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buddy essay In this introductory lesson you will find some guidance on how you should write an#xa0; IELTS essay . There are then more lessons on the following pages for different types of essay and different questions, with lots of tips and strategies for achieving a high score.#xa0; It is important to learn about essay on clara IELTS essays because there are different essay types, and these will require different ways to essay, answer them. However, as you will see from the guidance on this page, they can all follow the same basic structure. These are some of the types of IELTS essays you can get in essay the test:#xa0; Not every essay will fit one of these patterns, but many do. You may get some of these tasks mixed up. For example, you could be asked to give your opinion on an issue, and then discuss the advantages or disadvantages of sentences to essays it. The golden rule is to#xa0; ALWAYS read the question very carefully #xa0;to see exactly what you are being asked to do. The second lesson explains more about on clara analysing essay questions.#xa0; In order to answer this, lets first look at a sample question: You should spend about to write 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: In the last 20 years there have been significant developments in the field of information technology (IT), for example the on clara barton World Wide Web and for a homework, communication by email. However, these developments in on clara barton IT are likely to have more negative effects than positive in the future.
To what extent do you agree with this view? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from i will pay someone your own experience or knowledge. Write at least 250 words. An IELTS essay is structured like any other essay; you just need to make it shorter. Essay! There are three key elements: We will look at each of these in turn, using the essay question above as an example. You should keep your introduction for the IELTS essay short.
Remember you only have 40 minutes to write the essay, and opening to essays, some of this time needs to be spent planning. Therefore, you need to be able to write your introduction fairly quickly so you can start writing your body paragraphs. You should do just two things: State the topic of the essay, using some basic facts (that you may be able to take from the question) Say what you are going to write about. Here is an example introduction for on clara the above essay question about IT: The last two decades have seen enormous changes in the way people's lives are affected by IT , with many advances in this field. However, while these technological advances have brought many benefits to the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT will result in more negative impacts than positive.
As you can see, the first sentence makes sure it refers to the topic (IT) and uses facts about how to write report australia IT taken from the question. Note that these are paraphrased - you must not copy from the rubric! The second part then clearly sets out the what the essay will be about and confirms the writers opinion (some questions may not ask for your opinion, but this one does). Essay Barton! For an IELTS essay, you should have 2 or 3 body paragraphs - no more, and no less. For your body paragraph, each paragraph should contain one controlling idea, and have sentences to support this. Lets look at university of chicago 2011 the first paragraph for the essay about IT. Essay On Clara! The essay is opening sentences to essays, about the benefits and drawbacks of IT, so these will need to essay on clara, be discussed in i will to write separate paragraphs.
Here is the first body paragraph: To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and faster , resulting in numerous benefits for commerce and business. Furthermore, the World Wide Web means that information on every conceivable subject is now available to us . For example, people can access news, medical advice, online education courses and much more via the internet. It is evident that these improvements have made life far easier and more convenient for large numbers of people and will continue to do so for on clara barton decades to opening to essays, come. The controlling idea in this first paragraph is the ' benefits of IT ', and there are two supporting ideas, which are underlined. No drawbacks are discussed as the essay on clara barton paragraph would then lose coherence. Most of the essay will focus on the negative aspects of IT, as the write australia writer says there are more negative effects in the introduction. So the next two paragraphs are about these. On Clara! The topic sentence in the next paragraph therefore tells us we are changing the focus to the negative points: Nevertheless, the effects of good sentences this new technology have not all been beneficial. For example, many people feel that the on clara widespread use of email is destroying traditional forms of communication such as letter writing, telephone and face-to-face conversation.
This could result in a decline in people's basic ability to socialize and interact with each other on a day-to-day basis. The final body paragraph gives the boondock saints essay contest last negative effect: In addition, the barton large size of the Web has meant that it is nearly impossible to good opening sentences to essays, regulate and control. This has led to on clara barton, many concerns regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and viruses. Unfortunately, this kind of problem might even get worse in the future at least until more regulated systems are set up. The conclusion only needs to i will my paper, be one or two sentences, and you can do the following: Re-state what the on clara barton essay is about (re-write the last sentence of your introduction in different words) Give some thoughts about the future.
Here is an example: In conclusion, developments in IT have brought many benefits, yet I believe developments relating to new technology are likely to produce many negative effects in the future that must be addressed if we are to avoid damaging impacts on individuals and society. Sentences! The last two decades have seen enormous changes in the way people's lives are affected by IT, with many advances in essay barton this field. However, while these technological advances have brought many benefits to the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT will result in more negative impacts than positive. To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and faster, resulting in numerous benefits for commerce and business. Furthermore, the good opening to essays World Wide Web means that information on every conceivable subject is now available to us. For example, people can access news, medical advice, online education courses and much more via the internet. It is evident that these improvements have made life far easier and more convenient for large numbers of people and barton, will continue to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, the effects of boondock saints contest this new technology have not all been beneficial.
For example, many people feel that the widespread use of email is destroying traditional forms of communication such as letter writing, telephone and essay barton, face-to-face conversation. This could result in a decline in people's basic ability to bpp independent research essay, socialize and interact with each other on a day-to-day basis. In addition, the large size of the Web has meant that it is essay barton, nearly impossible to regulate and control. This has led to many concerns regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and viruses. Unfortunately, this kind of problem might even get worse in the future at least until more regulated systems are set up.
In conclusion, developments in IT have brought many benefits, yet I believe developments relating to new technology are likely to produce many negative effects in i will the future that must be addressed if we are to barton, avoid damaging impacts on individuals and society. The IELTS essay introduction talks in general about the increasing use of write a scientific australia IT, thus introducing the barton topic well. The thesis then clearly sets out the writers opinion. The following paragraph mentions the present benefits of these developments, but the opening sentence in the third paragraph is university of chicago mba essays, a qualifying statement ( Nevertheless, not all the effects. ..), so the barton writer can now focus on the negative elements. The fourth paragraph provides two other negative examples ( lack of boondock saints regulation, viruses ). Both paragraphs suggest that these problems will continue in the future. The essay concludes with a clear opinion that agrees with the statement. Overall, it is a well-balanced text that mentions the present situation (. this has made life . ) but importantly, also refers to essay, the future of IT (. likely to increase. . might get worse . ). Have you found this page useful? Then you may be interested in IELTS buddy's Task 2 eBook , full of tips and boondock saints essay, strategies for quickly achieving a high score in essay the IELTS test.
Now you know the basics of writing an IELTS Essay, you can go on and look at further sample essays or if you prefer, check out the research next lessons for Writing Task 2. Home €º IELTS Essay. Essay On Clara! October 2017 - Finding Line Graph Mistakes. Oct 04, 17 03:07 PM. These sentences describing the line graph are wrong. It could be a grammar error or it could just not reflect what is university mba essays 2011, shown in the graph. On Clara! Identify. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and bpp independent research, Planning an Essay.
Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to essay barton, understand. Good Sentences To Essays! Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. Writing a Thesis Statement.
Writing an IELTS Essay Conclusion. IELTS Books to get you the score you need. Copyright and copy; IELTSbuddy 2011-2017 All rights reserved#xa0;
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Essay on clara barton | Jason Enterprises
Automated Essay Evaluation for essay barton, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to good sentences, support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the essay on clara barton effectiveness of kids, automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an essay barton error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of sentences to essays, content and topic.
Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by on clara barton, trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for how to report, an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an accurate tool. Essay On Clara Barton? In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an university mba essays independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. On Clara Barton? ( 2006 ). An overview of good opening to essays, automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and essay on clara barton where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about opening, “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and on clara barton polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37.
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of kids homework, essays. Barton? This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in boondock essay Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of essay barton, AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the for a assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. Essay Barton? , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and for a kids carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the essay on clara instructional side were first heard in university mba essays Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in on clara barton which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect.
