representatives of the Quang Ngai People's Committee. These people I don't like much, very crude, very difficult. I think you had horrible bad luck to essay fight them. At noon, by appointment, a Vietnamese journalist named Pham Van Duong knocks on essay and health, our door. It's a secret meeting of write winning essay, sorts. Nothing illegal -- a couple of writers, a couple of beers -- but I've still got the buzz of some low-level paranoia. Paper. Earlier in the day, our joint request for this interview had been denied by a stern, rather enigmatic functionary of the People's Committee. Impossible, we were told.
Not on the schedule. Write Winning Essay. The official offered little sympathy for our interpreter's reminder that schedules are man-made, that blocks of time appeared wide open. Logic went nowhere. Bureaucratic scowls, stare-into-space silence. A few minutes later, just outside the essay definition provincial offices, we quietly huddled to make our own unsanctioned arrangements. Now, as Mr. Duong sits down and accepts a beer, I'm feeling the vigilant, slightly illicit anxiety of winning essay, a midday drug buy. Mary Leapor. Kate locks the door; I close the drapes.
Ridiculous, or almost ridiculous, but for the first 10 minutes I sit picturing prison food, listening for award essay footsteps in the hallway. Our interpreter explains to on ecclesiastes Mr. Duong that I will happily guard his identity in any written account of this conversation. Mr. Write. Duong snorts at the suggestion. Only a problem in Quang Ngai, he says.
Officials in Hanoi would be glad for our talking. They wish good relations with America -- good, new things to happen. Term House. Maybe I get a medal. Sell the medal, buy Marlboros. We click beer bottles. For the next two hours we chat about books, careers, memories of write winning, war. I ask about My Lai. Mr. Mary Leapor Essay. Duong looks at the wall. Write Award Winning. There is a short hesitation -- the paper hesitation of write, tact, I suppose.
He was 8 years old when news of the massacre reached his village nearby. He recalls great anger among his relatives and on ecclesiastes 3 friends, disgust and sadness, but no feelings of shock or surprise. This kind of news came often, he says. Write Award. We did not then know the scale of the massacre, just that Americans had been killing people. But killing was everywhere.
Two years later, Mr. Duong's brother joined the 48th Vietcong Battalion. He was killed in essay, 1972. My mother fainted when she heard this. She was told that his body had been buried in a mass grave with seven comrades who died in winning essay, the same attack.
This made it much worse for my mother -- no good burial. Essay. After liberation in 1975, she began to write winning look for my brother's remains. She found the term paper house mass grave 20 kilometers south of Quang Ngai City. She wished to dig, to rebury my brother, but people told her no, don't dig, and in the beginning she seemed to accept this. Write. Then the Americans returned to search for their own missing, and advertising essays my mother became very angry. Winning Essay. Why them? Not me? So she insisted we dig. We found bones, of course, many bones mixed together, but how could we recognize my brother? How could anyone know? But we took away some bones in western essay, a box.
Reburied them near our house. Every day now, my mother passes by this grave. She feels better, I think. Write Award Winning. Better at definition, least to tell herself maybe. Kate looks up at me. She's silent, but she knows what I'm thinking. At this instant, a few blocks away, an American M.I.A. search team is headquartered at the Quang Ngai Government guesthouse. With Vietnamese assistance, this team and write award essay others like it are engaged in precisely the work of Mr. Advertising Alcohol Essays. Duong's mother, digging holes, picking through bones, seeking the couple thousand Americans still listed as missing.
Which is splendid. And which is also utterly one-sided. A perverse and outrageous double standard. What if things were reversed? What if the Vietnamese were to ask us, or to require us, to locate and identify each of their own M.I.A.'s? Numbers alone make it impossible: 100,000 is a conservative estimate. Maybe double that. Maybe triple. From my own sliver of experience -- one year at war, one set of eyes -- I can testify to the lasting anonymity of a great many Vietnamese dead. I watched napalm turn villages into ovens. I watched burials by award, bulldozer.
I watched bodies being flung into trucks, dumped into wells, used for target practice, stacked up and burned like cordwood. Even in the abstract, I get angry at the stunning, almost cartoonish narcissism of American policy on this issue. I get angrier yet at the narcissism of an American public that embraces and essays breathes life into write winning, the policy -- so arrogant, so ignorant, so self-righteous, so wanting in the most fundamental qualities of sympathy and fairness and mutuality. Some of this I express aloud to Mr. Duong, who nods without comment. We finish off our beers. Neither of us can find much to aping western essay say. Maybe we're both back in history, snagged in brothers and bones.
I feel hollow. So little has changed, it seems, and so much will always be missing. AMBRIDGE, JUNE 1994 -- June 11, I think -- I'm too tired to find a calendar. Almost 5 A.M. In another hour it'll be 5:01. I'm on war time, which is the award essay time we're all on 3, at one point or another: when fathers die, when husbands ask for write winning essay divorce, when women you love are fast asleep beside men you wish were you. The tape of songs did nothing. Everything will always do nothing. Kate hurts, too, I'm sure, and paper house did not want it this way. I didn't want it either.
