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Essay revisor

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avoir beau essayer La cons­truc­tion avoir beau suivie de l€™in­fi­ni­tif peut s€™employer quand le sujet de la sub­or­don­n©e est le mª­me que celui de la principale. Essay Revisor? Elle a deux valeurs€¯: a.€¯ Elle exprime une opposition r©p©t©e et inutile, comme en finnois vaik­ka kuinka €¯: Il a beau faire des efforts, il a toujours des probl¨mes avec les maths. Statement? Nous e»mes beau lui r©p©ter que c€™©tait risquer inutilement sa vie, il d©cida de partir. Essay Revisor? Dans certaines expressions fig©es ( avoir beau dire , avoir beau faire ), le verbe transitif est employ© ab­so­lu­ment (p.€¯202€¯§3). Cet emploi se limite certains cas€¯: On a beau dire [= quoi qu€™on dise], l€™hiver finlandais a ses bons c´t©s.

Tu as beau faire [= quoi que tu fasses, malgr© tous tes efforts], ce tournevis ne convient pas pour ce genre de vis. A Comparison Essay? b.€¯ Elle exprime la concession sans id©e d€™effort inutil, notamment si le sujet est inanim©. Essay Revisor? Les ©qui­va­lents finnois sont vari©s€¯: vaik­ka kuin­ka , siit¤ huolimatta ett¤ , niin. Nuclear Medicine? kuin etc.€¯: (a) Elle a beau ªtre intelligente, elle n€™aura pas son bac si elle ne travaille pas un peu plus. Essay Revisor? (b) Montr©al a beau ªtre la mª­me latitude que Bordeaux, il y fait nettement plus froid en hiver. Sat Prompt Essay? Cependant, la valeur d€™effort inutile peut parfois rester sensible si le sens du verbe s€™y prªte ou y tend. Essay Revisor? Dans l€™exemple (a) ci-dessus, cette valeur est absente, car on proofreading papers ne peut pas se forcer ou s€™entrainer ªtre intelligent ; de mªme, en (b), le sujet est inanim© et ne peut pas ªtre interpr©t© comme participant activement sa position g©ographique. Essay Revisor? Mais dans l€™exemple suivant (tir© d€™un livre d€™exercices) : J€™ai beau avoir seulement parcouru votre livre, je sais d©j qu€™il me passionnera. Gw Essay? il semble y avoir une sorte de contradiction : la personne disant cette phrase a fait expr¨s de seulement parcourir le livre (autrement dit, fait l€™effort de ne pas faire d€™effort), pour pouvoir affirmer que celui-ci lui a fait une impression favorable. Essay? Cet effet ind©sirable peut ªtre ressenti plus ou moins fortement selon le verbe ou le contexte (ou le le locuteur), en fonction de la valeur pragmatique de l€™©nonc©. Writing? Dans une phrase n©gative, la locution verbale avoir beau reste la forme affirmative, c€™est l€™in­fi­ni­tif qui se met la forme n©gative (p.€¯461) et se place apr¨s avoir beau €¯: L€™©nergie ©olienne a beau ne pas ªtre polluante, elle soul¨vera certainement des protestations mesure qu€™augmentera le nombre de tours.

Le ministre de l€™©conomie a beau ne pas occuper les premiers rangs dans la hi©rarchie du gouvernement fran§ais, il jouera dans les prochaines semaines un r´le central. Essay Revisor? Pete avait beau ne pas avoir de talent, il avait quand mª­me r©ussi r©parer une crevaison sur son v©lo en plein milieu d€™un sentier. Sat Prompt? 3. Essay? Temps du verbe uti­li­ser avec la locution avoir beau. Thesis Tentang? Au pass©, la locution avoir beau pose un probl¨me en ce qui concerne le temps du verbe. Revisor? Elle peut se met­tre au pass© compos©, au plus-que-parfait ou au conditionnel pass© ( avoir beau ne s€™emploie pas d€™au­tres temps compos©s€¯: pass© ant©rieur, futur ant©rieur, pass© surcompos©, etc.) Cependant, avoir beau peut ªtre senti comme une expression fig©e dont le temps ne varie pas. Proofreading? Ainsi, c€™est tant´t avoir beau qui prend la forme du pass©, et l€™in­fi­ni­tif reste au pr©sent, tant´t c€™est l€™inverse, avoir beau est au pr©sent, et l€™in­fi­ni­tif au pass©. L€™usage est relativement flottant ce sujet, mais on revisor peut donner quelques tendances g©n©rales pour ©clairer l€™apprenant FLE€¯: Au pass© compos©, la partie de l€™expression qui se met au pass© d©pend de l€™aspect du verbe€¯: quand le pass© compos© a une valeur temporelle (pr©t©rit en finnois) et que le reste de la phrase est aussi au pass©, c€™est le verbe avoir beau qui se met au pass© compos© (a-d)€¯; quand le pass© compos© a une valeur d€™achev© (parfait en finnois) et que le reste de la phrase est au pr©sent, c€™est l€™in­fi­ni­tif qui se met au pass© (e-f)€¯: (a) J€™ai eu beau lui r©p©ter que c€™©tait inutile, il a voulu essayer quand mª­me.

Vaikka kuinka sanoin h¤nelle, ett¤ siit¤ ei ole mit¤¤n hy¶ty¤, h¤n halusi silti yritt¤¤. (b) Nous avons eu beau essayer, il nous a ©t© impossible de fermer l€™œil de la nuit. Paper? (c) J€™ai eu beau chercher sur le Net, aucune webcam n€™©tait encore braqu©e sur le Sacr©-Cœur de Montmartre. Revisor? (d) Cette politique a beau ne pas avoir ©t© communiqu©e officiellement et sans ©quivoque, certains chiffres sont r©v©lateurs. Thesis In A Paper? (e) J€™ai beau lui avoir dit que c€™est inutile, il s€™entªte continuer. Essay Revisor? Vaikka olen h¤nelle sanonut, ett¤ siit¤ ei ole mit¤¤n hy¶ty¤, h¤n vain jatkaa ja jatkaa. Proofreading? (f) Pascal Obispo a beau ne pas avoir fait partie des nomin©s aux 17 e Victoires de la musique, la presse se fait un plaisir, comme chaque ann©e, de le descendre. L€™usage ©tant un peu flottant ce sujet, dans le doute, il vaut mieux employer d€™autres cons­tructions con­cessives. Revisor? b. Thesis Statement Paper? Plus-que-parfait et conditionnel pass© Dans le cas du plus-que-parfait et du conditionnel pass©, c€™est toujours la locution avoir beau qui prend la marque de pass©, parce que l€™in­fi­ni­tif pass© ne peut pas marquer lui seul l€™id©e d€™ant©riorit© (il n€™y a pas d€™in­fi­ni­tif pass© plus-que-parfait)€¯: Il avait eu beau crier son inqui©tude, elle n€™en devenait que plus grande. Essay? Il avait eu beau mettre toute son ©nergie chercher, c€™est peine s€™il avait r©ussi d©nicher de quoi soulager sa propre faim. Proofreading? La r©volution de 1789 avait eu beau enlever aux nobles le droit de porter l€™©p©e, V. Revisor? ils prouvaient que s€™ils ne la portaient plus, ils pouvaient toujours s€™en servir. Nuclear Research? Le dictionnaire de 1539 avait eu beau ªtre fait pour les latinistes, son effet fut tout autre. Revisor? J€™aurais eu beau nier, affirmer, personne ne m€™e»t cru.

La peur me nouait le ventre et la gorge, car j€™aurais eu beau ouvrir la bouche, j€™aurais bien ©t© incapable de formuler le moindre son.

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Les Trois Mousquetaires/Chapitre 2. onsieur de Troisvilles, comme s’appelait encore sa famille en Gascogne, ou M. Essay. de Treville, comme il avait fini par s’appeler lui-meme a Paris, avait reellement commence comme d’Artagnan, c’est-a-dire sans un sou vaillant, mais avec ce fonds d’audace, d’esprit et d’entetement qui fait que le plus pauvre gentillatre gascon recoit souvent plus en ses esperances de l’heritage paternel que le plus riche gentilhomme perigourdin ou berrichon ne recoit en realite. Gw Essay. Sa bravoure insolente, son bonheur plus insolent encore dans un temps ou les coups pleuvaient comme grele, l’avaient hisse au sommet de cette echelle difficile qu’on appelle la faveur de cour et dont il avait escalade quatre a quatre les echelons. Il etait l’ami du roi, lequel honorait fort, comme chacun sait, la memoire de son pere Henri IV. Essay. Le pere de M. Essay. de Treville l’avait si fidelement servi dans ses guerres contre la Ligue, qu’a defaut d’argent comptant, – matiere qui toute la vie manqua au Bearnais, lequel paya constamment ses dettes avec la seule chose qu’il n’eut jamais besoin d’emprunter, c’est-a-dire avec de l’esprit, – qu’a defaut d’argent comptant, disons-nous, il l’avait autorise, apres la reddition de Paris, a prendre pour armes un lion d’or passant sur gueules, avec cette devise : fidelis et fortis . Essay Revisor. C’etait beaucoup pour l’honneur, mais c’etait mediocre pour le bien-etre. Sat Prompt Essay. Aussi, quand l’illustre compagnon du grand Henri mourut, il laissait pour seul heritage a monsieur son fils son epee et sa devise. Revisor. Grace a ce double don et au nom sans tache qui l’accompagnait, M. Thesis Elearning. de Treville fut admis dans la maison du jeune prince, ou il se servit si bien de son epee et fut si fidele a sa devise, que Louis XIII, une des bonnes lames de son royaume, avait l’habitude de dire que, s’il avait un ami qui se battit, il lui donnerait le conseil de prendre pour second, lui d’abord, et Treville apres, et peut-etre meme Treville avant lui. Aussi Louis XIII avait-il un attachement reel pour Treville, attachement royal, attachement egoiste, c’est vrai, mais qui n’en etait pas moins un attachement. Essay Revisor. C’est que dans ces temps malheureux on proofreading papers, cherchait fort a s’entourer d’hommes de la trempe de celui-la. Essay. Beaucoup pouvaient prendre pour devise l’epithete de forts , qui faisait la seconde partie de son exergue, mais peu de gentilshommes pouvaient reclamer l’epithete de fideles qui en formait la premiere. Nuclear Research. Treville etait un de ces derniers ; c’etait une de ces rares organisations, a l’intelligence obeissante comme celle du dogue, a la valeur aveugle, a l’?il rapide, a la main prompte, a qui l’?il n’avait ete donne que pour voir si le roi etait mecontent de quelqu’un, et la main que pour frapper ce deplaisant quelqu’un, un Besme, un Maurevers, un Poltrot de Mere, un Vitry.

Enfin, a Treville, il n’avait manque jusque-la que l’occasion, mais il la guettait et il se promettait bien de la saisir par ses trois cheveux si jamais elle passait a la portee de sa main. Revisor. Aussi Louis XIII fit-il de Treville le capitaine de ses mousquetaires, lesquels etaient a Louis XIII, pour le devoument ou plutot pour le fanatisme, ce que ses quarante-cinq etaient a Henri III et ce que sa garde ecossaise etait a Louis XI. De son cote, et sous ce rapport, le cardinal n’etait pas en reste avec le roi. Gw Essay. Quand il avait vu la formidable elite dont Louis XIII s’entourait, ce second ou plutot ce premier roi de France avait voulu, lui aussi, avoir sa garde. Essay. Il eut donc ses mousquetaires, comme Louis XIII avait les siens, et l’on voyait ces deux puissances rivales trier pour leur service, dans toutes les provinces de France et meme dans tous les Etats etrangers, les hommes celebres pour leurs grands coups d’epee. Thesis Tentang. Aussi Richelieu et Louis XIII se disputaient souvent en faisant leur partie d’echecs le soir, au sujet du merite de leurs serviteurs. Revisor. Chacun vantait la tenue et le courage des siens, et tout en se prononcant tout haut contre les duels et contre les rixes, ils les excitaient tout bas a en venir aux mains et concevaient un veritable chagrin ou une joie immoderee de la victoire des leurs. Essay. Ainsi, du moins, le disent les memoires d’un homme qui fut dans quelques-unes de ces defaites et dans beaucoup de ces victoires. Treville avait pris son maitre par le cote faible, et c’etait a cette adresse qu’il devait la longue et constante faveur d’un roi qui n’a pas laisse la reputation d’etre tres fidele a ses amities.

Il faisait parader ses mousquetaires devant le cardinal Armand Duplessis, avec un air narquois qui herissait de colere la moustache grise de Son Eminence. Essay Revisor. Treville entendait admirablement la guerre de cette epoque, ou, quand on writing a comparison, ne vivait pas aux depens de l’ennemi, on essay, vivait aux depens de ses compatriotes : ses soldats formaient une legion de diable-a-quatre, indisciplinee pour tout autre que pour lui. Debrailles, avines, ecorches, les mousquetaires du roi, ou plutot ceux de M. In A Paper. de Treville, s’epandaient dans les cabarets, dans les promenades, dans les jeux publics, criant fort, retroussant leurs moustaches, faisant sonner leurs epees, heurtant avec volupte les gardes de M. Essay Revisor. le cardinal, quand ils les rencontraient, puis degainant en pleine rue, avec mille plaisanteries ; tues quelquefois, mais surs en ce cas d’etre pleures et venges ; tuant souvent, et surs alors de ne pas moisir en prison, M. Writing Thesis. de Treville etant la pour les reclamer. Revisor. Aussi M. Nuclear Medicine. de Treville etait-il loue sur tous les tons, chante sur toutes les gammes par ces hommes qui l’adoraient, et qui, tout gens de sac et de corde qu’ils etaient, tremblaient devant lui comme des ecoliers devant leur maitre, obeissant au moindre mot, et prets a se faire tuer pour laver le moindre reproche. M. Essay. de Treville avait use de ce levier puissant, pour le roi d’abord et les amis du roi, — puis pour lui-meme et pour ses amis. Writing Thesis. Au reste, dans aucun des memoires de ce temps, qui a laisse tant de memoires, on revisor, ne voit que ce digne gentilhomme ait ete accuse, meme par ses ennemis, et il en avait autant parmi les gens de plume que chez les gens d’epee ; nulle part, on proofreading, ne voit, disons-nous, que ce digne gentilhomme ait ete accuse de se faire payer la cooperation de ses seides. Essay Revisor. Avec un rare genie d’intrigue qui le rendait l’egal des plus forts intrigants, il etait reste honnete homme. Papers. Bien plus, en depit des grandes estocades qui dehanchent et des exercices penibles qui fatiguent, il etait devenu un des plus galants coureurs de ruelles, un des plus fins damerets, un des plus alambiques diseurs de ph?bus de son epoque ; on revisor, parlait des bonnes fortunes de Treville comme on research paper, avait parle vingt ans auparavant de celles de Bassompierre, et ce n’etait pas peu dire. Essay Revisor. Le capitaine des mousquetaires etait donc admire, craint et aime, ce qui constitue l’apogee des fortunes humaines. Louis XIV absorba tous les petits astres de sa cour dans son vaste rayonnement ; mais son pere, soleil pluribus impar , laissa sa splendeur personnelle a chacun de ses favoris, sa valeur individuelle a chacun de ses courtisans. Thesis Statement In A. Aussi outre le lever du roi et celui du cardinal, on essay, comptait alors a Paris plus de deux cents petits levers un peu recherches.

Parmi les deux cents petits levers, celui de Treville etait un des plus courus. La cour de son hotel, situe rue du Vieux-Colombier, ressemblait a un camp, et cela des six heures du matin en ete et des huit heures en hiver. Sat Prompt. Cinquante a soixante mousquetaires, qui semblaient s’y relayer pour presenter un nombre toujours imposant, s’y promenaient sans cesse armes en guerre et prets a tout. Revisor. Le long d’un de ses grands escaliers sur l’emplacement desquels notre civilisation moderne batirait une maison tout entiere, montaient et descendaient les solliciteurs de Paris qui couraient apres une faveur quelconque, les gentilshommes de province avides d’etre enroles, et les laquais chamarres de toutes couleurs, qui venaient apporter a M. In A Paper. de Treville les messages de leurs maitres ou de leurs maitresses. Essay. Dans l’antichambre, sur de longues banquettes circulaires, reposaient les elus, c’est-a-dire ceux qui etaient convoques. Medicine Paper. Un bourdonnement durait la depuis le matin jusqu’au soir, tandis que M. Essay Revisor. de Treville, dans son cabinet contigu a cette antichambre, recevait les visites, ecoutait les plaintes, donnait ses ordres, et, comme le roi a son balcon du Louvre, n’avait qu’a se mettre a sa fenetre pour passer la revue des hommes et des armes. Le jour ou d’Artagnan se presenta, l’assemblee etait imposante, surtout pour un provincial arrivant de sa province ; il est vrai que ce provincial etait Gascon et que surtout a cette epoque les compatriotes de d’Artagnan avaient la reputation de ne point facilement se laisser intimider. Gw Essay. En effet, une fois qu’on avait franchi la porte massive, chevillee de longs clous a tete quadrangulaire, on essay revisor, tombait au milieu d’une troupe de gens d’epee qui se croisaient dans la cour, s’interpellant, se querellant et jouant entre eux. A Comparison Essay Thesis. Pour se frayer un passage au milieu de toutes ces vagues tourbillonnantes, il eut fallu etre officier, grand seigneur ou jolie femme. Ce fut donc au milieu de cette cohue et de ce desordre que notre jeune homme s’avanca le c?ur palpitant, rangeant sa longue rapiere le long de ses jambes maigres et tenant une main au rebord de son feutre avec ce demi-sourire du provincial embarrasse qui veut faire bonne contenance. Essay. Avait-il depasse un groupe, alors il respirait plus librement ; mais il comprenait qu’on se retournait pour le regarder, et, pour la premiere fois de sa vie, d’Artagnan, qui, jusqu’a ce jour, avait eu une assez bonne opinion de lui-meme, se trouva ridicule.

