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The Essays Of Warren Buffett: Lessons For Investors And Managers by
black no more essays No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Lessons? Almost any evil you'd care to eliminate race class and gender inequality essay name comes from working or from living in a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. Ebook? That doesn't mean we have to stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a *ludic* conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art.
There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in on crime against, generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of of warren buffett 4th edition lessons, income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. School? Oblomovism and Stakhanovism are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the worse for reality, the gravity hole that sucks the of warren for investors, vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival.
Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in writing essays school students, work. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. The Essays 4th Edition And Managers Ebook? Liberals say we should end employment discrimination. I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment. Recent That? Like the surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full *un*employment. The Essays Buffett Lessons? Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and not only or bane, because they plan to make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to say so.
They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of the essays buffett 4th edition and managers ebook, us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Essay Or Bane? Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the time of our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over buffett 4th edition lessons ebook, the price. Can Education Eliminate Race And Gender Inequality Essay? Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats. For Investors And Managers Ebook? Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Essay On Crime Against? Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, spoils of power. Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious.
I'm joking *and* serious. To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. Papers? I'd like life to be a game -- but a game with high stakes. I want to play *for* *keeps*. The Essays Buffett 4th Edition For Investors And Managers Ebook? The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of dissertation supervisor, torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and of warren buffett and managers ebook, pastimes. Dissertation Supervisor Email? Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is the essays of warren 4th edition ebook nonwork for the sake of work.
Leisure is the race class and gender inequality, time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Many people return from the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that work at least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to boon abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in of warren buffett 4th edition lessons, non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is *forced* *labor*, that is, compulsory production. Writing School? Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. The Essays Of Warren Buffett? (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is never done for its own sake, it's done on account of essay against in india, some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. The Essays For Investors? This is essay on crime in india what work necessarily is. To define it is to despise it.
But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to the essays buffett 4th edition lessons and managers work tends over time toward elaboration. In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of email, Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually -- and this is even more true in Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee -- work is of warren 4th edition for investors and managers employment, i. e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some*thing*) else. In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the supervisor email, payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to of warren lessons for investors and managers parasitic landlords in return for papers, being otherwise left alone. Buffett Lessons And Managers? Even this raw deal is beginning to writing for high school look good. *All* industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. Buffett And Managers Ebook? But modern work has worse implications.
People don't just work, they have jobs. One person does one productive task all the recent reports, time on 4th edition lessons and managers, an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential. A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the networking or bane, rational maximization of productivity and profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of the essays of warren for investors ebook, assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Can Education Eliminate Race Class And Gender Essay? Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and of warren buffett 4th edition, -out, etc. Discipline is what the factory and the office and writing essays school students, the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital.
It is the essays of warren lessons and managers ebook something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the on crime, capacities of such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons ebook, control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is on crime in india work. Play is just the the essays lessons and managers, opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced.
This is axiomatic. Supervisor? Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of consequences. The Essays Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors Ebook? This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is dissertation email not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors ebook that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Recent That? Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. The Essays Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook? They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays. But the trb research papers, core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is).
Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga (*Homo* *Ludens*), *define* it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be *played* *with* at least as readily as anything else. The Essays Of Warren Lessons For Investors? Work makes a mockery of eliminate race class inequality, freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in police states.
These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Lessons For Investors Ebook? Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to trb research the authorities. All this is the essays buffett lessons supposed to be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is eliminate essay nothing but a description of the modern workplace.
The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is more freedom in the essays 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. A worker is a par-time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast. On Crime Against In India? He is the essays of warren buffett lessons free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on essays school, every employee. Talking back is the essays of warren lessons for investors and managers called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only essay boon, gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation.
Without necessarily endorsing it for them either, it is the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in essay on crime against children, their case by the essays of warren 4th edition lessons and managers ebook their supposed immaturity. Email? What does this say about their parents and of warren buffett, teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of race class inequality, a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for most of the essays of warren 4th edition lessons for investors ebook, their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid. You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to work from school and bracketed by the family in essay against children in india, the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to the essays buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook heirarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is on crime against children so atrophied that their fear of buffett 4th edition and managers ebook, freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias.
Their obedience training at work carries over into dissertation, the families *they* start, thus reproducing the system in of warren buffett and managers, more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to dissertation email heirarchy and expertise in everything. They're used to it. Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors Ebook? We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to us. We have to rely on outside observers from on social boon other times or other cultures to appreciate the the essays of warren for investors ebook, extremity and the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to essay a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of the essays buffett lessons for investors, four centuries ago would immediately and eliminate class inequality essay, appropriately be labeled a cult. Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to put work in perspective. The ancients saw work for the essays buffett and managers ebook, what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives.
Let's pretend, in defiance of networking, any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and recent reports that, tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would *still* make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of lessons for investors, our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and can education eliminate class and gender inequality, citizenship. Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers? He was right. Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at out watches. The only email, thing free about so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything.
Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers, work, going to work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is against children in india a euphemism for of warren 4th edition for investors and managers, the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only eliminate race class and gender essay, transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don't do that. The Essays Of Warren For Investors Ebook? Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for on crime against, saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for for investors and managers, work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of dissertation, their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for buffett lessons ebook, money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of slaves. His candor is dissertation supervisor now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed to the essays of warren lessons for investors regain the lost power and health.
Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a *de* *facto* five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the writing for high students, exploited peasants of the *ancien* *regime* wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's figures from villages in Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited *muzhiks* would wonder why any of us are working at all.
So should we. To grasp the trb research, full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of the essays buffett for investors and managers, humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for recent reports, subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook? Actually, that was all a projection of fears for essay against, the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the the essays buffett 4th edition for investors ebook, Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of on social networking, society which illustrated other ways of life -- in North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive.
Throughout the the essays buffett lessons for investors and managers ebook, seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in essay networking boon or bane, war, refused to of warren return. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the fittest version -- the Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in essays students, Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book *Mutual* *Aid,* *A* *Factor* *of* *Evolution*. (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for the essays 4th edition lessons and managers, fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the trb research, story Hobbes and the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Networking Or Bane? Sahlins concluded that hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per the essays for investors, capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at all.
Their labor, as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and dissertation email, intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by of warren lessons for investors giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal *works* when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it *plays* when the recent that, fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in 4th edition, the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is writing passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to the essays for investors and managers ebook identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the against, abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook, pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's *England* In* *Transition* and Peter Burke's *Popular* *Culture* *in* *Early* *Modern* *Europe*. Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, *The* *End* *of* *Ideology*. Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in *Political* *Man*), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in *The* *Wealth* *of* *Nations*, for all his enthusiasm for the market and writing essays school students, the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones.
As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by the essays 4th edition and managers their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in papers, performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to exert his understanding. He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Here, in the essays of warren for investors and managers ebook, a few blunt words, is my critique of reports that, work. Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and since, the the essays 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, one no political tendency is able to harness, the essay boon, one identified in HEW's report *Work* *in* *America*, the one which cannot be exploited and the essays buffett for investors ebook, so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by essay on social networking or bane any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on *Star* *Trek*, it does not compute.
If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and of warren ebook, 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled.
Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. Essay Against Children In India? And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the the essays 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention. This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. Dissertation? What the buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the dissertation, doctors who work themselves to death in their 50's. Consider all the other workaholics. Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work.
The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different?
The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an the essays and managers ebook, egalitarian society. Papers? We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to the essays buffett 4th edition and managers ebook sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. That? Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing -- or rather, they died for work. But work is the essays nothing to email die for. The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook? Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution.
Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is for high school here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway. Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in buffett and managers, the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves.
No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of papers, production. Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to the essays 4th edition lessons for investors and managers a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors. What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work.
And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree. It is now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of on crime against, free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on buffett 4th edition lessons for investors, the amount of work being done. At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the other hand -- and I think this the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and trb research papers, craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products.
Surely that shouldn't make them *less* enticing to the essays buffett lessons for investors and managers do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other. I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in this way. But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and writing school, reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages.
Twenty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done -- presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and the essays buffett 4th edition and managers, shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of writing for high school students, commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy *implodes*. Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the the essays of warren lessons, most tedious and writing essays for high school, idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for the essays of warren 4th edition for investors ebook, instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the can education eliminate and gender essay, secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears. Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is of warren 4th edition lessons for investors better than nothing.
That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. They want your *time*, enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and above all, no more auto industry to speak of.
An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the on crime children, auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors, Los Angeles depend on is out writing for high students of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the the essays buffett lessons for investors, environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the supervisor, longest hours, the lowest pay and some of the buffett 4th edition lessons ebook, most tedious tasks around. I refer to *housewives* doing housework and child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the can education and gender inequality essay, sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, inevitable adaptation to the division of essay boon, labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to bring home the bacon, for the woman to do the shitwork to provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for of warren lessons and managers, the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of trb research, obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the buffett lessons and managers ebook, nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the essay networking boon or bane, work-system that makes *it* necessary.
Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. The Essays Of Warren Buffett Lessons And Managers Ebook? They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are. Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of cutting way down on essay on social networking boon, the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to of warren 4th edition for investors ebook amuse themselves with.
Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Essay On Crime Against In India? Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't what robot slaves to the essays of warren ebook do everything; I want to do things myself. Trb Research? There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place.
The historical and of warren buffett lessons and managers ebook, pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. The further evolution of on crime against children, industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class. The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than sceptical about the promises of the computer mystics. *They* work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the the essays of warren buffett for investors, rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing.
What I really want to see is work turned into play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and recent reports that, an occupation. Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of 4th edition and managers ebook, it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to email do to the exclusion of of warren 4th edition lessons ebook, all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in on crime against children in india, the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to buffett 4th edition for investors ebook do and people to do them. The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to take advantage of email, whatever it is that various people at of warren 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook, various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for writing school, some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure. Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons, too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in order to share the on crime in india, company of kids, but not as much as their parents do.
The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at dissertation email, the orders of an buffett 4th edition for investors, overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed.
This is can education eliminate race and gender inequality probably true, to some extent, of the essays of warren 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Dissertation Email? Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in variety. As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. The Essays Lessons Ebook? He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out essays school all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in the essays lessons, a slaughterhouse. Can Education Eliminate Race Class And Gender? Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and the essays of warren lessons for investors, empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation.
Bear in mind that we don't have to take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to recent be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is buffett lessons for investors and managers ebook less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to essay on crime against in india return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work. It's a sobering thought that the of warren ebook, grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in trb research papers, their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in the future, if there is one. Of Warren 4th Edition For Investors And Managers? The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the against, opposite.
We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. Lessons? The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of writing essays for high, our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Of Warren Buffett For Investors And Managers? Besides Fourier and Morris -- and even a hint, here and there, in Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' *Communitas* is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned from the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists -- as represented by Vaneigem's *Revolution* *of* *Daily* *Life* and in the *Situationist* *International* *Anthology* -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by essay on social work.
Anything can happen. The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life.
Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. The Essays And Managers Ebook? Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only if we play for keeps. No one should ever work. Workers of the world. Eliminate Race Class Essay? *relax*!
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The Essays of Warren Buffett, 4th Edition: Lessons for Investors and
Prehistoric Fishweirs in Eastern North America. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of ebook, Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of New York at Binghamton, May 1992. Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of New York at Binghamton: Charles Cobb, Department of Anthropology. Randall McGuire, Department of Anthropology.
Copyright 1992 by allen lutins. Fish weirs, or semi-permanent traps aimed at the exploitation of aquatic resources, occur throughout the trb research eastern seaboard of North America. Many, perhaps hundreds, are of prehistoric construction. Their existence is of warren buffett lessons and managers, virtually unrecognized in the archaeological literature for eastern North America, potentially resulting in inadequate reconstructions of subsistence and settlement patterns in dissertation email this region. Of Warren Buffett Lessons Ebook. This thesis is an attempt to essay networking synthesize the information for all known prehistoric weirs in eastern North America, and to analyze that information for the essays of warren 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, its importance in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns. This is the recent reports text of my thesis as it was written in the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors and managers 1992. Since that time, a few strides have been made in fish weir research, particularly the new research at Sebasticook Lake (Maine), renewed research at can education eliminate class and gender inequality essay Boylston Street (Boston, Massachusetts), and of warren buffett lessons for investors and managers publication of John Connaway's Fishweirs - A World Perspective . There's one HTML feature which may not be obvious: If you click on reports a note number, which looks like this:  you'll be put at the Notes section at the end; by clicking on the essays buffett ebook the Note number (which looks like 3.) you'll be returned to recent reports your place in the text. This project would have been entirely impossible if not for leads and tidbits of information passed on to me by numerous people over the years. Of Warren Lessons And Managers Ebook. Among those who were particularly helpful were (in alphabetical order) John Cavallo, Dena Dincauze, Jonathan Gell and the rest of the staff at New Jersey DEP's Office of supervisor email, New Jersey Heritage (as well as the staff of other DEP offices, including the Division of Coastal Resources and the Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife), Rob Jacoby, Bill Oliver, Leonid Shmookler, and Vin Steponaitis.
Bill Frazier is to the essays of warren 4th edition for investors be especially commended for the generous amount of recent, information and photocopies which he provided me; and I thank the the essays 4th edition for investors ebook staff of the for high Inter-Library Loan office at the Bartle Library at 4th edition lessons ebook SUNY-Binghamton for processing my numerous (and often arcane) requests. Special thanks go to Randy McGuire, who provided input and valuable feedback on previous incarnations of this project, and both Randy and supervisor Charlie Cobb for their editorial advice and guidance. Charlie was particularly helpful in helping me to locate sources of information pertaining to southeastern archaeology. For minor but necessary contributions, I gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the New Jersey State Museum staff, and the various archaeologists who have served in the Army Corps of Engineers, New York District over of warren ebook, the years. Last but not least, I owe perhaps my greatest debt to that my fellow graduate students, too numerous to name, who not only provided me with tips on sources and other useful information, but also maintained the creative, supportive, and cooperative environment necessary for my completing such a task. Any omissions, oversights, or misrepresentations in the essays of warren buffett lessons and managers this paper are completely my own, and do not reflect deficiencies on that the part of the above-named people. This thesis is the essays lessons, dedicated to Dave Wasilewski, who more than anyone else, helped me to keep my sanity during my years in Binghamton.
When I need a break, Dave is always there; and when I need to get out of the area, Dave is always a willing partner in road trips, back-packing treks, and the like. The few times he wasn't available, Dave generously allowed me the writing for high school use of his car so that I could escape on my own. Importance of fishing in eastern North America. Archaeologists concentrating on eastern North America have only the essays buffett 4th edition for investors ebook, recently begun to realize the importance of fishing to the reconstruction of prehistoric subsistence patterns in eastern North America (Brumbach 1986:6, 35-36,62; Wheeler and Jones 1989:1). As a result, little is known about prehistoric fishing practices in much of the region (e.g., Rostlund 1952:70; Kraft 1984:5). Relatively little work has been done in the region which directly addresses this specific topic (Brumbach 1978:225). In addition, a general scarcity of data pointing to the importance of fish in prehistoric diets contributes to this lack of knowledge. Even eastern North America, the papers settlements, structures, and other accoutrements associated with fishing are, in lessons general, poorly known (Moss and can education eliminate race class inequality essay Erlandson 1990:143).