Even so, both of us have to write winning live in these slow-motion droplets of now, doing what we do, choosing what we choose, and in different ways both of us are now responsible for the casualty rotting in the space between us. If there's a lesson in this, which there is not, it's very simple. You don't have to be in mary leapor, Nam to be in write award winning essay, Nam. HE BATANGAN PENINSULA, QUANG NGAI PROVINCE, FEBRUARY 1994 -- The Graveyard, we called it. Littered with land mines, almost completely defoliated, this spit of land jutting eastward into definition, the South China Sea was a place Alpha Company feared the write award essay way others might fear snakes, or the dark, or the bogyman. We lost at least three men here; I couldn't begin to count the arms and legs. Today our little caravan is 3, accompanied by write award, Mr. Ngu Duc Tan, who knows this place intimately, a former captain in the 48th Vietcong Battalion.
It was the 48th that Alpha Company chased from village to village, paddy to paddy, during my entire tour in Vietnam. Chased but never found. They found us: ambushes, sniper fire, nighttime mortar attacks. Essays 3. Through our interpreter, who passes along commodious paragraphs in crisp little packets, Mr. Write Award Winning Essay. Tan speaks genially of military tactics while we make the bumpy ride out toward the Batangan. U.S. troops not hard to see, not hard to fight, he says. Western Culture Essay. Much noise, much equipment. Big columns. Nice green uniforms.
Sitting ducks, in other words, though Mr. Write. Tan is paper house, too polite to express it this way. He explains that the United States Army was never a primary target. We went after Saigon puppet troops, what you called ARVN. If we beat them, everything collapse, the U.S. would have nothing more to fight for. You brought many soldiers, helicopters, bombs, but we chose not to fight you, except sometimes. America was not the main objective.
God help us, I'm thinking, if we had been. All those casualties. Winning. All that blood and on ecclesiastes terror. Even at this moment, more than half a lifetime later, I remember the essay feel of a bull's-eye pinned to my shirt, a prickly, when-will-it-happen sensation, as if I alone had been the leapor main objective. Meanwhile, Kate is taking her own notes, now and then asking questions through the interpreter. She's better than I am at human dynamics, more fluid and spontaneous, and after a time she gets Mr. Tan to display a few war scars -- arms, legs, hands, cheek, chest, skull. Sixteen wounds altogether. The American war, he says, was just one phase in his career as a soldier, which began in write award essay, 1961 and encompassed combat against leapor the South Vietnamese, Khmer Rouge and Chinese.
Talk about bad dreams. One year gave me more than enough to winning essay fill up the nights. My goal on the Batangan peninsula is to critical definition show Kate one of the prettiest spots on earth. I'm looking for a lagoon, a little fishing village, an impossibly white beach along the South China Sea. First, though, Mr. Tan attends to his own agenda. Award Essay. We park the van in one of the advertising essays inland hamlets, walk without invitation into a small house, sit down for lunch with a man named Vo Van Ba. Instantly, I'm thinking herring. Kate and Eddie have the sense to decline, to tap their stomachs and write award winning essay say things like Full, full, thanks, thanks. Critical Essay Definition. Cans are opened. Write Award Winning Essay. The house fills up with children, nephews, nieces, babies, cousins, neighbors.
There are flies, too. Many, many flies. Many thousand. Mr. Tan and Mr. Ba eat lunch with their fingers, fast and essay definition hungry, chatting amiably while our interpreter does her best to put the gist of write award, it into essays, English.
I'm listening hard, chewing hard. I gather that these two men had been comrades of a sort during the war. Mr. Ba, our host, was never a full-time soldier, never even a part-time irregular. Write Award Essay. As I understand it, he belonged to western essay what we used to call the VC infrastructure, offering support and award intelligence to Mr.
Tan and his fighting troops. I lean forward, nod my head. The focus, however, is on critical essay, the substance I'm swallowing, its remarkable texture, the flies trying to get at essay, it. For five years, Mr. Essay Sports And Health. Ba explains, he lived entirely underground with a family of eight. Five years, he repeats. Cooking, bathing, working, sleeping. He waits for the translation, waits a bit longer, then looks at me with a pair of silvery, burned-out, cauterized, half-blind, underground eyes. You had the daylight, but I had the earth. Mr.
Ba turns to Mr. Tan. After a second he chuckles. Many times I might reach up and take this man's leg. Many times. Very easy. Write Award Winning. I might just pull him down to where the war was. e're on essays, foot now. Even at 59, Mr.
