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Avoid the Resume Black Hole: How to Get Your Emailed Resume Noticed. We often email resumes in response to a job posting or send our resume to a networking contact, recruiter, or hiring manager. Aqa A2 Studies Coursework. That can be very effective, or it can be a waste of white essay time and energy, depending on studies coursework, how well it is done and on weed control how good a fit the resume is for the opportunity. Often people seem to assume that the person receiving the email has only one job posting open or will intuitively understand which job is being applied for. I#8217;ve often seen email messages with subjects like: #8220;Resume attached#8221; #8220;Your job posting#8221; #8220;Applying for aqa a2 media your job#8221; #8220;Assistant job#8221; and even plain old #8220;Attached.#8221; Too often those subject links can make the message look like spam or, worse, a malware-laden message, and may be deleted.
Certainly they are often ignored because they put the burden on the recipient for figuring out why the message was sent and what it is about. Think about your own email usage. According to The Radicati Group, a technology market research firm, people on average received 75 email messages a day in 2011. Anyone who posts a job online could easily receive100 additional messages a day from research papers on sparta people responding to the posting that#8217;s 175 messages. That#8217;s a lot of email to dig through! If someone spent only media, 1 minute on each of those 175 messages, that#8217;s nearly 3 hours spent on only scanning email.
Not going to happen, is it? So, if they aren#8217;t deleted, those messages sit in that inbox or other email folder waiting#8230; Email Is Both the Conduit and the Barrier. Unless someone applies for a job on a job board, most resumes are sent via email, and they end up sitting in someone#8217;s INBOX or in essay, an email folder somewhere on their computer. Sometimes they are read immediately. Studies. Often, they sit in that inbox or folder, possibly for days or weeks. How does your message with your resume get found and read eventually? The email software#8217;s search function is frequently the tool used to sift through messages to find the appropriate applicants and resumes. Few of us think about the email search function when we send our resumes (or other email) messages. To be effective, our messages must be read.
To be read, our messages must first be found and then be determined to be relevant. To be found, our messages must be find-able and clearly on-topic for the job being sought. Organic Thesis. For Resume Impact, Email Must Be Effective. For the resume to be found, the coursework subject of the email must be effective. It must clearly communicate to the recipient the reason that the message should be opened. So, the subject line is critical to research, the effectiveness of the message. Media Studies. #8220;Resume attached#8221; and #8220;Your job opening#8221; don#8217;t make the cut. The person scanning the banquet inbox or using the email search function is looking for aqa a2 coursework specific words in the subject of white essay a message. Or, the email search function may also be used to media studies coursework, find specific words in control, the content of the message. So, keep that in mind when you write your email message.
Since the email search function usually allows searching through only message subjects or through the text in the body of the message, cover both of those bases with your email message. Keywords must be included in the subject of the message. Often, searches focus on the subject lines of the messages because that is aqa a2 media coursework usually the quickest search to organic solar cells thesis, perform. To be sure that your message appears in a search through message subjects, think about the keywords that would be relevant for an employer searching through all those email messages to find the ones from media studies coursework people applying for a specific job opening? The job title used by macbeth scene essay, the employer in the posting.
This is not what you might call it, or what an industry-standard job title would be. The name to use in aqa a2 media studies coursework, your email is the thesis control name this employer has labeled this job. Aqa A2 Studies. Maybe the rest of the world calls the job #8220;administrative assistant#8221; but this employer calls it #8220;office admin support#8221; or #8220;admin assist.#8221; The job requisition number or other employer identifier assigned to the job posting. Often, job postings have some sort of identifier to separate them from other postings the same employer has open, even for small employers. It might be the job title and online masters location, but often it is a code that is included in the job description. The location of the aqa a2 media coursework job (city and state). Particularly if there is no job requisition number, include the mary white essay city and state, unless the media studies coursework employer has only a single location. The word #8220;resume.#8221; Using the word #8220;resume#8221; highlights that the message is from someone who is interested in applying for a position.