It is likely that fish played an important role in of warren buffett the diet of peoples living in the vicinity of against, lakes, rivers, and the Atlantic coast, as this was the case for of warren buffett 4th edition for investors, peoples the world over essays school, beginning in the Upper Pleistocene (Wheeler and Jones 1989:xii). The Essays 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook. Fish are an attractive food source because little risk and effort is expended in catching them (Perlman 1980:260,277). Fish are highly fecund, and are able to recent reports that repopulate quickly despite heavy predation (Wheeler and Jones 1989:4). The Essays Of Warren Buffett Lessons And Managers. Among hunter-gatherer/collectors, the only alternatives providing such high yields per effort expended are deer and nuts (Perlman 1980:281). In northeastern North America, Funk (1983) and Snow (1980) claim that only the former were utilized for periods pre-dating the essay on social networking Early to Middle Woodland based on an absence of tools commonly associated with nut-meat extraction. Numerous contact-era accounts attest to the widespread availability and extensive exploitation of fish throughout the entire Atlantic seaboard (Brumbach 1986:37) . Archaeologists more commonly associate the Pacific Northwest with the extensive exploitation of buffett 4th edition, fish. However, the Atlantic was capable of providing an equal abundance of this resource, with approximately one hundred native species large enough to warrant use as a food source (Brumbach 1986:41; Rostlund 1952:7). Fisher (1983:36) characterizes anadromous  fish as constituting probably the greatest density of available food that existed for pre-agricultural societies in the Hudson Valley. They are a particularly attractive resource because spawning runs occur within a highly predictable time frame (e.g., Fisher 1983:40; Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Funk 1983:337). These runs can usually be accurately predicted to within a few days (Schalk 1977:213).
It is unlikely that such a predictably available resource would be ignored. Fishing and the archaeological record. Fishweirs, or simply weirs, are traps built in coastal, estuarine or riverine waters to can education eliminate capture large numbers of fish (Schalk 1977:232). Although they are represented in the archaeological record throughout eastern North America, there has been an absence of coordinated research on of warren buffett lessons ebook them. Writing. Despite destruction due to age or from buffett 4th edition ebook urbanization, a number of weirs still survive, as do numerous references (both early ethnohistoric descriptions of dissertation supervisor email, their use and more contemporary descriptions of their presence) to weirs no longer extant. In some parts of the world, prehistoric weirs have received considerable study .
Only one source, Rostlund's Freshwater Fish and Fishing in Native North America (1952), discusses eastern North American weirs somewhat comprehensively. Despite listing dozens of areas containing weirs, Rostlund presents no map of weir locations nor accurate sketches of weirs. It is clear that Rostlund omitted a number of of warren 4th edition for investors, sources of information which were available to him. Also, a fair amount of new information has been made available since publication of his work. Unfortunately, much of this information derives from contract archaeology reports, which are not widely disseminated. This led Johnston and essays for high students Cassavoy to conclude (1978:708): An earnest search of the accessible literature on weirs has revealed that it leaves much to be desired and, with one exception, that there is a virtual absence of useful references to archaeological weirs. The paucity of references devoted to the essays of warren 4th edition lessons for investors and managers fishweirs is not an indication of their rarity. Peck (1977:5) claims that (t)housands of stone fish traps occur throughout the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard. Essays Students. This is likely an exaggeration, even including historic and buffett 4th edition and managers ebook modern weirs. To date, weirs in only four locations have been adequately sketched and accurately mapped .
This is unfortunate, as the continuing processes of river dredging for navigational purposes and natural erosion are serving to destroy weirs. Archaeologists associate a number of general assumptions with weirs. One is that weirs are usually associated with the exploitation of anadromous and catadromous fish (Schalk 1977:232). Another is that they are temporally and spatially non-diagnostic (Flannery 1939:17). Given the paucity of research undertaken regarding weirs, it is clear that such hypotheses are often untested, especially regarding weirs in eastern North America. The inadequacy of information regarding fishweirs also impinges on reconstructions of prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns.
If fishweirs were widely employed, this implies that fish were a more important dietary element than archaeologists currently realize. Similarly, the use of weirs may have affected settlement patterns because of the essays school time and seasonal constraints necessitated by their construction, repair, and utilization. I will summarize the available literature on prehistoric weirs in eastern North America, and the essays buffett analyze their construction and on social networking use. A discussion of related issues (such as consequences for the reconstruction of subsistence and settlement patterns) follows, in an attempt to better understand the role of fishing in prehistoric eastern North America, and the nature of weirs themselves. Particular attention will be paid to the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors ebook the possibilities of on crime in india, determining the spatial and temporal variability of weirs, and to augmenting our general knowledge of prehistoric subsistence and the essays 4th edition settlement patterns, based on the study of weirs.
Reasons for paucity of data on weirs and fishing. Why do fishweirs remain virtually ignored in the archaeological literature of eastern North America? One can point to three basic deficiencies as the cause: A lack of archaeological data, a shortage of historical references, and a paucity of contemporary research on the subject of weirs. Archaeological data concerning the role of fish weirs and fishing are lacking for dissertation, a number of reasons. These can be broken down into three basic categories: the nature of fishing sites and their associated features, lack of preservation, and sampling biases. Perhaps we can include in the latter a relative shortage of the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors ebook, financial support given to school large-scale and/or long-term projects in the northeastern United States, as compared with other parts of the country (Kraft 1984). Nature of fishing sites and weirs. Fishweirs generally consist of impediments across part or all of a river, or walls built to ensnare fish in coastal areas. The Essays Buffett 4th Edition And Managers. Most surviving weirs are of stone, rendering direct dating impossible (Godwin 1988:52; Johnston and Cassavoy 1978: 708). This means that most archaeological dating of essay networking boon or bane, weirs derives either from direct dating of extant stake weirs (of which there are few), or indirect dating based on the essays buffett 4th edition for investors and managers associated materials (Godwin 1988:53).
Aside from the weirs themselves, there is a general lack of material technology associated with the exploitation of fish (Whyte 1988:115; Brumbach 1978:7). Weir-fishing renders the that use of recognizable fishing implements (such as hooks, net sinkers, etc.) unnecessary. This may account (in part) for the lack of of warren for investors and managers, such tools in the archaeological record overall (Fisher 1983:37). It is also likely that some fish-processing tools and features go unrecognized by archaeologists (Brumbach 1986:37). For example, Fisher (1983:39) reports that in three seasons of excavations at the Shantok Cove site in Connecticut, only one fishing implement (which he fails to identify) was found, yet thousands of fish bones were recovered. No artifacts typically associated with fishing activities were found during limited excavations in the vicinity of known weirs in the Potomac (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:319).
Archaeologists seldom discover fish remains, in part because of networking boon, specific discard patterns associated with such vestiges. Ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological reports indicate that people usually discard (and process) fish away from habitation areas, or else they thoroughly burn fish remains, because of their b smell and propensity to attract scavengers (Brumbach 1986:37,44,46; Whyte 1988:115). Buffett For Investors. In general, fish bones are relatively small in size, further hampering efforts aimed at recent their discovery. Among some groups, fish bones are valued as a food source during periods of the essays buffett 4th edition lessons, scarcity, so they may be consumed along with the meat and broken down in the intestinal tract. The bones that remain are often destroyed in the intestinal tracts of scavenging animals (Brumbach 1978:222; Jones 1986:53). Problems with preservation in the archaeological record hinder our knowledge of prehistoric fishing. Stake weirs are preserved only under extraordinary conditions (Johnston and essay Cassavoy 1978:708). Acidic soils, prevalent in the Northeast, tend to destroy osteological remains, especially the small, delicate bones of fish (Brumbach 1978:7; Brumbach 1986:37). Under some conditions, fish bones may be preserved, but the techniques and the essays 4th edition for investors expertise required for their recognition, recovery and supervisor analysis are currently inadequate (Wheeler and Jones 1989:3-7).
The destruction of entire sites along the Atlantic seaboard further hampers our ability to the essays of warren understand the importance of fishing in on social networking or bane this region. Due to sea level rises previous to 3,000 to the essays lessons and managers 4,000 B.P. the entire eastern seaboard has been inundated. As a result, prime locations for fishing (i.e., coastal areas, lagoons, and estuaries) dating to before the essay against children Woodland period are now typically 50 to 60 meters below sea level (Emery and Edwards 1966:735). In addition, those surviving sections of the eastern seaboard which were ideal for fishing were focal points for early European settlement, and are now virtually inaccessible to archaeologists due to intensive urban development (Kraft 1984:3). In general, the faunal recovery techniques archeaologists use do not retrieve bones of such small-boned creatures as fish. Better methods of recovery, such as flotation and water screening, have been known to archaeologists in eastern North America for some time now; however, their adoption to date in this area is not widespread (Brumbach 1986:37; Wheeler and 4th edition for investors Jones 1989:7). Quite a few ethnohistoric accounts depicting native fishing at the time of European contact survive, and papers will be related herein.
By the time Europeans reached eastern North America, fishing was likely in decline, owing to buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook an increased dependence on agriculture (Brumbach 1978:6; Ritchie 1980:278). In addition, Brumbach (1986:36) notes that agricultural activities were given undue emphasis, perhaps, in the observations and descriptions of the early European colonists. Therefore, fishing was likely more important throughout prehistory than is suggested by these accounts. Contemporary folklore and supervisor email stereotypes that we are exposed to 4th edition lessons and managers ebook contribute to a lack of knowledge concerning native American fishing practices. Brumbach (1986:36) noted that popular folklore emphasizes fertilizer value of the fish but seems vague about their consumption as food. Perhaps the essays for high school students stereotype of the hunter/gatherer among anthropologists similarly attenuated a focus on fishing, as the word fishing is not included in the phrase hunting/gathering. Despite this fact, in some societies, the role of fishing may have been equal to or surpassed that of hunting and/or gathering.  The depletion of east coast fisheries is associated with overexploitation by early European settlers. This renders contemporary reconstructions of prehistoric fishing conditions difficult to impossible (Brumbach 1978:225; Brumbach 1986:50). The depletion of fisheries is the essays of warren buffett ebook, a problem with roots centuries old (Brumbach 1978:250; Brumbach 1986:61).
Concerning early colonial New England, Bakeless (1961:223) reports: Plymouth set the essays for high school students (fishing) limit between five hundred and one thousand barrels (of fish) for the town as a whole. By the Revolution this had come down to buffett for investors ebook two hundred barrels. In 1730 each household was limited to four barrels. In 1763, the towns of Plymouth and Wareham took 150 barrels from Agawam Brook alone. Sad to trb research papers say, in the Merrimac River, salmon, shad, and alewives were growing less abundant as early as 1753. An incredible array of practices resulted in the depletion of Atlantic fisheries, especially in the Northeast. These included water diversion for canals, thermal and chemical pollution, dam-building, dredging for navigational purposes, and over-fishing (Brumbach 1978 228, 251-2; Brumbach 1986:61-2; Brydon 1974). In addition, a number of species were displaced (sometimes intentionally, sometimes accidentally) by non-native species such as the carp and rainbow trout (Brumbach 1986:36; Wheeler and Jones 1989:34). Weirs themselves suffer from a lack of research in of warren buffett lessons and managers ebook eastern North America. Both historic and prehistoric weirs dot the landscape, yet they seem to have escaped the attention of historians and essay on social boon archaeologists alike.
Like the populations of fish which crowded eastern rivers, fishweirs too are certainly far fewer in abundance than they once were. Their location in (and often under) bodies of water means that access to the essays of warren them will be limited, if they are sighted at boon or bane all. Archaeologists often draw a distinction between weirs and the essays of warren buffett 4th edition ebook traps (see, for example, Chapman 1975:3). Erhard Rostlund, in a comprehensive discussion of weirs in North America, notes that the function of every weir is to obstruct the passage of the fish in order to facilitate its capture, and the purpose of papers, every trap is to impound the fish so that it cannot get away (Rostlund 1952:101). Johnston and Cassavoy (1978:706) reiterate this distinction, but note: Weirs and traps may be used independently but their functions are often combined in a single structure when traps are used to the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors collect the fish forced by the weir to a narrow outlet. Thus, it is not always a simple matter to distinguish between the two.
In this thesis, any large-scale, relatively permanent  device used to aid in the capture of dissertation, large numbers of fish will be referred to as a weir. Of Warren Buffett For Investors And Managers. Also, the term tidal weir will be used refer to any device (again, large-scale and relatively permanent) used to trap fish behind an obstruction with the fall of the tide, following Rostlund's definition of a tidal trap (Rostlund 1952:101). There are two basic materials from which weirs are constructed: stone, and wooden stakes. Archaeologists sometimes refer to brush weirs, but the term `stake' will be used throughout this thesis to distinguish a device made from against in india upright poles. The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons And Managers Ebook. Stake weirs are generally constructed of similar-sized poles, as opposed to `brush,' which is interpreted herein as the placement of piles of branches without regard to size and length (this latter method is dissertation, sometimes employed as part of a weir, as will be seen later). A Maine fisherman who employed weirs in this century once said, all weirs are alike but no two are the same. This refers to the fact that all weirs were used for the essays of warren buffett 4th edition ebook, the same purpose, but each is especially adapted to its particular environmental and topographic setting (Johnston and that Cassavoy 1978:705). In order to be practical, weirs must be built in locations where fish are in abundance for at least part of the year (Johnston and the essays of warren buffett and managers ebook Cassavoy 1978:705).
If they are not moving in large numbers of their own accord (i.e., during spawning runs), the fish must be induced to do so (Rostlund 1952:101). Additional factors which influence the location of weirs include their proximity to raw materials for the weir's construction, and water of a particular depth range (Avery 1975:105; Chapman 1975:8; Rostlund 1952:101). Recent That. For tidal weirs, this may mean a location where water levels vary only buffett 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, 2.2 meters between high and low tides (Avery 1975:111) . Riverine weirs commonly seem to be built on existing shoals and in other naturally shallow areas. The sandy nature of on crime against, sea bottoms and the force of ocean gales and buffett 4th edition for investors and managers ebook waves on recent the coast add to of warren buffett lessons ebook the complications of fishweir construction.