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By re-running the tap cycle we could tap the holes to depth and definition, it took far less time than hand tapping, was more rigid again resulting in fewer broken taps. Not too many operators were interested in write award essay this procedure but I continued to do it feeling that it saved time and money. One day while running these same parts, I had a (then Superintendent) team leader ask what I did to get threads to depth and 3, I explained it to him resulting in the commendation below. Write Winning! There were ten holes in each manifold and we ran over essay 10,000 of them. The savings were significant. Extra effort was recognized. Results-driven manufacturing expert with over 20 years experience (10+ machinist) in the full spectrum of aerospace manufacturing arena with a proven commitment to absolute customer service, internally and write award, externally. Recognized for solving complex problems with innovative solutions created from aping culture manufacturing, engineering, and quality experience . Areas of expertise include: CNC Set-Up 4 5 Axis Horizontal CNC Mill Vertical CNC Mill CNC Lathe Manual Lathe Manual Mill Tool Setting Lean Manufacturing Kaizen Six Sigma Training Interpretation and Understanding of Technical Specifications Blueprint Reading/interpretation Leadership Experience Inventory Control Corrective Actions In-Process Inspection Continuous Improvement Team Leader. Write! Parker Hannifin Corp, Ogden, UT. 3! March, 1984- September, 2007. Essay! Responsible for term paper all aspects of award winning essay, non-conforming material, review, dispositions, planning and process improvement to eliminate further non-conformances.
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Set up 4 and 5 axis horizontal CNC mills for machining of essay, complex hydraulic manifolds and cylinders. Run and maintain quality of the same. Tolerances held positional of .001 and Diametrical of .0001. Strive to continually reduce cost by improving processes. Write! Successfully learned and trained others on new KT 200 Gemini Controller update with no factory training (accommodation received). Experimented and successfully tapped to depth 14 holes on over 8,000 manifolds, greatly reducing hand tap requirements (accommodation received). Changed process on 737 manifold to achieve 100% acceptance on a previously troubled program (accommodation received). Worked with engineering to successfully implement first Statistical Process Control program and six sigma process control throughout the facility in the 1980’s (accommodation received). Implemented in-process inspection plans to reduce wait time on mary essay, first article (first piece) inspection. Quality Circle team Leader. EDUCATION and CERTIFICATIONS.
16.0 Credit hours, 3.71 GPA General Studies. Certified Quality Auditor. Certified Quality Technician. Certified Quality Improvement Associate. Note: ASQ membership expired. Winning! 90 hour Real Estate Pre-license course and exam Passed. 12 hour continuing education certification. Real Estate Buyer Agency Council. 20 hour Accredited Buyer Representative course and exam Passed. Term! 12 hour relocation expert course and exam passed.
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I had been running the old 1980#8217;s KT 5 axis horizontal mill for several years when I learned that we would be receiving two rebuilt machines with new controllers in the spring. Great news to me. I was excited to actually have an opportunity to make the most out of a machine with a modern controller. I went to work right away. We had several spare manuals so with permission I grabbed one for my own. After taking the manual home and mary essay, reading it cover to award essay cover (operator and programming manual), I was ready. We received word that there would be no factory training, working with programmers we got to work right away.
Discovering many features of the machine and it#8217;s capabilities we cut down run times and culture essay, greatly improved quality of numerous operations. Combining operations, using modern probing capabilities, the larger tool string capability and the ability of the machine to read ASCII data statements, set-ups were no longer a guess. We could store tooling, reload tool data, probe and straighten fixtures and no longer were waiting for inspection to tell us it was okay to run after a set-up. I was able to train other operators in the use of the write winning essay, controls and worked closely with programming to try innovative ideas. No crashing of term paper house, my machines was allowed! After about 6 months with no factory training I received the following commendation.
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Others prefer to attend a big university. Discuss the advantages of each. Then indicate which type of university you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 10.When people succeed in life, it is award winning, because of hard work.
Being lucky has nothing to do with success in life. Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and critical definition examples to write award winning essay explain your position. 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of paper, money to their students' sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 12. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places.
Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Write Award Essay! Other people prefer to advertising prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Write Award Essay! Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with?
Use specific reasons and details to leapor explain your answer. 15. Neighbors are the people who live near us. Award Winning Essay! In your opinion, what are the essay sports, qualities of award winning essay, a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17.
Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is sports and health, always better to have a teacher. Write Award Essay! Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. 18.
What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important. 19. Should governments spend more money on paper, improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on write award winning, improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 20. Some people prefer to cook at home. Other people prefer to eat out. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
21. It is better for children to western essay grow up in write winning, the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and essay definition examples to develop your essay. 22. In general, people are living longer now.
Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 23. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students.
Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. 25. Write Award Winning Essay! A person you know is planning to advertising alcohol essays move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and dislike about write award living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in 3, your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 28. Award Essay! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
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It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of paper house, times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 33.
Is it better to write enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 34. You have received a gift of money. The money is enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and sports and health details to support your answer. 35. Businesses should hire employees for award winning their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Attending a live performance (for example, a play, concert, or sporting event) is more enjoyable than watching the same event on television. Use specific reasons and examples to leapor essay support your opinion. 37. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and write winning essay explain why you think it has changed people's lives. 38. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 39. Learning about the past has no value for those of paper, us living in write winning essay, the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 40. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
With the help of term paper, technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and essay examples to support your answer. 41. The expression Never, never give up means to keep trying and never stop working for your goals. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
42. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 43. What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to culture essay support your choice. 44.
Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 45. Some people like to award essay travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 46. Some people prefer to get up early in the morning and start the day's work. Others prefer to get up later in mary leapor, the day and work until late at night.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 47. What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in your culture? Use specific reasons and write award examples to support your answer. 48. Some people prefer to work for critical a large company.
Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 49. People work because they need money to live. Award! What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of essays on ecclesiastes 3, these reasons. Use specific examples and write essay details to support your answer.
50. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, E-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 51. Advertising Alcohol! Some people like to do only award winning, what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and term paper examples to support your choice. 52. Some people believe that success in write award winning, life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 53. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 54.
Do you agree or disagree with the 3, following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 55. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 56.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an write award essay, important decision alone. Use specific reasons and essay examples to support your answer. 57. A company is going to write winning essay give some money either to support the arts or to protect the mary leapor essay, environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 58.
Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Write Winning Essay! Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and essay examples to support your answer. 59. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 60.
Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done. Other people prefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 61. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for adults as they are for children. Write Award! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 62. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18year-old) teenage children.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 63. What do you want most in a friend someone who is intelligent, or someone who has a sense of humor, or someone who is reliable? Which one of these characteristics is most important to term you? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. 64. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Most experiences in our lives that seemed difficult at the time become valuable lessons for write essay the future.
Use reasons and specific examples to support our answer. Essay Sports! Some people prefer to work for themselves or own a business. 65. Write Winning! Others prefer to work for an employer. Would you rather be self-employed, work for someone else, or own a business? Use specific reasons to explain your choice. 66. Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy them and replace them with modern buildings? Use specific reasons and examples to western support your opinion. 67.
Do you agree or disagree with the write essay, following statement? Classmates are a more important influence than parents on a child's success in school. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 68. Definition! If you were an employer, which kind of worker would you prefer to hire: an essay, inexperienced worker at a lower salary or an term house, experienced worker at a higher salary? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
69. Many teachers assign homework to students every day. Do you think that daily homework is necessary for students? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 70. If you could study a subject that you have never had the opportunity to study, what would you choose? Explain your choice, using specific reasons and details.
71. Some people think that the automobile has improved modern life. Others think that the essay, automobile has caused serious problems. What is essays, your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 72. Which would you choose: a high-paying job with long hours that would give you little time with family and friends or a lower-paying job with shorter hours that would give you more time with family and friends? Explain your choice, using specific reasons and award details. 73. Do you agree or disagree with the mary leapor, following statement? Grades (marks) encourage students to learn.
Use specific reasons and examples to write award winning support your opinion. 74. Some people say that computers have made life easier and more convenient. Essays! Other people say that computers have made life more complex and stressful. What is award winning, your opinion?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 75. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way to travel is in a group led by a tour guide. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
76. Definition! Some universities require students to take classes in many subjects. Other universities require students to specialize in one subject. Which is write essay, better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 77. Mary Leapor Essay! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should begin learning a foreign language as soon as they start school. Write! Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.
78. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Boys and girls should attend separate schools. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 79. Is it more important to be able to work with a group of people on a team or to work independently? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 80. Your city has decided to build a statue or monument to honor a famous person in your country. Who would you choose?
Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. 81. Describe a custom from your country that you would like people from other countries to adopt. Explain your choice, using specific reasons and examples. 82. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Technology has made the world a better place to advertising alcohol live. Use specific reasons and essay examples to support your opinion. 83.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Advertising can tell you a lot about a country. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 84. Term House! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Modern technology is creating a single world culture. Write Winning! Use specific reasons and examples to advertising alcohol essays support your opinion. 85. Some people say that the Internet provides people with a lot of valuable information.
Others think access to so much information creates problems. Which view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and award essay examples to support your opinion. 86. A foreign visitor has only one day to spend in your country. Where should this visitor go on that day? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 87. If you could go back to some time and place in the past, when and where would you go? Why? Use specific reasons and details to critical support your choice. 88. What discovery in the last 100 years has been most beneficial for people in your country? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 89. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Telephones and E-mail have made communication between people less personal. Use specific reasons and examples to write support your opinion. 90. If you could travel back in house, time to meet a famous person from history, what person would you like to meet? Use specific reasons and examples to write winning essay support your choice. 91.
If you could meet a famous entertainer or athlete, who would that be, and essay sports why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 92. Write Award! If you could ask a famous person one question, what would you ask? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 93.
Some people prefer to live in places that have the same weather or climate all year long. Others like to live in areas where the weather changes several times a year. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 94.
Many students have to live with roommates while going to school or university. Aping Western Culture! What are some of the important qualities of a good roommate? Use specific reasons and examples to award winning explain why these qualities are important. 95. Aping Essay! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Dancing plays an important role in a culture. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 96. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Award Winning! Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for alcohol our basic needs on Earth.
Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to write winning essay support your answer. 97. People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in critical definition, their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of write award winning essay, reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 98.
Do you agree or disagree with the essay, following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 99. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose?
Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 100. You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.
101. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on award winning essay, more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 102. Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 103. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 104. In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life? Use specific reasons and advertising alcohol essays examples from your. experience to write explain your answer.
When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the question. 105. It is essay definition, generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Write Award Essay! Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to critical definition society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by write award essay, your society? Give specific reasons to essays on ecclesiastes support your answer. 106. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in winning, university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in essay definition, the community.
Compare the advantages of living in write award winning, university housing with the term house, advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for write award essay your preference. 107. You need to travel from your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Western Culture! Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Tell which method of write award winning essay, travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice. 108. Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students.
Discuss these views. Mary Leapor Essay! Which view do you agree with? Explain why. 109. Some people believe that the write winning, best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of family and friends. Other people believe that the alcohol essays, best way of learning about life is through personal experience.
Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about write award winning life. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference. 110. When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country.
Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. 111. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Critical! Others like to be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 112.
Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to write award spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of each choice. Which of essay sports, these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 113. Award Winning! Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Others believe that young children should spend most of alcohol, their time playing. Compare these two views.
Which view do you agree with? Why? 114. The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Award Winning! Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and essays 3 disadvantages of award, establishing a new university in your community. Use specific details in your discussion. 115. Some people think that the family is the most important influence on culture essay, young adults. Other people think that friends are the award winning essay, most important influence on paper, young adults. Write Award! Which view do you agree with?
Use examples to support your position. 116. Some people prefer to plan activities for mary leapor essay their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of award, planning free-time activities with the essay, benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer — planning or not planning for your leisure time?
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. 117. People learn in different ways. Some people learn by doing things; other people learn by reading about write award things; others learn by listening to people talk about advertising things. Winning Essay! Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. 118. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.
Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of essay, friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 119. Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Essay! Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their usual habits. Compare these two approaches to life. Which approach do you prefer?
Explain why. 120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the culture essay, way people behave?
Use specific examples to support your answer. 121. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Write Award Winning! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 122. Some people trust their first impressions about a person's character because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other people do not judge a person's character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with?
Support your choice with specific examples. 123. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different. Use specific reasons to support your answer. 124. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and established facts.
Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion. 125. Essay Sports And Health! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is write award essay, more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Use specific reasons and paper examples to support your opinion. 126. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school.
Use specific reasons to support your answer. 127. Do you agree or disagree with the winning essay, following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 128.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and leapor essay short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 129. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day.
Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Award Winning! Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and essays details to support your answer. 130. A university plans to award winning essay develop a new research center in your country.
Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation. 131. Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Term Paper House! Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
132. Write Award Winning! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 133. Sports And Health! If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed. 134. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person's childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of age) are the most important years of a person's life.
Use specific reasons and examples to award winning essay support your answer. 135. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. Essays 3! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 136. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to write award winning school. Which of these two school policies do you think is aping essay, better?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 137. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and winning essay examples to support your answer. 138. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to sports study the write award winning, courses that students want to study.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 139. Essay! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to be a member of a group than to be the award essay, leader of a group. Use specific reasons and advertising alcohol essays examples to winning support your answer. 140.
What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 141. Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. Which do you prefer — items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. 142. If you could make one important change in a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to paper support your answer. 143.
A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child's development. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. 144. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the write winning essay, year. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 145. Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building?
Use specific reasons and details to mary support your choice. 146.Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 147.
Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. Write Winning! Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to mary essay be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and write award winning essay examples to explain your choice. 148. Essays! Your school has received a gift of winning, money. What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money?
Use specific reasons and term paper house details to winning essay support your choice. 149. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. On Ecclesiastes! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
150. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. 151. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Watching television is bad for children. Use specific details and examples to support your answer. 152. What is the most important animal in your country? Why is the animal important? Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. 153. Many parts of the write, world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is culture, disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 154. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is write award essay, a good rule or a bad rule?
Use specific reasons and details to support your position. 155. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is one kind of plant that is mary leapor essay, important to write award essay you or the term paper house, people in your country? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 156. Award Winning! You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and essay details to explain your choice. 157.
In the future, students may have the choice of winning essay, studying at home by essays on ecclesiastes, using technology such as computers or television or of studying at award winning essay traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and 3 specific details to explain your choice. 158. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 159. Write Winning Essay! The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and western culture details to write winning explain your choice.
160. When people need to complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person. Alcohol! Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 161. Winning! People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to advertising alcohol essays support your opinion. 162. Is the ability to read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 163. People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 164. You have decided to give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 165.
People recognize a difference between children and adults. What events (experiences or ceremonies) make a person an adult? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 166. Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for the library. Write! Which should your school choose to alcohol buy —computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. 167. Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.
168. People listen to music for different reasons and at write winning essay different times. Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and house examples to support your choice. 169. Groups or organizations are an important part of some people's lives. Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer.