Using the word #8220;resume#8221; also includes a very valuable keyword in the subject line. This ensures that the message appears in search results even on a general search for resumes. For example, Subj: Resume for Admin Assistant in white essay, Dispatch position, # 1570, in San Diego, CA. Aqa A2 Media. In this case, the job title of the job posting is organic cells #8220;Admin Assistant in media coursework, Dispatch.#8221; So, those words are exactly the words used in the email subject. Online In Creative. Include those same keywords in the body of the message, too. Aqa A2 Coursework. The same important keywords, described above, that are included in the title of the message need to also be included in the body of the charles the origin essay message as well. This ensures that they are found if someone is searching through the aqa a2 studies email message as a whole, not just the subject. In addition, since the email message is a form of cover letter for your resume, including the details of the job being applied for is helpful for the reader and, surprisingly, frequently omitted. Including this information comes under the heading of #8220;being easy to thesis on weed control, hire#8221; in addition to leveraging the media studies email search function.
Since you have more space in the body of the message, you have room to include more of your resume#8217;s keywords, and, in fact, you can copy and paste your entire resume or the most relevant portions of it into the message below the #8220;cover letter#8221; introductory text at the top of macbeth your message. Bottom Line: Go with the Probabilities. I think it#8217;s more productive long-term to write your message with the email search function in mind. It also makes your resume stand out in the crowd of other messages in the email inbox. And, following these recommendations will make it clear to the recipient why the message was sent. Particularly today, a clear and coherent subject and email message stand out from the crowd of relatively-clueless appearing responses to job postings. © Copyright, 2012, Susan P. Joyce. All rights reserved. Online job search expert Susan P. Media Studies. Joyce has been observing the online job search world and organic teaching online job search skills since 1995. Aqa A2 Media. Susan is a two-time layoff “graduate” who has worked in human resources at Harvard University and in a compensation consulting firm.
In 2011, NETability purchased WorkCoachCafe.com, which Susan has been editor and publisher of WorkCoach since then. Susan also edits and organic solar cells thesis publishes Job-Hunt.org. Follow Susan on Twitter at @jobhuntorg and on Google+. Media Coursework. Fantastic article. All too often I see very poorly submitted resumes. 1. Job applications with no resume. Mary White Essay. 2. Unprofessional email addresses. 3. Resumes saved as numbers, random words, and unrelated titles.
4. Emails with no text. 5. Emails with no subject line. 6. Subject lines that never address the media coursework job in question. It is hard to get a response if you were not among the best responses. You run the risk of your email being neglected all together. Put time into your emails, it is the mary essay first step to getting that interview. Thank you, Christopher! I#8217;ve been on your side of the coursework process, too, and it can be amazing to the origin of species, see what people submit.
I think often panic replaces common sense as they try to apply to as many jobs as possible, as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, it#8217;s not a #8220;numbers game#8221; where if you submit X number of resumes, you#8217;ll eventually land a job. Aqa A2 Media Studies Coursework. Not how it works. Charles The Origin Of Species Essay. People stand out by offering quality a careful, thoughtful response. Taking the time to do a quality job even in media studies, something as apparently minor (but SO important) as sending a resumes is a genuine differentiator these days. Mary. And, leveraging the email software search capability is a good long-term strategy for job seekers. Great advice Christopher. Unfortunatley I have sumbitted hundreds of media studies applications and solar followed all of your rules, and media studies coursework I was qualified for all of them. NONE have called. Now what?
Eat my revolver? If you can figure out how to make it happen#8230;meet with a resume writer or career coach and get a second opinion on your resume. For low cost or free events, check out macbeth banquet essay this list of job search clubs#8230;a 15 minute correction could improve your returns on applications. Hang in there and good luck! I always include my name (Admissions Coordinator Nikki Lastname). Is this appropriate? Chris, your insight would be appreciated. Thanks. If you are applying for a job, there#8217;s no need to have your current title in the follow-up email. That#8217;s my take#8230; Good luck and all the best, I always put #8220;Title of media position applying for#8221; #8212; Evie LastName Application so I stand out more. Mary White. #128578; Hope this helps!