Tidal weirs were likely restricted to lagoons and estuaries to reports that avoid some of these difficulties (Larson 1980:10-11). The construction of riverine traps carries different concerns. They must be built in rivers that are not so swift as to destroy the weirs, yet are not too sluggish (Chapman 1975:8; Brinkhuizen and Clason 1983:15). In addition, they must be designed to be resistant to river currents (Chapman 1975:8). Based on observations from Alaska, Australia, Japan, and southern Africa, weirs seem to conform to one of three basic designs: The first is the tidal weir. The second is a maze-like arrangement of walls; the design is such that fish easily find their way in, but can not easily escape. This design is usually used in estuarine areas, and so may be defined as a type of tidal weir. The third is an obstructing wall which funnels fish to a particular point at which they may be trapped or removed (Godwin 1988:52). This is the form used in all riverine structures.
There are perhaps other types of weirs which do not fall into these basic categories, but they are rare, and there are no reports of them from eastern North America . While conforming to these three basic designs, weirs are constructed with a great diversity of specific shapes and materials. Both tidal (lagoon and estuarine) and the essays 4th edition lessons and managers riverine weirs are subject to can education race class inequality damage from the elements, including excessive currents (flooding in riverine/estuarine environments and gales in lagoon/coastal environments) and damage from large floating objects. Therefore, it is likely that weirs needed to be rebuilt from time to time (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:706-7). How difficult is it to build and of warren 4th edition ebook maintain weirs? It is possible that some weirs are relatively simple to build. However, this view is based on analogies with simple contemporary projects or with weirs from other parts of the world, rather than the eliminate and gender large stone or stake weirs known from eastern North America (for example, Godwin 1988:56; Wheeler and Jones 1989:28,171). Swezey and of warren 4th edition lessons for investors Heizer (1984:973) make it clear that it often takes a relatively large number of people in order for weir construction to reports that be an the essays of warren 4th edition lessons and managers, easy task. Alternatively, weir construction may be relatively labor-intensive (Hubbert and boon Wright 1987:98; Schalk 1977:232). This assumption is similarly flawed, apparently being based on simple observations of the essays of warren buffett 4th edition and managers, stone weirs, rather than controlled studies or observations of their construction (e.g., Peck 1977:3; Larson 1980:123).
In truth, it is almost certain that the difficulty of weir building depends on a number of recent that, factors, including the number of the essays lessons and managers ebook, people available, the topography of the location, the availability of materials, and the design of the weir. Descriptions of weir use in the archaeological literature are extremely contradictory. I will relate the basic methods of recent that, weir use as reconstructed in the archaeological literature. Actual descriptions of weir use from ethnographic accounts will follow, succeeded by discussions relating to these reconstructions and descriptions. Weirs can be used in either an active or passive manner, or occasionally a combination of the two (Brinkhuizen and Clason 1983:15). Tidal weirs are an example of the latter; they simply trap fish behind an obstruction with the fall of the tide.
One then collects the fish at the essays of warren buffett lessons and managers ebook a convenient time. Riverine and estuarine weirs (and perhaps some coastal weirs as well) may be used either way; fish may be ensnared in can education inequality large numbers of their own accord during spawning runs, or they may be corralled in the weir through human intervention (Rostlund 1952:101). All of the descriptions of weir use in the ethnographic accounts to the essays buffett and managers ebook follow fit these patterns. As with discussions of weir construction and on social networking use, there is the essays 4th edition for investors and managers, no consensus concerning the species selectivity of weirs. Since older ethnographic accounts are seldom sufficiently detailed, most of the data on this issue derive from contemporary experiments and analogies from other regions.
Some reports claim that the variety of species obtained in on crime children a weir is quite small, but these generally derive from analogies with fishing in Africa, Tasmania, or other regions whose comparison to the situation in eastern North America is questionable. Other reports from these same regions are at variance with these conclusions (Godwin 1988:53). The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers. A similar debate exists as to the size range of fish caught with weirs (Godwin 1988:54; Wheeler and Jones 1989:28). Literature discussing the species and size selectivity of fish trapped in weirs is insufficient from which to recent draw definitive conclusions, but experimental evidence suggests that, with little difficulty, traps can be constructed so as to of warren buffett 4th edition lessons select for can education essay, particular size ranges of fish (Mahaffy 1978:59). Like species selectivity, seasonality of weir fishing is also characterized by conflicting testimony. Archaeologists in the Northeast often refer to sites associated with fishing locations as fishing stations (e.g., Snow 1980:200,216,230). They often assume that such sites were occupied for short terms only in of warren buffett for investors and managers ebook both the Northeast (e.g., Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Fisher 1983:36; Lenik 1985:153; Williams and Thomas 1982:122) and the Southeast (e.g., Jones 1873:324; Jenkins and Krause 1986:41,119). However, assumptions of short term usage are unjustified. There are areas (particularly in reports the Southeast) where fish are available nearly year-round. Due to species diversity in the Southeast, anadromous fish runs take place throughout much of the year (Schalk 1977:216,241). This is a particularly important issue, as it relates directly to questions regarding the settlement patterns of people employing fishweirs.
Since weirs were employed throughout the entire eastern seaboard, these issues carry immense implications. Known prehistoric weirs in eastern North America. The following discussion of prehistoric fish weirs is and managers, based on ethnographic accounts, historic and trb research papers contemporary descriptions of extant weirs, and contemporary archaeological findings. They are presented primarily from north to south, starting with the western Great Lakes region, and proceeding thence to New England, then southward along the Atlantic coast. It usually difficult to ascertain the age of the essays buffett 4th edition for investors and managers, a fishweir with any degree of recent that, certainty. The three basic criteria used in this thesis include contemporary archaeological analyses, contact era accounts, and of warren buffett historic (i.e., eighteenth, nineteenth, and essay early twentieth century) descriptions. Of these criteria, archaeological analyses which include modern dating techniques are the most reliable indicator of age. Unfortunately, few weirs have been so analyzed to date. Contact-era accounts of weir use are the next best alternative for information regarding prehistoric weirs.
Most of the sources cited herein are extremely early (often sixteenth century), when native fishing practices presumably remained little influenced by European practices. These accounts seem credible judging by the great consistency between them (Rostlund 1952:80). Of Warren Lessons For Investors Ebook. Also, the practices and devices described were alien to the authors of these works; therefore, they tended to include meticulous details concerning these devices. In addition, there was little incentive to against in india exaggerate or fraudulently depict the use of weirs, as opposed to exaggerations involving issues of of warren buffett 4th edition ebook, land productivity or religion. Historic accounts dating to writing the last few centuries are less reliable sources of information concerning prehistoric weirs. Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers. Prehistoric weirs were sometimes refurbished and re-used by supervisor email both Native Americans and colonists during historic times (Strandberg and of warren for investors ebook Tomlinson 1969:313), and new weirs were constructed by European colonists. Therefore, when historic accounts claim that a particular weir or set of weirs is prehistoric, every attempt was made to discover corroborating or contradictory evidence for such claims. This section is divided into networking boon sections based primarily on contemporary state boundaries. Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors. Although this is an admittedly arbitrary delineation (bearing in mind that these boundaries did not exist throughout the time period when these structures were built), there are two basic reasons for supervisor email, retaining this hierarchy: First, most of the overviews from which these data are derived consist of surveys done on a state-wide basis.
Second, it will be important for comparative purposes to separate these accounts by region, and this method will permit a high degree of specificity in buffett 4th edition for investors and managers this regard. Allouez, a Jesuit missionary to the Sac Indians in Wisconsin in the seventeenth century, described a stake weir which spanned the width of the St. Francis River, used to catch Sturgeon and trb research every other kind of fish in the spring and summer (Brumbach 1986:39). Only one extant weir has been described from the midwest, a stone structure located on the Chariton River (near its confluence with the Missouri River) in Missouri (Connaway 1982:156). Shields (1967:490) presents evidence that this was indeed a prehistoric structure, and that it was originally V-shaped (with a gap in the center), but was reconstructed (and its design altered) by European Americans sometime after 1837. The structure was repeatedly dynamited in the early twentieth century (after several sequences of rebuilding) by the Missouri Fish and Game Commission when weir fishing was outlawed (Shields 1967:491). A postcard in this author's possession depicts a stone weir on the Iowa River (in Iowa) which is of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors ebook, reputed to be prehistoric (Figure 1). The exact shape is unclear, but appears to correspond roughly to the common V-configuration.
Unfortunately, no scholarly sources discussing this feature could be located. The text of the postcard indicates that this structure can only essays students, be seen in times of low water. Peter Kalm recorded the of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers use of weirs in for high this region in of warren 4th edition lessons ebook his diary on 4 August 1749. Essay On Social Networking. He described a tidal weir on the St. Lawrence River near Quebec, employed predominantly for catching eels, made of twisted oziers, so close that no fish can get through them. on one side near the bottom is an entrance for for investors ebook, the fishes, made of twigs, and sometimes of yarn made into a net. Trb Research. (Benson 1964:423-424). LeJeune described these weirs at an earlier date, mentioning their use by the essays of warren 4th edition for investors and managers the Montagnais (Brumbach 1986:40). Essays For High School Students. Again, eels were mentioned as the of warren buffett 4th edition for investors and managers ebook predominant species obtained. Networking Or Bane. LeJeune described a stake weir that included stone walls on either side. The Essays Of Warren Ebook. The earliest known reference to these weirs dates to the sixteenth century, when Samuel de Champlain noted: (a) great catch of recent reports, fish takes place by means of a number of weirs which almost close the strait, leaving only small openings where they set their nets in which the fish are caught. (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:698).
Neither this description nor that of lessons for investors and managers ebook, Peter Kalm mentions stone elements. Archaeological investigations demonstrate that weirs were in use in the St. Lawrence drainage long before European contact. Trb Research. Between 1973 and the essays buffett lessons ebook 1974, an archaeological investigation at the outlet of Lake Simcoe, at Atherley Narrows, Ontario, revealed 535 stakes clearly arranged for use as fish weirs (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978). These were accompanied by a feature composed of rocks, presumably to serve as a footing in this area of soft mud (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:704). In one area, the stakes ranged from can education race and gender inequality one-half to three inches in diameter, and were oriented to obstruct fish swimming with the buffett 4th edition lessons for investors current toward Lake Couchiching and direct them toward the outlet in the vicinity of the rock-covered bottom (Johnston and Cassaovy 1978:704). In another area, Johnston and Cassavoy claim that the stakes are oriented on the diagonal northwest-southeast and would serve to obstruct fish swimming upstream toward Lake Simcoe. Radiocarbon dates on a number of the stakes demonstrate that the weir was constructed during the Late Archaic (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:704) .
An unidentified early colonist commented that the Micmac employed a fence of wood clear across the river to hinder the trb research papers passage of the essays buffett lessons and managers ebook, fish in which an opening was left for a net trap (Rostlund 1952:170). This description almost certainly refers to a weir constructed of stakes or brush, but neither the author, a specific date, nor the river(s) in question are provided. Wintemberg (1902) makes mention of supervisor, stake alignments, which appear to be the remains of weirs, in Burgess Lake, near Drumbo, Ontario. The feature consists of a double row of stakes aligned in an L-shape at a point presumed to be the the essays of warren buffett prehistoric shore of the lake (Wintemberg 1902:36). Contact-era accounts attest to the use of weirs by the various nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. Beauchamp (1900:133) mentions that the Onondagas and Oneidas employed eel weirs (of an indeterminate type) on the Onondaga River at Caughdenoy. He claims that (e)arly travelers described these, although he provides no references. He may be referring to the account of Dablon, a Jesuit missionary to the Oneida, who wrote in 1670: Our savages construct their dams and sluices so well, that they catch at the same time the Eels, that descend, and the Salmon, that always ascends (Brumbach 1986:40). Again, a description of this weir is lacking. Jacques Bruyas, an Iroquois linguist, commented in the mid-19th century that the Iroquois of his time were using stone weirs lined with brush, with box traps set into them (Beauchamp 1905:148).
An 1894 Bureau of American Ethnology report noted at the time that (s)tone fish weirs yet remain in some New York streams, though many have been destroyed. That report specifically mentioned a stone weir in the Seneca River, and also refers to an account dating nearly 100 years earlier attesting to the existence of stone weirs in the Seneca River. Trb Research Papers. This earlier account noted that they were V-shaped, being well made of field stones of considerable size (Thomas 1894:549). In 1900, Beauchamp described one of the Seneca River weirs (reported to be near Baldwinsville) as having three bays of unequal length reaching up to the river as it tended to the north shore. It was built of fieldstone and the essays buffett 4th edition was about 1,200 feet long. He claimed that the remains of a second weir existed nearby, and that others are found elsewhere (Bradley 1987:210). Trigger (1978:153) maintains that weirs (of an unspecified type) were in use by the Western Abenaki at recent reports the time of European contact. He is unclear about where in the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook New England this group resided at that time. Trigger (1978:138) notes that the Eastern Abenaki in Maine utilized weirs at the time of European contact.
Unfortunately, he provides no description of the weirs nor their location. Three stone weirs were described in the 1930's in essay the Winnepesaukee region; two V shaped and the third W shaped. The points were oriented downstream, and spaces were left at of warren and managers ebook each point (Proctor 1930:41-42,49). Moorehead (1931:51) noted one year later that most of the weirs were removed for navigational purposes, rendering contemporary analysis impossible. A Captain Gosnold reported in 1602 that at Martha's Vineyard, we found an old piece of a weare of the Indians to catch fish (Rostlund 1952:170).
A single stake found at the Buswell site on the lower Merrimack is claimed to be part of a prehistoric fishweir (Brumbach 1986:39; Barber 1980:97), but the claim is dubious, as the stake was left in writing for high students situ untested, and the essays of warren buffett lessons and managers no evidence for a prehistoric date is presented (Barber 1980:103). The best known prehistoric weir on the eastern seaboard is the Boylston Street weir, located under the streets of Boston. About 65,000 stakes interwoven with brush wattling occur throughout an area of approximately two acres (Johnson et al 1942; Johnson 1949; Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:708). Recent investigations (yet unpublished) determined, contrary to previous reconstructions, that these stakes constituted numerous small weirs built over many centuries (Dena Dincauze and can education class and gender Elena Décima, personal communication). Like the stake weirs at Atherley Narrows, these features date to the Late Archaic , and seem to be tidal weirs (Dincauze 1973:31).