170. Write! Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.
171. Critical! When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 172. Award Winning Essay! It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the friendship. Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to critical explain your answer. 173. Every generation of people is different in important ways.
How is your generation different from winning essay, your parents' generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 174. Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the culture essay, talking) in class. Award Winning Essay! Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to support your choice. 175. Holidays honor people or events. Aping! If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 176. A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either. • to go on vacation. Your friend has asked you for advice.
Compare your friend's two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 177. Award Winning Essay! The 21st century has begun. Essay! What changes do you think this new century will bring? Use examples and details in your answer. What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer.
178. Movies are popular all over the world. Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and write award essay specific examples to support your answer. Mary! In your country, is there more need for land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 179. Write Award Essay! Many people have a close relationship with their pets.
These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of essays, their family. Write Award Winning Essay! In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 180. Films can tell us a lot about the term house, country where they were made. What have you learned about a country from award winning, watching its movies? Use specific examples and critical essay definition details to write winning essay support your response.
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contactor resume Posted on 11th September 2017 11:56. The latest edition of the AC Locomotive Group#039;s magazine, ACLines, is essay now available for leapor download by members. Posted on 23rd June 2017 12:54. The ETS repairs to 86101 have been completed and the locomotive has been released from HNRC Barrow Hill. 86101 is essay currently en route to Willesden/Wembley to resume Caledonian Sleeper ECS duties alongside 87002.
Posted on 22nd April 2017 07:34. AC Locomotive Group Volunteers are continuing the restoration of the Class 89. The testing and investigation phase of the restoration work is nearly complete, with all the locomotive’s systems having been inspected and tested. Preparations are underway for definition the overhaul of the bogies with the removal of the winning Primary Suspension Dampers having recently been removed. The Secondary Suspension Dampers were removed when the locomotive was lifted in essay and health 2016. Testing of the Rheostatic Brake Stacks has shown that both units have failed. Award Winning Essay. Following removal from the locomotive, Brake Stack #2 was stripped down and inspected, the inspection has shown that there had been a catastrophic failure of the Fan Motor which in turn caused serious damage to several resistor elements.
The Fan Motor on western culture essay, Brake Stack #1 has also been found to be badly damaged. Award Winning. We have reviewed the service history of the 89 and have found that there were persistent problems with the Fan Motors throughout the term house locomotive’s life, so the decision has been taken to rebuild the Brake Stacks with ‘new’ motor and fan assemblies of the type used in Classes 86 and 87. CAD work is in hand for the redesigned Brake Stacks and a mock-up will be produced to check the mechanical fit of the write award revised Brake Stack into the locomotive. A number of critical obsolete components have been identified for replacement; the Voltage Transducers for each Traction Motor are in the process of being replaced access to the Voltage Transducers can only be achieved by dismantling the Motor Contactor Cubicles so this is a time-consuming job. Write. The ACLG Engineering Team has identified several areas where reliability improvements can be made by replacing and modernising components and essays sub-systems. Repairs to write winning essay various items of cab equipment have been completed; the brake controllers and advertising alcohol essays the switch panels on both desks have been worked on, most of the equipment is in good condition. Some cosmetic work remains to be undertaken on repairing various interior trim panels before they can be reinstated. Cleaning of various items of electrical equipment and equipment ventilation systems has been undertaken by ACLG volunteers.
Small amounts of write winning essay corrosions on on ecclesiastes 3, the interior of the cab roof framing, under the cab floor and in write the Brake Stack areas has been cleaned up and prepared for repainting. Our thanks to aping western culture essay our volunteers for write award winning essay their work over the last year and to our industry partners at essay sports and health, Bowers Electrical, Bralesford Engineering Services, Fletcher Moorland and HNRC without whose help the work on the 89 would not be possible. Picture: (Top Left) ACLG Volunteers removing Primary Dampers, (Bottom Left) Primary Dampers removed for refurbishment, (Centre, Top) Rheostatic Brake location, (Centre Bottom) CAD Model of new Rheostatic Brake Stack, (Right Top) Overhauled Brake Controller and (Bottom Right) One of our younger Volunteer’s Homework preparing cab interior panelling. Testing of Class 89 Armature Converters. Posted on 12th March 2017 09:54. The 11 th March represented a milestone in the preservation history of 89001 with its’ Armature Converters being energised to test that they were operating correctly. Testing the Armature Converters without a 25kV supply and no traction motors to load the converters has required several months of preparation work. Arrangements were made to permit the injection of 240V AC into award individual bridges on the Armature Converters, the bridge DC outputs were loaded by connecting them to the Load Bank (which is usually testing Diesel Electric Locomotives) at HNRC Barrow Hill. Control of the Armature Converters was via the 89’s microcontroller, with a hand-held control device being used instead of the locomotive’s master controller.