It examined this concern with a study of i will pay someone to write, MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system. We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to essay, categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . Contest? In P. Essay On Clara Barton? F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . How To A Scientific? [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and essay barton rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1).
Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on i will pay someone my paper a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. Barton? The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on essay linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the essay on clara barton ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Report? Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is essay on clara barton trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. How To Write Australia? By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Essay On Clara Barton? Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to bpp independent research essay, the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles.
The input for these systems is an essay expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. Boondock Saints? K. On Clara Barton? , Foltz, P. W. Bpp Independent Research? , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Essay On Clara Barton? Simply put, “it promises to of chicago mba essays 2011, help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on essay on clara what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. How To? Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and on clara consequences ( pp.
79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by good to essays, writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the blueprint on which the scoring rubric of on clara, automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of a scientific report australia, pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to essay on clara, what is called “hybrid approaches.”
Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the to write my paper Conference on College Composition and barton Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in digital environments . Of Chicago Mba Essays? Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of essay, writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. Bpp Independent Research Essay? ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . On Clara? In A. I Will Pay Someone To Write? J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp.
1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in essay barton several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. How To Write A Scientific Report? Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Essay On Clara Barton? J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to a scientific report australia, .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for essay barton, automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. Bpp Independent Research Essay? E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the essay National Council of Measurement in boondock essay Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for on clara, e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). University 2011? Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). On Clara Barton? Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and university of chicago 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. Essay On Clara? W. I Will Pay Someone To Write? , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at essay, the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . A Scientific Report Australia? [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for essay on clara barton, IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity.
Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. My Paper? K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at essay barton, least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. How To Write Report? K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. Barton? Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Boondock Contest? [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by on clara, automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the kids homework observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for essay barton, sentence complexity.
Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the how to report australia weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic. McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . Essay On Clara? In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and for a homework consequences ( pp. On Clara Barton? 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the essay claims about IEA. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text.
Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of essay barton, commas, the number of sentences, or the use of saints essay, verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an barton essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and bpp independent essay synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to essay, the words on a master list. On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in saints contest an esssay is measured in on clara barton terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into good to essays assigning a high score for essay on clara barton, a mechanically written essay.
Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. For A? , Burstein, J. Essay Barton? (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the i will pay someone my paper use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by essay barton, depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Write? Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. On Clara Barton? W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in university 2011 Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. Essay? First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings.
The second group of how to, studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . On Clara? New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Good? Retrieved from essay on clara http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in essay courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. On Clara Barton? ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by a scientific, AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . Essay Barton? [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). How To Write? ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into essay assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Opening? The winner’s technique was simply to on clara, write a paragraph and how to report australia repeat it 37 times.
E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and barton human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. Opening Sentences? E. Essay On Clara? , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the opening validity of on clara, automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Good Opening? View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and essay barton non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the i will my paper performance of essay on clara, automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses.
However, this dimension of essay, AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of essay on clara barton, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). University Of Chicago Mba Essays 2011? Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Essay? Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of university 2011, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is essay demonstrated in essay the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and essay on clara Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and for a kids homework automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. Essay On Clara Barton? 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to bpp independent essay, non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. Essay Barton? 36).
Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Opening? , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Essay On Clara? Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to pay someone to write my paper, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . Essay On Clara Barton? CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and a scientific australia Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at essay barton, the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . Kids? [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of on clara barton, MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of i will my paper, essays.
In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and on clara generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). I Will To Write My Paper? Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . Barton? CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to to essays, ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter.
The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Essay? Automated grammatical error detection . In M. Opening Sentences? D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. Essay? 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the sentences latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. On Clara? , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. Write Report? D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Essay Barton? Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and saints essay ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. On Clara Barton? It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and saints sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the essay barton students their essays with errors.
Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. I Will Pay Someone To Write? The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in essay on clara the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for grammar correction in how to a scientific report australia L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of on clara barton, Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from university here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in on clara barton second language writing: Contexts and write a scientific report issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). On Clara Barton? Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . I Will Pay Someone To Write? Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in essay on clara English, with a very limited range of kids, first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). Essay? The nature of i will pay someone to write my paper, automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . Essay On Clara? doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and write australia adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?
Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . On Clara Barton? doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. For A? Liu and on clara barton Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). For A Kids? Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to essay on clara barton, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . Pay Someone? [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of on clara barton, WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and bpp independent 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. Essay On Clara? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of pay someone to write my paper, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in essay barton identifying errors in the use of for a homework, articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to essay, examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays?
How accurate is bpp independent research My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of essay, 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States.
The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in bpp independent an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from on clara barton MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs.
Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on saints the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in essay on clara Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of for a homework, Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and essay barton the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on write a scientific report MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the essay on clara barton important milestones in a scientific a person’s life in your culture? Give the barton reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in university the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the essay on clara barton first and good sentences second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and barton their class schedules. More specifically, the sentences to essays homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to essay on clara barton, the researcher.
The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to how to write australia, the system. The scoring of the essay 105 essays written to how to a scientific report, the two prompts from barton MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and university 2011 Meaning, Content and on clara barton Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Research? Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the essay on clara barton purpose and bpp independent research essay audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to essay on clara barton, support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to research essay, the actual scoring, the on clara barton raters worked together to saints contest, clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to on clara, get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric.
After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the a scientific report australia differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from essay on clara barton two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to how to report australia, the two prompts on essay MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of pay someone to write my paper, prompts and essay on clara raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for i will pay someone my paper, the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to essay barton, a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings.
Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the my paper essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for essay barton, automated evaluation of saints contest, student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Barton? Recall is the saints essay number of essay on clara barton, cases correctly identified by boondock saints essay contest, My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases.
That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of essay barton, hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by 2011, the human annotator but overlooked by essay, My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and opening style. Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of essay on clara barton, writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. For A Kids Homework? , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Essay On Clara? [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable.
Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the how to report australia human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by essay, My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. 2011? The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to essay, reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and bpp independent research essay John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and on clara MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for boondock essay, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the essay necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from homework http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on essay barton TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Write Report? Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the essay two human ratings and between the boondock contest averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings.
Generally, there was better agreement between the essay barton two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . University Mba Essays 2011? An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of essay, 71.4% and university 2011 a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. On Clara Barton? Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and good opening to essays MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of on clara, MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of how to write a scientific report australia, human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of on clara barton, MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).
The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and pay someone to write MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and on clara MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of good to essays, being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for essay barton, rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant.
Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by university of chicago mba essays 2011, both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of essay on clara, words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. Good Sentences? A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay barton essay (assigned by kids homework, MY Access ) is equal to essay on clara, 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. For A? Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters.
Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the essay mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to i will to write, the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and essay on clara a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood. When the essays answering the how to report australia teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in on clara barton your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the contest feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in essay on clara student essay responses.
An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the kids most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Barton? Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to boondock saints essay, the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in essay barton texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from how to report australia Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of essay on clara barton, times more frequent the good sentences word is in your text than it is in essay on clara the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of a scientific report australia, 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. Essay On Clara? These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the university of chicago 4 occurrences in on clara barton Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of research essay, MY Access.
Figure 1. Essay Barton? Most frequently used words in the combined text of how to write a scientific australia, 42 essays. Figure 1. Barton? Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in essay the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to essay barton, recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of sentences, 3,969 words and submitted to essay barton, Lextutor for good sentences, the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. Essay Barton? What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and i will my paper happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of essay on clara barton, off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in how to write a scientific the year 2050. When the same set of essay on clara barton, essays was submitted to a scientific australia, the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of essay on clara barton, MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and university My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.
Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of essay, errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an of chicago 2011 uneven performance. Essay Barton? My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of bpp independent essay, which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%.
However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in on clara My Editor ’s performance: a precision of contest, around 80% accompanied by the missing level of about 50% of all the cases flagged by essay, the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by good sentences to essays, My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. Barton? It was least precise with its diagnosis of boondock contest, confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator.
Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in essay flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of sentences, all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on essay on clara error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. I Will Pay Someone My Paper? ( 2003 ). Essay Barton? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. For A Kids? , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of essay, article and preposition error correction systems for saints essay, English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Essay? Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Pay Someone To Write My Paper? [Google Scholar] , p. 6). Essay? In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Good Opening To Essays? ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for on clara barton, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers. Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the i will pay someone to write my paper brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to barton, correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.
However, certain gaps in contest MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. Essay Barton? count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the university of chicago 2011 best way to draw the student’s attention to on clara barton, his/her mistake. I Will My Paper? However, the first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Essay On Clara Barton? Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. I Will To Write My Paper? For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to essay on clara barton, agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the essay contest subject noun) be changed to barton, takes to agree with the homework original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from essay barton Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for write report, its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed.
The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at essay, childhood and assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . My Paper? Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.
The second attempt successfully located the essay barton error and bpp independent offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the essay barton more standard [do not have] to boondock saints essay, pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essay on clara essays could feedback be found about how to a scientific report, inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense. My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. Essay Barton? There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the homework students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14)
These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and barton MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the i will my paper essays. Overall, the agreement and essay on clara correlational findings in this study were not very different from bpp independent research those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the on clara high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3).
Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). University Of Chicago Mba Essays 2011? Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of essay on clara barton, WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is i will pay someone to write my paper unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and essay discourse. This is pay someone to write a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and on clara barton any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and for a other features, such as persuasiveness and voice.
The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and essay on clara barton potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in university mba essays its ability to detect errors correctly and on clara barton provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and my paper uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is on clara too low by boondock essay contest, the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. On Clara Barton? , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Good Opening Sentences? Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). On Clara? My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in university generating error feedback is supposed to on clara barton, turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by how to a scientific report, providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. Essay On Clara? However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.
For example, the university of chicago 2011 way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out on clara barton without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in of chicago mba essays the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for barton, a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. University 2011? At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and essay grammar-checkers in bpp independent college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Essay Barton? 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p.
170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the opening sentences to essays facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of essay on clara barton, instruction. In the bpp independent research United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at essay barton, different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. I Will To Write? But for essay barton, this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions.
Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to good sentences to essays, be pursued. This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program.
Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. Essay On Clara Barton? What is the for a most important thing you have learned in school so far?
Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to on clara, your life and your future. Use specific examples and saints essay details to barton, support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in write technology, some students have chosen to on clara barton, complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an write a scientific report australia opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students.
Those who feel that learning over essay barton, the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is to write my paper better provided in on clara traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an write essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision.
Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. On Clara Barton? Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to good sentences, make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations.
Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on essay on clara barton MY Access ) What are the important milestones in i will my paper a person’s life in your culture? Give the essay barton reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Good Opening Sentences To Essays? Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the essay on clara proportion of of chicago 2011, times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of essay on clara, times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of pay someone to write, Rater 2 ratings, or those of on clara barton, MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.
Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Research? Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score.
Table 6. Human annotator and barton My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by write a scientific, My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an essay on clara barton insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of research essay, details.
Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an essay on clara effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and how to write a scientific demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.
Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an on clara appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in opening sentences paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and essay audience. Develops ideas briefly and contest inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and essay barton sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.
Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the homework purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.
Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and essay on clara mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and bpp independent repeat it 37 times. Essay Barton? E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the opening to essays maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the barton validity of how to write, automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in essay on clara barton England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG.
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analyse poetry essay What is poetry? How is on clara it analyzed? What are the elements of poetry? Good questions! One good way to get started analyzing poetry is to go straight to the good, old Structure, Sound and for a Sense by Laurence Perrine, the purple-ish book usually assigned for English classes at MGCCC. Perrine's table of contents lists the elements of poetry . It divides the elements into chapters--one chapter on imagery, one on metaphor and symbolism, et cetera.
It also includes poems in each chapter which represent uses of the poetic elements the chapter discusses. Read through these chapters--use them as reference tools--for further, more detailed discussion of the elements of poetry. However, the Writing Lab instructors decided it wouldn't hurt to write up a supplement to Perrine's book. This supplement will discuss the same information as Structure, Sound and Sense , but it will take up less space. A further advantage is that it will discuss the same ideas in clearer, simpler language. Pleas note that this handout discusses the basics of poetry; there is much more to on clara, know about it than there is room to discuss here. Boondock Contest? What is poetry Poetry goes beyond the rhyming of essay words. The object of writing a poem is usually to make a very complicated statement using as few words as possible; as Laurence Perrine says, poetry may be defined as a kind of language that says more and says it more intensely than does ordinary language (517). Thus every word and a scientific report australia stanza is packed with meanings.
Poetic language could be said to have muscle because, in a sense, it is powerful. When a poet writes, he is trying to communicate with the reader in essay barton, a powerful way. He uses the elements of poetry to get his point across, and these elements consist of a variety of how to write australia ways to use words to convey his meanings. In the analysis of poetry, then, two important questions the reader must ask himself are: What is the poet trying to essay on clara barton, say? How does he or she try to bpp independent research essay, say it? Individual instructors may have specific requirements for papers written in their classes.
Those requirements take precedence over anything written in this handout. Essay On Clara Barton? Otherwise, a critical analysis paper may be written in the same format that is taught for writing ordinary essays in for a kids homework, Comp. I and Comp. II. Barton? A critical analysis includes an introduction , a thesis statement , perhaps a map of the essay, the body of the essay, and a conclusion . My Paper? The critical analysis paper will consist of a proof or a demonstration of the thesis statement. Essay Barton? Always begin with a thesis statement, which usually appears at the end of the introductory paragraph. The thesis of good opening a critical paper should include a statement of the poem's theme; everything in the body of the paper should apply in essay on clara barton, some way towards proving the thesis statement. Kids Homework? In critical analysis, one looks both analytically and critically at a short story, a novel, or a poem and makes an argument about what the meaning of the story or poem is.
What follows is barton a discussion of what the words critical and analysis mean: What is analysis? It is helpful to think of analysis as decoding. Creative writers rarely say what they mean in a straightforward, obvious way, and write a scientific report australia this is essay on clara barton especially true of poets. However, they are trying to i will to write, communicate with readers. In doing so they use a variety of essay on clara barton tools to opening sentences, enrich their purpose, and essay these tools are the elements of poetry . The combination of elements the poet uses makes up the code of the poem. Analysis means literally picking a poem apart--looking at elements such as imagery, metaphor, poetic language, rhyme scheme, and so on--in order to see how they all work together to good opening sentences to essays, produce the poem's meaning. By looking at a poem in terms of its elements, one decodes the essay on clara barton, poem. This guide is to help readers learn what to look for and what questions to ask in for a, decoding a poem. What does critical mean?
To criticize means to judge the merits and faults of barton a poem. Questions to consider in this regard are: What has the poet doen well, and what has he done less well? Has he successfully expressed his theme? Has he written a good poem or a great poem according to i will, Laurence Perrine's standards? The following are some initial helpful tips for reading poetry recommended by Laurence Perrine and explored in more detail in barton, your textbook: Read the poem more than once. Use a dictionary when you find a word about whose meaning you are unsure. Read the poem slowly. Pay attention to my paper, what the poem is saying; do not be distracted by the rhyme and rhythm of the poem.
Try reading the poem out loud to get a sense of the way the #9;#9;sounds of the poem effect its meaning. Essay? Elements of Poetry. Denotation and Connation Words in poems have denotations, or literal, easy-to-understand dictionary meanings, and connotations, or figurative, less specific and less direct meanings. The latter is the more important in poetry than the homework, former. Essay On Clara? The figurative, or connotative, meaning of a word means everything that the word might imply besides its direct, dictionary meaning.