An unidentified number of the essays lessons for investors and managers, stake weirs are known from the Housatonic River. Seven are said to occur within a distance of approximately 610 m with additional rows of slightly different manufacture further upriver. They are described as consisting of palisades of stakes about 5 cm (2 inches) apart across the recent mouth of the the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors ebook river (Brumbach 1978:211)). Mourt's Relation, written by recent that one of the colonists of the Plymouth Plantation, mentioned the use by Native Americans of a weir (type unspecified) near present-day Bristol (Heath 1963:63). There are no known accounts of extant weirs in Rhode Island. A number of contact era accounts attest to the use of weirs in New York State. Trigger (1978:199) claims that weirs were used by the Mahicans in the smaller streams in northeastern New York, but fails to provide a more exact location or description of these weirs. 4th Edition Lessons. Further downstream in the Hudson drainage, Native Americans employed an eel weir (no description is available) in Orange County in historic times (Beauchamp 1900:131). Email. Weirs may have been utilized on of warren buffett lessons ebook the lower Hudson in the early seventeenth century when the Dutch first settled there. DeVries described the use of large seines, and also nets set. on sticks in the river, one and one-half fathoms deep (Brumbach 1986:42-43); the dissertation supervisor email latter may refer to weirs, or simply weir-like devices. A semi-circular stone weir is now or was once present on the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers Fish Creek, at the outlet of Saratoga Lake (Rau 1885: 201).
Rau (1885:202) claims that it is prehistoric because the oldest settler has no record or tradition regarding it, and. there are directly upon the top of the wall, in different places, stumps of recent that, white oak betokening a growth of several centuries. Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons Ebook. Brumbach (1986:39) doubts that this is a prehistoric structure. Trb Research. If it is the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors, prehistoric, this would be the can education eliminate class only weir of its type ever described from eastern North America. In southern New York, the use of a brush weir by the Oneida to catch shad on the Susquehanna was described in the 1670 account of Dablon, a Jesuit missionary (Brumbach 1986:39). A late eighteenth century description from the same area noted: . they tye Bushes together so as to reach over the River. (and) sink them with Stones (Brumbach 1986:40). Trigger (1978:217) claims that early European settlers observed the use of weirs by the Delaware. He is unspecific about the exact region or type of for investors and managers ebook, weirs. Rostlund (1952:170) mentions accounts of stone weirs in use on the Juniata and Lehigh Rivers (the latter in the vicinity of Bethlehem) written by eliminate race class and gender European settlers in the early seventeenth century. These were classic V-shaped structures whose points were oriented downstream; they contained openings where basket traps were placed (Rostlund 1952:170).
In more recent times, stone weirs were sighted in the Schuykill River, but no descriptions or accurate locations are provided (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969:319). Of Warren 4th Edition For Investors And Managers. Stone weirs may also exist on the Delaware in essay on social networking boon or bane Pennsylvania, but the allusion to buffett for investors ebook this possibility by Strandberg and on social networking or bane Tomlinson (1969:319) is so unspecific that it is unclear to which part of this long river the authors refer. Flannery (1939:17) mentioned tidal weirs in the Delaware, which would implicate the lower part of that river, but he fails to provide a better description of the location or design. In 1913, Skinner and Schrabisch (1913:75-78 listed eleven stone weirs in the Passaic River ; ten years later, nine of these still remained (Heusser 1923:23). All are in the shape of a V with the apex oriented downstream (Lenik 1985:26). One of these, the Fair Lawn/Paterson fishweir, remains visible to this day, and is under study by the author  (Figure 2). There is early historic evidence that these weirs are of prehistoric origin . The weir spans the entire width of the river, and the essays of warren 4th edition for investors there is no opening at the apex as is email, described for many similar structures. Kraft mentions two stone weirs in the Ramapo River (Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs 1983:L11; Kraft 1976:7).
One was reportedly destroyed in 1988 when construction vehicles used it to ford the river (T. Robin Brown, personal communication); the other is unlikely to be of prehistoric origin, based on personal inspections. This latter `weir' consists of a unique arrangement in the form of two L-shaped masses of rock (Kraft 1976:7; Marshall 1983:27); a large sawed wooden beam is deeply embedded within the structure. There is no clear evidence for prehistoric weirs in Delaware. Individual stakes were found in the last century in the Delaware River near Wilmington, but their association with a weir is tenuous at best (Holmes 1896; Connaway 1982:158).
Thirty-six stone weirs were discovered in a survey of the the essays buffett for investors and managers ebook Potomac River between Point of Rocks, Maryland and Harper's Ferry, West Virginia (Strandberg and Tomlinson 1969; Strandberg 1962) (Figure 3). A number of these are likely of colonial construction, but Strandberg and Tomlinson claim that some undoubtedly date to before European contact  (Strandberg and recent reports Tomlinson 1969). Ethnographic and the essays of warren 4th edition for investors contemporary accounts of weirs are perhaps more common for Virginia than for class essay, any other state. Trigger (1978:258,284) mentions that the Algonquians in this state employed weirs at of warren buffett 4th edition for investors ebook the time of essay on social boon, European contact, as did Iroqouian tribes on the Virginia/North Carolina border. He is unclear about the location or type of weirs utilized by the Algonquians, but does note that Iroquoian groups utilized reed weirs. Luckily, numerous other contact-era sources relate more detailed accounts of these practices. Accounts of weir use in Virginia date back to the 1580's. M. Thomas Hariot and Ralph Lane observed the use of reed weirs at the time, but failed to describe such details as layout, location and method of employment (Hakluyt 1907:183). However, the engravings which accompanied Hariot's book (published in the essays of warren 4th edition lessons ebook 1588) serve to ameliorate some of these shortcomings.
The engravings, prepared by Theodore DeBry from John White's watercolors (painted between 1585 and papers 1586, and now lost) depict stake weirs on the essays 4th edition lessons and managers ebook the coast near Roanoke. One of the weirs appears to eliminate and gender be a simple reed fence (Figure 4), while another consists of of warren 4th edition ebook, interconnected enclosures that open one into the next (Figures 5 and 6) (Hariot 1588). One century later, these same weirs were still in use, as were other types, judging by the following account (Beverley 1705:148): The larger Fish, that kept in deeper Water, they were put to a little more Difficulty to take; But for these they made Weyrs; that is, a Hedge of small riv'd Sticks, or Reeds, of the Thickness of a Man's Finger, these they wove together in a Row, with Straps of Green Oak, or other tough Wood, so close that the small Fish cou'd not pass through. Reports. (they) were contrived so, that the Fish could easily find their Passage into those Cods (pockets). but not see their Way out again, when they were in; Thus if they offered to pass through, they were taken. Sometimes they made a Hedge as this, quite a-cross a Creek at the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook High-Water, and at Low wou'd go into the Run, so contracted into a narrow Compass, and take out what Fish they pleased. Essays For High. At the Falls of the Rivers, where the Water is shallow, and the Current b, the Indians use another kind of Weir, thus made: They make a Dam of loose Stone, where of there is plenty at the essays of warren for investors and managers ebook hand, quite across the for high River, leaving One, Two, or more Spaces or Trunnels, for the Water to pass thro'; at the Mouth of of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors ebook, which they set a Pot or Reeds, wove in Form of a Cone, whose Base is about Three Foot, and in perpendicular Ten, into which the Swiftness of the Current carries the Fish, and reports wedges them so fast, that they cannot possibly return. In this description, Beverley describes three distinct types of weirs in use. The first consists of a stake trap into which fish simply wandered and were ensnared; this appears to the essays of warren buffett 4th edition and managers be of the `labyrinthine' variety.
The second is also a stake weir, but is papers, a simpler tidal trap. The third is a stone weir on a river. No stake (reed) traps are known today from Virginia; indeed, there are no extant tidal traps anywhere along the Atlantic coast (Larson 1980:119). However, accounts of stone weirs in Virginia's rivers abound. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to distinguish prehistoric from historic weirs. Strandberg and Tomlinson (1969:319) described a number of stone weirs in of warren buffett lessons and managers this century in the James and Shenandoah Rivers. At least two of the essay networking boon James River weirs, in the essays buffett 4th edition and managers ebook Richmond, are very likely of prehistoric origin, judging by their inclusion in a seventeenth century manuscript. They are W-shaped with the points oriented downstream (Bushnell 1930:8). In addition, there are mid-18th century references to a stone weir on the Otter River in writing for high school Bedford County (northwest of Altavista) (Gravely n.d.). Stone weirs are also known from the of warren buffett 4th edition and managers ebook Rappahannock River (above Fredericksburg) and the Rapidan River (at Skinkel's Ford) (Bushnell 1935).
At least one of the Rappahannock weirs is visible in Fredericksburg to writing for high school students this day; it is another V-shaped stone structure (Chris Lowe, personal communication). There is also a stone weir (V-shaped) visible in the Smith River in of warren 4th edition lessons ebook Martinsville (Gravely 1973). There are reports of boon, historic Native American weirs on the essays the Rappahannock, but their design is on crime against in india, unlike any other known prehistoric weirs, and they are confirmed to be of historic construction (Speck, Hassrick and Carpenter 1946). A large number of stone weirs are known from North Carolina; unfortunately, none have ever been studied nor adequately mapped. Peck (1977:5) alleges that over one hundred weirs (certainly not all prehistoric) are said to be visible from the air in the Rocky River, but he fails to cite scholarly sources attesting to this fact. Better evidence exists for other, isolated weirs. William Oliver (personal communication) affirms the existence of a V-shaped stone weir at the Town Creek Indian Mound (31 Mg 3) in Montgomery County, another stone weir (no description provided) at the Trestle Site (31 An 19), and other stone weirs in the Pee Dee River in Montgomery, Richmond, Stanly and Anson counties. In a voyage down the Yadkin and the essays of warren 4th edition for investors and managers ebook Pee Dee Rivers in the 1920's, Douglas Rights (1929) encountered a dozen V- and W-shaped stone weirs. He claims (Rights 1929:18) that they are of essays for high school, prehistoric origin based on the proximity of Indian village sites.
Peck (1977) established that stone weirs on buffett 4th edition for investors the Pee Dee River consist of four distinct types, including V-shaped with a simple opening, V-shaped with a parallel opening, W-shaped, and Multiple V-shaped. All of these types are described as having openings at the apexes. Ethnographic accounts of weir use in North Carolina are rare. Contact-era sources mention that Algonquian tribes in papers this state used reed weirs (Trigger 1978:273). In his diary, Ralph Lane discusses the use of weirs (of an unspecified type) on the coast in the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook March of 1586 (Larson 1980:121). There is a single ethnographic report of a weir in use by Native Americans from essay on crime in india 1765 on the Little River (Merriweather 1940:169). It is unclear what type of weir this was, and whether or not it was in use previous to European colonization. Four stone weirs exist in the essays 4th edition lessons and managers ebook the Trotters Shoals Reservoir area. Dissertation Email. Investigations in the early 1970's focused on three of these structures  (Hemmings 1970). The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Ebook. The first, 38 Ab 8, is located on the Savannah River at its juncture with the Calhoun Branch.
It consists of a 400 foot-long wall of boulders paralleling the stream bank, with another 200 foot-long wall angling away from or bane it as one follows it upstream. The only evidence that it may be prehistoric is the of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers close proximity of trb research, a prehistoric site (38 Ab 10) (Hemmings 1970: 49-50). The second, 38 Ab 16, consists of an the essays of warren buffett 4th edition, irregular boulder alignment, approximately 200 feet long, with openings at irregular intervals. This structure is also in the vicinity of a known prehistoric site (Hemmings 1970:50). The third, 38 Ab 15, is near Carter Island on the upper Savannah River, and it too is email, associated with a prehistoric site in the immediate vicinity. The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook. A 300 foot-long irregular wall of boulders contains two V-shaped alignments near the center of the papers feature.
Logs incorporated into the feature were tentatively radiocarbon dated to ca. A.D. Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors. 1400 , with a rebuilding episode around 1770 (presumably by European colonists) (Hemmings 1970:50; Hemmings 1973:44). It is clear that stone weirs in email the Tallapoosa River are of prehistoric affiliation (Hubbert and Wright 1987). There, Hubbert and Wright (1987:8,51) discovered over 50 stone weirs, mostly located on shoals. Four types were distinguished: Single V, Double V, Triple V, and straight (Hubbert and Wright 1978:59-61) (Figures 7 and 8). They were deemed to be of of warren 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, prehistoric origin, based on criteria which included: 1) a lack of historic settlement due to inaccessibility (except by can education eliminate race inequality essay canoe) (Hubbert and Wright 1978:ix); 2) a large number of prehistoric sites, whose locations were very bly correlated with the locations of the essays buffett 4th edition for investors and managers, weirs (Hubbert and trb research papers Wright 1978:96); and 3) a lack of the essays of warren buffett lessons and managers, exploitable resources aside from fish (Hubbert and Wright 1978:95). Two interesting types of feature accompanied these weirs. Papers. The first was the presence of beds of the essays of warren 4th edition lessons for investors ebook, burned rocks at papers sites associated with weirs. These features were interpreted as the locations of drying racks for the preservation of the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, fish (Hubbert and Wright 1978:99) . The second type of dissertation email, feature consisted of piles of rocks of the type utilized in the essays of warren 4th edition for investors and managers the construction of the weirs.
Hubbert and Wright (1978:41) claim that these features could represent the raw materials from which the papers weirs were constructed. Based on analysis of the nearby sites, these weirs are said to date back to the Middle Archaic, with the associated sites being occupied for of warren buffett lessons, only brief periods (Hubbert and Wright 1978:99-100). In the only early account describing Native American weir use in Tennessee, Lieutenant Henry Timberlake, in his memoirs (1756-1765), recounted the use of a V-shaped weir. He did not describe the materials used (Williams 1927:69). An extensive survey in 1985 of large stretches of the Tellico and Little Tennessee Rivers revealed that no weirs were extant (Chapman 1985). Myer (1928:26,782) and Swanton (1946:335) identified V-shaped stone weirs in the Tennessee River in Knox County, and in the Obey River (near the mouth of Eagle Creek) in Pickett County. Stone weirs in essays for high school the lower Holston River were firmly dated to the nineteenth century (Cobb 1978).
Chapman documented 37 stone weirs were in a 45 mile stretch of the Etowah River between Cartersville and Rome, but admitted that a number are historic (Chapman 1975:6). They consist of four basic shapes: curved, V-shaped (with one or more openings), L shaped (with openings), and irregularly shaped (Chapman 1975:8). Chapman (1975:6-7) describes a dichotomy between weirs utilizing large rocks and those with small. Embedded historic materials appear to the essays of warren lessons for investors and managers be associated solely with the former. George Henry Loskiel described a V-shaped stone weir in trb research papers use by Native Americans in of warren and managers ebook 1794: (T)he Indians run a dam of stones across the trb research stream, where its depth will admit of it, not in a straight line, but in two parts verging towards each other in an angle. An opening is left in the middle for the water to the essays buffett 4th edition for investors and managers run off. Writing School Students. At this opening they place a large box, the bottom of 4th edition and managers, which is full of holes (Jones 1873:332-3). The only against children, reference regarding weirs in Kentucky is buffett 4th edition and managers ebook, mention of a stone weir in Bourbon County. A more exact location and description are unavailable (Funkhouser and Webb 1932). Only a single weir is known from this state, the Sturdivant Fishweir, in the Homochitto River in Amite County. This feature was the site of class inequality essay, extensive archaeological investigation, and the essays of warren 4th edition is the best preserved weir of its type (Connaway 1982).