The testing proved successful with the essays on ecclesiastes Microcontroller and of the devices in both Armature Converters operating correctly. Our thanks to Bralesford Engineering Services and HNRC for their assistance with this work. Picture (clockwise from left); ACLG Volunteers installing power connection on to Armature Converter #2, Installation above Armature Converter #1, Hand-held control device connected to Microcontroller, Microprocessor Thyristor Firing Card sending signal Armature Converter #1 and DC current being recorded flowing to the Load Bank resistors. Brush Traction provide technical support to Class 89 restoration. Posted on 20th October 2016 09:04. After several months of negotiations, we have completed an agreement to obtain technical assistance from Brush Traction to help with our overhaul of write essay 89001. We are in the very rare position of being granted access the Brush Traction design archives. We have been loaned the design file for the locomotive and a considerable amount of supporting correspondance relating to its#039; service with both BR and GNER. We gratefully acknowledge the considerable contribution that Brush Traction and Wabtec have made to the Class 89 restoration project. Posted on 17th October 2016 07:41. As part of the Olympic and essay Paralympic celebrations 87002 will operate a special service, being provided by Caledonian Sleeper, from Manchester Piccadilly to London Euston on winning, 18 October.
The service is scheduled to leave Manchester at 07:10, further information on and health, timings can be obtained from Real Time Trains. Posted on winning, 11th September 2016 10:51. We have launched our own Youtube Channel to give deeper coverage of our restoration of some of the locomotives. In the first video, the 89 starts to wake up at Barrow Hill https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVwkkm2r_88. Posted on 2nd August 2016 08:15. There has been further progress on the Class 89 today with the locomotive being moved into the HNRC workshops at Barrow Hill to allow the locomotive body to be lifted from its’ bogies and the removal of traction motors #4-6. The traction motors will be sent to Bowers Electrical for essay an overhaul. The components removed from 89001; the Field Converters and Rheostatic Brake Stacks are already with Fletcher Moorland and Bowers Electrical for award winning essay assessment.
Assessment of the Rheostatic Brake Stacks has focussed on the brake stack from #2 end, this stack has been found to have sustained serious damage in service which will necessitate a rebuild of both the resistor and on ecclesiastes fan motor sections of the stack. Award. Bralesford Engineering Services and ACLG Electrical Engineers are investigating a number of design improvements to be incorporated into both of the Rheo Brake Stacks to remove the failure modes that lead to #2 brake stack being damaged. An extensive survey of the locomotive’s running gear is underway, with both axles and bearings being subject to an thorough inspection. With the mary leapor locomotive in a partially dismantled condition the opportunity will be taken to assess the condition of the various power smoothing and surge suppression circuits to ensure that their capacitors are in good condition; a number of the circuits are only accessible by removing the roof or lifting their equipment frames from the locomotive. Above Left: #2 End Rheo Brake Stack being removed (Courtesy Bralesford Engineering Services) Above Right: 89001 body lifted from the bogies inside HNRC workshop (Courtesy Bralesford Engineering Services)
Posted on 25th July 2016 10:51. The overhaul of 89001 took a major step forward today with the locomotive moving on write winning essay, to the lifting pad outside the HNRC workshops at alcohol essays, Barrow Hill to have its’ Field Convertors and Rheostatic Brake Stacks removed. The complete Field Convertor cubicles will be moved to award winning Fletcher Moorland for alcohol essays a specialist electronics overhaul and testing to ensure that will ensure that each convertor is performing correctly before being returned to the locomotive. Write Award. The Rheo Brake Stacks will be moved to Bowers Electrical for overhaul and repair; recent assessment work undertaken by definition, ACLG volunteers has highlighted that there is likely to be damage to the #2 end brake stack the resistances of a number of stages are outside of expected values. A considerable amount of other work has also been undertaken by staff from Bralesford Engineering Services, HNRC and volunteers from the ACLG. Testing and award winning inspection of the air brake systems has shown that it is operating correctly and the system is close to tolerance on air leakage. Paper. Specialist equipment is being developed to test the electronic ‘brake blending’ control that ensure correct operation of the friction and rheostatic braking systems. The locomotive has been attached to various shore supplies to allow various 240V equipment to be tested; both battery chargers work and award winning essay a number of the cooling fans have been test run. Last weekend, following the tracing and essays on ecclesiastes 3 rectification of a short circuit on #2 end air conditioning unit it has been possible to test the air conditioning units for both cabs, achieving a cab temperature of 21C when the winning essay external temperature was 28C with air conditioning units that have stood idle for 16 years was a pleasant surprise. The Microprocessor Control and essay sports and health its’ associated electronics has been surveyed, with considerable time being taken to assess the essay condition of individual cards and to investigate/understand the operation of the cards and the entire control system. A defect that was preventing the house Microprocessor from ‘booting up’ has been repaired by the ACLG’s electronics specialist and essay the Microprocessor is essay sports and health now operating normally.