Arrive a l’escalier, ce fut pis encore : il y avait sur les premieres marches quatre mousquetaires qui se divertissaient a l’exercice suivant, tandis que dix ou douze de leurs camarades attendaient sur le palier que leur tour vint de prendre place a la partie. Un d’eux, place sur le degre superieur, l’epee nue a la main, empechait ou du moins s’efforcait d’empecher les trois autres de monter. Ces trois autres s’escrimaient contre lui de leurs epees fort agiles. A Comparison Thesis. D’Artagnan prit d’abord ces fers pour des fleurets d’escrime, et les crut boutonnes ; mais il reconnut bientot a de certaines egratignures que chaque arme, au contraire, etait affilee et aiguisee a souhait, et a chacune de ces egratignures, non-seulement les spectateurs, mais encore les acteurs, riaient comme des fous. Celui qui occupait le degre en ce moment tenait merveilleusement ses adversaires en respect. Revisor. On faisait cercle autour d’eux. Papers. La condition portait qu’a chaque coup le touche quitterait la partie, en perdant son tour d’audience au profit du toucheur. Essay Revisor. En cinq minutes trois furent effleures, l’un au poignet, l’autre au menton, l’autre a l’oreille, par le defenseur du degre, qui, lui-meme, ne fut pas atteint ; adresse qui lui valut, selon les conventions arretees, trois tours de faveur.

Si difficile, non pas qu’il fut, mais qu’il voulut etre a etonner, ce passetemps etonna notre jeune voyageur : il avait vu dans sa province, cette terre ou s’echauffent cependant si promptement les tetes, un peu plus de preliminaires aux duels, et la gasconnade de ces quatre joueurs lui parut la plus forte de toutes celles qu’il avait ouies jusqu’alors, meme en Gascogne. Essay Thesis. Il se crut transporte dans ce fameux pays des geants ou Gulliver alla depuis et eut si grand’peur ; et cependant il n ’ etait pas au bout : restaient le palier et l’antichambre. Sur le palier, on revisor, ne se battait plus, on medicine research paper, racontait des histoires de femmes, et dans l’antichambre des histoires de cour. Essay. Sur le palier, d’Artagnan rougit ; dans l’antichambre, il frissonna. Writing A Comparison Essay. Son imagination eveillee et vagabonde, qui, en Gascogne le rendait redoutable aux jeunes femmes de chambre et meme quelquefois aux jeunes maitresses, n’avait jamais reve, meme dans ses moments de delire, la moitie de ces merveilles amoureuses et le quart de ces prouesses galantes, rehaussees des noms les plus connus et des details les moins voiles. Essay. Mais si son amour pour les bonnes m?urs fut choque sur le palier, son respect pour le cardinal fut scandalise dans l’antichambre. Writing A Comparison Thesis. La, a son grand etonnement, d’Artagnan entendait critiquer tout haut la politique qui faisait trembler l’Europe, et la vie privee du cardinal, que tant de hauts et puissants seigneurs avaient ete punis d’avoir tente d’approfondir ; ce grand homme, revere de M. Revisor. d’Artagnan pere, servait de risee aux mousquetaires de M. Gw Essay. de Treville, qui raillaient ses jambes cagneuses et son dos voute ; quelques-uns chantaient des noels sur M me de Combalet, sa niece, tandis que les autres liaient des parties contre les pages et les gardes du cardinal-duc, toutes choses qui paraissaient a d’Artagnan de monstrueuses impossibilites. Cependant, quand le nom du roi intervenait parfois tout a coup et a l’improviste au milieu de tous ces quolibets cardinalesques, une espece de baillon calfeutrait pour un moment toutes ces bouches moqueuses ; on essay, regardait avec hesitation autour de soi, et l’on semblait craindre l’indiscretion de la cloison du cabinet de M. Gw Essay. de Treville ; mais bientot une allusion ramenait la conversation sur Son Eminence, et alors les eclats reprenaient de plus belle et la lumiere n’etait menagee sur aucune de ses actions. — Certes, voila des gens qui vont tous etre embastilles et pendus, pensa d’Artagnan avec terreur, et moi, sans doute, avec eux, car du moment ou je les ai ecoutes et entendus, je serai tenu pour leur complice. Revisor. Que dirait monsieur mon pere, qui m’a si fort recommande le respect du cardinal, s’il me savait dans la societe de tels paiens ? Aussi, comme on medicine paper, s’en doute sans que je le dise, d’Artagnan n’osait se livrer a la conversation ; seulement il regardait de tous ses yeux, ecoutant de toutes ses oreilles, tendant avidement ses cinq sens pour ne rien perdre, et, malgre sa confiance dans les recommandations paternelles, se sentant porte par ses gouts et entraine par ses instincts a louer plutot qu’a blamer les choses inouies qui se passaient la. Cependant, comme il etait absolument etranger a la foule des courtisans de M. Revisor. de Treville, et que c’etait la premiere fois qu’on l’apercevait en ce lieu, on a comparison thesis, vint lui demander ce qu’il desirait. Revisor. A cette demande, d’Artagnan se nomma fort humblement, s’appuya du titre de compatriote et pria le valet de chambre qui etait venu lui faire cette question de demander pour lui a M. Sat Prompt Essay. de Treville un moment d’audience, demande que celui-ci promit d’un ton protecteur de transmettre en temps et lieu.

D’Artagnan, un peu revenu de sa surprise premiere, eut donc le loisir d’etudier les costumes et les physionomies. Au centre du groupe le plus anime etait un mousquetaire de grande taille, d’une figure hautaine et d’une bizarrerie de costume qui attirait sur lui l’attention generale. Revisor. Il ne portait pas, pour le moment, la casaque d’uniforme, qui, au reste, n’etait pas absolument obligatoire dans cette epoque de liberte moindre, mais d’independance plus grande, il portait un justaucorps bleu de ciel, tant soit peu fane et rape, et sur cet habit un baudrier magnifique, en broderies d’or, et qui reluisait comme les ecailles dont l’eau se couvre au grand soleil. Sat Prompt. Un manteau long de velours cramoisi tombait avec grace sur ses epaules, decouvrant par devant seulement le splendide baudrier, auquel pendait une gigantesque rapiere. Ce mousquetaire venait de descendre de garde a l’instant meme, se plaignait d’etre enrhume et toussait de temps en temps avec affectation.

Aussi avait-il pris le manteau, a ce qu’il disait autour de lui, et tandis qu’il parlait du haut de sa tete, en frisant dedaigneusement sa moustache, on essay, admirait avec enthousiasme le baudrier brode, et d’Artagnan plus que tout autre. — Que voulez-vous, disait le mousquetaire, la mode en vient ; c’est une folie, je le sais bien, mais c’est la mode. Gw Essay. D’ailleurs, il faut bien employer a quelque chose l’argent de sa legitime. — Ah ! Porthos ! s’ecria un des assistants, n’essaie pas de nous faire croire que ce baudrier te vient de la generosite paternelle : il t’aura ete donne par la dame voilee avec laquelle je t’ai rencontre l’autre dimanche vers la porte Saint-Honore. — Non, sur mon honneur, et foi de gentilhomme, je l’ai achete moi-meme, et de mes propres deniers, repondit celui qu’on venait de designer sous le nom de Porthos.

— Oui, comme j’ai achete, moi, dit un autre mousquetaire, cette bourse neuve, avec ce que ma maitresse avait mis dedans la vieille. — Vrai, dit Porthos, et la preuve c’est que je l’ai paye douze pistoles. L’admiration redoubla, quoique le doute continuat d’exister. — N’est-ce pas, Aramis ? fit Porthos se tournant vers un autre mousquetaire. Cet autre mousquetaire formait un contraste parfait avec celui qui l’interrogeait et qui venait de le designer sous le nom d’ Aramis : c’etait un jeune homme de vingt-deux a vingt-trois ans a peine, a la figure naive et doucereuse, a l’?il noir et doux et aux joues roses et veloutees comme une peche en automne ; sa moustache fine dessinait sur sa levre superieure une ligne d’une rectitude parfaite ; ses mains semblaient craindre de s’abaisser de peur que leurs veines ne se gonflassent, et de temps en temps il se pincait le bout des oreilles pour les maintenir d’un incarnat tendre et transparent.

D’habitude il parlait peu et lentement, saluait beaucoup, riait sans bruit en montrant ses dents, qu’il avait belles et dont, comme du reste de sa personne, il semblait prendre le plus grand soin. Essay. Il repondit par un signe de tete affirmatif a l’interpellation de son ami. Cette affirmation parut avoir fixe tous les doutes a l’endroit du baudrier ; on writing essay thesis, continua donc de l’admirer, mais on essay revisor, n’en parla plus, et par un de ces revirements rapides de la pensee, la conversation passa tout a coup a un autre sujet. — Que pensez-vous de ce que raconte l’ecuyer de Chalais ? demanda un autre mousquetaire sans interpeller directement personne, mais s’adressant au contraire a tout le monde. — Et que raconte-t-il ? demanda Porthos d’un ton suffisant. — Il raconte qu’il a trouve a Bruxelles Rochefort, l’ame damnee du cardinal, deguise en capucin ; ce Rochefort maudit, grace a ce deguisement, avait joue M. Medicine Research. de Laigues comme un niais qu’il est. — Comme un vrai niais, dit Porthos, mais la chose est-elle sure ? — Je la tiens d’Aramis, repondit le mousquetaire.

— Eh ! vous le savez bien, Porthos, dit Aramis, je vous l’ai racontee a vous-meme hier, n’en parlons donc plus. — N’en parlons plus, voila votre opinion a vous, reprit Porthos. Essay Revisor. N’en parlons plus ! Peste, comme vous concluez vite. Gw Essay. Comment ! le cardinal fait espionner un gentilhomme, fait voler sa correspondance par un traitre, un pendard ; fait, avec l’aide de cet espion et grace a cette correspondance, couper le cou a Chalais, sous le stupide pretexte qu’il a voulu tuer le roi et marier Monsieur avec la reine ! Personne ne savait un mot de cette enigme, vous nous l’apprenez hier, a la grande satisfaction de tous, et quand nous sommes encore tout ebahis de cette nouvelle, vous venez nous dire aujourd’hui : N’en parlons plus ! — Parlons-en donc, voyons, puisque vous le desirez, reprit Aramis avec patience. — Ce Rochefort, s’ecria Porthos, si j’etais l’ecuyer du pauvre Chalais, passerait avec moi un vilain moment. — Et vous, vous passeriez un triste quart d’heure avec le duc Rouge, reprit Aramis. — Ah ! le duc Rouge ! bravo, bravo, le duc Rouge ! repondit Porthos en battant des mains et en approuvant de la tete. Essay. Le duc Rouge est charmant.

Je repandrai le mot, mon cher, soyez tranquille. Thesis Statement In A Paper. A-t-il de l’esprit, cet Aramis ! Quel malheur que vous n’ayez pas pu suivre votre vocation, mon cher, quel delicieux abbe vous eussiez fait ! — Oh ! ce n’est qu’un retard momentane, reprit Aramis, un jour je le serai ; vous savez bien, Porthos, que je continue d’etudier la theologie pour cela. — Il le fera comme il le dit, reprit Porthos, il le fera tot ou tard. — Il n’attend qu’une chose pour se decider tout-a-fait et pour reprendre sa soutane, qui est pendue derriere son uniforme, reprit un mousquetaire. — Et quelle chose attend-il ? demanda un autre. — Il attend que la reine ait donne un heritier a la couronne de France.

— Ne plaisantons pas la-dessus, messieurs, dit Porthos ; grace a Dieu, la reine est encore d’age a le donner. — On dit que M. Essay. de Buckingham est en France, reprit Aramis avec un rire narquois qui donnait a cette phrase, si simple en apparence, une signification passablement scandaleuse. — Aramis, mon ami, pour cette fois vous avez tort, interrompit Porthos, et votre manie d’esprit vous entraine toujours au dela des bornes ; si M. Gw Essay. de Treville vous entendait, vous seriez malvenu de parler ainsi. — Allez-vous me faire lecon, Porthos ? s’ecria Aramis, dans l’?il doux duquel on essay revisor, vit passer comme un eclair. — Mon cher, soyez mousquetaire ou abbe, soyez l’un ou l’autre, mais pas l’un et l’autre, reprit Porthos. Proofreading. Tenez, Athos vous l’a dit encore l’autre jour : vous mangez a tous les rateliers. Essay. Ah ! ne nous fachons pas, je vous prie, ce serait inutile, vous savez bien ce qui est convenu entre vous, Athos et moi. Statement In A Paper. Vous allez chez M me d’Aiguillon, et vous lui faites la cour ; vous allez chez M me de Bois-Tracy, la cousine de M me de Chevreuse, et vous passez pour etre fort avant dans les bonnes graces de la dame.

Oh ! mon Dieu, n’avouez pas votre bonheur, on essay revisor, ne vous demande pas votre secret, on proofreading papers, connait votre discretion. Essay Revisor. Mais puisque vous possedez cette vertu, que diable, faites-en usage a l’endroit de Sa Majeste. Thesis Elearning. S’occupe qui voudra et comme on revisor, voudra du roi et du cardinal ; mais la reine est sacree, et si l’on en parle, que ce soit en bien. — Porthos, vous etes pretentieux comme Narcisse. Writing. Je vous en previens, repondit Aramis, vous savez que je hais la morale, excepte quand elle est faite par Athos. Essay. Quant a vous, mon cher, vous avez un trop magnifique baudrier pour etre bien fort la-dessus. Writing A Comparison Thesis. Je serai abbe s’il me convient ; en attendant, je suis mousquetaire ; en cette qualite, je dis ce qu’il me plait, et en ce moment il me plait de vous dire que vous m’impatientez.

— Eh ! messieurs ! messieurs ! s’ecria-t-on autour d’eux. — Monsieur de Treville attend monsieur d’Artagnan, interrompit le laquais en ouvrant la porte du cabinet. A cette annonce, pendant laquelle la porte demeurait ouverte, chacun se tut, et, au milieu du silence general, le jeune Gascon traversa l’antichambre dans une partie de sa longueur, et entra chez le capitaine des mousquetaires, se felicitant de tout son c?ur d’echapper aussi a point a la fin de cette bizarre querelle.

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Writing the Scholarship Essay : by Kay Peterson, Ph.D. It’s the hardest part of your scholarship application. But it’s also the part of the application where the essay revisor, ‘real you’ can shine through. Tentang. Make a hit with these tips from scholarship providers: Think before you write. Essay. Brainstorm to generate some good ideas and then create an outline to help you get going. Proofreading Papers. Be original. The judges may be asked to review hundreds of essays. Essay. It’s your job to thesis paper, make your essay stand out from the rest.

So be creative in essay revisor your answers. Show, don’t tell. Use stories, examples and anecdotes to individualize your essay and demonstrate the point you want to make. Papers. By using specifics, you’ll avoid vagueness and generalities and make a stronger impression. Develop a theme. Don’t simply list all your achievements.

Decide on a theme you want to convey that sums up the revisor, impression you want to make. Write about experiences that develop that theme. Know your audience. Personal essays are not ‘one size fits all.’ Write a new essay for each application-one that fits the interests and essay requirements of that scholarship organization. You’re asking to be selected as the representative for that group. The essay is your chance to show how you are the essay, ideal representative.

Submit an essay that is neat and readable. Make sure your essay is neatly typed, and that there is a lot of ‘white space’ on elearning the page. Double-space the essay, and essay revisor provide adequate margins (1?-1 1/2?) on all sides. Make sure your essay is writing thesis well written. Proofread carefully, check spelling and grammar and share your essay with friends or teachers. Another pair of eyes can catch errors you might miss. Special thanks to the scholarship specialists who contributed these tips: TROA Scholarship Fund. Kathy Borunda, Corporate Development. Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers Foundation. The American Legion.

Patti Cohen, Program Manager. Coca-Cola Scholars Foundation. AFSA Scholarship Programs. Thomas Murphy, Executive Director. Konieg Education Foundation.

Lisa Portenga, Scholarship Coordinator. The Fremont Area Foundation. Practice Session: Common Essay Questions — by Roxana Hadad. The essay — It’s the most important part of your scholarship application, and essay revisor it can be the hardest. But the essay shouldn’t keep you from applying. Take a look at some of the gw essay, most commonly asked essay questions and use them to prepare for your scholarship applications. Brainstorm ideas, do some research or create your own ‘stock’ of scholarship essays.

When the essay, time comes, you’ll be ready to write your way to scholarship success! Your Field of Specialization and Academic Plans. Some scholarship applications will ask you to write about your major or field of study. Sat Prompt. These questions are used to determine how well you know your area of specialization and why you’re interested in it. How will your study of _______ contribute to your immediate or long range career plans? Why do you want to be a _______? Explain the importance of (your major) in today’s society.

What do you think the industry of _______ will be like in the next 10 years? What are the most important issues your field is facing today? To test your skills at essay revisor problem-solving and check how up-to-date you are on current issues, many scholarship applications include questions about problems and issues facing society. What do you consider to gw essay, be the single most important societal problem? Why?

If you had the revisor, authority to change your school in a positive way, what specific changes would you make? Pick a controversial problem on college campuses and suggest a solution. What do you see as the greatest threat to the environment today? Scholarships exist to reward and encourage achievement. You shouldn’t be surprised to find essay topics that ask you to elearning, brag a little.

Describe how you have demonstrated leadership ability both in and out of school. Discuss a special attribute or accomplishment that sets you apart. Essay Revisor. Describe your most meaningful achievements and how they relate to your field of study and your future goals. Why are you a good candidate to receive this award. Who you are is closely tied to where you’ve been and gw essay who you’ve known. Revisor. To learn more about you, some scholarship committees will ask you to write about your background and major influences. Pick an experience from thesis tentang elearning, your own life and explain how it has influenced your development.

Who in your life has been your biggest influence and why? How has your family background affected the way you see the world? How has your education contributed to who you are today? Scholarship sponsors look for applicants with vision and motivation, so they might ask about your goals and aspirations. Briefly describe your long- and short-term goals. Essay. Where do you see yourself 10 years from now? Why do you want to get a college education? Many scholarship providers have a charitable goal: They want to provide money for students who are going to have trouble paying for statement paper college. In addition to asking for information about your financial situation, these committees may want a more detailed and personal account of your financial need. From a financial standpoint, what impact would this scholarship have on your education?

State any special personal or family circumstances affecting your need for financial assistance. How have you been financing your college education? Some essay questions don’t seem directly related to your education, but committees use them to test your creativity and get a more well-rounded sense of your personality. Choose a person or persons you admire and explain why. Choose a book or books and that have affected you deeply and explain why. While you can’t predict every essay question, knowing some of the most common ones can give you a leg up on applications. Revisor. Start brainstorming now, and you may find yourself a winner! Essay Feedback: Creating Your Structure — by Kay Peterson, Ph.D. You might think that the secret of a winning scholarship essay is to write about a great idea. But that’s only half the job. The best essays take a great idea and present it effectively through the structure of the gw essay, essay.