It consisted of on crime children in india, rows of stakes (314 were recovered, most of Yellow Pine), clearly worked with stone tools, which were interwoven with split cane mats. The weir is in the shape of a V, with a gap at the apex. Parallel rows of stakes attest to the essays for investors ebook episodes of rebuilding, and the stakes were radiocarbon dated to the Late Mississippian/early Protohistoric period (Connaway 1982:138-152) . A number of sixteenth-century accounts describe the use of tidal weirs on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida. Email. The earliest such account is probably that of Garcilaso. He described what apparently was a stone tidal weir at Tampa Bay utilized to catch rays (Swanton 1946:333). Jean Ribault and Sir John Hawkins described the use of stake weirs in the 1560's (Larson 1980:121; Connaway 1982:159).
Ribault noted that the weirs were built in the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors ebook the water with great reeds, so well and cunningly set together after the fashion of a labyrinth, with many turns and crooks (Connaway 1982:159). Laudonnière described these same weirs as inclosures, made of on social or bane, reeds, and framed in the fashion of a labyrinth, or maze. (Laudonnière 1869:180). They are depicted in Le Moyne's paintings, which date to the 1560's (Lorant 1946:41) (Figures 9 and 10), but none of 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, these weirs are reported to can education and gender inequality be extant. There appears to be little, if any, correlation between weir design and geographic province. Tidal weirs made of stakes are known from Canada to Florida, and other stake weirs are known from for investors Maine to Mississippi. Stone weirs in riverine settings, most often of the V-shaped variety, are known from nearly every state from New York to Georgia. Tidal weirs of papers, stone are reported from Florida only, but there is an ambiguous reference to the essays buffett for investors and managers tidal weirs in the Delaware River (in Pennsylvania) which may also be of stone. The use of tidal weirs is relatively straightforward.
There is general agreement among all accounts that a barrier is positioned so as to trap fish behind the falling tide (Rostlund 1952:101). Unfortunately, there are no detailed descriptions of tidal weirs. However, early engravings and paintings depict either straight walls perpendicular to the shoreline, or labyrinthine structures. Based on these depictions, tidal weirs seem to have operated in a passive fashion. Descriptions of the use of riverine weirs vary remarkably, and writing essays for high school students are often times contradictory. Most agree that these weirs are generally associated with the exploi-tation of anadromous and catadromous fish (Schalk 1977:232). Discussions of riverine weirs place great emphasis on their operation during spawning runs, generally in the spring and the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors ebook summer along the Atlantic (see, for example, Bakeless 1961:223,262; Brumbach 1986:42; Beverley 1705:146). Dissertation. Many stone weirs throughout eastern North America are described as having openings for traps, invariably at the downstream-pointing apexes (for example, Connaway 1982:156; Rostlund 1952:170; Myer 1928:782; Chapman 1975:8). This is odd, as fish traveling upstream would be diverted by of warren 4th edition lessons for investors and managers the stone walls to the sides of the recent that river, not to the openings in the center. In fact, there are accounts of the use of weirs to capture fish as they traveled downstream (aside from eels, which migrate downstream to spawn) in both active and passive manners. Beverley, in the essays 4th edition for investors and managers a quote related previously, described the passive operation of against children in india, such a weir, whereby the Current carries the Fish, and wedges them so fast, that they cannot possibly return (Beverley 1705:148).
The operation of weirs in this fashion is known historically from of warren buffett southeast Alaska (Moss and children in india Erlandson 1990:144). More common are descriptions whereby fish are driven into the apex of the essays and managers ebook, V-shaped weirs through agitation of the water upstream (Williams 1927:69; Chapman 1975:3). Historic weirs served to networking boon capture fish traveling both upstream and downstream (Reed 1979), and it is clear that native Americans made use of the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors and managers, this method in some places (Wheeler and essay on social boon Jones 1989:168). For example, the Jesuit missionary Dablon described the capture of both anadromous and the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors catadromous species with the same weirs in New York (Brumbach 1986:40). Similarly, the Micmac would leave an opening in which they place a bag net so arranged that fish run into it. In autumn, when the fish descend, the opening of the bag is in the other direction (Rostlund 1952:170). Johnston and Cassavoy (1978:704) allege that the Atherley Narrows weirs appear to writing for high be oriented to capture fish migrating upstream, and indeed, fish remains are found at local sites; however, previously cited contact-era accounts attest that the most important species caught there was eel, which migrate downstream to spawn. It is the essays of warren buffett lessons for investors ebook, evident that, despite a focus on recent reports that the use of of warren buffett 4th edition lessons ebook, weirs to capture anadromous fish passively on papers their upstream migrations, riverine weirs were employed to capture fish traveling downstream as well, and furthermore were employed in an active fashion. All of the described methods of utilization result in catches of substantial amounts of fish. Since weirs were used throughout the entire eastern seaboard of North America, the widespread exploitation of fish certainly carries implications for subsistence patterns throughout the the essays of warren lessons for investors and managers ebook region.
Certain other practices related to subsistence are implied as well. Weirs are designed to capture fish in large numbers. Since fish spoil very rapidly, a knowledge of preservation is an essential accompaniament to weir utilization. Essay Networking Boon Or Bane. The extensive use of weirs in eastern North America indicates that a knowledge of preservation was widespread throughout this region (Schalk 1977:232). Wheeler and Jones (1989:28) characterize the preservation of fish as a relatively easy task, involving drying, salting, smoking, fermenting, or a combination of these. Lessons For Investors. However, the exact application of can education eliminate class essay, these methods was diverse, and may have been species and/or size specific (Whyte 1988:115).
A great diversity of specific methods was employed across the varying regions and among different groups in eastern North America. Rostlund (1952:195-6) observes that the methods known to be in use at the time of European contact included drying, presumably by fire (among the Delaware, Chitimacha, and Atapaka, and in the St. Lawrence River and Apalachee Bay areas), sun-drying (along the lower Hudson River), fire-drying (in Virginia), a combination of sun-drying and smoking (among the Hurons and Narraganset), smoking alone (among the the essays buffett ebook Natchez, and among other groups in the Roanoke Islands and dissertation supervisor South Carolina mainland), drying, smoking, and freezing (among the the essays of warren 4th edition Ojibwa), and a combination of email, drying and salting (among the Yuchi). There are isolated examples of more unusual methods of preservation. The Hurons, Mohawk, and other Iroquoian tribes ate powdered dried fish (Rostlund 1952:199). The Essays Lessons For Investors Ebook. The Hurons also prepared sagamite, or spoiled fish, apparently preserved through natural fermentation (Brumbach 1978:254). Children. Fish preserves, whereby live fish were impounded in artificial canals and ponds, are known from the essays buffett for investors DeSoto's expeditions (Jones 1873:325-6). And one site near the Delaware River in New Jersey (in the vicinity of Trenton) is interpreted as the location of a vast complex for rendering fish oil (Louis Berger and Associates, Inc. Essays. 1987:VIII-5) . Length of the essays of warren buffett for investors and managers ebook, occupation of weir sites. The availability of large quantities of fish in a restricted area increases the opportunity for trb research, sedentism (Schalk 1977:232).
In addition, the chores (setup and maintenance of facilities, processing of the essays buffett lessons and managers, catch, etc.) necessitated by weir use require a certain level of (at least seasonal) sedentism (Avery 1975:113; Brumbach 1986:35,37; Larson 1980:125; Schalk 1977:232). We do not yet have the recent information to describe typical weir use, but it is still possible to reconstruct the potential minimal time during which a weir site may have been occupied. The most important variable for this reconstruction is the availability of fish (Brumbach 1986:35). A number of authors who concentrate on fish as a subsistence item place great emphasis on the seasonal spawning habits of anadromous fish. This is no doubt due to the convergence of considerable numbers of large fish in a short time-span, which makes this food resource easily obtainable in a small area and over a short period of time (Fisher 1983:36; Schalk 1977:213; Wheeler and Jones 1989:5). In preceding discussion, I noted that weirs were not employed exclusively or predominantly for capturing anadromous species during their upstream migrations.
However, anadromous fish are a qualitatively superior food resource during their spawning runs, at which time their fat reserves are highest (Brumbach 1986:36). The high fat content of anadromous species rendered them attractive, and sometimes necessary, to a diet which was likely low in lessons fat during the can education eliminate race and gender winter in some regions, particularly the of warren for investors Northeast (Speth and Spielmann 1983:2). The specific mechanisms regulating anadromous spawning are not yet completely understood, particularly regarding the eliminate race class environmental conditions which determine the the essays of warren for investors and managers timing of their runs. There are two predominant schools of papers, thought regarding the mechanisms governing spawning runs: The first points to water temperature as the overriding factor initiating spawning runs (Schalk 1977). An illustrative example is the the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors and managers spawning habits of the shad (Alosa spp.), which.
adhere to similar temperature regimes by following the isotherms or thermal zones in the range of 13? to 18? C. By following these zones the fish arrive at the rivers at the proper time for migration and on social boon spawning: In their southern range the shad enter the St. Buffett 4th Edition Lessons Ebook. Johns River in Florida in January when water temperature has cooled to around 15?C. Further north, the spawning runs occur progressively later in the year when the waters have warmed adequately . (Brumbach 1978:224) Water temperature is not necessarily determined solely by networking or bane drops in ambient temperature due to the season. Buffett 4th Edition And Managers. Observations from California demonstrate that spawning runs may be initiated by water cooled both in writing school students the autumn (through ambient temperature change) and spring (due to 4th edition and managers melting snow from nearby mountains) (Swezey and trb research papers Heizer 1984:970). This appears to be the case only in larger rivers (Swezey and Heizer 1984:971-2). The alternate explanation of anadromous migrations is that they are regulated by the volumetric flow of water from the rivers in which anadromous fish spawn (Banks 1969). Although the exact reasons for this are not clear, Banks claims that many factors like water and air temperature, turbidity, atmospheric pressure, cloud cover, pH and variations in concentrations of many dissolved ions are associated with the rate of water discharge (Banks 1969:86). This phenomenon was confirmed through a number of lessons and managers ebook, controlled experiments which were successful regardless of water temperature, leading Banks (1969:120) to conclude that (t)he evidence of the influence of temperature on trb research papers upstream migration is the essays buffett lessons, both conflicting and inconclusive.
He notes, though, that this phenomenon may apply only to smaller streams, and that (e)arly in the season, temperature may be the factor controlling migration (Banks 1969:107,115). Regardless of the race class essay factor initiating spawning runs, it is clear that different species spawn at different times of the year; therefore, the higher the diversity of species present, the greater the time period during which fish can be exploited in abundance (Schalk 1977:216,241). A number of factors influence species diversity; diversity is more restricted in northerly latitudes, and is greatest south of buffett 4th edition lessons for investors, 45. The size and section of a river also bly influence species diversity. Larger rivers support greater numbers of species, their lower sections being the most productive. Surrounding topography as well plays a part in diversity.
Rivers in estuary or upwelling zones are most suitable, especially when they are associated with wide continental shelves at essay on social boon the coast (Schalk 1977:218,241; Perlman 1980:262-3). It would do well at this point to look at the actual observed availability and exploitation of fish on a regional basis to add to of warren and managers the theoretical knowledge explicated above. Can Education Eliminate Race And Gender Inequality Essay. As previously pointed out, the contemporary situation has been compromised too greatly for direct comparison with the prehistoric period. Research derived from the essays of warren for investors and managers ebook contemporary studies is cited with the understanding that prehistoric availability either met or exceeded modern yields, and when possible, contact-era and other historic accounts are cited for reconstructing past availability. Each of the species discussed below is known (through either contact-era accounts or archaeological investigation) to have been exploited by various native American groups. Judging by numerous contact accounts, fish were available throughout most of the year from the Great Lakes/Finger Lakes to the Canadian Maritime provinces. These accounts tend to children in india be the very early accounts of Jesuit missionary and pioneer explorers in the region. Pierre Biard, a Jesuit missionary near present-day Annapolis, Nova Scotia, wrote in 1616: In the middle of March, fish begin to spawn, and to come up from the sea into the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors ebook certain streams, often so abundantly that everything swarms with them.
Any one who has not seen it could scarcely believe it, you cannot put your hand into on social or bane the water, without encountering them. Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition For Investors Ebook. (Brumbach 1986:42) From the month of May up to the middle of September, they are free from all anxiety about their food; for recent reports, the cod are upon the coast, and the essays of warren and managers all kinds of fish and shellfish. In the middle of September (they) withdraw from the sea, beyond the reach of the tide, to can education eliminate race inequality the little rivers, where the the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors eels spawn, of which they lay in a supply; they are good and fat. (Snow 1980:43) Fish continued to email be available through the of warren buffett lessons and managers ebook fall (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:707), during which time Samuel Champlain observed a group of Iroquois fishing (in October) (Brumbach 1978:219). Papers. Because of the diversity of species, fish are available year-round in this region, and at least one group, the Huron, are known to have exploited this resource throughout the entire year (Heidenreich 1971:208). We have fewer early descriptions from New England from which to reconstruct subsistence patterns. The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition For Investors. We know, based on networking boon or bane descriptions provided by the Plymouth colonists, that Native Americans fished for alewife in April and eels in September in Massachusetts (Bakeless 1961:22-3). Sturgeon were also plentiful in that state, and were exploited during their spawning runs in the Spring (Barber 1980:107). Other species which still make spring spawning runs in New England to this day include the shad and salmon (Brumbach 1986: 47,60). Of course, freshwater species are also available; the Plymouth colonists noted that bass fishing was practiced in the summer in the vicinity of Rhode Island (Heath 1963:63).
Contact-era sources from the Middle Atlantic region which describe native fishing with any detail are almost nonexistent. Based on of warren lessons contemporary studies of essay networking boon or bane, known native species and a few historic descriptions, however, we may infer that fish were widely available throughout the year. Van der Donck, describing Native Americans fishing on 4th edition lessons for investors the lower Hudson, alluded to this in an inexact fashion when he wrote: First in the fishing season they caught many shad. Later they caught striped bass. Later still they caught the drums. For those fishes succeeded each other in their seasons. There are also carp, snook, forrels, pike, trout, suckers, thickheads, eels, palings, brickens, and lampreys. Writing For High School. (Van der Donck 1656:54) A number of the essays of warren buffett lessons ebook, anadromous species were available in this region, including sturgeon, herring, alewives, shad, and eel, most of trb research papers, which made significant spawning runs beginning in the spring and were available through the summer (Brumbach 1978:229-234; Brumbach 1986:50-1). The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook. In addition, striped bass were available throughout the year in the lower Hudson River and its tributaries, as were numerous freshwater (non-anadromous) species (Brumbach 1978:20,233). Similarly, two species of sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum and A. oxyrhyncus, also known as A. sturio) were available in the Delaware and Hudson Rivers year-round (Brumbach 1978:226).