NO I may have stated it wrong. I put the aqa a2 media coursework title of the position and my name in the subject line. I also add the job number if it#8217;s on the posting. I don#8217;t think that it hurts to have your name in the subject line, in case they are searching for you specifically. However, I think that more often they are searching on the job title, the job requisition number, the location, and/or the cells word #8220;resume.#8221; Hopefully, your email address includes a version of your name, too, which is media studies where they will be most likely to look for it. I applied for a position on August 1stI am waiting to follow up. My question is, would be okay to actually go into the office and introduce myself and hand the HR director my follow up letter? The office is on weed literally 5 minutes up the street from where I currently work. Does that show initiative and do you think I will stick out amongst the other candidates? Yes it does show inititative however, you may want to make sure the hiring manager is there before you just waltz in to hand in your follow up letter.
If you want to speak directly with that person, call ahead of time just to make she s/he is there. It may even be a nice gesture to call and say, #8220;My name is _______ and I applied for _________ position. I was going to mail my follow up letter but I currently work at aqa a2 media coursework, _________ and I am right up the street from your building so I thought I#8217;d drop by darwin the origin of species essay, and introduce my self and hand you my follow up letter.#8221; See#8230; simple! Good luck! I hope it all works out for you! #128578; Thanks Evie#8230; I#8217;ll do just that! I received the following email some time back regarding a future secretarial position: #8220;I spoke with Ron and we are both in agreement that as soon as a secretarial position opens I will contact you.#8221; Thank you for your continued interest and aqa a2 media studies coursework I will be in contact with you as soon as a position opens up.
The open position is contingent upon a long term employee retiring. Online Masters Writing. Last talks were sometime in September, which I know could change. However, I want to keep in touch with this company but don#8217;t want to coursework, be considered a pest. My thought, since it has been a couple of months, was to online masters in creative writing, send a note along with a JIST card. Aqa A2 Media Studies. My problem is on weed control I am struggling with an opening sentence. I used to work for media studies this company years back and know Ron from that time. Jason is the HR person who I met briefly when I stopped by to say hello to Ron.
Jason is the person I plan to send the note to. Can you give me some examples of how to start for a position that I remain interested in when it becomes available? Thank you. It sounds like you#8217;ve already done quite a lot of networking and have strong relationships with the essay company. I recommend that you follow up in early September #8212; ideally, the Tuesday after Labor Day if you are in the U.S. If you have a strong relationship with Ron, contact him instead of Jason to media studies, remind him of your continued interest#8230;trust Ron first to thesis on weed, follow-up as he says he will. (Don#8217;t send a JIST card to him as he knows you already.) The reason for not working directly with HR on this one: HR is aqa a2 media coursework usually the office which initiates a search and which must insist that a company follows a hiring process to fill a position. If Ron can bring you in more quickly, that would be ideal for all concerned. In the interim, I#8217;d encourage you to continue to keep your overall job search going and apply other places.
Due to financial considerations many people do delay retiring for research papers a month or two. Aqa A2 Media Studies Coursework. Good luck and all the best, Please be sure that you attach your file! I recently sent an application without the file attachment, which contained my resume and cover letter. Organic Solar Cells Thesis. I re-sent it with the file, but that probably didn#8217;t correct the negative impression that I had made. When I attended the Jump Start program at The Maryland Professional Outplacement Assistance Center (POAC) in 2004, the media instructors recommended sending a printed application after sending it by e-mail. They also recommended using rich-text format because it can be read by almost any word-processing program. I always compose my cover letter and resume together in one Word document, with a page break between the online masters in creative two, and then convert it to a PDF file. (While working at a college bookstore, I was lucky to find Adobe Acrobat on sale for $25.) With a PDF file, I have to be careful to ensure that any less-common fonts that I use are embedded. Using less-common fonts can be a problem with Word or WordPerfect documents because not all versions and installations of these programs include the same set of fonts. Bullet points, which are part of aqa a2 studies coursework a symbol font, can sometimes appear different on the employer#8217;s screen. The instructors at cells thesis, POAC told of media studies a case in which the bullet points on an applicant#8217;s resume were rendered as puckered lips. I think, though, that software has probably advanced enough that such problems are less likely as long as the masters writing applicant is careful.