To see how important structure is, let’s look at an essay by Emily H. In her application for the UCLA Alumni Scholarship, Emily responds to the following essay topic: “Please provide a summary of your personal and family background, including information about your family, where you grew up, and perhaps a highlight or special memory of your youth.” Here’s how Emily responded: To me, home has never been associated with the word “permanent.” I seem to use it more often with the word “different” because I’ve lived in a variety of essay places ranging from Knoxville, Tennessee, to Los Angeles, California. While everyone knows where Los Angeles is on a map, very few even know which state Knoxville is in. Thesis Tentang Elearning. Fortunately, I’ve had the chance to live in the east and west and to view life from two disparate points. I always get the same reaction from people when I tell them that I’m originally from a small town in Tennessee called Knoxville. Along with surprised, incredulous looks on their faces, I’m bombarded with comments like “Really? You don’t sound or look as if you’re from Tennessee.” These reactions are nearly all the same because everyone sees me as a typical Californian who loves the sunny weather, the beach and the city. They don’t know that I lived in Reading, Pennsylvania, before I moved to essay, Chattanooga, Tennessee, and then moved again to Knoxville, Tennessee. The idea of tentang elearning my living anywhere in the vicinity of the revisor, South or any place besides California is inconceivable to many because I’ve adapted so well to the surroundings in which I currently find myself.

This particular quality, in in a paper a sense, also makes me a more cosmopolitan and open-minded person. Having already seen this much of the world has encouraged me to essay, visit other places like Paris or London and the rest of the world. My open-mindedness applies not only to new places, but also to intriguing ideas and opportunities. This attitude towards life prepares me for thesis tentang the vast array of opportunities that still lie ahead in revisor the future. From my experiences of moving place to place, I have also come to acknowledge the deep bond I share with my family. Sat Prompt Essay. It has helped me realize the importance of revisor supporting each other through tough times. Moving from Tennessee to California meant saying good-bye to the house we had lived in for six years, longtime friends and writing a comparison essay the calm, idyllic lifestyle of the revisor, country that we had grown to love and savor. But knowing that we had each other to depend on made the sat prompt, transition easier.

It also strengthened the bond we all shared and essay placed more value on the time we spent with each other, whether it was at home eating dinner or going on papers a family trip. Now when I think of the word “home,” I see the bluish-gray house I live in now. In the essay, past, however, “home” has been associated with houses of varying sizes, colors and forms. Essay Thesis. The only essay revisor, thing that has remained unchanging and permanent is my family. I have acknowledged this constancy, knowing well enough that it is, and always will be, a part of gw essay me and a unique part of essay my life. Los Angeles is one of many places in which I’ve lived. This fact by sat prompt essay, itself has had a tremendous impact on me. This kind of essay topic can be difficult because it is very general. Emily deftly avoids this pitfall by focusing her essay on one topic: the fact that she’s moved many times. As a result, this essay contains a lot of revisor winning elements:

Her opening sentence is proofreading papers great. It really grabs the reader’s attention because it’s unexpected and paradoxical. We want to learn more about her. Her story is unique; she doesn’t rely on cliches. She provides a lot of detail; we feel the differences among the various cities. She’s focused the account so we learn just enough, not too much. She tells us why these events are important. Rather than just listing the cities, she tells us how her experiences have affected her.

But there are also a number of things she could do to revisor, improve her essay: Opening paragraph gets off to a strong start, but quickly loses steam. The last sentence is too vague. The second paragraph is far too long, and covers too many ideas. Gw Essay. The transitions among the various ideas are underdeveloped. There’s a thought progression behind her essay that isn’t supported by the transitions. Conclusion is weak and doesn’t capture the much richer ideas that resonate throughout her essay. The first thing Emily should do is essay revisor step back from her essay and think about how she has organized her ideas-that is, what structure has she provided? She can do this by creating an outline of the ideas that appear in her essay. It should look something like this: a. Emily has lived in writing a comparison essay thesis a lot of places.

b. Emily has viewed life from essay revisor, two disparate points. 2. Body (one paragraph) a. People don’t guess that Emily is not originally from California. b. Proofreading Papers. That’s because she has adapted so well to her current environment. c. This adaptability has made her open-minded about the world around her, and ready to take new opportunities. d. Essay. She’s also learned to recognize and writing a comparison thesis value the bond with her family, which gives her a sense of permanence throughout all the changes. 3. Conclusion: Los Angeles is essay one of the places she has lived. As we can see, Emily’s essay is jam-packed with good ideas. With the exception of the conclusion (which she should cut), everything in here is thesis elearning meaningful and necessary.

What she needs to do now is identify the most important idea for the whole essay and essay revisor then rearrange the essay, points so that they support that idea. What is the overriding idea? I identified a number of revisor fruitful ideas that involve these various points: Constant change has been challenging, but learning how to proofreading, deal with change has made Emily ready for more challenges in revisor the future. Constant change has had a paradoxical effect on gw essay Emily: It’s taught her both how to be adaptable and how determine what is truly permanent (i.e. her family). Constant change has taught her all about essay revisor different parts of the proofreading papers, country, but has also taught her that while she grows and changes, she’ll still remain the same person she always was. Once Emily has decided what main idea she wants to essay revisor, communicate, she can then restructure the points to support that idea. She may find that she needs to cut some points or develop others more fully. Writing Thesis. The key is to revisor, make it clear how those points relate to the central idea and to use meaningful transitions that point the way to the next idea.

With a new structure in nuclear research paper place, Emily should have a unique and winning essay! Once you have determined which scholarships you will apply for, write to them and ask for their scholarship application and requirements. Revisor. The letter can be a general request for information “form” letter that can be photocopied, but you should be specific about the name of the scholarship you are inquiring about on tentang elearning the envelope. Write to essay revisor, each source as far in advance of their scholarship deadline as possible and don’t forget to send a self-addressed, stamped envelope(SASE) — it not only expedites their reply, but some organizations won’t respond without one. Remember, on the outside of the envelope, list the name of the specific scholarship you are inquiring about. That way, the person opening the mail will know where to direct your inquiry. Here is an example of what your letter might look like: XYZ Corporation (Ian Scott Smith Scholarship) 1234 56th Street, Suite 890. Metropolis, FL 00000-0000. Dear Scholarship Coordinator:

I am a (college) student (give academic year) and will be applying for admission to (a graduate) program for research academic year 20__ – __. I would appreciate any information you have available on educational financing, including application forms. I am enclosing a self-addressed, stamped business size envelope for your convenience in essay revisor replying. Daniel J. Cassidy. 2280 Airport Boulevard. Santa Rosa, CA 95403. Make sure your letter is neatly typed, well written and does not contain grammatical errors or misspelled words. When filling out scholarship application forms, be complete, concise and creative. People who read these applications want to know the real you, not just your name. The application should clearly emphasize your ambitions, motivations and what makes you different. Be original!

You will find that once you have seen one or two applications, you have pretty much seen them all. Research Paper. Usually they are one or two pages asking where you are going to school, what you are going to major in essay revisor and why you think you deserve the scholarship. Thesis Statement. Some scholarship sources require that you join their organization. If the essay revisor, organization relates to your field of nuclear medicine research study, you should strongly consider joining because it will keep you informed (via newsletter, etc.) about developments in that field. Other scholarship organizations may want you to promise that you will work for them for a year or two after you graduate. The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund offers a scholarship for up to essay, $20,000 for journalism, broadcasting, and communications students with the understanding that the statement in a, student will intern for them for two years. This could even yield a permanent job for the student. Your application should be typewritten and neat. I had a complaint from revisor, one foundation about papers a student who had an excellent background and qualifications but used a crayon to fill out the application.

Once your essay is finished, make a master file for revisor it and other supporting items. Photocopy your essay and gw essay attach it to the application. If requested include: a resume or curriculum vitae (CV), extracurricular activities sheet (usually one page), transcripts, SAT, GRE, or MCAT scores, letters of recommendation (usually one from a professor, employer and revisor friend) outlining your moral character and, if there are any newspaper articles, etc. about you, it is a good idea to gw essay, include them as well. You might also include your photograph, whether it’s a graduation picture or a snapshot of your working at essay your favorite hobby. Sat Prompt Essay. This helps the essay revisor, selection committee feel a little closer to gw essay, you. Instead of just seeing a name, they will have a face to match it. Mail your applications in early , at least a month before the revisor, deadline. **Dr.

Peterson has won numerous college and graduate scholarships, including the Jacob Javits Fellowship, the University of gw essay California Regents Scholarship and the National Merit Scholarship. Together we care for our patients and revisor our communities.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the essay terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Research Paper! To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. Essay! It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the writing poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and essay revisor, benefits of a comparison essay thesis, growth that are rightfully theirs. Revisor! It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. Thesis Tentang Elearning! The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from essay revisor risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Proofreading Papers! Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to revisor be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Gw Essay! Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to revisor deal with it are often weak.

No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of essay, corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the essay world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and nuclear research paper, we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the essay 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in sat prompt, order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where.

While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the essay revisor UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for statement, too long been vulnerable to corruption. Revisor! We are going further still. I am determined that the essay UK must not become a safe haven for essay, corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it.

Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the papers Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Essay! Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and sat prompt, coherent international agenda to revisor defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. Thesis Statement In A! The essays in this book are not about essay trying to claim the thesis in a paper moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an essay attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to gw essay begin a frank and essay, informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the gw essay most pernicious enemies of essay, progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and gw essay, experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. Revisor! For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on essay average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the revisor way corruption can act like a tax on investment and thesis, stifle the creation of new business. Revisor! She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on proofreading papers the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of essay revisor, corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the nuclear medicine research vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for revisor, a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the gw essay rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption.

Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is essay a clear message here. We cannot have one or the gw essay other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to essay promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for sat prompt essay, the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”.

In his essay on tackling corruption in essay revisor, Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Research Paper! Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. Essay! There is a similar provision in Singapore, the nuclear medicine research use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the essay difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and sat prompt essay, uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate.

It is essay hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and gw essay, events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for essay revisor, public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. Proofreading Papers! In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for essay, follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to gw essay offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in essay, Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of gw essay, these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Essay! Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and thesis in a paper, deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is essay revisor nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. A Comparison! We need to essay revisor expose the statement theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by essay revisor, opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to sat prompt essay account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of essay revisor, all of this is international co-operation on thesis transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.

But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over essay revisor the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to gw essay get through, networks of essay revisor, civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to proofreading papers account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the revisor corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and papers, working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. Revisor! One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to nuclear research prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of essay revisor, Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and thesis statement paper, do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the revisor same. Dealing with the nuclear corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. Revisor! It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Papers! Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. Essay! As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long.

This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. Sat Prompt! From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against essay, corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the essay international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. Essay! As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change.

It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the sat prompt support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and revisor, civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the proofreading legitimacy of democracy and at essay revisor, least pretend to writing a comparison essay hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to essay revisor which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to a comparison thesis Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.

What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from essay their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the medicine research lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the essay revisor prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and gw essay, undermines the reality of essay revisor, democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and thesis, political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of revisor, corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Statement Paper! Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to essay the broader problem of good government.

2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the writing essay thesis abuse of essay revisor, public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist.

In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to gw essay argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by revisor, right of gw essay, ownership, but out of a kind of revisor, social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. Gw Essay! In this respect, China beat Europe to essay revisor the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies.

But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and sat prompt essay, treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of revisor, behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of proofreading, relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on revisor countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states.

Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is gw essay a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the essay revisor transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to medicine paper corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism.

In economics, a rent is technically defined as the essay revisor difference between the cost of thesis tentang elearning, keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of revisor, rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by thesis tentang elearning, markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of essay, a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of thesis elearning, time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by revisor, allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.

While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of writing essay thesis, stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of essay revisor, regulation, few people would like to statement paper see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. Revisor! A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to gw essay the client in revisor, exchange for the client’s loyalty and nuclear medicine research paper, political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984).

Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of essay revisor, intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of writing a comparison essay thesis, voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. Essay Revisor! 4–7). Paper! Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to essay revisor vote based on thesis elearning the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the essay revisor general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people.

Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for proofreading, example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of essay revisor, mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Proofreading Papers! It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is essay revisor that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation.

A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and elearning, organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out essay their mandates effectively and in a paper, efficiently. It is linked to the skills and essay revisor, knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and essay, authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to essay be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Sat Prompt! The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014).

This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and essay, scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to statement in a paper pay 10% of the transaction value in essay, bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. Nuclear Medicine Paper! More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for essay revisor, better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in essay, classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and essay, mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and nuclear medicine, contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the essay revisor indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.

The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for sat prompt essay, overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about essay revisor good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about thesis statement in a paper corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is essay no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from sat prompt essay citizens.

The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in essay revisor, the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from a comparison essay politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the essay franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to thesis in a positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the essay revisor spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in thesis tentang, every American town or city. Revisor! As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to sat prompt essay change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. Revisor! New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and thesis in a paper, knowledge over political connections. Following the essay assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by medicine research, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into revisor, passing the Pendleton Act.

It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in writing a comparison essay thesis, New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the essay revisor incentives that led to the creation of the elearning clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into essay, office via their ability to thesis elearning distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges.

The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Essay Revisor! Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for papers, reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against revisor, corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians.

Grassroots activism in gw essay, favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and revisor, the government. Proofreading! One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from revisor a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to thesis statement in a paper poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in essay, countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and nuclear research, will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. Revisor! This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the thesis historical record. Revisor! Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of nuclear, Political Order: From Prehuman Times to essay revisor the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of statement in a paper, Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and essay, Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and thesis paper, Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. Essay Revisor! 2009. Is Transparency the nuclear Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

521–32. Mauro, P. Revisor! 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Elearning! Working Paper No. 02/213. Revisor! Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, J. Nuclear Paper! 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. Essay Revisor! More recently, he is the essay author of Political Order and revisor, Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption.

Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to gw essay scrutinise. Essay! Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and thesis, Asian countries, according to essay Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of thesis elearning, these extreme conditions. As to essay revisor periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is elearning good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.

Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is essay revisor concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of nuclear medicine paper, behaviour. Revisor! Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the tentang elearning same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. Revisor! In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally.

This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Gw Essay! Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.

But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the essay British public sector was very corrupt. Nuclear Research! Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to revisor competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. A Comparison Essay! By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and revisor, competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy.

But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. Gw Essay! In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is essay much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for medicine, themselves. However, the globalisation of essay revisor, business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. Thesis Tentang Elearning! There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain.

This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to revisor persist. Thesis Tentang Elearning! Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for essay, international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in writing a comparison essay, a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is revisor also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to gw essay increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is essay now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the sat prompt free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged.

This is why the Organisation for essay revisor, Economic Co-operation and writing thesis, Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. Revisor! The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of research, scope for essay revisor, contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is proofreading fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for essay, themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to tentang the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the essay revisor sales tax component of papers, VAT is essay paying in. Clearly at the core of nuclear medicine research, this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for revisor, private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of essay, generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in essay, which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and thesis in a paper, personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to essay revisor be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and sat prompt essay, fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. Revisor! They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Proofreading Papers! The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of revisor, a new identity as a member of paper, a prestigious international peer group of essay revisor, modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the statement paper official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and essay, the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is essay not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014).

A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to essay persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of sat prompt essay, finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to revisor the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the thesis elearning same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for revisor, International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries.

Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to essay what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the essay revisor world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of thesis, transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the revisor entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on gw essay money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity.

Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for essay revisor, politicians. In the sat prompt essay OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the essay OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Medicine Paper! Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is essay revisor designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to statement in a work on the job.

An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of essay revisor, ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into papers, the potential for essay revisor, such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the sat prompt essay OECD initiative is essay revisor excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and proofreading papers, their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to essay revisor development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.

But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is a comparison socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the essay prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of writing a comparison thesis, corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is essay revisor no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. Proofreading Papers! National actions against corruption complement international actions.

One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of essay revisor, checks and nuclear, balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in revisor, Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Gw Essay! Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and essay, satisfaction are changing both for writing essay thesis, themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is essay a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the thesis in a paper word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of essay, stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless.

However, it does not have the same resonance for sat prompt, citizens of the essay region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over gw essay the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the essay feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal.

Citizens in these countries were some of the sat prompt most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of revisor, thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. A Comparison Essay! The war against revisor, graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.

This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for a comparison thesis, example, that the thief is too embarrassed to revisor go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on thesis statement paper it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the essay law. The equality component is essential: the essay rule of law must be seen to essay apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class.

The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from writing a comparison thesis history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and revisor, use them together in the fight against gw essay, corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to essay revisor the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda.

During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the papers mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the essay expansion of sat prompt, trade and commerce.

At the same time, the struggle against essay revisor, Islamic extremism captured the nuclear medicine research paper attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of revisor, corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to papers be part of the DNA of essay revisor, modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. Gw Essay! This includes the defence and security sector and essay revisor, areas of gw essay, social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of revisor, corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities.

It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for gw essay, example, ethnic, religious and essay, sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in gw essay, what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of essay, musical chairs among crooks – to nuclear begin to revisor question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and nuclear medicine research paper, deepens the challenges corruption poses. Essay Revisor! 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and in a, private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the revisor internet and elearning, an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the revisor world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and elearning, processes of revisor, rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in thesis tentang, multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the essay revisor law for tentang elearning, the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Essay Revisor! As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’.

The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the writing essay thesis legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of revisor, ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of gw essay, a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the essay easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in proofreading papers, cross-cultural contexts. They are the essay revisor entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to writing thesis quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al.

2014). Essay Revisor! Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of research, lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for essay revisor, some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. Writing A Comparison Essay! The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in revisor, itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at gw essay, a critical juncture. It calls for essay, a renewed global partnership against essay, corruption to match, and even exceed, the revisor concentrated and writing essay, successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and revisor, people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to papers target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in revisor, public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to tentang identify, disrupt and essay, delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and paper, environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at essay revisor, dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the thesis statement in a new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’.

4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. Essay Revisor! To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Essay! Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is essay acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in medicine research, societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in revisor, 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of tentang elearning, inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into essay, lame ducks while still in medicine research paper, office by essay, dramatic mass expressions of papers, discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in revisor, many places.

The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. Sat Prompt Essay! This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the essay revisor public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. Sat Prompt! However, for revisor, these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and thesis statement in a paper, developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of essay, social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of thesis, engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. Essay! John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and thesis, Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and revisor, the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015.

Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. Thesis Tentang! 2013. Essay Revisor! Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD.

January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho.

Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. Papers! 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.

Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. Essay Revisor! The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. Paper! While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the essay politicians were to blame for proofreading papers, the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in essay revisor, a country where many more billions of dollars in statement, ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015).

We believe that the citizens of revisor, Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the writing thesis OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of essay, these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes.

The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the nuclear research associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the revisor quality of tentang, information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to essay identify the patterns and practices inherent in tentang elearning, corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and essay revisor, corrupt officials.

Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to statement companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and essay revisor, intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the gw essay ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from essay revisor servicing the gw essay needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures.

It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in essay, Eastern and Central Europe. Statement Paper! Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is revisor hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in gw essay, huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to essay revisor change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and medicine paper, exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is essay revisor relatively expensive to gw essay use and essay, searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency.

Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the writing thesis involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by revisor, a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to papers obscure the identity of the essay real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an in a issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is essay implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for essay, investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of essay, Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to gw essay public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and essay revisor, tenders databases vary greatly in nuclear medicine paper, their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns.

Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the revisor costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on thesis board the essay open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from thesis other countries can take months or even years.

Say, for example, that the police in essay revisor, the UK need information on thesis a company based in Russia. They have to revisor file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to gw essay find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the revisor adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by papers, weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at essay revisor, present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to gw essay hamper law enforcement. Essay! Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in thesis in a paper, a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions.

Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is essay – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of in a, lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised.

However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and essay revisor, even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and thesis paper, ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Essay Revisor! Governments, banks and financial institutions in writing, general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to essay be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for proofreading papers, new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the essay revisor same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in medicine paper, Belize City, Belize. Essay! Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in thesis, related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of essay revisor, pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the thesis elearning development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by revisor, altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time.

Automated searches of tentang elearning, ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over revisor the world. The result could be that the tentang elearning public has earlier and reliable information about who the essay real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and essay, governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the essay Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and gw essay, corruption in Eastern Europe. He is revisor also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism.

Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. Proofreading! 4 May 2015. Revisor! Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. Statement In A Paper! 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Essay Revisor! Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015.

Panama Registry of proofreading papers, Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. Essay! The Proxy Platform. Writing A Comparison! The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova.

Available online. Essay! Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and proofreading papers, Sarnecki, M. Essay! 26 March 2013. Thesis Tentang Elearning! Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and essay, Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in sat prompt, the old fortress-like centre of town.

The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Essay! I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to gw essay work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of essay, countries. Sat Prompt Essay! We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and essay, how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the essay girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. Revisor! My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it.

I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the gw essay then Nigerian administration – like that of revisor, many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the thesis elearning terrorist threat. Essay! The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is thesis these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in revisor, recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests.

Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over writing a comparison the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in essay, bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an sat prompt essay international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on essay revisor delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the medicine research objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into essay revisor, an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there.

Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to gw essay rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of essay, Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is thesis in a paper our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of revisor, cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the medicine research whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. Essay! This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into papers, the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy.

Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the revisor only foreigners in medicine, Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them.

It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the essay revisor Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. Sat Prompt! A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in essay revisor, them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’.

The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by a comparison, interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the revisor Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in gw essay, the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the essay violations by government agencies against the people. Sat Prompt Essay! Finally they could stand up and challenge.

They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the essay prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and sat prompt, the return of stolen assets. As the essay catastrophic situation in elearning, today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Revisor! Some analysts see the a comparison thesis expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in essay, Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. Sat Prompt Essay! While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at essay, the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to a comparison that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of essay revisor, today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about papers corruption that should drive people to such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and essay revisor, the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on gw essay victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for essay, retribution. In studies of papers, violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by essay revisor, religious duty to do the thesis tentang elearning right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and essay revisor, only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to proofreading papers complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled.

The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and revisor, the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in gw essay, democratic development indicate that in none of revisor, them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the writing a comparison slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in essay revisor, dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Writing Essay! It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is essay common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the elearning instruments of state function. Revisor! They use those instruments to nuclear medicine research serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at revisor, all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in medicine, agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to essay revisor force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all.

So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. Proofreading! The whole Government is set up that way, to essay revisor make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists.

Some within the statement in a government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to revisor have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). Papers! 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in revisor, such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and medicine research, private sectors, licit and revisor, illicit actors, simply do not apply. Sat Prompt! Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and essay, affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage.

Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the nuclear medicine paper easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of essay revisor, silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for papers, governments, investors and essay, humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations.

Still, even in tentang elearning, a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Essay! Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and writing a comparison thesis, facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the essay misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and nuclear medicine, real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of revisor, terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of writing essay thesis, blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and essay revisor, other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work.

Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for essay, colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. Essay Revisor! And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. Writing A Comparison! 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003.

Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Essay! Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey.

Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. Proofreading! ed. and revisor, trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by thesis statement in a, Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. Essay Revisor! The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold.

New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. Writing A Comparison! 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Essay Revisor! Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012.

Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and sat prompt essay, Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in essay revisor, sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is proofreading papers more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. Essay Revisor! There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and gw essay, those in revisor, control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Gw Essay! Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and essay, wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Proofreading Papers! I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. Revisor! That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in tentang elearning, Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by essay, unrest. Nuclear Medicine! That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on essay revisor the track or, more accurately, in the room where the in a Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold.

Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in revisor, Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an medicine paper American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. Essay! I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight.

It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to proofreading papers advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment.

Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the essay world’s greatest bike race, the thesis in a paper Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the essay drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of gw essay, proscribed substances. Essay! A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race.

The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. Thesis Statement In A Paper! 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about essay revisor taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the sat prompt victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the essay years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. Gw Essay! 54). We want sport to be believable.

In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is revisor far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the nuclear medicine paper news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and essay revisor, what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is thesis statement in a a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the revisor corruption come? What of the institutional corruption?

Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and essay, French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Revisor! Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at nuclear medicine paper, Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the revisor first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer.

His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the gw essay most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Essay Revisor! Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in tentang, perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat.

The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to essay his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. Gw Essay! And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to revisor embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an thesis statement in a paper inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the essay truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the writing surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the essay revisor truth resting beneath the surface.

His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the essay thesis world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in essay revisor, him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. Gw Essay! All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Revisor! Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of a comparison essay, Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and essay, allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Writing Essay! Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to essay cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an gw essay EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. Essay! It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and papers, Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.

Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the revisor corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on gw essay a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. Essay! How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in sat prompt essay, these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position.

Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to essay revisor look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the sat prompt essay emergency cord. This longing to indulge the essay irresponsibility of not knowing has been the sat prompt rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to essay the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance.

Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). Thesis Statement Paper! It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out revisor that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the proofreading papers ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).

Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to revisor travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by research, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in essay, Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and proofreading, police cars. He was inside the essay charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in gw essay, the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. Essay! All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated.

I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in statement in a paper, Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for essay revisor, me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. Gw Essay! The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to revisor say that winning is thesis elearning not the most important thing.

How you try to essay win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in papers, sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to essay revisor whom we should listen.

He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from thesis paper Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. Revisor! ‘The important thing in writing essay, life is not the essay revisor triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015).

Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. Nuclear Research Paper! 1956. Essay! The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in papers, Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. Revisor! pdf. Proofreading Papers! Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Essay Revisor! Simon, P. 1964. Sat Prompt Essay! The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records.

Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. Revisor! 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and proofreading papers, wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Essay Revisor! Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in thesis, Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of essay revisor, addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to paper ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at essay revisor, $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and thesis elearning, Nigeria’s has increased to revisor just $3,005 (World Bank 2016).

For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per a comparison thesis annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the essay revisor problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and nuclear research paper, 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on essay revisor an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Tentang Elearning! Our recent history has been one of essay, predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Gw Essay! Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and revisor, four times higher than those in Asia. Proofreading Papers! Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and essay revisor, $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to gw essay the African Union’s high-level panel on revisor illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for research, $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and essay revisor, 2008 (UNECA 2015). Thesis! Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.

As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the essay African average in essay, virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and revisor, Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and proofreading papers, violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in revisor, collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by thesis statement in a, side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and essay, despair, and laid the proofreading foundation for essay revisor, militancy and insurgency.

Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. Nuclear Research Paper! First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in revisor, the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.

Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the thesis statement in a irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in essay revisor, the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and sat prompt essay, drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to essay revisor curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to thesis do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to essay be fair and just in dealing with all cases of writing a comparison essay thesis, corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to essay revisor cast the sat prompt first of any stones. Thus, though not required by revisor, law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to sat prompt be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs.

We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of revisor, self-censorship by essay, anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. Essay Revisor! In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Papers! Most of our people, especially those in essay revisor, the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and gw essay, other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and revisor, too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at thesis tentang, the federal state and essay revisor, local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and writing thesis, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to essay revisor work together for a common purpose.

Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of tentang elearning, this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of essay revisor, experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the thesis statement in a paper implementation plan for essay, anti-corruption legislation and proofreading, other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners.

We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Revisor! Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. Sat Prompt! We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and essay revisor, funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and elearning, internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to revisor petitions from the sat prompt public. Revisor! We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of gw essay, corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and revisor, South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the thesis statement in a paper suspected owner is essay a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the proofreading EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of essay, primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from medicine research paper international institutions and development partners, as well as to essay revisor access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of elearning, illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in revisor, order to enhance its operational autonomy.

We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the thesis forfeiture of essay revisor, unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to thesis tentang elearning paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to revisor secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of sat prompt essay, a state were dismissed by essay, a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on tentang elearning the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of essay revisor, trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Essay! Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. Essay Revisor! In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.

It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the proofreading papers accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to essay see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the nuclear medicine potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT.

Yet in spite of the revisor glaring and widespread corruption by tentang elearning, political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and essay, brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on thesis in a corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at essay revisor, paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in medicine, breach of the essay revisor Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the gw essay CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to essay revisor be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the writing a comparison essay same.

But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the essay revisor capacity to thesis in a paper verify the claims made in the thousands of essay, assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to gw essay make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the essay revisor CCB and research, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the revisor Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of nuclear, every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from essay holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases.

The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Gw Essay! Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt.

We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is essay revisor critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is thesis elearning aware of essay, this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the in a leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively.

They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for essay, disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the thesis statement paper mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. Revisor! These are matters for the Judiciary to proofreading consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and essay, increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of thesis, supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. Essay! While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for nuclear research paper, a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. Essay! To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in essay, the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for revisor, corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to papers ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of essay, all refined products by proofreading papers, publishing purchases and essay, reconciling the thesis statement paper amounts against essay, consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to gw essay deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in essay revisor, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the essay thesis major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an essay Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. Gw Essay! The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and essay revisor, promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is sat prompt essay followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012).

Following decades of revisor, a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of thesis tentang elearning, Nigeria. As a result, we are now in essay, a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of a comparison, parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of revisor, it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the thesis elearning National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.

In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. Essay! I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step.

And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of nuclear paper, critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and essay revisor, power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and essay, poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in essay, 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to essay fight corruption not only revisor within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement.

2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Essay! Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of revisor, Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online.

Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Medicine Research! Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Essay! Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Papers! Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). Essay! International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999.

Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Gw Essay! Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.

2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Essay Revisor! html).

United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. Writing A Comparison Essay! US Department of essay revisor, Justice. 11 February 2009. Thesis! Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and essay revisor, Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Tentang! Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. Revisor! 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank.

12 January 2016. GDP per thesis statement in a paper Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Essay Revisor! Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about essay corruption and essay, the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. Statement In A Paper! But it is imperative we recognise that, in essay, a number of countries, corruption is gw essay not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development.

If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the revisor systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from thesis their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in essay, a country like Afghanistan is writing essay thesis a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and essay revisor, temporary. A Comparison Essay Thesis! In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to essay revisor provide an effective agenda for reform.

By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of nuclear research paper, world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement.

Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to revisor reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and nuclear medicine research paper, they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on essay earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the in a paper Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an essay end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the tentang elearning corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development.

The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the essay revisor large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Writing Essay! Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into essay revisor, a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. In A! As a country threatened by essay revisor, both internal violence and nuclear research, external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the essay revisor public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by thesis, mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in essay, traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the thesis poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and essay, payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of proofreading papers, their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified.

Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. Revisor! But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from thesis Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is revisor developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by statement in a paper, small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and essay revisor, narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption.

More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and sat prompt, control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to revisor Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and tentang elearning, reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to essay the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and a comparison thesis, the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of essay, this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the medicine paper procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is essay revisor how the government uses competition to get the sat prompt essay public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of essay, gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015).

And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the a comparison thesis effect on government performance and revisor, value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the thesis in a paper appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.

Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to essay revisor collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and gw essay, poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the revisor new Government’s commitments to bring about elearning systemic change will really be backed by political will and essay revisor, structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to a comparison tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the revisor accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the medicine second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and essay, justice also attend the sat prompt weekly council meeting. Revisor! Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the proofreading papers government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in essay revisor, professional procurement and who have the gw essay specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the essay revisor Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Thesis Tentang! Public transparency is built into the process. Essay! Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of thesis, Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the essay US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on tentang Integrity.

Minutes of our meetings and essay, all decisions are placed on medicine an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for essay revisor, journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Statement In A! Transparency has enabled us to begin to essay build trust in government. The first major test of statement paper, our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and revisor, an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Gw Essay! Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the essay contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war.

This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from essay NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and essay, the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and thesis tentang elearning, good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the essay revisor rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and sat prompt essay, ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the essay revisor Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the writing a comparison foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in essay revisor, the future, honest procurement is the a comparison rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to essay reform, internal and sat prompt essay, external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Revisor! Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. Gw Essay! For that to happen, we must make the essay entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of thesis statement, large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the revisor structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the writing a comparison thesis World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of revisor, expertise. We need an entirely different model of thesis, how procurement happens.

To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and essay, provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to writing a comparison essay thesis concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. Revisor! For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. Sat Prompt Essay! The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the essay revisor progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done.

What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Thesis Tentang! Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Revisor! Fiduciary oversight was in gw essay, any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the essay revisor judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to move as quickly on gw essay justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the essay independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. Thesis Tentang! But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Essay! Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on statement paper having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of essay, justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. Research Paper! The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists.

Our experience shows that, to essay have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and gw essay, strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and revisor, national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on tentang elearning whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and essay, more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of gw essay, actions. Revisor! But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in proofreading papers, the fight against essay, corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an thesis tentang elearning example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an essay revisor aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and medicine, systems that are facilitating corruption.

Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the essay revisor top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the proofreading papers Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it.

Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to revisor navigate the papers trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the essay procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in tentang elearning, the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an revisor alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the sat prompt essay fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to revisor build up a system that systematised corruption at proofreading, every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict.

Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of essay revisor, poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the statement paper cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. Essay Revisor! 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation.

Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Nuclear Medicine Paper! Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority.

Available online. Observatory of essay, Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. Medicine! SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Essay! Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play.

It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. Sat Prompt! New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. Essay Revisor! An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. Sat Prompt Essay! There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and essay, I have no doubt Chappell is gw essay sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries.

As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is essay a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of sat prompt essay, this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to essay revisor support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and tentang, services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to essay be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements.

We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. Papers! We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is essay revisor our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).

The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of a comparison, New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and essay, interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Sat Prompt! Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to essay do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for essay, corruption to essay revisor take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.

I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and thesis in a paper, are expected to essay regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is a comparison expected to act in essay, accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the statement Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Essay Revisor! Merit-based appointments, made on tentang the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of essay, government action. As is often said, the sat prompt essay best disinfectant is essay revisor sunlight.

As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the thesis in a then National Government passed the essay Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). Gw Essay! While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in essay, the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the a comparison thesis Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to revisor proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and proofreading papers, misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to revisor operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in gw essay, the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and revisor, expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and thesis, companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to essay New Zealand’s position on international affairs and sat prompt, domestic policy, to what I had for essay, breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in elearning, seeing the revisor Prime Minister having to defend an gw essay issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of essay, government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of gw essay, governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of essay revisor, New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). Nuclear Paper! We are particularly focused on essay making progress in writing essay, our own neighbourhood.

New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. Revisor! While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to thesis statement paper ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of essay, public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of paper, auditing in holding government institutions to account.

More public office holders are being held to account for essay revisor, their misconduct and papers, misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of revisor, corruption from thesis developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the revisor public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and thesis tentang elearning, accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). Essay Revisor! New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and nuclear research, the Cook Islands, linked to revisor reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of thesis statement in a paper, state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Revisor! Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to gw essay boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the revisor crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and gw essay, community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to essay revisor TI chapters in medicine research, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and essay revisor, law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to thesis paper strengthen their courts and police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to revisor address family violence and youth justice issues.

New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for essay thesis, Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for essay revisor, instance, in research, Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of revisor, police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in thesis elearning, accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in revisor, the police and writing a comparison essay, add to essay revisor a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for papers, fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to revisor a very high standard.

As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and proofreading, address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. Essay! With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. Papers! The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to essay prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws.

Recognising the thesis statement in a importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in essay, 2014 to a comparison thesis specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of essay revisor, sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for gw essay, any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against essay, corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for thesis, corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to essay ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to tentang elearning prevent it. As a small part of an essay revisor increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and essay, our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good.

Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of essay revisor, Representatives, p.12. Proofreading Papers! Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). Essay Revisor! New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016.

Welcome to gw essay the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Essay Revisor! Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of gw essay, Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Essay Revisor! Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Writing A Comparison Essay Thesis! 2016b. The Treaty of revisor, Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Papers! Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.

New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Essay! Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015.

Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Gw Essay! Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Essay Revisor! Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014.

Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Writing! Available online. Transparency International. Essay! 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. Essay! 2013. Essay! Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance.

Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Thesis Tentang! Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is essay revisor a scourge that can never be tolerated. Papers! Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly.

Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary.

Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an essay impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of a comparison thesis, Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean.

The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by essay revisor, no means a no- brainer for thesis tentang elearning, the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an revisor acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and thesis statement, let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and essay revisor, Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the proofreading papers Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.

That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the revisor Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the medicine research paper burden of proof on the accused to revisor show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Sat Prompt Essay! Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for revisor, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the writing a comparison essay thesis actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and essay, culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. Nuclear! They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. Essay Revisor! The story is thesis tentang told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to essay revisor different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the sat prompt essay going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government.

He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the essay rules and tight the proofreading system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Essay! Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for elearning, ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption.

We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and essay, business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the thesis elearning top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. Essay Revisor! His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to nuclear paper whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the revisor Singaporean understood why. Tentang! The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?

There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to essay revisor uphold the highest standards of integrity from the medicine paper top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on essay property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and gw essay, I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of essay, my two purchases and those of the in a paper Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of essay, Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to papers Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore.

Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Revisor! Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of essay, Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Revisor! Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to statement in a the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and revisor, conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by gw essay, 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and essay revisor, education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into tentang, poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. Revisor! In the thesis tentang elearning Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of essay, high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to writing essay get to market and harming growth, incomes and essay, job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for tentang, ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).

Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and essay revisor, his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of gw essay, $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of essay revisor, development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and gw essay, developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Essay! Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in writing a comparison essay thesis, more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and essay, loans amounting to gw essay approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and essay revisor, loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from tentang elearning receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in essay, connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of thesis, $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and essay, adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and papers, providing the poor with sufficient support from essay revisor social safety nets.

12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to nuclear the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of revisor, royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from paper oil, gas and essay revisor, mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and essay, hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to revisor bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of a comparison thesis, public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to essay revisor undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. Thesis! In India, for essay, example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for writing a comparison thesis, the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and essay, government contractors. Medicine Research! In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to revisor confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on gw essay the job, which has proved to be an essay effective way to hold the proofreading papers inspectors accountable for essay revisor, countering instructor absenteeism.

Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the gw essay Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in essay, the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity.

12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to proofreading medicine and essay, reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in thesis in a paper, the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at revisor, a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative.

This forum allowed them to work together to proofreading papers tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Essay Revisor! Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and writing, health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and revisor, impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of elearning, Indonesia 2012). 22.

12.4 Take on essay corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and nuclear research, prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the essay international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by nuclear, half over revisor this period, from 40% in writing a comparison, 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and revisor, kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of gw essay, political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and revisor, robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. Gw Essay! In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and essay, provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to tentang elearning making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for revisor, example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from thesis elearning his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).

Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is revisor having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. Thesis Statement Paper! In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to essay pay $1.6 billion to writing a comparison essay the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to revisor help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to nuclear paper potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Essay! Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries.

In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the gw essay World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to essay investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. Gw Essay! International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in essay revisor, its own right and nuclear medicine research paper, a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in essay, ivory and gw essay, endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the essay legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and nuclear paper, satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities.

For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and essay revisor, gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and essay, dynamics is poor. Essay Revisor! When political elites collude with firms to in a paper rig these government licences and regulations to essay their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for a comparison thesis, Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion.

Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and revisor, reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the essay vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for essay revisor, public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in tentang, developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption.

The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to essay revisor stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to gw essay collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and essay, honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the a comparison effectiveness of essay, their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. Gw Essay! We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources.

I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of revisor, governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Writing! Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012.

Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. Essay Revisor! International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. Gw Essay! 2011. Revisor! Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp.

1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. Papers! S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the essay lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Nuclear Paper! Corruption Matters. Revisor! Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and in a paper, Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of essay, Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and papers, Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from revisor Education in proofreading papers, Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. Essay Revisor! 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46.

Available online. Sta Ines, N. Papers! 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. Essay Revisor! United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in research, Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Revisor! Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased).

Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. Proofreading Papers! The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Revisor! Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector.

Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Sat Prompt! Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Essay! Available online. The World Bank. Essay! 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Essay! Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly.

Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by thesis statement paper, the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is essay revisor that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified.

In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in sat prompt essay, helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the revisor purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. Writing A Comparison Thesis! I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of revisor, private citizens. Essay Thesis! Second, although corruption is an revisor extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to paper address.

There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is essay needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on papers corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of essay revisor, corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount.

The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and nuclear research, lower-quality public investment. Essay! Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is nuclear medicine research paper perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is essay revisor not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of nuclear medicine research, public expenditure to the detriment of essay revisor, economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by proofreading papers, the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and essay revisor, promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of proofreading papers, corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to revisor establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of essay, corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into essay revisor, less investment in business research and development and product innovation.

Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to gw essay how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. Revisor! 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the writing economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and essay revisor, innovation.

The impact of corruption on thesis social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on revisor education and health is typically lower in sat prompt, corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to essay revisor education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the gw essay poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of essay revisor, it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in paper, political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in essay, the overall quality of life.

These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in thesis statement in a paper, the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is essay revisor more likely to depend on gw essay who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for essay revisor, addressing corruption.

Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and proofreading, implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the revisor Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Writing A Comparison! Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the revisor problem has been so severe that the papers Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the revisor particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of thesis, mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by revisor, one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of essay, passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to essay revisor incentives and sat prompt, punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). Revisor! A number of sat prompt essay, instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability.

Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is essay revisor that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to proofreading increasing individual accountability. Essay! The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to thesis tentang elearning increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in essay revisor, a number of gw essay, areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in essay revisor, deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. Proofreading! So, the essay revisor greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004).

In this context, the thesis elearning Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in essay revisor, promoting greater transparency in a comparison essay thesis, the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in essay revisor, the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only proofreading go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of essay revisor, state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). Gw Essay! This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in revisor, public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the proofreading remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of essay revisor, political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by thesis, clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in revisor, corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation.

As I have indicated, one of the sat prompt costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to essay an official regarding the in a approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the essay Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. Essay! We have also advocated free and essay revisor, fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and thesis tentang elearning, transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of revisor, assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of paper, regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion.

30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the essay Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the thesis tentang private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by revisor, a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Proofreading! Clearly then, addressing the essay revisor behaviour of the private sector needs to essay be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is essay revisor critical that the country of the in a foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of revisor, a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy.

I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an sat prompt investment is revisor made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to thesis in a paper officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31.

The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. Essay! In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Sat Prompt! Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Essay! Through the elearning use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in revisor, combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of thesis tentang, monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is essay clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from thesis elearning both political and essay revisor, private influence – all other efforts will fail.

Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the gw essay education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the revisor example of leaders. The key objective is to papers develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.

An area in essay revisor, which the Fund has been particularly active is the gw essay establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of essay, central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. Gw Essay! A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Essay Revisor! Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the thesis irony is revisor that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essay essential.

Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. Essay Revisor! In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an sat prompt agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is essay necessary in order to statement in a paper send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Essay! Lee Kuan Yew is sat prompt a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties.

For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in revisor, the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. A Comparison Essay Thesis! Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the essay revisor managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to writing a comparison thesis engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for essay revisor, having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on sat prompt essay corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for revisor, the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is thesis tentang endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the essay Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Gw Essay! Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?

Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Revisor! Available online. Writing Thesis! Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Essay! Available online. IMF.

2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia.

Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. Proofreading Papers! 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of essay revisor, Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. A Comparison Essay Thesis! 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.

Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online.

Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of essay revisor, Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in writing a comparison thesis, International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. Essay Revisor! 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of thesis in a, Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Essay! T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to sat prompt essay battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against revisor, corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for writing a comparison essay, anti-corruption programmes around the world. Essay Revisor! And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Thesis! Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into essay revisor, the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the sat prompt essay OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to essay smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and gw essay, it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Essay! Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the tentang mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and revisor, difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and gw essay, the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and essay, the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.

Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of proofreading, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to essay bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to sat prompt essay ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the essay revisor OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda.

Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and nuclear medicine research paper, 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for essay revisor, foreign bribery in thesis, 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%).

In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for revisor, multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in proofreading papers, Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on essay combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to thesis paper help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against essay revisor, any acts of corruption (US Department of gw essay, State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. Essay Revisor! This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the nuclear risk of revisor, bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement.

In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to gw essay implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and essay, Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the essay first and only intergovernmental guidance for revisor, the private sector on how to thesis prevent and essay, detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to statement paper national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in revisor, the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of research paper, public officials or unlawful kickbacks.

Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of essay revisor, corruption from research their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of revisor, national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the thesis tentang elearning Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and essay, disrupt national and thesis tentang, global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to revisor combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and sat prompt essay, promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and essay, other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and writing a comparison, industries that have traditionally been most at essay, risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in thesis tentang, extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. Essay! As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the thesis tentang elearning 2003 Recommendation on revisor Guidelines for nuclear, Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and revisor, the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the gw essay OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against essay revisor, corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of thesis, responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by essay, our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and tentang elearning, North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f).

In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and revisor, transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the proofreading papers OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Essay Revisor! Every major economy must be active against writing, corruption. It is essay revisor still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to sat prompt essay step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in essay, helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by proofreading papers, integrating partner countries into essay, its various initiatives.

The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of proofreading, tax information on request (OECD 2016). Essay! The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the gw essay automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). Revisor! It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation.

As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. Nuclear Medicine! We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the essay revisor risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at tentang, the international level. Essay Revisor! Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies.

Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to paper embed integrity within the essay revisor management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of a comparison essay thesis, progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is essay imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. Proofreading Papers! However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised.

We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is essay rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and writing thesis, initiatives will also depend on how we are able to essay revisor link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by paper, governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. Revisor! The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in gw essay, this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of essay revisor, corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and thesis tentang elearning, integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues.

Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of essay revisor, people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and gw essay, refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Essay! Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. Gw Essay! The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Essay Revisor! Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and thesis in a paper, promote the essay development and growth of terrorist groups. Thesis! This phenomenon is essay facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading.

The OECD is writing a comparison looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of revisor, illicit trade) and fighting corruption.

In 2015, we saw the emergence of thesis statement paper, major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in revisor, holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is writing a comparison thesis required in this area. Revisor! The OECD’s knowledge and experience in essay thesis, lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to essay revisor take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the gw essay SDGs and will be a major hurdle to essay revisor achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on essay poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and essay, sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and essay, diverts resources away from sustainable development and essay, from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and medicine, a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against revisor, the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for papers, better lives. Essay! G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Elearning! Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Essay! 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Available online. Thesis Statement! OECD. Essay! 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. Thesis! 14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes.

Available online. Revisor! OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD.

2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the sat prompt Crime of Bribery of essay revisor, Foreign Public Officials. Proofreading Papers! Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. Essay Revisor! 2015c. Implementing the writing essay OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD.

2015d. Forum on Tax and revisor, Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Tentang! Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.

OECD and G20. 2015. Revisor! Anti-corruption. Sat Prompt Essay! Available online. United Nations. 2015. Essay! Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. Thesis! UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Revisor! Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the writing a comparison losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. Essay Revisor! The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the corruption in research, the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about revisor anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and research paper, progress of essay, Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.

I know about papers corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the essay transition to writing independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of essay, life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the proofreading old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the essay start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in gw essay, Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at revisor, home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to gw essay end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). Revisor! How did we do it?

A huge part of the proofreading papers answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on essay revisor enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the writing essay door to revisor the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the thesis EU was not serious. But then the essay Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from gw essay negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against essay, corruption.

The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the elearning best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. Essay Revisor! An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. Paper! We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in essay, politics. Helping to gw essay tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. Revisor! It has helped open up new markets for gw essay, trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in essay revisor, tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself.

How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery.

So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. Writing Essay Thesis! A good way to essay revisor start is to statement in a paper cut the government by essay revisor, half and gw essay, double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and revisor, independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Statement In A Paper! Four – make everything public. Transparency is revisor one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to proofreading papers reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here.

Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. Essay Revisor! When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption.

It’s just the same in sport. Medicine Paper! If you take away the competition and essay, fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is thesis poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to essay be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.

Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Essay! Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Essay! 16. Statement! Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the past quarter of essay, a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. A Comparison Essay Thesis! In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the essay emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the a comparison tools to revisor prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by nuclear medicine, 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015).

This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the revisor ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Gw Essay! Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is revisor key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action.

In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. Gw Essay! In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. Essay! They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the essay rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the revisor new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and a comparison, as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of essay, corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is essay now making possible.

At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and revisor, speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the writing a comparison essay thesis current trend. Revisor! Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). Proofreading! When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into essay, Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. Thesis Tentang Elearning! 2). This growing awareness, combined with the revisor emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism.

Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to thesis tentang rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about revisor because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for proofreading papers, the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is especially important in essay, a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and paper, the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. Essay Revisor! In the 2014 general election, this rose to medicine research 497 (Alves 2014). Essay Revisor! However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the thesis statement way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about revisor political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism.

Despite this, one of the tentang many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in essay, the old regimes were not being brought to writing a comparison essay thesis justice. Revisor! The lack of strong institutions to deliver the gw essay kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in essay revisor, 2015, the people decided enough was enough. Statement In A Paper! For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change.

It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for revisor, a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again.

So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. Medicine Research! When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into essay revisor, a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. Elearning! But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available.

When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in revisor, the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. In A Paper! Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to revisor change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and gw essay, introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the revisor participation of the writing thesis community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and essay revisor, 100% of proofreading, students passed the essay annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to medicine paper improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to revisor Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of essay, their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Essay! Having access to information is a precondition for gw essay, making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to revisor account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Thesis! But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by essay revisor, 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of gw essay, some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for essay revisor, citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the nuclear medicine research paper fixing of hundreds of problems.

In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to essay revisor start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference.

For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. Gw Essay! In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for essay, basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to statement in a paper offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and revisor, we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). Thesis In A Paper! In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by revisor, healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of medicine research paper, his relatives (Transparency International 2015e).

In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of essay, bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to thesis the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to essay encourage, cajole, educate and medicine, empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. Essay Revisor! This affects us all. In the gw essay UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to essay revisor take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for writing a comparison essay thesis, their right to live in a society free of essay revisor, corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to writing essay listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption.

Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the essay revisor effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. Gw Essay! The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on essay revisor people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in thesis tentang elearning, the next ten years and we want victims to essay be recognised and statement, taken into serious consideration. Essay Revisor! For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere.

The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to writing a comparison have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. Revisor! There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the thesis few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of essay revisor, corporations, too often it is the nuclear medicine shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. Essay Revisor! They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. A Comparison! Citizens living in countries on essay revisor the receiving end of papers, corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of essay, corruption is not obvious to thesis paper citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Essay Revisor! It remains for the countries themselves to in a introduce the legislation and enforce it. Essay Revisor! The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for proofreading papers, more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and revisor, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the proofreading papers corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to essay live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to thesis in a paper corruption on every level.

They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. Essay! People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an papers even more important and revisor, often braver role. Thesis Statement In A Paper! Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to revisor be on gw essay the front line. Take the example of the essay school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the essay kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street.

These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of essay revisor, our loud indignation and nuclear paper, our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Essay Revisor! Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz.

2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Proofreading Papers! Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Essay! Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.

ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online. Thesis In A! Economist, The.

28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Revisor! Berlin: Transparency International.

Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. Writing Thesis! International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru.

September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Essay Revisor! Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and thesis, Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD.

1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Essay! Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Gw Essay! Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Transparency International blog.

Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Essay Revisor! Available online. Transparencia Venezuela.

6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Sat Prompt Essay! Berlin: Transparency International. Essay Revisor! Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil.

Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International.

2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Thesis! Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. Essay! True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. Nuclear Paper! 2015d.

True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Essay! Transparency International. A Comparison! 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. Essay! ManoSeimas.lt. Nuclear Research! Available online.

Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of essay, 1 December 2015. Research! Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals.

Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by essay revisor, numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over research Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. Essay Revisor! ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for thesis paper, security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of essay, Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the papers Second Intifada from essay 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. Thesis Paper! ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in essay, the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the nuclear research paper 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Revisor! Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.

2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Thesis Paper! Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. Revisor! 2002. Gw Essay! Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and essay, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. In A Paper! Abed and S. Essay! Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in statement, the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Revisor! Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of papers, Education, University of London). Essay! ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of medicine research, discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the essay ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com).

For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Papers! Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. Essay Revisor! New York Times. 6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is thesis tentang available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Examples Of Good Resumes That Get Jobs. Climbing The Corporate Ladder. With cashed up corporate balance sheets and strong earnings growth, employment levels continue to improve across America. The latest unemployment rate has declined to essay, 4.7% as 2H 2017. It’s in thesis statement the first half of the revisor year where ideally all hiring shall be done because: 1) The best available people are still available. There is a bias against in a, people looking in the 3rd and 4th quarter because rightly or wrongly, companies will be wondering what’s wrong with you for not having found something earlier; 2) Companies need to spend their budgets while they are still available.

There’s no time like the present; 3) Hiring an employee at the start of the year gets the essay revisor most out of the employee, especially if there is a guaranteed compensation package. If you find yourself looking for a job in the second half of the year, it’s important to hustle a little more or prepare for in a paper, activity to pick up in the spring. Don’t give up hope. Use this time to plan more thoroughly. I’ve seen over 9,000 resumes in my career and hopefully this article and subsequent articles linked within can help you out.

An excellent resume should be standard. THE IMPORTANCE OF AN UPDATED RESUME. Just the other week, I had breakfast with an old boss of mine who moved on to do different things last year. Essay Revisor. What I thought was a friendly meet up turned out to be a soft sell on why I should join his firm. “ We should talk more next week Sam ,” he concluded. “ I think you’ll be amazed at what we’re doing here .” I proceeded to nuclear research, discuss my meeting with another old colleague of mine who then said, “ Sam, actually we also have a 5 year runway to build something great. You should send me your resume. Essay. ” “ No problem “, I said. Truth be told, my resume was one year old and elearning needed some updating. But, that’s OK, given the changes were quite minor as I’ve been with the same firm for awhile now.

It never hurts to keep employment dialogues open, even if you don’t currently plan on leaving your company. Revisor. It’s a courtesy to them, and proofreading you never know when someone wants to pay you big bucks for a guaranteed length of essay, time to join their organization! It’s generally I who evaluate resumes, so it was kind of elearning, exciting to update my own to send to essay revisor, someone else. * The 7 Seconds Rule. Proofreading Papers. The average amount of essay revisor, time a reviewer spends on your resume is 7 seconds and sat prompt essay that’s it! It’s partly because we have so many resumes to look at, and it’s partly because we’re lazy. Make sure the top half of your resume pops and everything is revisor clear. * One Page Resume Or Bust. If you have a resume longer than one page, you just quadrupled your chances of proofreading, having your resume crumpled and essay tossed in the bin. More is much less in this situation. Having a one page resume shows that you are concise, clear, and to thesis tentang, the point.

Again, we only spend roughly 7 seconds on revisor, your resume, so don’t bore us with irrelevant details. Gw Essay. It’s all about what you’ve done lately, your education, and an interesting fact about you. Anything more and essay revisor we’ll ask you during the interview. * Don’t Over Think Design. Gw Essay. Unless you are a graphic designer looking for essay revisor, a job, there’s no need to thesis, over think the design of your one-pager. Contact info, latest two or three jobs with responsibilities, education, and hobbies done. Segment the essay revisor page out in titles, use bullet points if you will, and make that one page as simple to read as possible. We really don’t care about thesis tentang elearning what type of font you are using, whether the paper has a thicker weave, and all the nitty gritty details of your latest project. Like blogging, content is king!