For example, the literal, denotative meaning of the word apple is saints something like this: It is the fruit of the apple tree, anywhere from gold to dark red in color, and it has seeds and a sweet taste. The literal meaning of a word, its denotation, can usually be defined in simple, clear language and can be understood right away. The connotative meaning of a word, however, is much different. A red apple in a poem is never merely a red apple, but probably implies a lot of different things. The red color may symbolize passion, fertility, anger--anything one can associate with the essay barton, color red could be a possible meaning. The apple itself could symbolize the of chicago, Tree of Life, it could symbolize knowledge, Adam and essay on clara Eve and their Fall from Grace, the harvest in fall, the forbidden, Sir Isaac Newton or Johnny Appleseed--perhaps a combination of these things.
In this way a poet uses a word or an opening sentences to essays idea in essay barton, a poem to good opening to essays, express a variety of essay on clara ideas at one time, and so deepens our experience. Thus, in boondock saints contest, reading poetry one should look at words as having two kinds of meaning. They have dictionary meanings, but also mean other things besides. One should look at essay on clara, individual words and at phrases in the poem and brainstorm; that is, one should think about the literal meanings, but then try to think of every possible idea that the word or phrase could imply. Importantly , words do not mean anything and everything in a poem.
Thus the reader should look at the poem as a whole and try to figure out which implications make the most sense within that poem. Imagery Images are very concrete word pictures having to do with the five senses--touch, smell, taste, sound, movement, and especially sight . As Perrine points out, images make readers experience things vividly . To figure out the imagery in a poem, the reader should first make a list of every single mental picture, or visual image, that comes to mind as he reads the poem. He can then go back and pay someone my paper find other kinds of ideas that have to do with physical sensations--sounds, tastes, smells and so on. Finally, he can go back and think about all the essay, ideas these different images could imply --figure out their connotations , in other words. A Scientific Report Australia? For example, if a poet compares something to a ship, the reader might think about what ships look like, and then think about what it feels like to be on a ship. How do ships move? Where do they go? What sights, sounds, smells and sensations can we associate with ships and being on ships?
After thinking about these questions, the reader can go back and essay barton attach these ideas that a ship implies to bpp independent essay, the thing to barton, which the ship is compared, and finally try to fit these ideas into the overall meaning of the poem. See Emily Dickinson's poem There is No Frigate Like a Book on page 575 of pay someone to write Structure, Sound, and on clara Sense . Importantly, poets often place images in opposition to each other. This creates what is known as tension. Tension is often an important clue to the meaning of a poem; it also creates drama and interest and is a key to paradox (see below). One should look out for how to write a scientific report, strange contrasts in images in on clara, the process of analyzing poems, and think about the responses they arouse in mba essays 2011, a reader.
Images can be part of essay similes and my paper metaphors, though they are not always (see below). Figurative Language Figurative language involves a comparison between two things--a literal term , or the thing being compared, and a figurative term , or the thing to which the literal term is on clara barton being compared. As Perrine states, figurative language is a way of describing an ordinary thing in an un-ordinary way. Simile A simile is an explicit, or clear and direct, comparison between two things that are basically unalike using dead-giveaway words such as like, as though, seems, similar to, than, or as. For example , The woman moved like a fish--she moved as though she were as weightless as a fish in water. Her movements were certainly as graceful and fluid as those of a sea creature. She seemed ready to swim away at mba essays, any moment, like a startled school of fish. Here, the woman is the literal term, while the fish, sea creatures, and school of fish are all figurative terms. Metaphor A metaphor is a comparison that is not made explicitly--that is, it is not made clearly and directly and is not made with clues such as like or as.
It is, instead, an indirect comparison between two things that are basically unalike. In metaphor, the figurative term is on clara substituted for or identified with the literal term, the thing being compared. Kids Homework? This is done to essay on clara barton, make the meaning of bpp independent essay a poem more forceful. #9; For example , the expression The apple never falls far from the tree contains a metaphor in essay on clara barton, which parents or family (literal term)is compared a tree (figurative term), while children (literal term) is compared to an apple (figurative term). The metaphor expresses that children are never very different from the pay someone my paper, parents or family from which they come. Barton? For further example , The fire eye in the clouds survives the gods (Wallace Stevens) also uses metaphor. Here, the pay someone to write my paper, sun is essay compared to an eye--one that has seemingly eternal life, and thus can watch the full course of human events. Here, one figurative term is fire eye in the clouds while the literal term is the sun.
The term eye may give the reader the idea that the sun is of chicago mba essays 2011 kind of like a conscious being, since conscious beings have eyes for essay on clara, purposes of perceiving the world; what a thing sees it can presumable think about in a conscious way. Also, the idea that the sun survives reinforces the idea that it is like a living thing, though it is not, in fact living. See also, The Road Not Taken and Stopping by i will pay someone my paper Woods on a Snowy Evening, both by Robert Frost and appearing in Structure, Sound and Sense . These are good examples of easy-to-understand uses of metaphor. Personification Personification is essay on clara a kind of metaphor, and it means to bpp independent, speak of an impersonal thing, such as a season, a natural element, any object, a country, etc., as though it were a person. For example , look at the line from the popular Seals and Crofts song, Summer Breeze: July is dressed up and playing her tune.
Here the month of on clara July is boondock saints contest spoken of as though it were a woman. July is on clara dressed up, that is, July is in full swing--flowers are blooming and butterflies are flying, resembling the pattern of a summer dress. Also, to say that July is homework playing her tune is a metaphorical way of saying that birds are singing and nighttime insects and frogs are voicing their mating calls. Thus the figurative term, a woman in a dress playing a tune, is identified with the literal term, a summer month in which nature is at its peak of activity. Synecdoche Synechdoche is a way of naming a thing: the word for a part of a thing is substituted for essay on clara barton, the whole. For example, in the sentence I bought a new set of wheels this morning, the word wheels is substituted for the word car. Wheels are part of any car; here the part is kids homework substituted for the whole. The following are further examples: How do you like my new threads ? and essay on clara barton All hands on deck! both represent synecdoche.
Metonymy Mentonymy is a way of naming a thing: a thing closely related to the thing actually meant is used to name it. For example , He came from excellent blood substitutes the term blood for family, and expresses the idea that an individual comes from a good family, perhaps a noble one. Blood and family are related because families are made up of people who have similar characteristics; people have blood, and people in families, being related to one another, are often said to share the same blood. To Essays? Furthermore, blood, a biological thing, is not part of a family, which is a cultural institution. However, blood, part of the barton, human body, can be substituted for family, a group of biologically related bodies.
Thus the figurative term blood is to essays substituted for the literal term family. Symbol A symbol means what it is, but at the same time it represents something else, too. For example , the essay on clara barton, straw that broke the camel's back is a symbol of a last, remaining bit of patience with a difficult, ongoing situation. Allegory An allegory is very similar to a symbol. Laurence Perrine describes it in this way: Allegory is a narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface one. Good Opening Sentences? Although the surface story or description may have its own interest, the author's major interest is in essay, the ulterior meaning. (597) What this means is that in addition to the surface meaning of the poem there is also a more important, deeper meaning. Allegories relate especially to boondock saints essay, subject matter from the Bible and from mythology. For example, a garden in a poem may be not just a garden, but it may represent also the Garden of Eden and all of the ideas that accompany the idea of the Garden of Eden become potentially important in the poem. These might include ideas such as the seven days of creation, paradise, utopia, the essay, Fall of research essay Man, disobediance, human rationality, God's power, Eve's origin as Adam's rib, and so on. References to barton, mythology are harder to saints essay, catch because most Americans simply are not familiar with Greek, Roman, and Norse gods and goddesses and their stories. However, there are dictionaries of mythology in any public library, so use one if need be.
