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A Short Essay Toward the essay observation Improvement of honors college essay Psalmody Part 1. Child Observation? You’re reading novel A Short Essay Toward the Improvement of Psalmody Part 1 online at Lightnovelgate.com. Please use the follow button to get notification about the latest chapter next time when you visit Lightnovelgate.com. Use F11 button to read novel in the fellowship essay questions full-screen(PC only). Drop by essay observation, anytime you want to read free – fast – latest novel. It’s great if you could leave a comment, share your opinion about the new chapters, new novel with others on the internet. We’ll do our best to bring you the finest, latest novel everyday.
Enjoy. A Short Essay Toward the Improvement of Psalmody. A Short Essay Toward the Improvement of Psalmody: Or, An Enquiry how the Psalms of _David_ ought to be translated into Christian Songs, and honors college, how lawful and necessary it is to compose other Hymns according to the clearer Revelations of the Gospel, for the Use of the Christian Church. To speak the Glories of God in child essay a religious Song, or to breath out the Joys of our own Spirits to God with the Melody of our Voice is an exalted Part of Divine Worship. But so many are the Imperfections in the Practice of this Duty, that the questions about the holocaust greatest Part of Christians find but little Edification or Comfort in it. There are some Churches that utterly disallow Singing; and child essay observation, I'm perswaded, that the poor Performance of it in the best Societies, with the mistaken Rules to which it is confined is one great Reason of their intire Neglect; for we are left at a loss (say they) what is the Matter and Manner of this Duty; and therefore they utterly refuse: Whereas if this glorious Piece of Worship were but seen in arthur research paper its Original Beauty, and one that _believes_ not this Ordinance, or is _unlearned_ in this Part of Christianity should _come into_ such _an Assembly, he would be convinced of all; he would be judged of all, he would fall down on his Face, and report that God was in the Midst of it of a Truth_; 1 Cor. 14. 24, 25. In order to trace out the Matter or Subject of child religious Singing, let us collect into research outline one View the chief Texts of the New Testament where this Worship is child observation, mention'd, and afterwards see what Arguments may be deduced from thence, to prove, that 'tis proper to use Spiritual Songs of humane Composure, as well as the Psalms of _David_ or the Words of other Songs recorded in Scripture. The most considerable Texts are these; _Mat._ 26. 30. _Mark_ 14.
26. relate, that our blessed Lord and his Disciples _sung an Hymn_. Acts 16. 25. _Paul and Silas prayed and sung Praises unto God._ 1 Cor. British History? 14. 15. _I will sing with the Spirit, and I will sing with the Understanding also._ Ver. 26. Child? _Every one of you hath a Psalm._ Eph._ 5. 19, 20. _Speaking to your selves in Psalms and Hymns, and Spiritual Songs; singing and making Melody in your Hearts to the Lord, giving Thanks always for all things to God and the Father, in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ_. Col 3. Punishment In Schools Argumentative? 16, 17. _Let the Word of child essay observation Christ dwell in you richly, in all Wisdom teaching and admonishing one another in Psalms and research paper, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs; singing with Grace in your Hearts to child essay, the Lord: And whatsoever ye do in Word or in Deed, do all in the Name of the Lord Jesus, giving Thanks to God and the Father by him._ Jam. 5. Corporal In Schools Argumentative Essay? 13. Essay? _Is any among you afflicted, let him pray: Is any merry, let him sing Psalms_. Rev. 5. 9. _And they sing a new Song, saying, Thou art worthy to corporal punishment, take the Book and to open the child essay observation Seals thereof, for argumentative thou wast slain and hast redeemed us to God by thy Blood_.
Rev. 14. 3. _And they sung as it were a new Song before the Throne_. Rev. 15. 3. _And they sing the Song of Moses, the Servant of essay God, and the Song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy Works_, c. To all these I might add Acts 4. 24, c. Where it is suppos'd the Disciples met together and corporal in schools argumentative, sung; for _they lift up their Voice to child essay observation, God with one accord, and said, Lord! thou art our God, which hast made Heaven and Earth, and the Sea, and all that in them is: Who by the Mouth of king thy Servant David hast said, Why did the Heathen rage, and the People imagine a vain thing. The Kings of the Earth stood up, and child essay, the Rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against his Christ.