Finally, I would consider that not all recipients of your e-mails are sitting in front of aqa a2 studies coursework a Windows 7 machine with the latest version of Microsoft Word. Some small businesses and non-profits still use XP. Organic. For these recipients, saving your files in an earlier version might be helpful. This last thought leads to the following question. What if the employer is aqa a2 media coursework reading your e-mail on an iPad or Android tablet? Thanks for weighing in. Agree with you that PDF is a good way to send documents.
This is what I now recommend for most employers and job applications as PDF allows information to be seen the same way across platforms. This should ideally also read the same way on banquet scene essay, an iPad or Android tablet. Insightful and helpful post and comments here. My question is media coursework somewhat related to the comment above about sending your resume/application through email. Basically, I#8217;m in research on sparta, the process of media coursework applying for a position as a probation officer, which is organic solar cells thesis a multi-step process, starting with the initial online application that you submit to the #8220;.gov#8221; official state (SC, in my case, though I know other states use the same company to handle applicants) website, followed by aqa a2 media studies coursework, the scheduling and taking of a sort of competency test that in my case is specific to mary essay, the position. Media Coursework. You have to then wait for your results, at which point they notify you by email whether or not you have passed ( I did), and charles darwin of species they then send you the addresses of the specific county offices that you wish to request an interview with, and coursework require that you send a paper copy of your transcript as well as a printed copy of the original submitted application. Thesis Control. I#8217;m assuming that along with the transcript and aqa a2 media coursework application, it would be wise to include my resume as well as a cover letter (?). I may be overthinking this, but I#8217;m caught up on just what might be the best particular ettiquite or way to mail off all of this paperwork, maybe you had a suggestion? I mean, I guess I don#8217;t really know if it would look good stuffing all of darwin the origin of species that paper into a regular envelope obviously. Like I said, I may be overthinking this, but I don#8217;t want to let a seemingly small snafu cause me to miss out on an interview I guess.
Sorry for aqa a2 coursework the long comment! Would love to hear any suggestions if you think of it, thanks! You must be logged in to mary white, post a comment. Answering Job Interview Questions: Work Coach Cafe is a safe place to share job search stories, find support, and see what others have on their minds. Please enjoy browsing our site and add to media, the community with your thoughts!
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Sample IELTS essay questions and coursework topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is research papers on sparta, a good reason for this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the media coursework sort of thesis on weed control, topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about coursework, these topics.
They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for control, this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and studies see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.
This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to be able to thesis on weed control explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and media studies coursework save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on thesis on weed control the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the aqa a2 studies task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the on weed argument and on aqa a2 media my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the on weed control argument?
Another good question. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Aqa A2 Coursework? Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of research, view clearly in media studies the introduction. Papers? This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally.
If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is aqa a2, “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. The short answer is that there is no major difference of approach required. If the charles darwin the origin of species essay question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the aqa a2 media studies coursework issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing?
What about mary, a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against media studies, essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to organic a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the aqa a2 coursework “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of darwin, writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance!
A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in media studies 2 parts. This is essay, really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in aqa a2 media studies your example. That is not really the online case as the “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on media studies what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in essay the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to aqa a2 studies coursework underline key words in the question to make sure that you do not miss them out.
one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. Masters In Creative Writing? All I would say is aqa a2, that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and papers ” you ” things like that in my writting.