* Don’t Hide Obvious Things. If you’ve never had a real job before or are still within 5 years out of undergrad, you better not hide your GPA. Essay. Hiding your bad GPA is a 90% guarantee of getting your resume tossed because it shows that you think reviewers are stupid enough to nuclear medicine research, not realize your grades are missing. We’ll start thinking the revisor worst, so don’t hide your GPA! Don’t hide any of your contact details either. That will surely piss off your reviewer if she wants to contact you.

* A Good Resume Is Standard, Nothing Special. A good or great resume doesn’t make the person. Proofreading. You and your interview make the person. A good resume should be standard, which means it’s all the important not to have a bad resume. A bad resume obliterates your chances, and a good resume is the absolute minimum. Essay Revisor. There is no one golden resume format. It just has to be easy on writing essay, the eyes. From the examples below, you’ll see that all are acceptable resumes.

* Customize Your Resume As Much As Possible. Don’t use a generic resume for all your applications. It’s important to highlight specific skills, attributes, and experiences you have that would be an asset to your new employer. * Do The Not So Obvious. If you’ve sent out hundreds of revisor, resumes already, and aren’t getting any responses, do something different. Essay. Put a picture of yourself up on essay, the top right hand corner. Again, do this if you haven’t been getting any love at all, especially if you’re more attractive than average. Writing. LinkedIn profiles with picture profiles get clicked on twice more often than those profiles that don’t have pictures.

Change your resume color to a green back ground. Make your objective statement a prediction on essay, who will win the Super Bowl and gw essay why? Then parlay that with a follow up interview if your prediction holds true. Essay Revisor. If you aren’t getting any call backs, you have nothing to lose. If you do any one of the following things above, you will stand out and get the recruiter’s attention. EXAMPLES OF GOOD RESUMES THAT GET JOBS. I like how Adam states right up front his objectives and qualifications.

His resume is easy to read. Unfortunately, there is a comparison no GPA, and his work experience isn’t much to essay revisor, write home about, depending on what job he’s looking for. If he’s looking to apply as a restaurant manager, he looks like a perfect candidate. Resume Rating: 8/10. Edgar has a classically formatted resume which I like. Nuclear Paper. He must be just graduating from business school because he over emphasizes his education, and under emphasizes what makes Edgar the man. We already know Edgar went to Darden b-school if I’m reading his resume, so putting his education at the very top is wasting valuable real estate. Essay Revisor. Also, I know nothing about Edgar as a person, which doesn’t create any affinity.

Resume Rating: 7/10. Pamela’s resume has almost everything I want to thesis in a, see. I like how she highlights a “Profile” portion up top, lists her experience, and revisor then her education and activities. In A Paper. I would love to know more about essay revisor what makes Pamela tick. Proofreading Papers. Also, I would consider removing her earliest work experience and expand a little more on her interests. Essay. Resume Rating: 8.5/10. Lauren’s resume is unique because it is sat prompt essay a classic example of an actor’s resume.

The resume showcases her range as an essay revisor actress in terms of tours, plays, commercials, and training. Lauren is proofreading obviously an attractive woman who has used a professionally shot picture in the top left hand corner to revisor, attract the casting director’s attention. Lauren’s phone is probably ringing off the hook. Resume rating: 8/10. James’ resume is poorly constructed because it looks like there’s a huge four year gap between when he graduated in 2001 and gw essay his current job as an accountant. Essay. You have to gw essay, look closely to see that he was an Accounting Intern from 2001-2005, which as an awfully long time. Essay Revisor. James should BOLD “Accounting Intern, 2001-2005” and “Accountant, 2006 to Present” to make the resume more clear. Sat Prompt Essay. James’ resume is severely lacking in essay personality and thesis elearning does nothing to differentiate itself from other resumes. Resume rating: 6 / 10. CONCLUSION – A GOOD RESUME IS STANDARD! A good resume is standard, which also means good resumes are everywhere.

If you have a badly formatted resume with glaring holes, your job seeking life is over. Revisor. You might as well become an entrepreneur or work a dead end job instead, because nobody will be willing to give you a chance since you can’t even present yourself properly on proofreading papers, one sheet of paper. Essay Revisor. Beyond the nuclear medicine paper basics of resume writing, it’s the content which really helps get you an interview and revisor that job. The economy is now extremely strong with the gw essay stock market and real estate market at revisor record highs. Power is shifting towards the employee.

Make your resume count and maximize all of your opportunities before the tentang economy turns sour! * Negotiate A Severance: It’s important to never quit a job, but try and essay negotiate a severance package instead. If you quit, you don’t get COBRA healthcare, you don’t get a severance, you won’t get deferred compensation, and you definitely will not get unemployment benefits. I managed to negotiate a severance package worth six years of living expenses (3 years of essay, salary) after working at essay my firm for 11 years. I now live stress-free in retirement and enjoy working on my entrepreneurial endeavors.

If you are going to quit anyway, you might as well engineer your layoff and see if you can walk away with a nice severance package. My book is 150 pages long and packed with information to empower the employee to walk a way with potentially a small fortune. * Start Your Own Website To Brand Yourself Online: There’s nothing better than starting your own website to sat prompt essay, own your brand online. Why should LinkedIn, FB, and Twitter pop up when someone Google’s your name? With your own website you can share your thoughts, sell a product, sell some else’s product, make passive income, connect with potentially millions of people online, and find a lot of new consulting and FT work opportunities. Every year since 2012, I’ve found a new six figure consulting opportunity thanks to employers finding Financial Samurai online. Start your own WordPress website like mine today. Essay. You never know where the journey will take you!

There’s not a week that goes by where I’m not thankful for starting my site back in writing a comparison essay thesis 2009. Check out the example below of essay, a real blogger friend I know who built up his site after four years and now makes. $150K a year online and another. $180K from consulting! Click the graph to papers, learn how you can start your own website / online business within 15 minutes today! Updated for revisor, 2018 and beyond.

Author Bio: Sam started Financial Samurai in 2009 to help people achieve financial freedom sooner, rather than later. He spent 13 year working in gw essay investment banking, earned his MBA from essay UC Berkeley, and retired at papers age 34 in San Francisco. Everything Sam writes is based on first-hand experience because money is too important to be left up to pontification. His favorite free financial tool he’s been using since 2012 to track and manage his net worth is Personal Capital . On the essay investment front, Sam is most interested in gw essay real estate crowdfunding and has so far invested $510,000 with RealtyShares to diversify his portfolio. Money Beagle says. I’ve heard that the one page rule is hard and fast when you’re out of college or don’t have enough professional experience, but after you’ve established yourself in the industry, that it’s OK to expand this into a maximum two page resume. Revisor. If I’m a hiring manager looking to fill a senior level position, then I want to know up front who has what it takes to tentang, fill the job. Looking at Adam’s resume, I don’t think I’d get the amount of information needed to know that he might be a fit. It’s up to you as a hiring manager and revisor it depends on how many people you have. I find things out in medicine paper the 30 min to 2 hr interview if I’m really interested.

Resume Pointers By Jed says. As a young 20-something year old who has never hired anybody, I respectfully disagree with every almost every point you made. Please let me explain. The standard time a recruiter will look at a resume is 15 seconds. Essay Revisor. That is the rule. Nuclear Medicine Paper. However, some people may not be a thorough and spend only 7 seconds, as you have stated. Other than that you are spot on with this point. The one page resume is most certainly an revisor industry preference. Gw Essay. For any position above entry level a two page resume is standard and expected. This however, is no excuse for filler information. Standard design should be in reference to background and font colors, fonts, and anything other than text.

The layout however, should never be cookie-cutter like you have described. Essay Revisor. I do not think that the thesis in a paper information is wrong as much as I don’t want to see the revisor exact same resume layo. No prob. Proofreading. What’s your background? Oh, since you’re a young 20 something year old, you know everything. Essay Revisor. You disagree with every almost every point. I hope you don’t use that grammar on thesis tentang, your resume. Never hired anyone either huh? Geez, internet know-it-all’d. I hear what you’re saying.

I don’t understand the weird preferences that recruiters look for either so I disagree also from that perspective. But what he is saying is essay revisor probably right. Gw Essay. Will I ever understand why the plain and essay lame layouts stand out? No. Will I understand why the people that don’t know shit get hired but are good talkers over a person that could probably drastically increase companies worth? NO. But the recruiters are hiring, not you…

I hate updating resumes, but I do know you need to writing a comparison essay thesis, always be prepared. I think the best way to ‘job hunt’ is to essay, always being open minded when it comes to changing jobs. Most often, the best thing comes along when you aren’t even looking. What do you have to hide? A GPA takes a total of 3 or 4 spaces in a line. The only people I’ve encountered who think not putting their GPA on their resume, which accounted for nuclear medicine research, 4-5 years of people’s lives are people with bad GPAs. Hence, if you had a good score, why get lumped in with those who hide? Many firms have strict GPA cutoffs too ie 3.7/4.0 for management consulting. It’s important.

JT, for some reason, I continue to essay, have a very difficult time understanding you. You write, “At 26 years old, what do you have to tentang, hide in your previous jobs that you though a GPA to revisor, be that important?” Who is medicine research paper 26 years old? What is “you though a GPA to be that important”? I don’t understand. Are you saying putting a GPA and writing what you did in your job is mutually exclusive and can’t be done? Please share with me your experience in essay revisor hiring people and what you look for. And also, what is your GPA so I have a better sense of where you come from, and whether my previous encounters holds true. Thx and sorry I can’t understand you. There’s nothing wrong with being average. You will find that most manager’s, whatever firm they work at want to find the best people for the job not just the average people.

Who says anything about the finance industry being the only industry with high expectations? Google has a cut off of 3.7/4.0, Management Consulting, Private Equity, getting into Med School, or Law Schoo all have at thesis tentang least 3.5/4.0 cutoffs. I understand your position now with a 3.2 GPA. It’s up to essay, you whether you want to bring it up or not. That’s the beauty of the nuclear medicine world. We have the power to essay revisor, do what we want. Nobody is more special or less special. If you are happy with your grades and the business or career it brings you, that’s all that matters. I find this debate rather interesting.

I guess it depends a lot on the country – in Finland putting a GPA in a resume would seem very ridiculous, unless you are applying for a doctorate position someone. It’s just not done. I even read somewhere that certain firms avoid taking recent graduates and students looking for internshio places if they have a too good GPA, since that usually tells the recruiters they are more theoretical than practical workers. Unfortunately I can’t remember which field was in proofreading question. Anyhow, thank you for the tips! I’m making my first english resume and I’m finding it surprisingly different from the one I’m used to essay, making, so I’m learning a lot! Great post! Except for MBA programs, many undergrad degrees are severly lacking in thesis elearning basic job skills like this. Classes on essay, interview skills and networking should be required in college.

Thanks for sat prompt essay, giving us a glimpse into essay, the mind of thesis, a hiring manager! No problem. Figure I’d type out some useful advice once in a while. In fact, I’ll try to highlight some helpful tips at least once every two weeks. I think that’s a good thing. Essay. I’ve honestly been getting tired of all the sarcastic posts you’ve been doing. Furthermore when reading the thesis in a paper comments of those sarcastic posts, I find half the revisor people seem to be taking your seriously (or pretending to). I even find myself wondering if you are really being a clown or serious from time to time and it frustrates me as a reader, although I do get a good laugh out of it as well.

Until about half way through this post I was still scrutinizing it heavily for sarcasm and falsehoods that you were throwing out there for entertainment or a wow factor. Essay. I’m probably alone in this though … so keep up the good work :D. Cool! Maybe I will be very focused and follow your sight’s lead then. I can do a 30 part series on essay, saving money in every aspect of one’s life ie Saving Money In The Shower, Saving Money On The Bus, Saving Money On Monday, Tues, etc. Gw Essay. Could be interesting. I like the direct way of education too. BTW, where is your About page on your site so you can have some more personalization? Or is your site more a business first to essay revisor, make money? LOL – always a pleasure Sam. Sent you an paper email response.

Invest It Wisely says. Great post, Sam! I haven’t updated my resume in a while since I’ve been at the same company for some time now, but these are definitely great tips to keep in revisor mind. I’m curious as to thesis, what you do out there in the real world? Problogger, can’t you tell?! Invest It Wisely says. P.S. What if someone had a REALLY long resume, like 9 or 10 pages? Wouldn’t that be a differentiator as well?

I just remember some CV coach coming to our university once and his was that long… I would use the essay 10 page resume as fire starter paper. If you’re calling it a “CV” it could be that you do need a longer “Curriculum Vitae.” This is different than our typical “resume” in the U.S., but I know in a comparison other countries they use CVs and they tend to be longer. Here, the only people I know with CVs are professors, and essay their CVs are typically more than one page since they have to list out all of the papers they have written. Know the sat prompt essay norm for the industry you are applying in before you decide whose advice to take on the resume/CV you should be using. Invest It Wisely says. Interesting, thanks for the update! :) I agree with you with almost everything! I would add that the candidate’s accomplishments should have quantitative results.

Everyone is looking for problem solvers! It is essay revisor what may distinguish one from another resume. Sat Prompt. I once applied for revisor, a CFO position where they received 4,000 resumes, I was one of in a paper, fifteen that was interviewed. I have used that kind of resume for a lot of essay, years (20 years). I have two resumes, a one page and two page resume. Gw Essay. I normally do not show more than the last fifteen or twenty years. Hmm..I actually haven’t seen a GPA on a resume in essay revisor a long time (not unless the person is fresh out of school).

I haven’t had mine on my resume in thesis over 10 years. The other stuff is spot on. My prediction is that you won’t see much movement until after February. Essay. Many candidates won’t move and/or change jobs until their bonus’s have been paid out and that doesn’t happen until Feb time for a lot of people. I’m bullish like you are. I think we’re going to have a good year, but I also see inflation coming as well. I’m starting to get regular headhunter calls again, so companies are finally loosening the headcount purse strings. Can you share what your reasons are for not having your GPA on?

After 10 years of work experience, I think it’s fine too, but just curious to hear your reasons. I’ve actually done a lot of tentang elearning, interviewing at my job and essay revisor have seen hundreds of writing a comparison essay thesis, resumes. It seems like the essay revisor standard protocol is that if you’ve been out in the workforce. for 5 years, work experience is more relevant than grades and sat prompt essay people no longer. put GPA on their resume. I also used to revisor, put all the scholarships I received on. my resume, and now those have been replaced by work awards. I personally think GPA is irrelevant and potentially harmful. People have prejudices.

about GPA’s. If it’s too low, they think you’re dumb, a slacker or partier. If it’s 4.0, they. may assume you’re an egghead with no social skills. Why even open the door to.

that when clearly your job performance is most relevant once you are established. My company is hiring and papers I think many more are doing the revisor same. Proofreading Papers. Things are looking up! Good tips on essay revisor, resume. It’s always nice to see good examples. Gw Essay. I need to update my resume for my job search later on this year. Revisor. I like Pamela’s resume also. It’s good to emphasize accomplishments up front. I’ve been out of the loop for a while now, but I never put my GPA on my resume before. Is the GPA still important if you’ve been out of school for a really long time? I can see how if a person is a 4.0 student, it gives them bragging rights, but I wonder if this would be relevant for all degrees or just the most recent one?

As for hiring in the first half of the nuclear paper year, with teaching the new semester starts in August/September – the second half of the year. It’d be nice to see the essay revisor CA budget resolved and more money spent on education; then I might actually get a job! ;) It has very little to do with “bragging rights”, it’s just standard practice. If you don’t put it on, your interviewer will think the worst of medicine, you as they will feel you are trying to hide something. If GPA wasn’t important in essay revisor college, why do people work so hard for 4-5 years to get good grades? Nunzio Bruno says. Thank You! Resumes should be one page. Why have I heard lately the trend is multiple pages – to the point where I even adapted one of tentang, mine to reflect it.

Every once and a while I have to toss a resume into revisor, a job bid for a consulting or coaching client or a new teaching gig and I really appreciate this post. I used to call people petty and arrogant for proofreading papers, putting their GPAs on their resume. I’d fight the system and say it wasn’t necessary. But, then I came to my senses and realized I was just making excuses for essay revisor, my mediocre GPA of 3.3 when I was having a tough time getting interviews. I should have studied harder in college and got it closer to a 4.0.

Then, I think I would have got more chances. Thesis Paper. There’s nobody to blame but myself. I worked a couple jobs, and then I went back to grad school. It’s easier studying hard and getting good grades than fighting the system JT. Absolutely yes to essay, your questions of putting your GPA on. You should have nothing to hide. If you’re looking for average, this is essay probably the wrong place to be. I’m surprised as a college Sophomore, you are telling Sam he’s wrong. Essay. It’s pretty disrespectful, am I’m shocked he has bothered to respond to proofreading, you at all. Maybe it’s a generational thing where people your age think they know it all. Essay Revisor. Well guess what?

You don’t, and if you go with that attitude when you try to sat prompt, find a job, you will never make it. I fully agree with you JT. I manage a major title office in essay dallas and find GPA’s on resumes to be petty and gw essay irrelevant. I dont care if you can study and revisor make good grades, that doesnt guarantee you to be a good employee. Ignore nancy as she is papers probably old and stuck in some low level job where she will unhappily retire from. Dont waste anymore of your time replying to these idiots. and good luck in school! I respectfully disagree to essay revisor, anyone who is writing a comparison a job applicant or HR personnel that is advocating the importance of GPA, particularly surrounding management, and essay financial career areas. Just because someone is textbook or academia expert, that does not mean that the essay thesis person is capable of thinking out of the essay revisor box.

The real world made it proof that most giant and effective management corporations and financial industries have been founded by those who do not have higher GPA, even in some cases by those who are college drop-outs. I prefer to look at the matter of GPA surrounding technical careers such as engineering, biotech and medical fields. What is there to a comparison thesis, hide though? If you don’t put your GPA, many recruiters will automatically think the essay worst. So perhaps a good compromise is to not include your GPA if it is below 3.0, as that’s pretty bad. Thanks for putting this article out there Sam – it’s refreshing and different from the million other “how to write a resume” articles online that just reuse the same old advice. I have a few questions: 1. What do you think about proofreading adding logos of some top brands if you work in essay marketing? I tried it in the past with a lot of success.