For of the fellowship of the ring questions a Truth, against thy holy Child Jesus whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the People of Israel, were gathered together for to do whatsoever thy Hand and observation, thy Counsel determined before to be done, c. If we turn over the New Testament, and essay history image reading, search out observation, all the thesis Songs that are there written, we shall find the Matter or Subject of them as various as the child observation Occasions upon which they were sung or spoken: Such are the Song of the Virgin _Mary_, Luke 1. 46, C. Corporal In Schools Argumentative Essay? They Song of _Zecharias_, ver. 67. The Song of the Angels, _Luke_ 2. 13. And of _Simeon_, ver.
29. Besides many others in the Book of the child essay _Revelations. The three chief Words used to express the Matter of Singing, are _Psalmoi, _Humnoi kai Odai_: _Psalms, Hymns and Songs_, as the three Verbs from which these are derived are generally used to express the Act of Singing, _psallo, humneo, i ado_. Now if it were lawful after so many learned Contentions about these Words, I would give my Sense of oregon state them thus: 1. Essay Observation? I think no Man hath better explain'd the in schools argumentative original Meaning of these Words than _Zanchy_. A Psalm, _Psalmos_, is such a Song as usually is sung with other Instruments besides the Tongue. Hymns, _Humnoi_, such as are made only to essay, express the Praises, and essay history history, set out the Excellencies of God.
Songs, _Odai_, such as contain not only Praises, but Exhortations, Prophesies, Thanksgivings; and observation, these only sung with the Voice. 2. The Scripture doth not always confine it self to the original Meaning of king outline all these Words; for _Psalmos_ a Psalm, and the Word _psallo_, are used, 1 Cor. 14. and in other Places of the New Testament, where we can never suppose the essay primitive Church in those Days had Instruments of Music. King Arthur Research Outline? And the Word _Ode_ a Song, is used several times in the Book of essay observation _Revelations_, where Harps are join'd with Voices in the Emblematical Prophesy. 3. The Sense therefore of these Words in the New Testament seems to be thus distinguish'd. A Psalm is a general Name for any thing that is sung in Divine Worship, whatsoever be the particular Theme or Matter; and british essay man masculinities, the Verb _psallo_ is design'd to express the child Melody it self rather than to distinguish the Matter of the the fellowship essay Song, or Manner whereby the Melody or Music is child, performed; and therefore in Eph. 5. 19. King Arthur Research Paper Outline? our Translators have well rendred _adontes kai psallontes_, _Singing and observation, making Melody_; and it should be thus rendred, Jam. 5. American British Essay History? 13. _Is any merry, let him make Melody_. I confess in the New Testament the observation Noun _Psalmos_ refers generally to the Book of Psalms, and without Doubt there are many of the Palms of _David_ and _Asaph_, and other Songs among the oregon Books of the Old Testament which may be prudently chosen and sung by child observation, Christians, and may be well accomodated to the Lips and Hearts of the thesis questions Church under the observation Gospel.
Yet this Word is once used in another Sense, as I shall show afterwards. An Hymn, whether imply'd in the Verb _humneo_, or exprest in the Noun _Humnos_, doth always retain its original Signification, and intend a Song whose Matter or Design is Praise: Nor is there any thing in the Nature or Use of the Word either in history illustrated image reading Scripture or other Authors, that determines it to signify an immediate Inspiration, or humane Composure. A Song, _Ode_, denotes any Theme or Subject compos'd into a Form fit for Singing, and child, seems to intend somewhat suited to the Gospel-State, rather than any Jewish Psalms or Songs in all the five Verses in the New Testament where it is used. Eph. 5. 19. Col.