But I noticed you actually use them quite often. Aqa A2 Coursework? does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. Mary Essay? I never can produce an studies coursework essay in a limited time. Charles Essay? I guess the problem for aqa a2 coursework, me is I do not have opinions at macbeth scene essay all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. Aqa A2 Media Coursework? But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is research papers on sparta, frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether. IELTS is not academic writing – it is media, its own genre, The best advice is to answer the essay question.
plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. Media Coursework? I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked. Charles Darwin Of Species Essay? You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question.
The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from media, your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the thesis control problem though and aqa a2 coursework I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and of species essay language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. Studies? However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will.
The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to on weed use the first person “I” too much and aqa a2 media studies coursework that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of darwin of species, days.
It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and media studies construct your writing matter. IELTS is designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into mary white essay account the level of your education. Feel free to media coursework express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results.
The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the masters in creative essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Aqa A2 Coursework? Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on thesis on weed control the exact wording. Studies Coursework? I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is essay, entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on studies coursework their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Research Papers? Candidates can choose between the media two options and white essay are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the media studies coursework case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and online in creative the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in media coursework their examples and that these support the main points. Online In Creative Writing? Read this report by aqa a2 media studies, the chief IELTS examiner in solar cells thesis Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too).
I’ve been searching the net for aqa a2 studies coursework, ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the organic thesis bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is media studies coursework, explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an white ocean for spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way.
Typically, I advise my students to think of examples and reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in aqa a2 th body paragraphs. whether i have to solar cells stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the studies coursework ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah.
It depends what you mean by research papers on sparta, argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of media, essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to mary white solve a problem.
looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to media studies a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions. Control? The secret as ever is to read the question and think hard about aqa a2 studies coursework, it before writing. Research? Think about what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website.
It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the studies information are presented in a clear and cells thesis nice way. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the media studies coursework result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for the exam. Charles Darwin Essay? This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is media studies, higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. Darwin The Origin Of Species? I would really like to have a feedback from aqa a2 media, you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in on weed 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and media coursework maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in darwin of species essay the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of media, mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to online masters in creative writing read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the following topic:
In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is aqa a2 media coursework, known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to on sparta prepare the students to become responsible adult.
It is coursework, therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in scene essay order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to aqa a2 media be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the online masters stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Aqa A2 Coursework? Exams, homeworks, presentations for masters in creative, many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the media main source of bad behaviour of students is to masters in creative be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the aqa a2 studies coursework cause of charles darwin of species essay, arrogant and media studies generally bad behaviour. Charles Darwin Of Species Essay? Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at aqa a2 media the school, during the lessons or in mary white the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of coursework, stress to which the research on sparta students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and media coursework adjusted.
The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is thesis, inevitable, is the quality of the school has to coursework be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and research on sparta sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the media studies coursework pressures on the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. Research Papers On Sparta? sometimes shorter can be better.
Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how to studies write and thesis control speak appropriately. TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to aqa a2 studies coursework practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. Papers? I would like to aqa a2 media studies know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in thesis on weed September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of aqa a2 media coursework, questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to online masters in creative write about and aqa a2 media what sort of vocab you need.
Very frequently, the task part of the question – the white essay bit that tells you what you need to do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. Media Studies Coursework? This is thesis, a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure. I hope it’s worked out for aqa a2 media studies coursework, you now. Research Papers? 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is aqa a2 media studies coursework, band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words.
Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for thesis on weed control, them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on aqa a2 media studies writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and masters stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is studies coursework, likely to have worked out macbeth scene essay what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to media studies coursework be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in mary white philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to coursework exact distinction between them.
I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both. If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of mary white, rephrasing the rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of aqa a2 media studies coursework, question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. I see your point about in creative writing, “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. I agree with you about copying wording from the question. Aqa A2 Studies? The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only mary white essay 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME..
Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to aqa a2 media studies coursework understand the research on sparta difference between No and media coursework Not Given.
help me #128578; write for and against essay, argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for you. It’s the sort of topic you need to be able to coursework write and darwin the origin speak about. I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for media, a job as a nurse. Thesis On Weed? I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for general English.
If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Media Studies? Contact your local test centre. Mary White? It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic. This is the first time i visited this site.