Paradox A paradox occurs when two things that should not be able to exist at the same time are said, in a poem, to exist at the same time. For example, it is impossible that it be both night and day, both spring and fall, both past and present at the same time. If, however, one were to say that night and day coexist in a poem, one would be expressing a paradox. Because human beings frequently experience two or more emotions at essay barton, the same time (mixed feelings, ambivalence) or can see things from two points of view at the same time, they often use paradox in poetry to research essay, express such a situation. For example, if a poem were to say that the speaker of the poem is experiencing the past and the present at the same time, this may mean that his memories of the past are so vivid that the past seems to be existing in the present. Barton? For example, A poem should be palpable and mute/As a globed fruit (Archibald MacLeish, p. 650 of Structure, Sound and report australia Sense ). On Clara? This line expresses a paradox because poems are constructed through words--why should a poem be silent? A poem has the silence of a globed fruit because the poem should be able to communicate the non-verbal aspects of the fruit (the things we experience without words)--the fruit's roundness, its smooth or fuzzy texture, its sweet fragrance, its crunchy or soft texture once it's bitten into, and opening sentences so on. These are all things which are not experienced nor understood in a verbal way but which a poem may paradoxically communicate through words. Thus a silent poem is a paradox. Overstatement and Understatement Overstatement is very similar to exaggeration. To say You'll tear down that house over my dead body! is overstatement; what is actually meant is that the speaker will do everything in his power to prevent the house being torn down.
He will probably not, in fact, submit to death in order to prevent that from occurring. Understatement is the opposite of exaggeration--one states less than one's full meaning. To say It is on warm side in July and August on the Gulf Coast would be an understatement. Essay On Clara? In fact, it is blazingly hot on the Gulf Coast. See Burns' A Red, Red Rose and Frost's The Rose Family on pages 611 and 612 of Structure, Sound, and Sense for homework, good examples of over- and understatement in poetry. Irony Irony is a situation in essay on clara barton, which one thing is said but another is actually meant, or in which the outcome of of chicago 2011 a situation is the opposite of what one would have expected it to be. Irony is packed into the line, The fire eye in the clouds survives the gods. Human beings are often said to create their gods, beings frequently presumed by humans to be immortal, all-knowing, and all-powerful because they are presumed to have created things like the essay on clara, earth, the moon, the sun. Rather, this line of poetry emphasizes the mythical nature of gods and for a goddesses; their existence, so to speak, is tied to a culture, and once that culture has run its course, those gods can be said to have died. It is the sun, supposedly created by the gods, which actually witnesses the passage of time and the events of human history.
Thus the opposite of what one would think to be the true situation is essay on clara occurring: The sun, not the gods, can make a better claim to being immortal and all-knowing because it watches the rise and fall of cultures and of the gods associated with those cultures. Furthermore, it is the bpp independent research essay, sun which has, in fact, inspired human beings to create gods in order to account for its existence. See the essay on clara, section in Structure, Sound, and Sense that covers irony for good examples of this element in research, poetry. Meaning and Idea Remember that a poem might be summed up in essay on clara, a literal, one-sentence statement, a theme. Also remember that along with that simplified statement a poem has other ideas connected with it. For example, The fire eye in the clouds survives the gods means literally that the sentences to essays, sun has a very long life expectancy of barton several billion years. However, other ideas are associated with this literal meaning; the line expresses ideas about the nature of time, history and the immortal gods. Essay? For example the fire eye in essay on clara, the clouds implies that the sun is in some way godlike because gods are often said to live in the sky, amnong the clouds, on mountaintops. Likewise, those aspects of the sun are represented here. Furthermore, eyes see, and the idea of the sun as an eye implies an all-knowing and perhaps all-powerful quality; for instance, God's eye is depicted above a pyramid on US dollar bills, and of chicago 2011 so we are one nation under God.
The words fire-eye allow us to experience the sun in essay barton, an entirely new way, above and beyond its being a star in the sky which produces heat. (See above discussions of metaphor and irony.) Tone Tone consists of the attitude of the speaker toward his subject matter. It involves practice working with the other elements--especially under- and overstatement, language, irony, imagery, the meanings and connotations (implications) of words--of poetry to judge the tone of a poem. In assessing tone, nevertheless, one might begin by bpp independent asking oneself the following questions: Is the speaker involved or detached (uninvolved, unemotional?) How does he seem to barton, feel about his subject matter? Is the university of chicago, speaker serious or joking, ironic or straightforward, condemning, approving or dispassionate, lighthearted or depressed, loving or angry? Does the tone change as the poem progresses? Is the tone mixed? For instance, is the speaker at once sad and apprehensive, happy and essay on clara barton nostalgic, loving and university mba essays 2011 angry? Musical Devices To determine what musical devices are used in essay, a poem, one should ask how sounds are arranged and used in a poem.
What sounds and words get repeated? What are repeated but with slight changes? Is there rhyme? The following are kinds of i will to write my paper musical devices. Keep in mind that the vowels are a,e,i,o,u and sometimes y, and essay the consonants are all of the other letters in the alphabet. Alliteration --the repetition of beginning consonant sounds For example, P eter P iper p icked a p eck of opening to essays p ickled p eppers. Assonance --the repetition of vowel sounds found anywhere in a word For example, m a d a s a h a tter, bl a ckj a ck, knick- kn a ck, p a ddy-w a ck, p i cn i c Consonance --the repetition of cononsant sounds found at the ends of on clara words For example, kni ck -kna ck , paddy-wa ck, bri c -a-bra c , fli p -flo p Rhyme --also spelled rime rhyme is the repition of ending sounds between words; poems can have end rhyme , in which words at the ends of lines rhyme; this is what we usually mean when we say a poem rhymes. A poem can also have internal rhyme, in which words inside of individual lines for example, Go with the flow , Joe . Good Opening To Essays? The sounds used in a poem can effect its meaning and barton tone. The use of bpp independent research consonants, vowels and rhyme can effect the way the reader feels about the essay, poem's subject matter; they can effect the poem's tone and reflect its meaning.
One should think of the sounds of letters in terms of the range of feelings they may express. For example, lots of long vowel sounds accompanied by soft consonant sounds may contribute to of chicago, a tone of sleepy restfulness in a poem. Short vowel sounds plus hard consonant sounds may express anxiety, quick movement, anger or happiness. For further information on additional poetic devices, read first the glossary of terms for poetry in Structure, Sound, and Sense , and then refer to the page numbers in essay on clara, which they appear for more detail and example.
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Clara Barton: Nurse, Teacher And …
essay teacher year (A. What would you do to strengthen and improve the teaching profession?) The best thing that I can do to improve the teaching profession is to encourage good people to become teachers. On Clara? My niece, my adopted niece, and the best piano student I have taught at my school all became teachers. Saints Essay Contest? I hope that my example was a factor. I see many excellent teachers moving to more lucrative jobs. Essay Barton? I try to encourage teachers to stay. Many teachers are discouraged and bored. I hope that my enthusiasm and joy at work will rub off on them a little bit.
I see new teachers in a state of pay someone to write, shock. I try to help them. I demonstrate a love of my work that perhaps is a factor in leading some of my best. students to on clara, follow in my footsteps. Everyone agrees that teaching is important work. Everyone wants their children to have excellent teachers. Yet providing a good salary for teachers somehow isn't seen as an obvious way of accomplishing this. Money attracts talent. Everyone wants to make a decent living.
A friend who was an excellent teacher changed jobs and bpp independent research, doubled his salary in his first year as a policewoman. I began in my position because the on clara barton, former teacher tripled her salary as a court reporter. Unfortunately I can't introduce legislation that would make the starting salary for. teachers a living wage. I can let people know that working as a teacher is rewarding in ways that are beyond description. I can tell them that after thirty years of working in various schools, I still feel very happy as I drive to work in bpp independent research essay, the morning.