3. History Image Photography? 16. 'Tis join'd with the word _Spiritual_; and that seems to be used by the Apostle in all his Epistles, as a very distinguishing Word between the essay observation Law and Gospel, the Jewish and the Christian Worship. The Jews had _carnal Ordinances_, and _carnal Commandments_, and their State and Dispensation is often called _Flesh_, but the Church under the Gospel is a _spiritual House, blessed with spiritual Blessings_, endow'd _with spiritual Gifts_, to _worship God in essay history image reading Spirit and in Truth_, to _offer spiritual Sacrifices_, and to _sing spiritual Songs_. Col. 3. 16. Confirms this Sense, for _the Word of Christ_ must _dwell richly in us in Psalms and Hymns, and spiritual Songs_. Now tho the Books of the Old Testament may in some Sense be called the _Word of Christ_, because the child observation same Spirit which was afterwards given to _Christ_ the honors college essay Mediator did inspire them; yet this seems to have a peculiar reference to the Doctrine and Discoveries of _Christ_ under the Gospel, which might be compos'd into essay spiritual Songs for the greater Ease of Memory in essay history man masculinities learning, teaching and child essay observation, admonishing one another. Rev. 5. 9. 14. 3. There is mention of a _New Song_, and that is corporal in schools argumentative, pure Evangelical Language, suited to the _New Testament_, the essay _New Covenant_, the _new and living Way_-.of Access to God, and to the _new Commandment_ of him who sits _upon the Throne_, and _behold_, he _makes all things new_. The words of this Song are, _Worthy is the Lamb, for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy Blood, c. and none could learn it but those who follow the Lamb, who were redeemed from among Men, c._ And it must be noted here, that this Book of the thesis questions about the holocaust _Revelations_ describes the Worship of the Gospel-Church on Earth, as is agreed by essay, all Interpreters, tho it borrows some of its Emblems from the Things of arthur research Heaven, and child essay, some from the Jewish State.
I might here remark also, that when a _new Song_ is mention'd in the Old Testament, it refers to the Times of the _Messiah_, and is prophetical of the Kingdom of _Christ_, or at least it is a Song indited upon a new Occasion publick or personal, and the Words of it are accomodated to some new Tokens of Divine Mercy. Rev. 15. 3. Essay Photography? _They sing the Song of Moses, the child essay observation Servant of God, and the Song of the corporal argumentative essay Lamb_; that is, a Song for temporal and for spiritual Deliverances; or, a Song for all antient or all later Salvations of the Church. As Moses was a Redeemer from the House of essay Bondage, and a Teacher of Divine Worship with Harps and research outline, Ceremonies; so the Lamb is a Redeemer from _Babylon_ and spiritual Slavery, and essay observation, he is the great Prophet to teach his Church the spiritual Worship of the Gospel. The Church now, under the Salvations and Instructions of the Lamb, sings with the Voice to the Glory of the Vengeance and the Grace of God, as _Israel_ under the Conduct of _Moses_ sung with Harps; for we must observe, that these Visions of the Apostle _John_ often represent Divine Things in a Gospel-Church, in Imitation of the Ranks and Orders of the _Jewish_ Camp and Tribes, and by the Rites and Figures used in the time of _Moses_; and it would be as unreasonable to prove from this Text, that we must sing the very words of the _15th of Exodus_ in a Christian Church, as to prove from this Book of the _Revelations_ that we must use Harps and Altars, Censers, Fire and Incense. But 'tis plain that the _15th of Exodus_ cannot be here intended, because the oregon state Words of the Song are mention'd just after, (viz.) _Great, and marvellous are thy Works, Lord God Almighty, just and true are thy Ways, thou King of Saints_. Yet after all, if it could be proved, that the very Song which _Moses_ sung is here design'd, still it must be confest that the Song of the Lamb is also to be sung; and if the following Words in this Text are not to be esteem'd the Song of _Moses_, then neither are they to be esteem'd the Song of the Lamb; because there is not any express mention of the Lamb, or his Death, or Resurrection, or Redemption; nor is there any other Song in Scripture that bears that title and consequently it must signifie a Song compos'd to the praise of God for our deliverance by the Lamb, in imitation of the Joy composed for deliverance by the Hand of _Moses_: And thus at least we are to suit part of child our Psalmody to the Gospel-State as well as borrow part from the Old Testament, which is the chief point I designed to prove.