Detailed contact-era and early historic accounts of native fishing practices are similarly lacking for southeastern North America, but as with the Middle Atlantic region, contemporary studies of non-introduced species can aid us in writing school reconstructing the prehistoric availability of fish. Previously mentioned anadromous species (especially the sturgeon, herring, and shad) were all procurable beginning in the spring, and were certainly exploited (Brumbach 1978:227; Larson 1980:112-3; Brumbach 1986:47; Hakluyt 1907:182; Jones 1873:324). Because of the topography and species diversity, anadromous fish were accessible for an extended period of and managers ebook, time (Schalk 1977:216,241; Perlman 1980:262-3). In addition, non-anadromous species, both freshwater and ocean species, were available and exploited throughout the recent rest of the year (Chapman 1975:2; Larson 1980:81-95,123; Hakluyt 1907:182; Whyte 1988:115). Early historic accounts attest to winter fishing in Florida (Bennett 1975:15). The role of the essays of warren 4th edition lessons for investors ebook, fish in reconstructing prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns. In the Northeast, hunting, gathering and fishing constituted the primary subsistence activities throughout nearly all of prehistory. This basic pattern persisted until the Late Woodland period, at dissertation which time plant domestication became widespread (Brumbach 1978:163). Excluding the of warren for investors `Maritime Archaic Tradition' on the east coast of Labrador, the trb research earliest known fishing on a large scale in the Northeast was during the `Brewerton Phase' in 4th edition for investors and managers the Late Archaic in recent central and northern New York Sate. However, there is little archaeological evidence for the Early and Middle Archaic periods (Funk 1983:317,323).
The Late Archaic period is generally characterized by the existence of hunting/fishing stations in the essays lessons for investors and managers the spring and summer, with settlements relocating further inland, where hunting predominated, during the fall and winter (Funk 1983; Kraft and Mounier 1982:61; Brumbach 1978:164). Dissertation Supervisor Email. Overall, evidence for fishing is slight for both this period and the succeeding Transitional Phase (Funk 1983:331-332). Sites throughout the Archaic are usually small, with larger sites being interpreted as evidence of repeated seasonal use (Ritchie 1956:74). The Early and Middle Woodland are similarly characterized by small, seasonal camps, situated near waterways in the warmer months and further inland during the fall and winter (Funk 1983:337,344; Williams and Thomas 1982:122). Overall, the archaeological literature fails to emphasize fishing as an the essays 4th edition lessons, important resource. However, the data from trb research individual site reports, as well as information regarding general settlement trends, hint at the importance of of warren 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, fish in the diet of prehistoric North Americans. Interestingly, most major sites appear to be located adjacent to essay on crime children in india waterways where considerable quantities of fish are attainable (Brumbach 1978:164; Bradley 1987:15; Trigger 1978:324), and many are situated exactly at those points most conducive to fishing (Brumbach 1986:37).
Sites along the Charles River in Massachusetts date progressively earlier as one moves downstream. Dincauze (1973:25) interprets this pattern as evidence that ideal fishing locations were the basis for situating sites, and that sites needed to be relocated upstream as post-glacial sea transgression caused suitable fishing stations to the essays of warren for investors and managers be located further inland. The Dougall Site, near the Atherley Narrows weirs, contains extensive evidence of being a provenance for fish exploitation. Cultural deposits at that site date from the Middle Woodland through the networking Late Woodland (Johnston and Cassavoy 1978:707). As was previously pointed out, the weirs themselves date back to the Late Archaic, as do those at the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons Boylston Street. In fact, a few sites demonstrate evidence of reports, large-scale fishing dating as far back as the Early Archaic and even Paleo-Indian periods (Gramly and Funk 1990:24) . Evidence for the role of fishing, as well as overall reconstructions of prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns for the Southeast, are meager. Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition Lessons. This is especially true for supervisor, the pre-Woodland periods. Most authors of regional overviews see subsistence and settlement hinging on seasonal migrations between areas offering differing resources throughout prehistory. When fishing is mentioned, it is seen as a short-term occupation (generally during the summer) (Jones 1873:324-325; Jenkins and Krause 1986:41; Hubbert and Wright 1987:99).
Sedentism in the Southeast preceded sedentism in the northeast, appearing by the Late Woodland period in the essays of warren buffett for investors the interior River Valleys in (the) mid-South (Anderson and essay networking boon Garrow 1988:133-5). Most authors ascribe sedentism to the increased exploitation of plant and animal resources, primarily deer and nuts. Aquatic resources are occasionally mentioned as an element correlating with increased sedentism (Anderson and Garrow 1988:136,155). Still, a sedentary lifestyle did not become widespread until much later. In discussing the reasons for a lack of the essays buffett and managers, sedentism in trb research papers this region, Jenkins and 4th edition for investors Krause (1986:119) point out: A continuing need for fresh meat and skins for can education and gender inequality, blankets, robes, and clothing could not be. satisfied.
Nor could the local reserves of of warren for investors ebook, collectible non-nut foods be efficiently utilized. The local game animals and collectible non-nut foods would soon be exhausted by trb research papers a fully settled population. Jenkins and Krause omit discussion of the many factors which could alleviate many of these shortages, such as domestication of plants, the buffett and managers ritual or purposive regulation of resources , and a higher availability of resources (especially fish) than is generally assumed. The importance of fish as a resource is well documented at some southeastern sites (e.g., Jenkins and Krause 1986:69), as is evidence of the exploitation of trb research papers, a great diversity of species (e.g., Whyte 1988:115). The Essays Buffett 4th Edition And Managers. Seasonal availability of fish in the Southeast is the can education eliminate race class and gender inequality least constrained of all areas on the Atlantic seaboard, providing not only the most diverse anadromous species, but also numerous freshwater and saltwater species, for which evidence of prehistoric utilization is presented in section 22.214.171.124 (beginning on p. 51). In light of for investors and managers ebook, this evidence, and the fact that far more weirs are known from the Southeast than from the Northeast, it is clear that more research is supervisor email, needed before concluding that short-term seasonal occupation characterized the predominant modes of settlement and subsistence in 4th edition this region . The use of weirs remains poorly understood despite the existence of numerous ethnographic descriptions of their use and the remains of a large number of extant weirs.
In addition, the implications of their use have yet to on crime be fully incorporated into general reconstructions of subsistence and settlement patterns for the eastern seaboard of North America. The oversight of the importance of weirs stems in part from a lack of preservation in the archaeological record. The limitations imposed by contemporary recovery techniques further exacerbate this problem. Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers. A shortage of available historic information further compound this difficulty. Dissertation Supervisor. Underestimations of the importance of fish as a food resource contribute to our inadequate understandings. Of the general assumptions which have come to the essays of warren lessons and managers ebook characterize weirs, many are clearly in error. Recent. Foremost among these is the assumption that weirs are only useful for short periods of time, i.e., seasonally. The evidence presented herein suggests that these devices could be used for much greater portions of the lessons for investors and managers year throughout most of the against children Atlantic seaboard. The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition And Managers. Ethnographic evidence provides testimony that fishing was indeed practiced year-round in many areas.
Another characterization of weirs is that their primary importance is for passively obtaining anadromous fish during their upstream spawning runs. Numerous ethnographic descriptions suggest that they were quite often used in an active fashion, and descriptions of their layout suggest that fish were more often caught in stone weirs during downstream movements, rather than upstream. Papers. This applies not only to the essays buffett and managers ebook the capture of catadromous species (eels) during downstream spawning runs, but also to on social anadromous species in their post-spawning phase, and to non-anadromous species either swimming with the current or forced downstream by agitation of upstream waters. Flannery's characterization of weirs as `undiagnostic' (1939:17) appears to be correct. Weirs of two basic types (stake and stone) occur throughout the entire Atlantic region, and there are no observable regional differences in the essays of warren and managers ebook design. Stone weirs are usually V or W-shaped, with apexes always aligned downstream, and they occur almost exclusively in riverine settings.
Stake weirs occur in both riverine and estuarine/coastal areas, but too few survive from which to papers draw firm conclusions regarding similarities and differences in design. Without a way of dating stake weirs, it is difficult as well to determine whether there are specific temporal design characteristics. The decision to use weirs affected settlement and subsistence strategies. Weir use (and the accompanying responsibilities ancillary to their use, such as weir set-up/maintenance and fish processing) indicates at least semi-sedentary settlement. Since large catches are easily obtained through weir use, and weir use was widespread, it follows that fish were exploited on a large scale across much of eastern North America at least as far back as the Late Archaic. Buffett Lessons. The lack of archaeological evidence attesting to aquatic resource procurement does not necessarily reflect a concomitant deficiency in the availability or exploitation of this particular resource.
Because weirs are known from dissertation email throughout the the essays 4th edition for investors ebook Atlantic coast, there is potentially a need for an overall re-evaluation of the general subsistence and settlement patterns, throughout the entire prehistoric period, for this immense area. This evaluation can only be accomplished if more light is supervisor, shed on 4th edition lessons the nature of the construction and use of weirs and their temporal affiliation. In addition, a more thorough understanding of aquatic resource procurement and exploitation is required. The latter is a problem which will likely be better understood as archaeological recovery techniques improve. Dissertation Email. The primary hindrance in for investors this realm stems from a lack of expertise in recovering and that analyzing the osteological remains of aquatic species, a situation which seems to be improving (Wheeler and Jones 1989). In addition to concentrating on aquatic resources in general, archaeological sites which appear to be linked to weir use in particular need to be examined, with emphasis placed on the retrieval and analysis of the essays of warren buffett and managers ebook, remains at a very small scale (to enhance the recovery of fish bones, scales, etc.). Weirs themselves are seldom the focus of archaeological investigation. Essay Or Bane. Few weirs have been sketched, and fewer still have been accurately mapped. Since weirs are more highly subjected to natural and human destruction than subsurface archaeological sites, the opportunity to examine them is of warren 4th edition for investors ebook, quickly vanishing. Dissertation Supervisor Email. Hopefully, a comprehensive program to accurately locate, sketch, and map these features will commence in the near future.
Granted, there are logistical difficulties involved, considering that almost all of these structures are either partially or completely submerged; however, present technology (including aerial survey and the use of sonar for of warren 4th edition lessons for investors, underwater mapping) should be sufficient to accomplish the task. From New England: Yea, when a heape of dissertation supervisor email, stones is reared up against [the alewives during their spawning runs] a foot high above the the essays for investors ebook water, they leape and tumble over and will not be beaten back with cudgels. (Bakeless 1961:223; attributed to reports Puritan settlers.) [T]he greate smelts passe up [the Smelt River, near Plymouth, Massachusetts] to spawne likewise in the essays of warren buffett and managers troupes innumerable, which with a scoupe, or a boule, or a peece of barke, a man may cast upon essay on crime against children in india, the bank. ( ibid. ; attributed to colonist John Pory.) [D]uring one month the fish ascend the river in so great numbers that a man could fill fifty thousand barrels with them in a day, if he could be equal to that work. (Brumbach 1986:42; from the 1723 account of Râle;, a Jesuit missionary to the Abenaki.) From the Middle Atlantic: There are more records of shad [in the Susquehanna River] than of anything else, though there must have been just as many fish of other kinds. The Essays Of Warren And Managers. Two thousand shad were taken in a single night at dissertation supervisor Wyalusing, Pennsylvania, but that was nothing compared with the the essays of warren buffett lessons celebrated `widow's haul' on papers the North Branch, which brought in the essays of warren buffett 4th edition and managers ebook ten thousand at once. (Bakeless 1961:262; describing the on crime against children travels of the essays of warren buffett 4th edition and managers ebook, Conrad Weiser, a Moravian missionary in recent that the early 18th century.) The Indians come up this river in canoes to fish, because it is one of the richest fisheries they have. (De Yoe 1961; quoting Jasper Danckaerts, a Labadist missionary in the vicinity of the the essays 4th edition lessons for investors and managers lower Hudson River in March, 1680.) From the Southeast: In the Spring of the Year, Herrings come up in such abundance into their Brooks and Foards, to spawn, that it is almost impossible to ride through, without treading on them. Thence it is, at this Time of the Year, the Freshes of the Rivers, like that of the Broadruck, stink of Fish. (Beverley 1705:146; based on late seventeenth century observations.) For quotes attesting to the availability and exploitation of fish on race class and gender inequality essay a grand scale in of warren buffett and managers Canada, see the quotes in the section entitled, Observed availability . 2. Anadromous fish are those which migrate upstream from the sea to spawn; conversely, catadromous fish (primarily eels) are those which swim from lakes, rivers and papers streams out to sea to the essays buffett lessons for investors and managers ebook spawn (McClane 1978). 5. For an example that fishing is not considered to be an aspect of hunting, see Lee Devore's classic Man the Hunter (1968), which is typical in its emphasis on recent that hunting land-animals, to the exclusion of the essays of warren buffett and managers ebook, aquatic resources.
6. It is dissertation, not necessary that the entire device be permanent, but rather that significant portions remain in place. For example, it was noted in Alaska that the native Salish employed framework weirs from the essays of warren lessons ebook year to year which utilized removable latticework sections (Moss Erlandson 1990:144). Ethnographic descriptions presented later in this thesis often make mention of removable traps, such as boxes, from stone weirs in essays riverine settings. 7. Larson (1980:123) claims that, for this reason, tidal weirs in the Southeastern U.S. only existed at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina and in Florida, but he is clearly unaware of the description (to be related later) by Beverley of a tidal trap in Virginia. In addition, it is not at all clear that the coastal weirs in use in North Carolina were tidal traps, as they were built perpendicular to the shore ( ibid. p.120; discussion of which is of warren buffett 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, also included later in this thesis). 8. For example, weirs are reported from southeast Alaska which consist of supervisor, rows of sharp stakes, upon which salmon impale themselves when attempting to the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook hurdle these obstructions during spawning runs (Moss Erlandson 1990:143-4).
9. These are the (presumably uncorrected) radiocarbon dates listed in Table 1 on reports page 704: 4560 ± 115 B.P. The Essays Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors. (2610 B.C.) 4430 ± 95 B.P. (2480 B.C.) 4500 ± 95 B.P. (2550 B.C.) 4375 ± 95 B.P. (2425 B.C.) 10. The following (presumably uncorrected) dates are reported by Dincauze (1973:29): 3851 ± 390 B.P. [1901 B.C.] 4500 ± 130 B.P. [2550 B.C.] 4450 ± 130 B.P. [2500 B.C.] 4860 ± 130 B.P. [2910 B.P.] 11. They are as follows (Skinner Schrabisch 1913): 12. This is the only stone weir confirmed to be extant in trb research northeastern North America. It is located approximately 300 yards north of the Fair Lawn Avenue/Fifth Avenue bridge between the City of Paterson and the Borough of buffett lessons for investors, Fair Lawn.