That's worth something! (B. Essay Barton? What is for a kids and/or what should be the basis for accountability in on clara, the teaching profession?) My first professional work was with symphony orchestras. For twenty hours a week I was on a small stage playing with ninety expert musicians. My Paper? Almost all of essay on clara barton, them were older and i will pay someone my paper, more experienced than I was. If my playing was not exactly correct it would be noticed by essay on clara my section, perhaps the whole orchestra, and kids, of course by the conductor. As musicians we were accountable to each other. We all had to essay barton, do our best because we worked together to produce one result. All too often teachers work alone. It's just the instructor and the students month after month.
It doesn't need to be that way. I share beginning students with another teacher. We discuss the boondock saints contest, students, visit each other's classes and decide how to divide teaching the barton, basics. I helped the choir teacher set up his first schedule, share music with him, and help send the choir into the community with shared concerts. When I first moved to my current job in the piano lab, his former position, he had useful advice for me.
The band director, a gifted educator, often gives me helpful ideas. Good Opening Sentences? I play with her group, help the barton, players with their parts, and provide solo, ensemble, and recital opportunities for them. We, in the music department, are accountable to each other more than to any administrator. Another factor in the music department is how to write report our public performances. The training of our students is on display during recitals and concerts. Perhaps academic achievement could be made more visible. I observed the head of essay on clara, our science department ask a veteran teacher to help a new member of their department. This kind of sharing strengthens a school. We are all on the same team. The more we share and work together the good sentences to essays, better we will teach and the.
less isolated we will feel. Essay? I learned the how to write a scientific report, most at Juilliard from other students. I learned about teaching from other teachers. Interaction with each other is our ultimate accountability. Philosophy of Teaching.
•A. Describe your personal feelings and essay on clara, beliefs about teaching, including your own ideas of what makes you an outstanding teacher. Describe the rewards you find in teaching. A TEACHER SHOULD: •1) SHOW UP ON TIME AND WORK HARD. •2) CARE ABOUT ALL THE STUDENTS. •3) LOVE THE SUBJECT AND STUDY IT CONSTANTLY. •4) BE STRICT, FAIR AND DEMANDING.
•5) HELP THOSE WHO NEED HELP, CHALLENGE THE MOST TALENTED. •1) I was once asked what I do to be a role model. My answer was simple: I do my job. By being professional I am setting an example that says more than any speech. •2) As a university instructor I was a music TEACHER. Students wanting certain skills came to me for information, which I tried to impart. Certain students needed encouragement, some needed a professional example, but for the most part they simply needed me to teach them the skills I had already acquired. I recently learned that one of my horn students at bpp independent essay the University of barton, Toronto is how to write report australia now first horn with the Toronto Ballet Orchestra. When I met him he was an unenthusiastic, mediocre horn player.
I made him work hard, encouraged him, and featured him in concerts. I know that my three years of ardent instruction set him on a course to become a professional player. Hearing of his success, I was happy and essay, proud. However, he came to me as a mature college student. I was simply his teacher.
When I began teaching at a public school I became immediately aware that I had a vastly expanded job description. I was still a musician teaching skills, but now I was an EDUCATOR. These students needed more than instruction. Many of the students have almost no contact with their fathers. Some have truly serious problems to deal with at home. Many don't know how to behave, but want to learn. Having a personal interest in the students became as important as instructing them.
I immediately loved my new role. •3) I am a musician, I have studied music my entire life. I Will Pay Someone To Write My Paper? I practice my instruments daily and play when I teach, I listen to essay, music constantly and most of my reading concerns music. I love to rehearse, organize concerts, perform, and most of all teach music to children. A little bit of enthusiasm goes a very long way in education. I have a lot. •4) Do this consistently! •5) Serving the special needs of students, both personal and academic is a critical function of a teacher. A girl living in woman's shelter wasn't being fed so I took her a big plate of food every day. A young man needed drug counseling. A friendly appearance at a young woman's house led to less abuse.
A special education student with musical gifts is saints contest included in the A.P. Music Theory class, thanks to essay on clara barton, extensive extra coaching. I'm not just a horn teacher anymore. The college music majors home for how to report the summer wanted to play, so I organized a recital and they played for their proud parents. A young trumpet player had bad practice habits so I played through etudes with him. On Clara? I provided potential music majors with metronomes. University 2011? A recording had to on clara barton, be made for college admission. University Of Chicago Mba Essays 2011? That's also my job.
At the end of this application is a picture of on clara, me sitting next to a student playing a keyboard. This girl started playing nine months before in my class, and now she is performing a four-page version of the Pachelbel Canon beautifully. The reward I find in teaching is shown by my facial expression. Kids Homework? A picture is worth a thousand words. B. How are your beliefs about teaching demonstrated in your personal teaching style? Classes always begin exactly on time. It's 98% business, 2% fun.
Basics are emphasized. Students must learn to read music well. Theory must be mastered. A major recital involving all students is always set at barton the very end of the term, so we drive to the end. Students learn, through experience, that the biggest rush in the world is achievement. Saints Contest? We never discuss this, but I see it on their faces when they do something excellent. A. What were the factors that influenced you to essay on clara, become a teacher? Describe what you consider to be your greatest contributions and how to write australia, accomplishments in education. I was fortunate to be in a position to on clara barton, receive the best music education that America has to offer. I encountered many great teachers who made me what I am.
I will be forever grateful to them and would like to mba essays 2011, mention something about a few of them: Clark Eastham, a composer and instructor at Wayne University in Detroit, was my primary mentor as well as a father figure. He taught me piano, composition and theory from the age of on clara barton, 10-18. Because of good to essays, his training I was able to place out of first year Theory and Ear Training classes at essay Juilliard without taking an pay someone to write my paper, A.P. Essay On Clara? class. He demonstrated a love of music and good opening, a dedication to essay on clara barton, teaching that serve as my model. Kids Homework? He continued teaching and composing until the age of 88.
Joseph Dale Parker, my 7th grade band director, introduced me to essay, the French horn and ensemble playing. He directed an extraordinary high school band program, and opening, only taught at the junior high for one year. Essay Barton? His class gave me a love of playing horn in a group, something I did constantly for the next fifteen years. I Will Pay Someone To Write My Paper? (It upset me to read that New York City eliminated all junior high music classes. Seventh grade band was one of the most important experiences of my life. A picture of that group with Mr. Parker still hangs in my studio.) Yenofk Kavafian was my high school orchestra conductor. Essay Barton? He was an Armenian from Turkey, where he was a member of bpp independent, a string quartet. As an essay, American immigrant he became a music educator. He showed me that an excellent musician belongs in a public school. Madame Rene Longy had already taught solfege (ear training) in America for 53 years when I enrolled in her class.
She was a legendary teacher who was an important influence on Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland and three generations of America's musicians. She (more or less) forced me to take her advanced classes (Ear Training III and IV for research essay conductors and composers) that pushed my skills to the limit. She continued teaching until the day she died. Rainer DeIntinnis was a member of the New York Philharmonic for 43 years and essay on clara, my horn teacher at Juilliard. His purity of character had an important influence on me as a teenager living alone in saints essay contest, New York City. A member of my brass class at Charlotte Amalie High School went on to study at Mannes Conservatory, where Mr. Essay On Clara? DeIntinnis was his brass ensemble teacher. It was a special moment to see my teacher, then 80 years old, teaching one of my students from the Virgin Islands.
I recently wrote to Mr. Contest? DeIntinnis thanking him for showing me what a teacher should and on clara barton, could be. These wonderful teachers, among others, are the reason that I am a teacher. I can only strive to offer my students what they have given me. Some moments of accomplishment: -A performance of Scott Joplin's Treemonisha at UVI for Black History Month with chorus, soloists, and narrator surprised the college audience with its quality.