2. Thesis Elearning. Is it really important to essay revisor, list personal interests? I was told to do the opposite and keep it professional (most interesting part of the medicine research paper article for revisor, me is when you wanted to thesis tentang elearning, know what made people tick). 3. Has anyone impressed you with a more 2.0 resume? Meaning an essay online resume, one on a CD, a DVD, etc. 1) If it’s working for you, keep on doing it! 2) Yes, you need to create something on nuclear medicine research paper, your resume that hooks the essay revisor interviewer besides your education and work experience. If I love to fish for example, and so do you, you BET we will hit it off and you’ll be invited back for another round. 3) Haven’t seen a resume 2.0 yet. Medicine Research. But, I WOULD be impressed if there is some originality. For sure I would. If you aren’t getting any hits, there’s no downside to being unique and 2.0!

Sam, One thing I think is critical is to tailor your resume to a specific job. Essay Revisor. Rather than mass mailing 100 resumes, pick 5 companies you are interested in gw essay and research the crap out of them. If you’re applying to a specific job opening, make sure you line up your qualifications and essay revisor experience into the specific categories they are looking for. This technique makes a huge impact. I also love reading about people’s offbeat interests (in a small section at the bottom). It’s not the standard advice, but this sorta thing really starts conversations with interviewers. If I had read a resume that had poker and basketball listed at essay the bottom you can bet I would want to talk to revisor, that person to find out more about gw essay them. I agree with you 100% about tailoring and creating an essay revisor offbeat interest for connections.

Terrific post. :) Will need to update my resume soon, too. Thesis. Never thought GPA would be such a controversial topic! Great points from essay both sides. Writing Essay Thesis. I haven’t used or seen GPA on resumes myself. I’m not the best student, but I’m not the worst as well. I understand your point about not hiding it, but what is wrong with showing off your best assets? Which would win a resume shootout? All things being equal. A one pager highlighting recent experience and revisor projects or a two pager that shows the same, but also drills into sat prompt essay, more details?

One pager, with all pertinent details mate! When you get hundreds, you have to sort quickly. The interview is for essay revisor, getting in the weeds. Cheers. Mike- Saving Money Today says. Great tips Sam.

It’s been too long since I’ve updated my resume and that’s something I fix ASAP. You never know when an opportunity will present itself. A buddy of mine works in the HR dept for a small company and he tells me most resumes he sees barely get a glance. Papers. It’s basically a process of elimination where 99 percent of them get tossed for one reason or another. If you’re not clear and concise you’ve got no chance at all. Adam Pash can’t spell “Macaroni Grill”. Round file…. Great post but OMG I can’t look at any more resumes. I have 8 interviews over two days this and it is exhausting. When you have to look at as many as I do, every little thing counts.

And getting my attention on paper is only part of the revisor picture. I’ve had so many candidates look amazing on proofreading, paper and totally flop in person. These are some great tips. I’ve seen a few in the past that made me pass right over them. Might have been decent workers but I had to figure if their resume was a mess, had typos, was set up poorly, I couldn’t prioritize them over other candidates. What are your thoughts on revisor, including a picture? People seem to have mixed feelings on this. Thanks for the tips sam – they are really great. You can bet im going to go home and work on them tonight (I’ve got an essay interview tomorrow). It’s also interesting to learn stuff from the revisor perspective of the thesis elearning resume reader – I always wonder what they are thinking and essay revisor how to medicine, stand out – besides changing the paper color.

I’d have to agree with buck about the GPA – never thought it was a big deal. One thing I was told when in essay revisor school was to play a bit of slight of hand with my gpa. They told me if it was not over thesis in a, 3.0 (it was close, but I fooled around too much in undergrad), then I should put the gpa for my classes in essay revisor my major (which was much, much higher – good even). Gw Essay. that way there would still be something there, but it wouldnt make me look worse. No prob Jeff. Yes, at essay least put your GPA for your major if your overall GPA is below 3.0.

The interviewer will get the idea and hopefully move past grades and finding out more about nuclear medicine research you as a person. Good luck tomorrow. I’m glad I worked hard to get a good GPA. Revisor. A few of my friends who slacked off are now worrying about finding a job with poor GPAs. That’s true, and that’s a good point. With this situation, I would say either or is fine, but I would still prefer education at the bottom, and him write an thesis elearning objective, intro, or something up top that jumps off the page. Great information…. and I will be updating my resume this weekend. Revisor. Adding GPA.

Who knew?? Thanks for the examples and your critiques of them. Super helpful. Glass Is Half says. Thanks for the information – interesting getting it from a recruiters point of tentang elearning, view … as I’ve always believed the rule is 2 pages (not one) and in fact the inclusion of a cover page is revisor a good plus also (taking it up to essay, 3 I guess?) … however I’m in a technical field and while jobs definitely litter the 2nd page, it is more of a place to include all the different certifications that my potential candidates have acquired. Donno, perhaps it’s different in essay a technical field. I would think you just list your certifications in one line, and provide a link for further references. A cover page is always excellent.

Short and in a sweet i.e. 2-3 paragraphs max. Money Reasons says. Great post Sam, I really enjoyed your take on resumes! Where I work at, I’ve been part of the interview process once or twice, and revisor since I’m in tech services area, practically all the resumes we receive are at least 2 pages long, but not longer. Most are filled with programming languages and gw essay operating systems that they person is familiar with… Thanks for the inside perspective though, I learn so much from your blog, especially from between the lines and even in the comments! Just out of curiosity, what do you think about finding out the name of the hiring manager or human resources person, telling them you are going to essay revisor, apply for job XYZ, and asking them what kind of thesis elearning, resume they prefer so you can tailor it for them? That’s bound to get you some attention, right? I guess so, or they may just ignore.

Actually, I wouldn’t ask what type of resume you should have. They will think you should know.. and essay the truth is, you should know after reading this post! Randy Addison says. This is gw essay really a very helpful post. I think I need to reconstruct my resume. I have two pages and none is really highlighted. I think I have to redo everything and get a job! I am back to look at essay revisor the resume examples again.

Time to update…. teaching job interview Monday :) Good luck Lisa! That’s great you got an interview. Gw Essay. Just come a little early, have some great enthusiasm, perhaps share some alternative ideas to essay revisor, help your students learn better, and you’ll do great! Thanks for the encouragement and tips!! My boss just told me to write a resume to move up positions within the nuclear research company. Any ideas? I was thinking of the accomplishments I made thusfar with the company and essay also what I can bring to the table moving foward. Any outline ideas would be helpful!

Thank-You . If i went to college on and off for about 5 years but did not graduate, would I still want to gw essay, put my college education on my resume? I think you should Corey, and if they ask for more specifics, you can explain why. Not having a college on the resume will be more of a shocker. I appreciate all comments that was posted. I’m just a little bit confused about whether putting a GPA is revisor a good thing or not because I’m international student who is just finished ESL school (English Second Language). Thank you guys for these great tips. Resumes are interesting. Once I came across a resume from writing essay a gentleman who worked in the purchasing department in two different companies. He had the same identical job duties in both companies.

I was thinking something is essay revisor off. You couldn’t possibly doing the EXACT same job every minute of the nuclear research paper day for two different companies. My favorite resume by far was one from an individual who forgot to replace “insert name here” with his actual name. To this day I have no idea if it was a joke since I have no idea who sent it. In my life so far I did change two jobs, currently with third employer.

Didn’t give too many interviews. But conducted numerous ones, I can tell you resume sets the essay first impression and proofreading papers I do try to revisor, imagine the character of the person by seeing through the resume, good post! Keep it simple and to the point. Gw Essay. The resume needs to be specific to EACH company you submit it to, not just a generic one. Casey Harwood says. i have a question… is it necessary to put an “about me” section on the resume? My career service counselor in essay revisor college didnt have me put one in on mine.

But is that important? thank you. Thesis In A. Im trying to get a job in essay revisor the social service/work industry and medicine research paper not sure if that would be important. Hi Casey, it certainly doesn’t hurt. However, that’s the revisor entire point of the tentang resume… to tell the interviewer in 7 seconds everything they should read about you! Have a 2 or 3 sentence objective up top is fine. Touche, JT…touche. Very well [email protected] McGee. i am planning to apply for an internship for essay, my ojt this summer and thesis i was looking for revisor, some sample resumes for proofreading papers, a college student like me.is it okay if i ask some advice regarding this? thanks. Darryl Jamieson says. Great article!

You can also view and download examples of resumes at http://www.FreeResumeExamples.net for no fee or signup. Revisor. Resumes are written by over 50 professional resume writers. What would you say for updating resumes when you’re applying for essay, a new position in the same company? I started at essay revisor my bank as a teller before I had even finished college. Medicine Research Paper. Six months after I started I was offered my first promotion, and essay revisor only 15 months after my original hire date, not only had I finished school, but I was working as the branch assistant manager. Now, three years later, I’m applying for the head manager position of one of our larger branches. Sat Prompt. They know me, they know me well. They already know my strengths and weaknesses, and revisor they know how I handle the work. Due the essay importance of the revisor position though, its open internally and externally simultaneously.

I have to submit a new resume this time. (I did not have to for the previous two promotions.) I know there is some stiff competition out there and I’m wondering if there’s anything different you would recommend for thesis tentang elearning, this type of situation? Yes, you are really right because one page resume really matters and that does not irritate the revisor interviewer in medicine reading the resume and essay taking a quick decision about your recruitment. I’m about to graduate, so this article was really helpful! I do have a question though. Because of some disastrous economics classes I was required take, my GPA is gw essay not looking good. So, if not including it on essay revisor, my resume is bad, does that mean I should include it and just expect to never be employed? I guess my question is more about the in a relevance of the essay revisor GPA.

Will my bad GPA be overlooked if my experience and skills look good? Or will a bad GPA mean I’m done for? I graduated from gw essay college about 12 years ago and bartended for revisor, the first 5 years right out of college. My current job speak volumes about gw essay my ability, but my work history can seem limited. Do you have any advice? Should I dive back to essay, my bartending experience? And of course 3.40 GPA, should I post that? I’d definitely list your 3.4 GPA.

That’s a good one. Don’t let your prospective employer think you’re hiding something. For experience, focus on thesis in a paper, filling out essay revisor, your latest one with detail. Your prospective employer cares about what you’ve done last, especially since you’ve been out for 12 years. I’m a veteran teacher, graduated about 15 years ago from college with 2.8 but 3.2 in thesis statement in a major (at a top 20 liberal arts college) and Grad school about 13 years ago (local university, not top tier) with a 3.7. Do I include both GPAs in essay a resume?

I have been teaching in one school for over 13 years now. It’s the sum total of my life, career, and accomplishments. Tentang. Should I just focus on the many accomplishments in my career should I add the GPA too? Or is revisor it less important? I am looking to change to writing a comparison essay, distance learning because in essay revisor an interesting twist- I am now physically disabled. I’m as brilliant, dedicated, and driven as always- and successful with students- but the physical limitations has led me to be more creative in teaching options. Online teaching will use my brain and essay abilities and revisor not take its physical toll. Figuring out resume writing after 15 years? Not easy. Teachers have interesting resumes… But I just don’t know how to convey the complexity of my career achievements,

WHY?? WHY did my teachers in nuclear paper our ‘careers’ class not tell us this stuff?? We were just given a computer with a Word Document open and the words “Go for it kids!”. As a result I even got rejected by Maccas… :[ I’m sure now, I’ll have a killer resume to help me get a WAY better part-time job to help me get through uni… I fully agree with you JT. I manage a major title office in dallas and find GPA’s on resumes to be petty and irrelevant. I dont care if you can study and make good grades, that doesnt guarantee you to be a good employee. Ignore nancy as she is probably old and stuck in some low level job where she will unhappily retire from. Essay. Dont waste anymore of proofreading, your time replying to these idiots. and good luck in school! I have a two page resume. I wanted to know how to shorten it.

I have held many different jobs, while searching to find the right one for me. How many jobs should I have posted on my resume. Your latest three relevant jobs that can fit on revisor, one page is my recommendation. Two page resumes get thrown in the dumpster, unless you are citing massive amounts of relevant research work. I have a 2.8 GPA in medicine paper my undergrad and a 3.9 in my grad school. I am trying to get into the marketing world because that’s my dream job/career category. Revisor. Also, do you have any examples of a decent marketing style resume?

Good job raising that GPA to paper, 3.9! Makes your grad school that much more valuable. Essay. I don’t have a marketing style resume, but it should follow my guidelines in the post. Definitely include writing, advertising, creative ad samples in proofreading papers your portfolio! i am in the job market right now and looking to put the best resume possible out there but i have a very random and varied selection of work history. if i tailor a resume for a specific job will the gaps in revisor time be looked at poorly if i leave out certain jobs? for instance, i taught english abroad in japan for a year which doesn’t have much relevance to what i am looking for now (marketing/events/communications/social media). Thesis Tentang. any tips on how to deal with this? very interesting article and comments. I’d focus on the two or three most RELEVANT job experiences and expound on them in the Work Section. For the less relevant stuff like teaching english in Japan, I’d put them under Extracurricular. Just a quick comment.

I like almost all your points. The one thing I would caution is essay revisor putting a picture on your resume. Writing A Comparison Thesis. I helped with recruiting for a top 25 (revenues) company who 100% throws out essay revisor, any resume that has a picture and states in their postings to NOT include a picture for discrimination purposes. While you may be correct in stating that you have nothing to nuclear research paper, lose if you have sent out revisor, 100s of resumes, I would not ever advise someone to put a picture on thesis statement paper, their resume. Bob, it’s the year 2013. If you have an attractive face, go for it. Revisor. Employers Google applicants anyway to see. Just make the picture professional. Wow this is an interesting conversation especially about thesis statement in a GPAs on resumes. I am a recent architecture graduate and have not put my GPA on revisor, my resume (3.4).

It may be a little less relevant in my field because you need to writing a comparison essay thesis, have a portfolio to show your actual school work when applying for job opportunities. The other rule I always heard was to put your GPA on your resume only if it is revisor 3.5 or higher. As of now I have put any awards and honors under my education field. Kev, put the sat prompt essay 3.4 on. It’s good enough. If you don’t, I feel there will be employers wondering what you are hiding. Only takes up 3-6 characters of space “3.5 GPA”!

This makes sense, more or less, but what would you expect of revisor, a resume for sat prompt, a year 9 high school student who has never worked before? Tough one Monica. Are you saying it has taken 9 years to complete high school? Or are you saying it’s been 9 years after high school? If the latter, then emphasize work experience over the past 9 years, and keep your GPA if it is essay above 3.0. Thesis. If it is essay really bad, then leave it off. When I say a year 9 high school student I mean the year level in high school, so basically a fourteen onto fifteen year old full-time student. Monica, all most employers (if they hire someone under 16 years of proofreading, age) will just want to know you can put a resume together. Essay Revisor. Include your current school and thesis in a GPA in education, list some special projects or sports that you’ve done. Essay Revisor. Anything will do, you can be creative as I don’t think anyone would expect much real job experience. Just follow a format, use professional language and try your best :D.

Really liked your posts and wanted to pick up on papers, just one thing. In almost all the resume examples that you have posted, the work experience is generally responsibility or activity based rather that output or achievement orientated. My simple point really is that employers are interested in essay revisor what you can deliver for their organisation and not so much in what you did. If there is room, you can expand on what you did or how you did it to thesis, highlight skills or attributes. In the essay revisor UK (and to proofreading, an extent in Europe), we are now seeing heat map results showing that recruiters and employers are looking at CVs for less than 15 seconds before making that decision to shortlist or not. Having more information showing what you have delivered for employers in the past definitely gets you through that first sift more often than activity or responsibility focused CVs. I have over 10 years experience in electronics. Do I need to put an GPA on my resume?? I would say not necessary.

References and essay results are more important. Thesis In A Paper. That said, if it’s above a 3.0, why not. What about people with bad GPAs? barbara morris says. I am a 52 year old woman in college for her bachelors degree in essay revisor psychology. My employment history has been spotty and mostly factory work. I am worried about submitting my resume and terribly confused about how to gw essay, go about creating a new one. Can you give me insight on what is essay essential to put on a resume for a person with this type of employment history. It is tough going to essay, get into revisor, the human services field.

I received an associates in 2008 and because it has not panned out in employment for that area. I am going back for more education. The one item I would say on your tips is the writing thesis part regarding including a photo of themselves on a resume. As an HR professional, I cannot accept any resume with a photo due to the fact that it could be a discriminating factor and essay is against thesis tentang, EO policy. It is important for them to tailor their resume to the specific skill sets when applying for a specific position and as a recruiter I have heard fro others anywhere form 7 to 15 seconds max. That is essay revisor primarily dependent on thesis in a, what the hiring manager asks for us to find in key words and years of revisor, experience that sometimes are not that easy to find. Overall good article to gw essay, provide a basic start. People need to remember that every company and every HR professional has an opinion and it is essay revisor up to the individual to take the advice but, not treat it as gospel. The only thing anyone seems to agree on is that people that review resumes are arrogant and rude. Statement. All these articles online speak as if reviewing a resume makes you into some kind of king and should anyone dare to essay revisor, not precisily meet your style, they are stupid or offensive. Allow me to say to all of you, you are not special, you are not important, get over yourself.

I’ve worked at engineering firms that will filter GPAs that are too high, as these people are seen as mindless robots who may be good at following instruction but lack creativity and make poor team players. Larger companies like Google that have previously filtered and tracked GPA scores have since used their ‘big data’ to discover no relationship between college GPA and work performance for anything other then new college grads (and even then the relationship is extremely small). In any case, my personal experience is that a company that filters GPA scores is most likely not going to be a good place to work. Papers. On the other side of the table (resume reviewing), I’ve heard plenty of ego filled rants (I’m funkin awesome because I got a 4.0 OR I’m funking awesome because I dropped out essay revisor, altogether, too busy actually building stuff and making money OR I’m funking awesome because blah blah blah) to a comparison essay, describe why candidate X shouldn’t be hired because his GPA is too high or too low, but rarely have heard complaints about essay revisor a missing GPA. The safer bet, therefore, is to leave it off unless you are right out of nuclear, school. Never heard of a firm that filters GPAs that are too high. Essay. Doesn’t make sense if you have a million 4.0 applicants. Statement. Are you guys saying that all of them are robots?

There are plenty of social, multi-talented 4.0 students. This is how elite firms retain their elite status, not by essay shunning out the best. Don’t hide your GPA. I think this comes across as sound advice. I like this. Basically to make a long story short, I need to thesis statement paper, make a resume’.. But unfortunately, I’m 23 hadn’t gone to college yet cause I’m in a band just partied since graduating High School. So I have no recent education. I’ve had like 9 jobs since I was 16, But I’ve gotten fired from every single one for being late/calling out essay, due to drug addiction/legal issues. Fortunately, I’ve been clean for 7 months, but It’s hard to nuclear research paper, find work.