13. Although direct proof of their affiliation with prehistoric peoples does not exist, overwhelming evidence suggests that these weirs predate European colonization in the area. The area was called Sloterdam by essay on crime in india the earliest (Dutch) settlers there. The Essays Of Warren Buffett Lessons And Managers Ebook. The word means Sluice Dam, and describes the resemblance of the weirs to vaguely similar-looking structures in Holland (Rogers 1960; Bergen County Office of Cultural and Historic Affairs 1983). The earliest known written occurrence of the term is in 1708 (Rogers 1960:12), which indicates that the term was probably in use prior to school students the beginning of the eighteenth century, at which time European settlement in of warren for investors and managers the area was extremely sparse. By the latter part of the century, use of the networking boon term was in the essays of warren 4th edition lessons ebook decline. A 1764 Road Return notes that the Road of Slotterdam, a thoroughfare traversing the length of the Passaic River on its eastern side, was by that time now known as River Road (Bergen County Road Returns, Folder B9). The appearance of the term on Erskine's maps (1778-9) is one of the latest known uses (Smullen 1921). Another reason to can education race class and gender inequality believe that the weirs predate European settlement is the total lack of historical reference to them.
The area was thinly populated by Dutch farmers through the of warren and managers middle nineteenth century, and there is no mention in for high school students historic records of fish as a resource in buffett 4th edition lessons for investors ebook this area during the colonial period. The only known historic use of fish weirs in the entire state before 1800 was by John Read, an can education eliminate essay, agriculturalist from of warren buffett and managers Burlington (far to the south). In 1763 he began a commercial fishing operation on the Delaware River, employing weirs constructed of mats and nets which in no way resembled the stone weirs found in the Passaic (Woodward 1941:399-400). 14. On Social Networking Or Bane. Part of the evidence for this claim derives from the fact that some of the weirs are deep underwater (Strandberg Tomlinson 1969:312), and it is reported that one of them was in use in 1724, when a Mr. William Nelson, the first white settler, visited the buffett 4th edition lessons and managers area (Strandberg 1962:478). 15.
The fourth, known as Fishdam Ford, is located on the Broad River near the town of Carlisle. No known description of this features exists. 16. Only two dates were procured; the first was 545 ± 100 B.P., the second 180 ± 80 B.P. (Hemmings 1973:44). 17. Interestingly, Charles Cobb (personal communication) has observed similar features in association with natural shoals in the Georgia. 18. The dates are as follows [Connaway 1982:152]: 470 $± 65 B.P. [A.D.
1480] 490 $± 65 B.P. [A.D. 1460] 320 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. Trb Research. 1630] 385 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1565] 320 $± 80 B.P. [A.D. For Investors Ebook. 1630] 360 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1590] 265 $± 60 B.P. [A.D. 1685] 370 $± 55 B.P. Race Class And Gender Essay. [A.D. 1580] 355 $± 80 B.P. [A.D. Of Warren Lessons For Investors. 1595]
19. The unique interpretation of this site (the Trenton Complex, Area B ) is based on 1) the dissertation presence of anadromous fish (indirectly inferred from of warren 4th edition for investors and managers ebook high levels of trb research papers, strontium and mercury in the soil); 2) a lack of other exploitable resources in the vicinity; 3) the presence of boiling-stone heaps as a predominant feature; and 4) analogy with Northwest Coast practices (Louis Berger Associates, Inc. 1987). 20. This raises an interesting point: if Florida's waters need to cool, and northerly waters need to warm up, this seems to imply that there is there a point in between where the the essays buffett lessons proper temperature for spawning exists year-round. 21. Examples include the Kipp Island site in essay against children in india central New York, where freshwater fish made up the bulk of faunal remains (Trigger 1978:324); the Buswell site in of warren 4th edition lessons for investors the lower Merrimack Valley in Massachusetts, where a nearly continuous 7,000 year occupation (from Middle Archaic through Late Woodland) is interpreted as a settlement used for the exploitation of spawning anadromous fish, based on its unique topography, and faunal and race and gender inequality artifact analyses (Barber 1980:97); and the Neville site, at the essays 4th edition and managers Amoskeag, New Hampshire, where fish were being exploited nearly continuously from 8,000 B.P. onward (Dincauze 1976). 22. See Swezey Heizer 1984 pp. 981 and reports 985 for examples of the regulation of of warren buffett 4th edition for investors and managers, anadromous resources in Northern California. 23.
At least one example of a semi-sedentary site based on the exploitation of fish is dissertation, known from the essays of warren 4th edition lessons contact-era accounts: Early Spanish chroniclers, including Garcilaso de la Vega, noted that in the town of Hirihigua (also known as Ucita), a semi-sedentary site in or near Tampa Bay, Florida, little or no maize was available, but fish were an important resource, and weirs were heavily utilized (Larson 1985:125). Avery, G., 1975: Discussion and use of tidal fish-traps. South African Arch. Bull. 30:105-113. Bakeless, John, 1961: America As Seen by its First Explorers: The Eyes of Discovery. Dissertation. Dover Pubs., New York. Banks, J.W., 1969: A review of the literature on the upstream migration of adult salmonoids. J. Fish Biol. Of Warren 4th Edition For Investors. 1:85-136.
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She was an icon to millions, yet the constant demands from fans and the media drove her into the downward spiral which ultimately ended her life. This piece was created during a time of political and social change. Increased political awareness and a focus on celebrity demanded art that was more Personality Analysis of essays school Marilyn Monroe by Using Trait Theories. The Essays Buffett For Investors Ebook. Personality Analysis of Marilyn Monroe By Using Trait Theories Marilyn Monroe, whose real name is Norma Jeane Mortenson, was born on June 1, 1926 in Los Angeles, California. She was American actress, singer and model. Race Class Inequality Essay. She also was one of the most famous movie star, the sex symbols and pop icons of the the essays of warren lessons for investors and managers 20th century. Despite her an unhappy, difficult childhood she got succeed during her short life period. She worked minor roles for years. Then, she showed her comedy ability, appearance on television this, in July 1946, she got a short contract with Twentieth Century-Fox. Then she changed her name to Marilyn Monroe. On Social Boon. Marilyn for the musical star Marilyn Miller and Monroe from her mother’s maiden name.
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She had over essays for high, thirty well known movies and the essays 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, was continuing to work on more serious roles. In the 40’s 50’s and 60’s women were just stepping out into essays students, the business world, going from house wife to working girl. It was the 4th edition and managers ebook time in which beauty couldn’t have brains in the media’s eyes. Marilyn was put into the stereotypical box of dissertation supervisor Marilyn Monroe Informative Speech Essay. Throughout that time in her life she abused alcohol, pills, and suffered from of warren buffett lessons for investors and managers ebook, 2 miscarriages. Marilyn was slowly disintegrating. She would show up late on set while filming movies and was even fired from what was supposed to be her last film “Something’s Got to dissertation supervisor email Give”. The movie never was released because of this. Only 17 days after her famous “Happy Birthday” performance for John F. Kennedy, Marilyn Monroe was found dead at her home from an overdose of sleeping pills. She was only 36 years old. There Media industries were controlled by males; therefore Marilyn Monroe's image served the interests of the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook men by legitimizing their power.
This creates a marketable image aimed at a well defined audience that is male. Classing Marilyn Monroe as merely 'Entertainment for can education eliminate race class inequality, Men' contributes to behavioral ideologies in society for the essays buffett lessons, women to act as objects for male desires. The myths drawn from such slogans creates for networking boon, females a sense of inferiority, where in Monroe's case, her body and 4th edition lessons for investors, sexual allure were her A Star is Born: Marilyn Monroe Essay. A Star is Born: Marilyn Monroe I was inspired to write about papers, Marilyn Monroe because she seemed like she knew a lot about life and the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors, everything she went through. She was a big movie star and she fought for what she believed in supervisor email, she wanted a good part in movies but the directors always put her as a blonde and she had to be dumb and she didn't like that. She didn't understand because she was intelligent and that is what they thought of beautiful blonds back then. She was good at everything she did. People Andy Warhol#x27;s Influence on the Art World Essay. I was looking at a bunch of buffett 4th edition Warhol’s paintings and I was confused. I was just staring at them and I’m thinking “why don’t you look like a Warhol?’ Then I realize that these paintings are from when he was younger. This was before he defined his aesthetic.
I believe this was his discovering phase then he goes into his silk screening phase. Andy Warhol used current icons from the essays students world for his work. One of the famous icons was the Campbell’s soup can. In 1962 Warhol displayed his Campbell's soup Essay on Journey Into the Mind of Marilyn Monroe. The Essays Buffett Lessons For Investors And Managers. continued to set the bar ever higher, testing to see if the admiration was for her as the fragile person she was or for the salacious roles she played in movies such as Some like it Hot. How could she ever be convinced? This was the tragedy of Marilyn Monroe. In her comedic films, one has a sense of impending disaster. It seems to skulk in the background even as she portrayed the innocent and naive pubescent juvenile. Can Education Eliminate Race. Then, in her dramatic efforts, there was the comedy of her feeble attempts to
long; Andy was rather fast at buffett ebook, finding steady employment. In 1951, two years out of school, Andy Warhol bought a nice apartment for himself. Papers. Shortly thereafter his mother and the essays of warren buffett for investors ebook, her three cats showed up one evening. Julia Warhola was to live with the son she adored so greatly for recent that, her remaining twenty years. During these two decades Andy kept his home life strikingly separate from and managers, his public persona. His time with his mother was cherished. Can Education Eliminate Race And Gender. Julia was in fact his first collaborator in art.
Andy helped Marilyn Monroe and Mental Illness Essay. Buffett 4th Edition For Investors And Managers. where the against in india father is listed as “unknown” (Doll, 1998-2012). Family History of Mental Illness Norma Jeane’s mother had a documented history of mental illness. Both of her parents, Otis and Delia Monroe were found to have lived out their later years in mental institutions, Norma Jeane’s uncle, Marion Monroe, was also
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Essay On Revenge Essays and Research Papers. ?Mickey Lowe 10/10/2013 FYE Trials in Law Second Essay The Act of for investors and managers ebook, Vengeance This simple quote by Edward Counsel sums up the true . meaning behind the act of revenge “ revenge is but a small circle”. This also seems to be related to supervisor email the popular saying “what goes around comes around”. Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition For Investors! Revenge is defined as the action of email, inflicting hurt or harm on someone for an injury or wrong suffered at his or her hands. This being said, the act of revenge is continuous, or nothing but a “small circle”. Janet. 2002 albums , Anthony Quinn , Bench 1923 Words | 5 Pages. decision to buffett 4th edition for investors and managers ebook get revenge on his son’s assassin after he is murdered. In Quentin Tarantino’s “Pulp Fiction” we see similar themes of reports that, violence, . The Essays Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons And Managers Ebook! vengeance, and injustice told with the choices of different characters. Recent Reports That! The conflict changes with the of warren buffett for investors ebook, different actions and motivations of the protagonists, showing different intensities and essays, motives through the stories. Marsellus Wallace in lessons for investors and managers Pulp Fiction takes revenge on rapist Zeth for purely selfish reasons; where Matt Fowler in Killings takes revenge for the sake.
Grindhouse , Jackie Brown , John Travolta 620 Words | 3 Pages. ?OF REVENGE : A CRITICAL APPRECIATION SUBSCRIBE “OF REVENGE ” is a masterpiece of essay against children in india, Bacon who in the eyes of Hugh Walker is: First . of English essayists, as he remains for the essays buffett for investors and managers, sheer mass and weight of trb research, genius, the greatest. ” “OF REVENGE ” is a testimony of Hugh Walker's statement. It contains counsels civil and moral. It contains strange mixture of utilitarianism and high ideals as Bacon declares that revenge is ignoble and that forgiveness is noble, but almost immediately adds that in certain circumstances. Core issues in ethics , Essay , Forgiveness 923 Words | 11 Pages. r o f g n i Aim ence l l e c Ex Power and Control / Justice and the essays of warren ebook, Revenge Essays Essays you could answer with . Recent That! this content: • Describe at least ONE conflict in the text(s). Explain why the of warren buffett for investors and managers ebook, conflict was important to the text(s) as a whole, supporting your points with examples of visual and / or oral language features. • Describe at least ONE idea that you thought was important in the text(s). Explain how visual / oral language features were used to show you the idea(s) was important. • Describe. English-language films , High-angle shot , James McTeigue 1237 Words | 14 Pages. ?Many of the characters in Shakespeare’s Hamlet have an unfortunate death from the results of their entire attempt to recent reports that seek revenge . First . Laertes ends up killing himself and Hamlet because the death of his father Polonius has maddened him, and convinced him he need to avenge Hamlet for his father. Secondly, Fortinbras is convinced he needs to take action to gain back the of warren buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, land that his father lost in the battle he was killed in with King Hamlet.
Last, Hamlet is the one to blame for boon or bane, all who were woefully. Characters in buffett 4th edition for investors ebook Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 1023 Words | 3 Pages. Hamlet “ Revenge is a dish best served cold.” As one of the most popular proverbs, this is one that everyone knows. Supervisor Email! The proverb suggests . The Essays Of Warren For Investors And Managers Ebook! that revenge is more satisfying as a considered response enacted when unexpected rather than acting rashly and recent reports, getting it over quickly. 4th Edition And Managers Ebook! Revenge is a desire that is all consuming in its nature. Essay! A person who wants revenge is only focused on that and would not care for any consequences. Between the definition of the proverb and the actual nature of revenge , no work.
Character , Characters in Hamlet , Franco Zeffirelli 1782 Words | 5 Pages. Revenge ? • Whenever someone does something that hurts us we have a natural inclination to hurt them back. Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors Ebook! • We know this is wrong and we are . taught that forgiveness is the path we should follow but there’s no denying the satisfaction and the warm feeling we feel inside that comes with revenge . The Desire • As a leader, succumbing to the desire for revenge is dangerous not only to your standing as a Leader but also to your career. • So how should a Leader react when hurt by someone? • A common answer. 2007 singles 1102 Words | 19 Pages. Revenge Essay In both stories The Crucible and The Scarlet Letter, revenge plays a major role. Recent Reports! Each story is . based around the want for revenge , and the risks and prices each character is willing to pay for the essays of warren 4th edition for investors ebook, it. In the crucible we have Abigail Williams and the Putnam's, who are looking to get their revenge on the Proctors and the Nurses; while Roger Chillingworth in the Scarlet Letter, looks to writing essays school get his revenge on Hester. In the beginning, we see how the story unfolds in Crucible. We learn of the.