-In my second year there was an exciting evening with Vivaldi's Gloria and opening, Magnificat, performed complete and by memory; excited students were performing for a thrilled audience. -A brass quartet (myself and three students) entered the Career Center to play for on clara the Rotarians who purchased the computers there. The Rotarians looked uneasy, expecting something sour. The three young men, all destined to become conservatory-trained professionals, had been practicing every morning before school for a year. As we played a Gabrielli Canzona in tune, together, meter changes exact, I saw all the jaws in of chicago mba essays, the room drop in unison. My personal accomplishment as an educator was making the adjustment from being a performer in major metropolitan areas, playing with other professional musicians, to working in a small, insular environment. Offering high quality music instruction and barton, performance opportunities to students who otherwise wouldn't have this experience is my greatest contribution and accomplishment in education. Educational History and Professional Development Activities: Beginning with most recent, list colleges and universities attended including. Postgraduate studies. Indicate degrees earned and dates of attendance.
POSTGRADUATE STUDIES - 26 CREDITS. 2006 - National Endowment for the Humanities Institute: Bach in how to report, the. Modern World, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA. 2004 - N.E.H. Institute: Mozart's German Operas in Context, Vienna, Austria.
1983-2005 - courses at Westminster Choir College, Princeton, NJ: Vocal Pedagogy for Conductors and Accompanists, Robert Shaw Workshop (choral conducting), Teaching High School Choral Music, Music Technology I and essay on clara barton, II, Advanced Choral Conducting, Piano Teacher's Seminar, A.P. Music Theory Teaching Strategies. l965-l971 - Juilliard School, NY - B.M. and M.S. degrees; scholarship student. Beginning with most recent, list teaching employment history.
indicating time period, grade level and subject area. 1981-present - Charlotte Amalie High School, St. Thomas, VI - Choral music program: Concert Choir, Women's Choir, Vocal Ensemble, Chamber Choir, the bpp independent essay, groups presented many major choral works and works by local composers in concert; grades 9-12; Currently teaching piano classes and A.P. Music Theory; additionally presenting students in solo and ensemble recitals (5 last year); grades 9-12. 1980-1981 - College of the Virgin Islands - Instructor of piano and on clara, music theory. 1971-1974 - Faculty of good to essays, Music, University of Toronto: Instructor of horn and ensembles to college music majors. C. Barton? Beginning with most recent, list professional association memberships. -International Bach Society. -American Federation of sentences, Teachers. -Musician's Union - local 802 (N.Y.
N.Y.) -International Horn Society. (D. List staff development leadership activity) 3. -I am frequently called upon to assist in teacher training for music education students from the University of the Virgin Islands. -Other music educators (often former students) consult with me concerning teaching materials, repertoire, accompaniment needs, etc. (E. Beginning with most recent, list awards and other recognition of your teaching.) Although I am no stranger to plaques and laudatory speeches. the greatest recognition I have received is from students and essay on clara, parents: -Kenneth Mills, a Virgin Islander who studied at Northwestern University, The University of Miami, Manhattan School of Music, and Rutgers University said that he learned as much from me as he did from any of his teachers. -A student whose only piano studies were 3 years in opening sentences to essays, my school classes told me that it. was possible for him to on clara barton, major in music because of good opening to essays, my teaching.
-A 9th grade boy on his way out of piano class stopped to shake my hand and thank me for teaching him to play the piano. -Parents often greet me on the street, thanking me for helping their children. -Kmisha-Victoria Counts related that after missing 6 weeks at Berkeley College of Music to compete in the Miss World competition, her Ear Training instructor told her not to take the final exam because she had all the skills from my A.P. On Clara? Music Theory class. -A former high school choir member said that whenever she listened to the recording of our performance of the Vivaldi Gloria she got goose bumps. -The father of university of chicago mba essays, a horn student in Toronto, himself an on clara, educator, told me that although his daughter wasn't much of good sentences, a horn player she benefited greatly from knowing me as a teacher. He said he thought I was a great teacher and I should consider that in my future plans. Essay On Clara Barton? (I did!) -Following a recital by students I see the pride beaming in the parents' eyes.
These moments are my awards, my rewards, and my recognitions. •A. Saints Essay Contest? Describe your commitment to essay, your community through service-oriented activities such as volunteer work, civic responsibilities, and other group activities. Shortly after arriving in St. John I was asked to teach student brass players at the Multi-Purpose center. Of Chicago Mba Essays? I had a ball. Some of the on clara barton, students went on to play in local bands. The Moravian minister asked me to kids homework, conduct a combined church choir singing a Moravian oratorio.
It was my first time conducting a choir, and I haven't stopped since. A group of singers in St. John were tired of commuting to St. Thomas for barton choir rehearsals, so they asked me to form a group on St. John. This Christmas the St. John Singers will present their 25th annual Holiday Concert. Bpp Independent Essay? We have performed in essay on clara, neighboring islands, at saints essay churches in St. John and St.
Thomas, for senior citizen homes, and at special community functions. A New Horizons school was formed on essay on clara barton, St. I Will Pay Someone? Thomas for students with academic and personal problems. One year I got permission to spend the end of my school day there teaching a beginning piano class. As some of those students were mainstreamed to C.A.H.S. Essay On Clara Barton? they joined my classes there. A talented calypsonian-composer had written beautiful Christmas songs.
We sat several hours with each piece forming smooth four-part arrangements that agreed with his ear. These arrangements, first performed by my high school choir, have since been sung by of chicago many local choirs. A well-trained local musician, Bill LaMotta wrote some classical-style piano pieces that I thought were worth doing, so I learned several of them. When I went to his home and played for barton him he was very excited because he hadn't been able to get anyone to play them. He hoped to sponsor a recording, but he passed before we could do it. I did perform his music on a program in his memory. Years later a student played one of pay someone to write, his pieces at a competition in St. Essay On Clara? Croix where he is boondock from. People were glad to essay, hear music by a native son; she won! Education Issues and for a, Trends. •A. On Clara? (What do you consider to sentences, be the major public education issues today?
Address one in depth, outlining possible causes, effects, and resolutions.) I choose to discus only one issue. I'll begin on a personal note. When I think back on the sacrifices I have made as a teacher I have to laugh. I remember giving the barton, safari bus driver one hundred pennies to get to school because I had NO money. For A Homework? For a while I stopped wearing clothes that required dry cleaning, too expensive. One summer I worked and couldn't afford to on clara, visit my family, thus missing knowing my niece as a baby. I once sold my only piano to pay for insurance on bpp independent, the cheapest car on the market. I laugh at these experiences because I loved what I was doing and essay, was happy with my life. There are, unfortunately, few people who would chose to have such a lifestyle after earning two college degrees and working overtime on a daily basis. I once compared salaries with a teacher from the wealthiest suburb in Chicago.
Both of us had a graduate degree, an equal number of post-graduate credits, and university mba essays 2011, the same number of years of experience. His salary was double mine, and he was about to essay barton, get a 20% increase. His students have libraries and for a kids homework, computers at home and get expensive tutoring as needed. They go to summer camps and have private lessons of all kinds. Barton? Their parents are educated and they make sure that their children do well academically.
They are taught by of chicago mba essays 2011 teachers who compete with over a hundred applicants to get their positions, teachers who stay after school every day because they don't need a second job. The students who could succeed without good schools go to the best schools. The students who desperately need the maximum assistance that a school can offer go to barton, the poorest schools. America now has what amounts to boondock saints essay, school segregation, educational apartheid. The inner city schools are at least 95% Black and Hispanic. They are under funded and totally inadequate for the great task with which they are challenged. I am from Detroit, which offers a perfect example of this. The people with money and on clara, most businesses have moved to boondock saints essay contest, the surrounding suburbs. Essay On Clara Barton? The city has little tax base, so city services, including schools, don't have adequate budgets.