I’m pretty positive that I’m automatically skipped over just because of essay revisor, so many job changes really no good references. What is the best way I can do this, without completely lying about my past? What do you suggest? The best work experience for you may be volunteer efforts. Gw Essay. Volunteer everywhere you can and build up contacts from within those networks. Having the lady who runs the soup kitchen being impressed with your dedication to volunteering can make a nice addition to a resume.

You may even be able to revisor, work into a payed position from volunteering. That’s how I obtained a few jobs. Statement In A. I worked my butt off for free by volunteering for certain organizations. Hi! I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Electronics Engineering. Well basically, my degree gives me the privilege to apply to different areas of expertise. Some are: telecommunications, control systems (PLC programming), semiconductor, biomedical electronics, network systems, and even programming. My only work experience was in a telecommunications company (internship). Essay. So can I include it in paper my resume as my work experience even if I’m applying to different areas of essay, expertise?

I would for thesis elearning, sure. And then write a great descriptor that nudges you towards what you want to do. At your level, it’s all about getting as much experience as possible because you don’t have much. Thank you Financial Samurai. You’re right, experience is my top priority here. Hi!

I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Electronics Engineering. I am currently working in telecommunications company and essay have less than a year experience. Can you please help me out by telling how can I make my resume more effective with this much experience only.And I have expertise in some skills which may not be helpful in the same sector ,so can I include it in my resume while searching out for a new job in the same or any other sector? Hard to say Kirti without seeing your resume. My recommendation for you is to stay at the job for at least one year, preferably two, to paper, build experience and revisor not be a job hobber so early on. I hired environmental professionals for a mid-sized environmental and medicine paper engineering consulting firm for 6 years. I disagree with your “one-page” resume rule. I agree that the revisor resume should not be overly-wordy, but I am getting paid to find the right person and therefore want to know as much as I can about essay a person before I decide to interview them without having to do the legwork myself. Essay. If you are hiring and cannot wade through more than one page of gw essay, a resume without getting bored or tired, I would say you are not doing your job. I hire professionals who have varied and often accomplished histories – I want to know that. It may be different if you are hiring waiters or cashiers.

You probably don’t have a flood of resumes as a mid-sized environmental and engineering consulting firm. If you are at a more high demand job like McKinsey, TPG, Goldman, etc, employers get inundated. If you’ve got 15+ years experience, a two-page resume is less egregious, and in fact, probably preferred. can you please critique my essay. Amanda Martinez says. You have a lot of good examples for people that have a lot of work experience already, but what would you recommend for a person fresh out of revisor, high school with no professional job experience yet? Austin Maws says.

I rencently completed my university transfer program in essay arts and social sciences at Fraser International College of Simon Fraser University with a GPA of 2.6. I have worked for Liberty Security/VoxCom as a sales agent and for Vancity HD and essay revisor Cable installation- as an elearning installer. I was working while I was still in college, I have done a few volunteering jobs withing my university, and essay played rugby for over 10years- 4years for my uni. Am supposed to continue university as an economist. In between my college study I developed interest in graphic designing while studying a graphic course. Which gave me great computer skills in thesis elearning most adobe programs, a creative mind, and great social networking skills. I took a break before continuing Uni n travelled back to Zambia Africa- through a connection, I chanced a data entry/sim registration job with airtel, then I got a better offer to essay, do optic fibre cable (under-ground laying), as a social manager- for statement in a paper, Zamtel, through an ICT consultant company, Mutech Zambia LTD (contractors Consultants). N through the revisor same company Mutech, I got appointed as Head of HR. To manage Optic Fibre aerial Deployment for thesis in a, C. Liquids Telecom. Am only 23 years old and my fear now is, if I lose this job with only a college certificate of a 2.6 GPA.

While studying and wanting to work, will my education experience balance with the lucky work experience I have acquired on my resume till prensent? and revisor what are the chances of me getting another good managerial job- indicated that am still meant to continue uni to essay thesis, attain my Bachelors Degree? Am I just been too scared or should I just focus on graduating first? This is essay revisor a long comment but your reponse will be greatly appreciated. Austin, althought 2.6 is a bad GPA, you have good work experience. I highly recommend you focus in gw essay getting your diploma ASAP so it is essay no longer a burden and nuclear research paper potential hindrance. Hello,I just stumbled upon revisor this page searching for statement, tips on resume writing. I LIKE IT!!I have NEVER left a comment in any type of forum or blog,but something is telling me to step out on essay revisor, faith ,that you may see this and ask, although there ain’t any gaps understand my employment history,I have 4 years if workimg at different staffing companies as a laborer first months only at thesis statement in a a time. HOW do I list this without looking like a job Hopper? I have gained my best skills while employed as a temp.

what if i only essay, worked at nuclear paper one job for two months for essay revisor, summer because i had to statement in a, head back to college and only had the job for summer job. Hello. I have had some challenges updating my resume. I got my license as a civil engineer back in 1998. Essay Revisor. I couldn’t find a decent-paying job in my field so I worked in manufacturing as production supervisor and QA engineer for a period of five years. in 2004 I moved to the US; unfortunately I couldn’t find a job in manufacturing. So in 2007 I decided to thesis statement in a paper, become a chef and attended culinary school. I’ve been in the food service industry for 7 years now but realized along the way that I do not find this field as fulfilling as manufacturing. I’ve been sending out essay, resumes for QA engineer and production supervisor positions but have yet to get an interview. I wonder what the sat prompt problem is. Essay. I’m guilty of a 4-page resume crime but I wonder if it’s mainly because my experience was from a foreign country that they could not easily verify (my former managers have left the company long ago) and the fact that it was from research paper 10 years ago.

Is it advisable to essay, just omit my food industry experience when applying for nuclear, these positions? If so, would they not wonder what I did since 2003? Your opinions are greatly appreciated. These tips are really good. I have one question . Revisor. Like if someone is not working or haven’t got job till date , what should he include in resume to convine that he is the apt for proofreading papers, the job because preference is essay given to experience holders.

Now 54, used to do a lot of hiring for drinks trade. Writing A Comparison. Trying to get better role after lay offs etc. Essay Revisor. I am amazed if 7 to 15 seconds is sat prompt essay time spent shortlisting cv /resumes! What are today’s managers on! Recruitment is one of the revisor most important functions…what else do they while away their days with. No wonder I am finding getting re hired hard! Its the paper sane and qualified being judged by revisor the feckless…………….. There is simply too much demand to write long winded resumes now.

Trust me on this! Got to gw essay, adapt. Yup, these people are a product of the corporate age; they literally don’t care about hiring the right person for the job because they don’t care about essay revisor doing a good job. HR is judged on check-boxes not true human performance, so that’s the way they judge potential employees. They are taught a series of check-boxes a potential employee should have, a one size fits all industries standard, and without questioning if the thesis tentang elearning boxes even apply they try to fit all employees into essay revisor, them. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve seen HR people hire the most incompetent people over a list of hard working honest individuals simply because the new guy met their list of check-boxes. The last HR rep i talked to didn’t even know the very simplest core basics about the single product the company makes; how does this person even have a job and how is he qualified to judge me when I have years of experience in designing and in a paper manufacturing that product. If a company really wants to essay, hire people that care about their job and not just play mouth to that statement, then they need to put someone who knows what they’re doing in charge of writing a comparison, hiring. Hello! What can I do if I don’t have GPA?

I am from Venezuela and the Educational system is different here. I know this is a late response and may no longer be beneficial. However, if you are from revisor a different country, it would be a good idea to include your grades/marks/points that you received while in schooling/training. I would and recommend starting the system of proofreading papers, origin used to establish proficiency. This could be a huge asset in revisor an interview because many prospective employers will be curious to learn more.

It will give you something to talk about. To add some more brownie points during the interview, try to do some research to writing essay thesis, see how the grading system of essay, your country/area correlates to the area you are seeking employment. I’m writing a resume for a comparison thesis, an internship in photography, and I have a GPA of 2.74 which I know is essay not good. Should I leave my GPA off? I’m going to have to disagree with the “customize your resume with a photo” part. Every recruiter I’ve spoken to advises against it and could care less about what you look like.

One tip that’ll get you even further than any of the tips outlined above: proof-read and check your spelling. One small grammatical or spelling mistake is enough to a comparison essay, cost you the position–you are, after all, educated, right? Sam is guilty of not having this article proof-read. Under the, “do the not so obvious” subsection of the resume tips, there’s one glaring grammar error: “Again, do this if you haven’t been getting any love at essay revisor all, especially if your more attractive than average.” Pardon? “Your” isn’t the appropriate word here; I reckon Sam meant, “you’re” as in “you are”. Although trivial, the misuse of “your” has made me question the author’s credibility. Should your resume have an error such as the one I pointed out above, you’re likely to have it tossed out with the thesis tentang elearning bunch. Laszlo Balogh says. Your recommendation about page size just does not feel right for IT resumes. For example, a senior software developer’ (4+ years of essay revisor, experience) resume, is full with IT acronyms and papers used technologies. I also like to read about HOW she/he used those technologies in the past in order to asses her/his expertise with them.

IMHO it would be not particularity legible to revisor, condense all this information onto proofreading one page or simply skip something relevant. It was interesting to read about the difficulties what the sheer volume of resumes could cause if you work for a trending company with so so many applicants. I understand that, from essay your point of view, even a one page resume could be too lengthy, however the majority of business are not that big and (presumably) do not receive that many resumes, therefore do not mind to read a let’s say 3 pages resume, if it contains relevant content. Is “4+ years experience” senior nowadays? You can always give it a try, making a mega 3-page resume, to see if it works. Laszlo Balogh says. Is “4+ years experience” senior nowadays? In the UK, when recruiters are talking about senior developers, they usually mean people with 3-5 years of experience in a particular technology or a set of related technologies. Since new technologies are emerging every day, I think that denoting expertise as years of experience particularity falls short in the filed of IT.

As a concrete example, let say our company wants to tentang elearning, hire a Senior MeteorJS Developer. At the time of writing, only essay revisor, three years has passed since the initial release(by that time it was far from production-ready) of the above software, so even the authors may not have 4 years of experience with it. Thesis Elearning. If we only essay, consider someone as senior with at tentang elearning least 4 years’ experience, than we basically rule out everyone. Also, to stick with the above example, lets say in one hand we have a developer who has been using the above software for 3 years to revisor, build websites. On the other hand, we have an gw essay other developer with only revisor, 2 years of experience, however he is nuclear research one of the main contributor(help fixing bugs, participate in essay its design process, etc.) to the above open source software and also the author of many wildly used open source project which extends the core software’ shortcomings. In the sat prompt above case, if the applicant with 2 years of revisor, experience can demonstrate his in-depth knowledge, I would definitely consider him more experienced than the a comparison thesis one with 3 years of experience. That makes me bullish on the economy, stock market, and real estate market now if senior experience means 4+ years now. Thanks for the anecdote. Maybe I’ll buy more assets instead of pay down debt.

As someone with 16 years in finance and Six years in online marketing, you’ve given me confidence to raise my rates! Dear Financial Samurai, I am a 33 year old male with a high school diploma. I have worked several manufacturing jobs in essay the past 15 years. The current one I’ve been at for 8 years. I am looking to desperately change lines of work and I am terribly confused on how I can write a resume for another industry with only a high school education and factory experience. Any help would be much appreciated.

How much to review my resume? :) I moved from Barcelona and my career has changed slightly. Hi. What about bad GPA’s? My S.O. is an extremely hard worker and impresses all of nuclear medicine, his employers with his knowledge, ability and work ethic, but he had a ridiculous situation that forced his GPA way down in the middle of college.

I believe it is a 2.3 and I am trying to help him find a finance internship. Should we include the GPA at all? Or will it mess with his chances? I wouldn’t include 2.3. Essay Revisor. That is a C-/D+ average that will limit his chances for sure. Hi, I am a fresh graduate of BS Psychology and looking for a job. When I was in writing college I was really an active student and achieved a lot of essay revisor, awards esp. in nuclear medicine paper the field of leadership. Can i include all of my achievements in revisor my resume? or only a comparison, those achievements that are related to the job that i want to essay, apply? Thank you for your reply. This post was perfect for what I need right now. I am an educator of sat prompt, 10 years and essay counting and I am now looking to a comparison, move toward working for revisor, an education company.

I need to a comparison essay, update my resume to essay, reflect my current skills. I have a Linkedin account that I started a while ago but I never completed my profile or use it. Gw Essay. Should I update my Linkedin profile etc. before applying for a position? Would it hurt to just delete my account? Thomas Ross says. Any suggestions for essay revisor, a 61 year old looking for a call-center job? Experience ranges from owning a business to working retail. Major problem: Have worked several jobs since selling business. Should all be listed or be selective? Secondary problem: What about time gaps? Szilvia Illes says.

Hi Financial Samurai, I hope you can help me. I am a Hungarian woman who is looking for a job in the USA. I was working in the banking industry in Hungary as a Car Loan Assistant for 8 years. I have GED and Hungarian University Degree, but I have no American experience. Although I had emphasized my job’s responsibilities and skills in my resume, I did not get any responds. How can I make my resume in order to catch their interests? Daniel Prince says.

I don’t have any of medicine paper, that, how about writing a how-to for people who absolutely doesn’t have ANYTHING. And I mean anything as far as previous work experiences, or hasn’t graduated or had to revisor, take off from college due to medical problems and hasn’t gone back and completed a term yet. How about for thesis elearning, that person? because I think it’s pretty easy if you’ve had any remote experience like the essay examples above give, its almost offensive to me that nobody ever puts anything about what to do when you have absolutely nothing. I feel like its my fault and I’m somehow a failure due to gw essay, that, its horrible and I know that nobody wants it to feel that way, but that is seriously how it’s looked from every single website devoted to helping people make good resume’s. So you have three college degree, a dozen accolades, three honors and two interns with a high profile company, and you need freaking HELP with your resume.

That’s how I see websites like this, they aren’t really helping anyone by putting such easy and obviously good applications for examples. I know this has gone on for too many paragraphs and all that, along with different topics, but I am just so angry because I am good with so many things, none of which I can put on a resume, I have no experience because I’m 24 and essay nobody knows how bad people my age got screwed over the past few years, I mean it’s seriously horrible. And the worst thing possible is I live in sat prompt a small town with only small towns around me. I am not mechanically inclined enough to be a mechanic, I started having seizures three years ago so now regular company’s won’t hire me in as so far as I’ve tried probably because of the essay revisor liability and I can’t blame them with the tentang elearning insurance garbage nowadays. So day after day I just get more and more angry at whatever it is revisor that is keeping me from papers ever getting hired no matter how much I try.

I swear a lesser person might be crazy from all this, how about all that for a comment? Dear financial samurai, What about military resumes? Should I list all my military awards, service schools, and different jobs performed while under the guise of what branch I was in? Sometimes it feels like there’s too much I could list.

It might be one job on essay, paper, but the papers different things you’re cross trained in could easily fill a resume. If you can keep all the information one one page, definitely highlight your awards and best jobs/courses. I understand the rationale behind “do it all on a single page”.. Essay. BUT…..how do you possibly condense a 30-year career into a single page? Especially in something like banking or journalism — these are industries that often result in semi-frequent job changes and writing essay differing duties/accomplishments at each.

Any thoughts will be appreciated. I am trying to switch career fields I work in the restaurant business I am trained in all the positions I’m still young I’m going back to school in January 2017 I want to try and get a receptionist job I’m bilingual and I feel that I have awesome customer service skills but a lot of receptionist jobs ask that you know how to essay revisor, do invoices and be super familiar with Microsoft Word and I familiar with it but I wouldn’t say I’m use to thesis elearning, using it. I want them to essay, realize I’m willing to learn anything, I like learning and writing a comparison I catch on pretty quickly. What should I do . I have only worked two jobs before the one I’m at right now I’m at 2 and half years, and essay I’m only 21. Nuclear Research. Help.

Dozens of revisor, people makes the same mistakes writing resumes: they point out the wrong skills, make bad to eye CVs, make mistakes etc. But good written resume – it’s 50% of success! Everybody should remember this. The first time HR meet you through the CV that you have send, so make it the best, show why YOU should get this position. Use good quality examples or use services that will do it for gw essay, you. […] A good resume is essay still standard to go along with any employment application. But I’m going to nuclear paper, argue that in addition to a LinkedIn profile, you should also register your own domain name and create a dynamic site. […] […] Related post: Example Of Good Resumes That Get Jobs […] […] structure your resume in as succinct, and impactful manner as possible. Please look at my post on examples of essay revisor, good resumes that get jobs if you want to thesis tentang, get an essay […] How Much Money Do The Top Income Earners Make? (1279) The 1/10th Rule For Car Buying Everyone Must Follow (866) How Much Should People Have Saved In Their 401Ks At Different Ages (836) The Average Net Worth For The Above Average Person (814) Creating Powerful Friends: Samurai's Alexa Ranking Challenge (772) Scraping By On $500,000 A Year: Why It's So Hard For High Income Earners To Escape The Rat Race (547) Disadvantages Of The ROTH IRA: Not All Is What It Seems (469) We're Ignorant Idiots! Please Tell Us Why A Flat Tax Is Not Fair (435) Are There Really People Who Only Work 40 Hours A Week Or Less And Complain Why They Can't Get Ahead? (424) The Dark Side Of Early Retirement (355) How To Make Six Figures A Year At Almost Any Age (346) How To Get A Rich Man To Be Your Boyfriend Or Husband (338) West Coast Living - Yes It Really Is That Much Better! (333) How To Retire Early And Never Have To Work Again (302) What Income Level Is Considered Rich? (297) East Coast Living - Is It Really That Bad? (288) Renters Should Pay More Taxes (277) The Average Net Worth For The Above Average Married Couple (260) How Do People Live A Comfortable Life Making Less Than Six Figures In Expensive Cities? (259) The First Million Might Be The Easiest: How To Become A Millionaire By Age 30 (257) Being A Landlord Tests My Faith In Humanity (243) How To Make Six Figures A Year And Still Not Feel Rich - $200,000 Income Edition (236) Why Do Women Go Out With Deadbeat Losers? (232) Who Are The Top 1% Income Earners? (231) How Much Savings Should I Have Accumulated By Age? (222)

DISCLAIMER: Financial Samurai exists to thought provoke and learn from the community. A Comparison Essay. Your decisions are yours alone and essay we are in no way responsible for your actions. Stay on the righteous path and think long and hard before making any financial transaction! Disclosures.