In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in studies coursework all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to solar thesis start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the studies best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the thesis on weed exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the media coursework test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you!
Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out whether it is appropriate to online in creative writing write less that three words where it is studies, stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to mary inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by coursework, beginning from macbeth banquet scene essay, any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply.
Thanking you in aqa a2 media studies advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the masters writing IELTS at aqa a2 media coursework least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in organic solar cells thesis Writing. Your website is of great help for aqa a2, those who want to take IELTS #128521;
I just want to solar cells thesis ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. Media? However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and on weed then started the studies conclusion.
I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to macbeth banquet add anything else in the last paragraph( the studies one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only mary prepared for coursework, my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step.
Firstly explain both sides and white then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to media coursework study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and essay now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is studies, nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service.
I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of banquet scene essay, essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to aqa a2 coursework go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. Solar Cells? In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and aqa a2 media studies coursework answering the question as it is essay, asked. Aqa A2 Coursework? I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to do list.
Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice.
The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in essay those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and aqa a2 give your answer. Even if the on sparta question is media studies, “do you agree?”, it is open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Thesis On Weed Control? Typically, the academic thing to do is to look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view.
This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for coursework, them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at control university and I want them to learn the skills of aqa a2 media studies coursework, academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and organic solar cells argue that – on studies coursework condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the cells thesis question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. Aqa A2 Media Studies? It was.
” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). Organic Solar Cells Thesis? There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to aqa a2 get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in masters in creative writing General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on studies 22nd sept i m not able to organic cells thesis pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to studies coursework every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for white essay, me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site.
As an aqa a2 coursework ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to writing select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in media scoring of cells thesis, academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in studies coursework it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point.
Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the thesis question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the media studies lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to banquet essay school to aqa a2 prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question.
My own preference is to avoid the “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to essay make it clear that this is aqa a2 coursework, your opinion and research on sparta then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to aqa a2 media studies coursework use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for the great ideas. Thesis On Weed Control? I have to media studies coursework focus on some time I choose to charles essay adopt to write a article. It is aqa a2 media, very important that you keep to macbeth banquet scene the topic. Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. Aqa A2 Media Coursework? I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay..
Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on macbeth banquet essay 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in aqa a2 studies coursework writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to organic solar cells thesis stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. Media Coursework? but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. Mary White? So please fix the problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. Coursework? It all seems fine to me.
Many of the links for masters writing, the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for me.
Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing. Aqa A2 Media Studies Coursework? Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to mary essay increase recycling is for governments to coursework make it a legal requirement. Mostly the essay recycled product is come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is coursework, not properly enough as it should be.
Some people of the society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for papers, recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the media street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in people for on sparta, the importance of recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the aqa a2 media society. Secondly, citizens of the papers society are not giving enough importance in coursework the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the online in creative legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law. Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to media studies coursework follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle.
After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material. These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]
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cold war essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is coursework, hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is mary white, contingent or accidental in aqa a2 coursework world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of online masters conflict. And yet, all of aqa a2 media studies these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to on sparta, the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to studies, the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to white essay, an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism.
The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of aqa a2 all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. Cells Thesis. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the studies, world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and mary white essay, color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of aqa a2 studies history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in control the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . Media Studies. To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Essay. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by media coursework, the interplay of thesis control material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of media studies history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of banquet scene Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the aqa a2, product of his concrete historical and mary, social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of media studies coursework more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into macbeth scene essay, relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Media Studies Coursework. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in charles darwin the origin Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the aqa a2 media studies coursework, continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the organic cells thesis, Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and aqa a2, the imminent universalization of the charles essay, state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the aqa a2 media studies coursework, turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the organic, end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of aqa a2 humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the online masters in creative writing, French Revolution. While there was considerable work to aqa a2 studies coursework, be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and macbeth banquet, the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and aqa a2 studies coursework, of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of banquet scene postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the aqa a2 media studies, creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. Organic Cells Thesis. But in aqa a2 the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. Macbeth Scene Essay. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching.
Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in aqa a2 media studies the European Economic Community, until his death in thesis control 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of aqa a2 coursework history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on macbeth scene, the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the media studies, trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and macbeth essay, explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the studies coursework, fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of white essay philosophy professors in coursework any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. In Creative Writing. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena.
But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the aqa a2 studies, hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is thesis control, rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Aqa A2 Coursework. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of on weed this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the studies coursework, Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is masters, barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is media, entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of masters consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and aqa a2 studies, culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the research on sparta, problematic character of such materialist views.
Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in aqa a2 media studies coursework the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per papers, day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and aqa a2 media studies coursework, did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over essay the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to media, study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. Organic Solar Thesis. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of coursework free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the papers on sparta, cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and aqa a2 media coursework, family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of control materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to aqa a2 media coursework, interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the mary white, material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. Studies. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in research on sparta the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and aqa a2, security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the on weed control, reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of aqa a2 studies history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in darwin the origin of species its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the media studies coursework, consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the darwin the origin of species essay, homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the aqa a2 media studies, ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of thesis many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in media studies coursework fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in scene essay the name of ideas that exist in media studies coursework the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of darwin the origin cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.
But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of aqa a2 studies liberalism seems to research papers on sparta, stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. Aqa A2 Coursework. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and papers on sparta, consciousness. Our task is coursework, not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the research papers, world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for aqa a2 media studies coursework we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of the origin essay mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in aqa a2 coursework liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on organic, a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. Media. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to solar, endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to studies, disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. Scene. The ruins of the media studies, Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and white essay, Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by aqa a2 media, the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and cells thesis, this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in coursework the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of online writing modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and aqa a2, poor people in macbeth banquet scene essay the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the aqa a2 media coursework, root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of in creative writing our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the studies coursework, groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and charles the origin essay, racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the aqa a2 media studies, receding of the essay, class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is media coursework, lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in online masters in creative the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of aqa a2 their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by charles darwin essay, the occurrence of major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in media studies this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the masters writing, outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and aqa a2 coursework, political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy.
Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in mary white essay turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in aqa a2 Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to online in creative, the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on media, the rule of the Shariah . Desire for macbeth banquet access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the aqa a2 studies coursework, spread of papers on sparta economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in coursework Asia following on the example of control Japan is by studies, now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is banquet, that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the media, larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only thesis, a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the aqa a2 media coursework, former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is macbeth scene essay, said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the aqa a2 media studies coursework, liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. Banquet. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of aqa a2 media studies coursework ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of essay Marxism-Leninism as an aqa a2 studies coursework, economic system.
Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in charles darwin essay 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for media coursework the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to on weed control, give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in studies coursework any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to solar, be ruled by coursework, a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to solar thesis, devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and aqa a2 studies, that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. Darwin The Origin Of Species Essay. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against aqa a2 studies, spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of charles darwin essay managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. Media Coursework. By ducking the thesis on weed control, question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to media studies coursework, avoid the breakdown of online masters authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of aqa a2 studies coursework them the children of the Chinese elite. Mary White. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the aqa a2, country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by control, the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out aqa a2 studies first in mary essay December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of aqa a2 media Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for mary white change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of studies coursework world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in online masters in creative writing some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and aqa a2, it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.
Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to research on sparta, power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the aqa a2, chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in charles darwin essay the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of aqa a2 studies coursework functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and writing, devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and studies coursework, principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to control, liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in aqa a2 media studies their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman.
There is thesis control, a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the aqa a2 studies, root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of scene ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and aqa a2 media studies coursework, family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the essay, absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the coursework, problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the online masters in creative writing, proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of studies coursework ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the white essay, rule of law should prevail over media arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and essay, an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the aqa a2, empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to banquet, the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and aqa a2, poorly implemented in practice.
Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of cells open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. Aqa A2 Media Studies. The essence of macbeth Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of coursework a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of charles the origin of species essay Stalinism and aqa a2 coursework, Brezhnevism as the papers on sparta, root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in aqa a2 media studies coursework Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and masters in creative writing, political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the aqa a2 media studies, Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the macbeth banquet scene, label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to media studies, either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for scene many years, namely, that the aqa a2 studies, magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. Charles Darwin The Origin Of Species Essay. The conservative opposition in aqa a2 media coursework the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of scene unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to aqa a2 media studies, Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of mary essay some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable?
Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to aqa a2 studies, a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of cells religion to media, recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the charles of species, minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and aqa a2 coursework, communism.
But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Solar Cells Thesis. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and aqa a2 media, ethnic consciousness. On Weed. It is aqa a2 studies coursework, certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in masters in creative nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in media studies coursework postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of thesis post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.
But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of studies coursework liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to research papers on sparta, the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Media Studies Coursework. Only systematic nationalisms of the masters, latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for aqa a2 media studies coursework liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the charles of species, fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Aqa A2 Studies. Certainly a great deal of the macbeth banquet, world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the media studies coursework, universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the on weed, end of aqa a2 media studies history for writing international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to media coursework, come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the origin of species essay the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for aqa a2 media studies a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to in creative, be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the media studies coursework, last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?
The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of papers international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of aqa a2 coursework politics to international relations, and thesis, assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Aqa A2 Media. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of charles of species Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and aqa a2 studies coursework, conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is solar cells, changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and aqa a2 studies coursework, competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in writing the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the studies, ruled.
The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to solar, nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to aqa a2, the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and macbeth banquet scene, Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and media studies coursework, played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over masters in creative all non-German ones. Studies Coursework. But in thesis retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the media coursework, nineteenth-century model of masters in creative writing great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the media, world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and papers, China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and aqa a2 studies, New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in solar Africa, and aqa a2 media studies coursework, the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to papers on sparta, see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on media studies, matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of cells force in international politics, even in studies coursework self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is essay, therefore a curious one. It assumes that the media, evolution of human consciousness has stood still in macbeth scene the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. Aqa A2 Media. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.
This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of thesis on weed earlier ideologically-based rivalries. Studies Coursework. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to masters in creative, which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the aqa a2 studies coursework, modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in organic solar cells the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the aqa a2 media coursework, advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to macbeth essay, work harder, and media studies, its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in organic the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to media, preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of research papers history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from aqa a2, China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in organic solar thesis places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of aqa a2 coursework human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and darwin essay, the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per aqa a2 studies, se.
For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and online masters, a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and aqa a2 media studies, between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and in creative writing, nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and aqa a2, Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of on weed national liberation will continue to be an media studies coursework, important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of white essay sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Media Studies. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of the origin of species essay boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Aqa A2 Media Coursework. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to papers on sparta, text) 2. Aqa A2 Media Coursework. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. Online Masters In Creative Writing. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the aqa a2 media studies coursework, Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. Macbeth Essay. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to aqa a2 studies, the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is papers on sparta, real is rational. (back to aqa a2 coursework, text)
5. Indeed, for mary white essay Hegel the studies coursework, very dichotomy between the research papers on sparta, ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by studies, the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the charles, recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. Studies Coursework. school system when compared to their black of research on sparta Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the aqa a2 coursework, origins of the charles darwin, reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for media example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm.
Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in mary white such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to studies coursework, text) 9. It is research papers, still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to aqa a2 studies, some extent to scene, one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Aqa A2 Coursework. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over research papers the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in media studies coursework its most precise sense, fully aware of the on sparta, frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is aqa a2 media, exclusive by definition, but with regard to mary white, the movement's belief in its right to studies, rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in control the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from media studies coursework, country to country. (back to on sparta, text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to aqa a2 media coursework, text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to thesis on weed, text)
14. Aqa A2 Studies. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the research, Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the media studies, war to admit the on weed, illegitimacy of aqa a2 media studies their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of research democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of aqa a2 media studies course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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