School dropouts become criminals, crime increases, more businesses move out, the city becomes poorer, and the schools deteriorate further. Then more students drop out. One wonders what will happen to this uneducated generation of of chicago, students. The older generation had access to factory jobs, but these are disappearing as auto manufacturing moves elsewhere. A top-notch education offered to on clara barton, students in cities might at least begin to beak this cycle for some of the students. Some of the millions of dollars directed to contest, problems in other countries and essay barton, the billions spent on wasteful military expenditures needs be used for education here at home. Excellent educational programs from pre-school through grade 12 would have at least some impact. Somehow, private or public funding must be channeled to inner-city schools to make them excellent. Perhaps the model of Metro-Toronto offers a possible solution.
From downtown on the lake to saints essay contest, the outlying suburbs is one city structure offering the essay on clara, same public services. There has never been more wealth and power concentrated in one nation than there is in the United States right now, and yet, tens of millions of children do not attend adequate schools. A situation like this does not exist on such a scale in any other western country. A comparison of our inner city schools, especially grades 7-12, to those in any modern country, and even with less wealthy nations, should be cause for national shame. I Will Pay Someone My Paper? But, this is not a problem that directly affects the people in power. The group most affected is African-Americans.
They are concentrated in inner cities and 50% are born into poverty. One-third of African-American males are in trouble. Our melting pot immigrant nation has left these people out, and the result is our biggest national social problem. There are attitudes, both black and on clara barton, white, perpetuating this situation and there is no simple solution. Equally excellent schools for all Americans would be a start. I work at of chicago 2011 a school that in some ways resembles a U.S. Essay On Clara Barton? inner-city school. Every day it is clear to me that these students deserve excellent teachers. Given a decent opportunity they can do excellent work. Boondock Saints Essay? They want to on clara barton, do well.
National Teacher of the boondock essay, Year. If given the opportunity to be a spokesperson for on clara the teaching profession, I would emphasize two themes. Using myself as an example, I would encourage highly trained professionals to enter the teaching profession at any level, however modest. Although there are many excellent teachers, as demonstrated by the applicants for this award, there is a shortage of high quality academics entering the profession. As a baby-boomer, I was part of the university of chicago mba essays, last generation to be educated by bright women who saw their professional options limited to teaching and nursing. On Clara? Although there are still many talented women whose love of children lead them to a career in elementary education (making our grade schools world class) there is to write a disturbing trend that some education majors to come from the essay on clara barton, bottom of academic class.
I had planned to spend my life performing music for a living, and did so for many years. Fate, destiny, chance, or what I now see wonderful good luck led me to teach in university, a public school. The satisfaction I have had from this career change is huge. Working professionals are a great source of expertise and knowledge. Many find that their work, though requiring great skill, is repetitious and does not offer positive contact with others.
If some of these professionals, especially those in essay barton, math and science, could be encouraged to share their expertise with the younger generation in a school setting the a scientific report, impact on the quality of American education would be considerable. The story of Mr. Escalante in the movie Stand and Deliver is an excellent example of this. The second, and most important theme, would be addressing the needs of those students who now are not completing high school, sometimes even junior high. I teach in a situation that somewhat mirrors the inner city school systems in the United States. Nearly half the essay barton, students entering junior high do not graduate high school. With most untrained work being outsourced to report, other counties these students have little chance of finding decent work.
The wealthiest society in history needs to provide an excellent education to all. The poorest students need the essay barton, best schools. The inner city and rural schools need excellent facilities, adequate counseling, bountiful extra-curricular activities, the latest technology, and most of all GREAT TEACHERS.
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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for essay over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to of chicago 2011 the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in the text.
Reaction to how the on clara ideas in the text relate to your own experience. Contest? Reaction to on clara barton how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and to write my paper, audience. Essay Barton? Your evaluation of saints essay how this text tries to convince the reader and whether it is effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs.
For this essay, because you want to essay on clara give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and title of the article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the mba essays reader’s attention by describing the on clara barton subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Good To Essays? Cite an interesting fact.
Pose an essay barton appropriate quotation. Tell an mba essays anecdote. On Clara Barton? Describe a scenario. Write a conversation. Tell a story. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example.
Explain general information about the saints contest topic. Using a Frame for on clara barton Your Introduction and Conclusion. One of my favorite techniques is to use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. The way this works is that you tell half of for a kids homework a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the rest of the story in the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Another approach is to retell the same story in essay on clara the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to do. Contest? In the on clara conclusion, you could tell the research end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to take the call or decides to essay on clara barton let voicemail take it. In an essay essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to essay barton place that person in a nursing home.
In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the good sentences oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to Become a Republican. Essay Barton? My analysis of boondock contest a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to on clara barton say about this topic. Briefly explain the sentences main points of the article that you want to talk about.
Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is on clara, as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is saints contest, that we need to personally decide not to on clara barton use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and boondock essay, family to essay give up cell phones while driving, too.
Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on opening, the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on essay, author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of my paper her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on on clara barton, an assertion made in the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. We need to have laws prohibiting the use of essay cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to essay an essay:
You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the opening sentences to essays article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the article and disagree with other parts and explain why. You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and barton, context) of this article and explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. Good Opening Sentences To Essays? You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for barton your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. Homework? You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs.
Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the essay on clara barton paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Explain why you think this way. Good? Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in the story. Essay? The best essays do refer back to the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article.
The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the university article in parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”. After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Essay On Clara? Use “author tags” to show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the same type of good opening to essays technique that you use in an introduction.
You can also: call attention to on clara larger issues call for a change in good opening to essays action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to on clara barton your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to i will to write my paper an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and essay on clara, extending one of the boondock saints essay contest ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of essay on clara a personal story of picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Stop the story right before the university of chicago mba essays crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving.
I found out I was wrong. It turns out I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is essay on clara barton, as dangerous as driving drunk.
Moreover, she points out the increasing number of kids homework accidents caused by cell phone use. Essay On Clara? Her conclusion is essay, that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to barton educate our friends and homework, family to give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to essay not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in good sentences cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and barton, support I would use to write that paragraph and essay, prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of essay on clara friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by for a kids homework being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. New technology requires changes in public policy.
3. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. On Clara? Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the call which is bpp independent essay, distracting, not holding the phone. 5. Barton? This law will save a lot of good to essays lives. I would return to on clara my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I Will Pay Someone? I do crash and on clara barton, there is a lot of damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to a scientific report also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for on clara Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the start of any analysis of university of chicago mba essays writing, so it is a good first paper type to write.
However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. On Clara? Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the university of chicago mba essays body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to essay on clara grade your essays? How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers.
by Virginia Kearney 8. by Virginia Kearney 4. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for contest College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5.
100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to essay barton Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper.
The information I found on your site gives me the essay contest confidence to move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH!
GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding.
I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. Barton? However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about.
A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to mba essays the what you've read. Here is essay, a Reading Response paper with examples about bpp independent research essay a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to on clara have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for university Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . On Clara Barton? Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to bpp independent have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content.
I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for essay barton taking such time and university mba essays, effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to find that many students both in my class and out have been able to write better and faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to on clara barton use. Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to how to report australia write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines.
In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to essay barton do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the write australia skills of writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from barton, United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Homework? Good luck on your assignment! Check out some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico.
Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. On Clara Barton? I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia.
I have written reading response hubs on how to a scientific report, Chinese books for kids and early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of hubs planned of on clara barton this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and so that is for a homework, always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in during my college years. On Clara? I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read. It was quite fun in those days because the university of chicago mba essays professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and barton, easy too. Opening Sentences? Do you write many reading response hub-essays?
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for essay on clara barton positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for contest the hub. Great info. Essay Barton? I voted you up.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. Although my hubs on boondock essay contest, writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in essay barton a class. Sometimes the how to australia books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. Essay Barton? I try to take the steps of writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Thanks again!
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