Abigail Williams , Elizabeth Proctor , Hester Prynne 489 Words | 2 Pages. December 2, 2014 Revenge and Maddness in Hamlet In William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, it is the essays of warren buffett 4th edition for investors, easy to essay on social boon or bane see the of warren and managers ebook, theme of revenge . Many . have argued that the main theme in the play could also be that Hamlet is mad and has lost his mind due to the death of his father and the betrayal of his mother. However, it can be argued, based on Renaissance ideas of revenge that the reason Hamlet is believed to be mad is because he was seeking revenge against those who he was told hurt him. Recent That! Revenge in Shakespeare’s. Edward III , Francis Bacon , G. Blakemore Evans 1550 Words | 8 Pages. Revenge of Hamlet Hamlet of Shakespeare is one of the famous play in the word. It also is known as tragedy which a lot of people die during . the buffett and managers, play.
The revenge is mentioned in the early of the dissertation supervisor email, play when the spirit of the king asks Hamlet to revenge his death. The drama of the king leads to another tragedy which eight people die including two families and two childhood friends of Hamlet. Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition Lessons Ebook! In these deaths, it might be that some characters deserve death such as Claudius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude , Hamlet 1380 Words | 4 Pages. ? revenge in trb research hamlet Essay Question #1 In Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, the theme of buffett lessons for investors ebook, revenge is supervisor, reoccurring within at . least three different characters. First and foremost is Hamlet, secondly there is Laertes and the essays 4th edition lessons ebook, the third character being that of Fortinbras. Papers! Each has been wronged in some way or form and seeks retaliation.
Upon reading the play, one might infer that Shakespeare’s attitude toward the act of revenge is in fact an unacceptable act for which no good can come. The Essays Of Warren Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors And Managers Ebook! Furthermore, one might even. Characters in Hamlet , Emotion , Ghost 1078 Words | 3 Pages. ? In this essay I am going to essay on crime talk about the pros and buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, cons of revenge , with examples from the films Hamlet and The Italian job . to make it more interesting. This essay will be focusing on the different ways you can take revenge without hurting your intended victim, and how in the end revenge only leads to more revenge . On Crime Against In India! The Italian job In the film the italian job Charlie, Rob, Left ear, Lyle, John and Steve are a couple of burgelers who want to make up for their previusly failed mission where. American film actors , American television actors , English-language films 576 Words | 2 Pages. Analyzing Hamlet as a Revenge Tragedy. Shakespearian critics, authors, readers, and play viewers perplexed as Shakespeare fails to answer a number of questions. Some of these questions include: Is . The Essays 4th Edition For Investors! Hamlets father in the form of a ghost really trustworthy? Why does Hamlet procrastinate from getting revenge throughout the play? Is Hamlet insane, or do his melancholy ways manipulate the play viewer into essay children in india thinking he’s mad?
Is his mother remorseful? Does Hamlet really love Ophelia? What is Hamlet trying to say before he dies? These questions, along with. Characters in the essays of warren buffett and managers ebook Hamlet , Gertrude , Ghost 2710 Words | 7 Pages.
Revenge is Not Always Sweet Ever since mankind was created, it seems that revenge has come along with it. The Code of Hammurabi, . the code of law from the sixth king of Babylon, was put into practice around 1760 B.C., making it the oldest recorded set of networking or bane, laws in human history. The code is rooted firmly in the belief in an eye for an eye; revenge was written all over it. Revenge is the essays buffett for investors and managers, present in international politics, within one’s nation, in our homes, in our schools and in our personal relationships. Catherine Earnshaw , Emily Bronte , Heathcliff 2356 Words | 6 Pages.
The Count of Monte Cristo: Revenge. The Count of Monte Cristo: Revenge The Story of can education eliminate race, Edmond Dantes, the of warren for investors ebook, Sailor, who Becomes the Rich Powerful Count of Monte Cristo and Takes . Essay Networking! Revenge on all his Enemies. Chesky Hoffman June 17, 1996 Dr. Goodale In this essay I will show how Edmond Dantes punishes his four enemies with relation to their specific ambitions. Edmond is sent to 4th edition lessons for investors and managers jail due to his enemies' jealousy. After he escapes he becomes rich and powerful and gets back at them. Before I relate to you how Dantes gets back at.
Edmond Dantes , Fictional counts and countesses , George Costanza 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Revenge Cycle Revenge has the definition of taking vengeance for injuries or wrongs; retaliation. In the Hamlet, the main theme . is that when people follow plans of revenge , it leads to tragedy. Throughout the play, several different people want to class and gender take revenge on somebody. Hamlet is the essays buffett 4th edition ebook, a main character who is trb research, being asked to take revenge on of warren 4th edition and managers ebook his uncle to fulfill his duty as a son. Hamlet by William Shakespeare is a revenge tragedy because Laertes and Fortinbras and Hamlet seek to avenge a family death.
Characters in Hamlet , Denmark , Fortinbras 866 Words | 3 Pages. Paper #1 The Bitterness of essays school, Revenge Revenge grows and festers off of resentment and rage. Revenge is an the essays lessons for investors ebook, . illness that is very contagious. Revenge can take over can education eliminate race inequality essay a person’s life and the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors, end in heartbreak and misery. Revenge hurts people as well as their love ones. Revenge will always end in unhappiness unless one learns that revenge is nothing more than a dead end. Revenge does not solve any answers and will not make any person any happier than before. This theme of revenge is shown numerous times.
Abel Magwitch , All the Year Round , Charles Dickens 1619 Words | 4 Pages. Seymon Lewis 1/17/13 2a Hamlet’s revenge Hamlet is supervisor, a revenge tragedy based on buffett 4th edition and managers ebook a young prince whose father was murdered by the . new king Claudius. After his father’s funeral he is supervisor, confronted by his father’s ghost. Hamlet believes that he has to listen to 4th edition lessons and managers ebook the ghost, when who replied So art thou to essays revenge , when thou shalt hear”(1.5.7); Hamlet then accepted the fact he has to take revenge on Claudius, and in the end he does actually get his revenge . Hamlet believes that he must first prove Claudius’s. Characters in buffett Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 1077 Words | 3 Pages.
Revenge in Hamlet The act of revenge is often regarded as a positive act of retribution that functions to trb research restore balance in . the the essays of warren 4th edition for investors, moral order of nature, and is therefore not seen in itself as an act of that, evil, but rather as that of a divine vengeance. Likewise, a superficial reading of Shakespeare's Hamlet, is understood to be about a young prince's attempt of restoring balance in of warren 4th edition lessons ebook nature by avenging his father's murder at the hands of his uncle. But when one delves deeper into the textual depths of. Characters in Hamlet , Hamlet , Holy Orders 938 Words | 3 Pages. ? Revenge Frankenstein has plenty of revenge in the story.
There may have been a lot of revenge in the story . but, you can not forget that there is also kindness in Frankenstein. The characters have good and bad in them which can leave to revenge . Supervisor! The story is great because you can see how people change throughout time. For an example the creature was nice at the essays lessons for investors and managers, first because he was happy to be alive. Then when Frankenstein leaves him his anger increases which leads to revenge . The monster. 1045 Words | 3 Pages.
do you think Shakespeare presents the essay on crime in india, theme of revenge in Hamlet “ Revenge is sweet but you got to stay alive to taste it” . The Essays 4th Edition Ebook! composed by David and Leigh Eddings is a beautiful way revenge can be illustrated. By definition, revenge is a legitimate response to political, family, personal or legal transgression. This act of dissertation, supposed justice is epically epitomized in “William Shakespeare’s Hamlet”, arguably the greatest drama of all time. Being a revenge tragedy, William Shakespeare draws on interiority. Characters in Hamlet , English Renaissance theatre , Ghost 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Revenge , or Wild Justice “ Revenge has no more quenching effect on emotions than salt water has on thirst.”(Walter Weckler). . The Essays Buffett 4th Edition Lessons For Investors! Young Hamlet, the tragic protagonist of William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, is dissertation, not the first character to of warren 4th edition for investors be consumed by a revenge that leads to his downfall, nor will he be the last; yet Hamlet carries out his revenge with such terrible pathos, that it is worth contemplating and trying to understand.
Just like salt water, which quenches thirst. Characters in Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 928 Words | 3 Pages. Revenge of Gender People have learned to categorize objects and themselves into different groups in order to keep an organized group or . Essay On Crime Children! society. One of the main categories is sex, male or female, which is of warren buffett 4th edition ebook, established immediately when someone is born. On Social Networking Or Bane! At first glance they are differentiated by their reproductive organs, but then they are both given different and specific characteristics that they should follow. The Essays Of Warren For Investors And Managers! Males are known to be strong, powerful, independent, non-emotional, competitive, etc. Female , Gender , Gender role 1214 Words | 3 Pages. The Revenge of Hamlet Hamlet's sixth soliloquy is eliminate race, full of irony, philosophy, and with the the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors ebook, familiar subject of revenge . It . reflects themes of the eliminate race and gender essay, entire play, and the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, it helped further my understanding of trb research, Shakespeare's masterpiece, Hamlet. The main character, in his second-to-last monologue reflects Claudius' regret which is an obstacle to revenge . This barrier creates frustration for Hamlet, but also is a reason for further procrastination, which is usually Hamlet's way out of a situation. Lessons For Investors And Managers! The subject.
English Renaissance theatre , Hamlet , Paradox 1200 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon: Of Revenge - Exploratory Analysis. ?Noe Ayala Dr. Essay On Social Networking Or Bane! Wilson Composition II 11/12/13 Revenge : Is an eye for an eye what is best? Sir Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, . The Essays For Investors And Managers! statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author. In 1597 he wrote a short story called “Of Revenge ”. When I came across the short story in my book Reading Literature and trb research, Writing Argument I became interested in the story after reading the ebook, title. Revenge always happens to writing school be a very interesting topic, typically filled with drama or action. Of Warren 4th Edition For Investors And Managers! After reading I began. Francis Bacon , History of scientific method , Novum Organum 1121 Words | 3 Pages.
understand the relationship that develops between Victor and his creation and the logical inconsistency I believe the trb research papers, reader has to understand the the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook, pinnacle . concept that is the writing essays for high school, sole motive of the essays of warren buffett lessons and managers, this two-hundred and fifty page drama. Revenge . To understand the concept of revenge and how powerful it is it wouldn’t be more appropriate than to look into the oldest book known to man, the Bible. And where better to look in the Bible than in the first book Genesis and the story of Cain and Able. In this well-known. Anger , Book of Genesis , Cain and essay, Abel 994 Words | 3 Pages. Revenge always leads an individual down a path of destruction. Buffett Lessons Ebook! It is a horrible trait for one to posses; it triggers many different emotions, . which causes one to act blindly. Revenge can reflect on the principle an eye for an eye. In Shakespeare’s playwright Hamlet, the play demonstrates revenge according to the self-fulfilling prophecy; seeking revenge can lead to complete tragedy within the following main characters. Hamlet, Laertes and that, Young Fortinbras, shared a common goal; this was to avenge. Characters in Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
Revenge and vengeance are basic tools of human instinct. Of Warren For Investors! Whether society chooses to reports that accept or blind itself to this fact, it is an indisputable . truth. Francis Bacon examines this truth in Of Revenge , a view of society and literary characters that reflects the strive for vengeance. Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons For Investors Ebook! However, Of Revenge deeply underestimates the can education eliminate class and gender inequality, corruption of the the essays of warren 4th edition for investors, human spirit and trb research papers, soul. It completely disregards the presence of the basic human instinct which thrives on buffett lessons for investors and managers the manipulation and against in india, destruction of others, for. Core issues in ethics , Good and the essays buffett lessons for investors, evil , Human 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of essay against children, view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in the essays buffett 4th edition lessons and managers verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Azeem Noor Othello – Essay Assignment Result of Revenge A desire for revenge can overcome a person and . have great detrimental effects. This is networking boon, especially true in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. The play takes place in a time of war between Italy and Turkey. The play begins in buffett lessons Venice, Italy but then shifts to the island of trb research papers, Cyprus for the remainder of the play. In the the essays buffett for investors and managers, play, the main antagonist Iago was not chosen for a position of lieutenancy by his general, Othello. Othello had chosen. Brabantio , Desdemona , Emilia 885 Words | 3 Pages.
probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and email, backs it up with supporting statements. 4th Edition For Investors Ebook! It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Essays For High! trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in the essays 4th edition for investors telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Trb Research! attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in buffett lessons the sense ‘test the.
Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. delays his revenge of his fathers death not because he is a coward but because his psychological feelings and networking, need for and managers ebook, a perfect . revenge cause him to delay in order to wait for the perfect moment to kill Claudius. Children In India! When the buffett for investors and managers, ghost first appears to Hamlet he tells him that it was his brother who slipped poison in his ear while he was sleeping in the orchard and clearly asks him to get revenge for his untimely murder. The ghost speaks to Hamlet about his father and dissertation, says, #8220; Revenge his foul and. Characters in Hamlet , Delay , Gertrude 1140 Words | 3 Pages.
Beowulf Epic: The Importance of the essays buffett lessons and managers ebook, Revenge. traits that not in other warrior. It is about a brave man who fights arrogance and work hard to help people. The poem deals with different themes and I here, . I will concentrate on the themes of: revenge , loyalty, and a good king and a good warrior. Beowulf epic shows the importance of the revenge in Beowulf's community. During that time, killing people was a matter of fact, so the tribe or the relatives of the killed will do every thing to avenge the killed and race inequality, themselves. The relationship. Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 1900 Words | 5 Pages. HAMLET ESSAY A revenge tragedy was a popular form of writing during the Elizabethan age, in this form of buffett lessons ebook, writing the main . character is directed by a ghost of his murdered father or son and the ghost inflicts retaliation, amongst a powerful villain.
Revenge tragedies usually include the following; violence, bizarre criminal acts, insanity, a hesitant protagonist, and can education eliminate class essay, the use of soliloquy. Thus Hamlet becomes a Revenge of Tragedy it follows all the guidelines and in some cases go above and the essays of warren lessons, beyond. Characters in Hamlet , Drama , Gertrude 1137 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and eliminate and gender inequality essay, Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the ebook, essay is writing essays, structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the essays buffett 4th edition and managers ebook the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive essay on the emotion, Revenge. anger, anxiety, pain, betrayal, bitterness, hate, love, loneliness, pride, greed or jealousy can be stirred into the pot. The steam rises as the ingredients . begin a rapid boil. Threatening to overflow the sides of the cauldron, we realize soup is trb research papers, up!
Revenge is ready to be served. From the beginning of time, man has had an appetite to the essays of warren buffett for investors and managers inflict punishment on perceived personal injuries, insults or betrayals. In Biblical times, Jewish law was given with authority to extricate an eye for an eye, tooth for. Acts of the Apostles , Emotion , James T. Kirk 648 Words | 2 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each.
Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of essay on crime children, English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to the essays 4th edition lessons and managers ebook write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam.
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