The 1980s vintage Oyster terminal that is used to interrogate the Microprocessor has been replaced with modern software that is run on a laptop. Considerable efforts are being made to develop an ‘electronics strategy’ for the 89 to ensure good reliability and component resilience. In addition to the major works and write winning investigations there are various more general works underway including cleaning various filters, removing obsolete equipment, etc with a mixture of contractor and volunteer labour being used. The unique and significantly ‘prototype’ nature of the 89 means in sports addition to winning essay the usual collection of spurious faults inherent in any locomotive under restoration there can be a number of mary leapor puzzling and unusual problems, more learning for all involved even for ex Brush staff. Whilst we have developed an extensive list of ‘areas of concern’ relating to the 89 we are pleased that in many areas the locomotive appears to write award winning essay work as intended.
Above Left: #1 End Rheo Brake Stack being removed (Courtesy Bralesford Engineering Services) Above Right: #2 End Field Convertor being removed (Courtesy Bralesford Engineering Services) 89001 Microprocessor Control Investigations. Posted on 11th June 2016 06:09. Work on aping western, recommisioning 89001 continues with a number of exam and inspections having been completed. One area of the 89 that has been identified as a risk to the locomotive#039;s overhaul is the award winning essay Microprocessor control system. Whilst the Microprocessor has been powered up and partially tested in the past it represents a significant #039;unknown quantitity#039; in alcohol respect to its#039; current condition and function.
In recent weeks the 89 has been powered up several times and on each of these the Microprocessor has failed to sucessfully #039;boot up#039; and indicated an error somewhere in write award the locomotive#039;s traction control system. Following an inspection of the various cards that comprise the Microprocessor Control Rack (in addition to house a card containing the Motorola 68000 microprocessor there are a number of buffer and input/output translator cards) it was concluded that the fault could not be resolved on write award, the locomotive and the decision was taken to remove the entire Microprocessor Rack for assessment and fault finding off site; the picture shows the Microprocessor Control Rack removed from the locomotive prior to dispatch to the ACLG#039;s electronics specialist. Posted on 15th May 2016 02:59. Following recent work by volunteers and staff from both Bralesford Engineering Services and HNRC we have successfully re-commissioned the Control and Field Convertor Batteries on 89001. Having the batteries in an operational condition is an aping western culture essay, important step in that it enables the locomotives#039; battery chargers and a number of other control systems on the locomotive to be energised and tested.The picture shows the control desk at #1 end energised on write winning essay, 14 th May while the essays locomotive microprocessor controls were undergoing testing. Work on the bogies and winning brake systems on the 89 is also progressing.
As items are serviced and inspected the considerable number of documents relating to the design and sports and health maintenance of the locomotive in the ACLG’s possession are being reviewed to ensure that they reflect the award essay condition the mary essay locomotive is now in and to winning essay establish a thorough understanding of the locomotive for essays on ecclesiastes 3 maintenance and fault finding. Posted on 28th April 2016 10:50. The AC Locomotive Group (ACLG) is pleased to write winning essay announce progress on the restoration of locomotive 89001 and the imminent commencement of major repair work. Over the last few months ACLG volunteers have completed an culture essay, assessment of the condition the locomotive, reconditioned the battery systems, removed the obsolete NRN radio system from the cabs and commenced refurbishment of the write essay cab interiors. The locomotive will shortly be moved to the workshops of Harry Needle Railroad Company (HNRC) for the first stage in heavy overhaul works to be undertaken. Leapor Essay. The overhaul work will concentrate on two key areas; bogies and traction power equipment. Winning. Bogie work will comprise of an ultrasonic inspection of the locomotive axles and advertising the locomotive being lifted to allow the write winning essay removal of traction motors 4-6 for overhaul (traction motors 1-3 have already been removed and overhauled). House. The traction power equipment overhaul work will require the removal of the locomotive roof after which the field convertor cubicles, rheostatic brake stacks additionally the cab air conditioning units will both be removed.
Removal of the field convertor cubicles will enable the write award winning essay repair of field convertors 1, 3, 4 and 6 to be completed; ACLG volunteers having already removed field convertors 2 5 by hand and critical essay definition both of these units have already been overhauled. Overhaul of the traction motors will be undertaken by Bowers Electrical and write award essay the overhaul of the essays on ecclesiastes field convertors will be undertaken by Fletcher Moorland. In addition to the volunteer technical and project management team from within the ACLG Tim Bralesford (Bralesford Engineering Services) will be providing project management and technical services. Tim has unrivalled knowledge of the 89 as he worked on its design, construction and commissioning in the 1980s and its overhaul and write essay re-commissioning in the 1990s. The restoration of the Class 89 is a major project with considerable complexity and as such a date cannot be set when the locomotive will be returned to operational condition. A technical ‘walk through’ of the advertising essays locomotive (including some of the equipment to be repaired) is on Youtube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxbv_-QCa6A.
Funding for the repairs to 89001 is being provided from funds generated by the mainline operations of locomotives 86101, 86401 and 87002, the sale of locomotive 86213 and from donations to the AC Locomotive Group.