The next Enquiry then proceeds thus: How must the the fellowship ring questions Psalms of _David_ and other Songs borrowed from Scripture, be translated in order to be sung in Christian Worship? Surely, it will be granted, that to prepare them for Psalmody under the Gospel, requires another sort of Management in the Translation, than to prepare them merely for Reading as the _Word of God_ in our Language, and that upon these two accounts: _First_, If it be the duty of the Churches to child observation, sing Psalms, they must necessarily be turned into honors college essay such a sort of Verse and Metre as will best fit them for child the whole Church to join in the Worship: Now this will be very different from a Translation of the original Language word for word; for thesis questions the Lines must be confined to a certain number of essay observation Syllables, and honors college essay, the Stanza or Verse to a certain number of Lines, that so the Tune being short the people may be acquainted with it, and be ready to sing without much difficulty; whereas if the Words were merely translated out of the _Hebrew_ as they are for reading, every Psalm must be set through to music, and child observation, every Syllable in it must have a particular musical Note belonging to american british essay history, itself, as in Anthems that are sung in Cathedrals: But this would be so exceeding difficult to practise, that it would utterly exclude the greatest part of every Congregation from a Capacity of obeying God's Command to sing. Essay? Now, in reducing a _Hebrew_ or a _Greek_ Song to a Form tolerably fit to be sung by american man masculinities, an _English_ Congregation, here and there a Word of the Original must be omitted, now and child essay, then a Word or two superadded, and frequently a Sentence or an Expression a little alter'd and chang'd into another that is something a-kin to questions about the holocaust, it: And yet greater Alterations must the Psalm suffer if we will have any thing to do with Rhime; those that have labour'd with utmost Toil to keep very close to the Hebrew have found it impossible; and when they have attain'd it most, have made but very poor Music for a Christian Church. For it will often happen, that one of the most affectionate and most Spiritual Words in the Prose will not submit to its due Place in the Metre, or does not end with a proper Sound, and observation, then it must be secluded, and another of less proper Sense be put in the Room of it: Hereby some of the chief Beauties and Excellencies of paper _David_'s Poetry will be omitted and child, lost, which if not reviv'd again, or recompenc'd by some lively or pathetic Expression in the _English_, will necessarily debase the Divine Song into Dullness and Contempt: And hereby also it becomes so far different from the inspired Words in the Original Languages, that it is very hard for any Man to say, that the Version of _Hopkins_ and _Sternhold_, the _New-England_ or the _Scots_ Psalms, are in a strict Sense the Word of God. Questions The Holocaust? Those Persons therefore that will allow nothing to be sung but the words of inspiration or Scripture ought to learn the Hebrew Music, and sing in the Jewish Language; or at least I can find no Congregation with which they can heartily join according to their own Principles, but the essay Congregation of _Choristers_ in Cathedral Churches, who are the essay history illustrated image in photography photography reading only _Levites_ that _sing Praise unto the Lord with the Words of_ David _and_ Asaph _the Seer_, 2 Chron. 29. 30. Essay Observation? _Secondly_, Another Reason why the Psalms ought not to be translated for Singing just in the same manner as they are for Reading, is this, that the Design of these two Duties is very different: By Reading we learn what God speaks to us in his Word; but when we sing, especially unto God, our chief Design is, or should be, to speak our own Hearts and essay history image photography, our Words to God.
By Reading we are instructed what have been the observation Dealings of God with Men in all Ages, and honors essay, how their Hearts have been exercis'd in their Wandrings from God, and Temptations, or in their Returns and child, Breathings towards God again; but Songs are generally Expressions of our own Experiences, or of outline his Glories; we acquaint him what Sense we have of his Greatness and Goodness, and that chiefly in those Instances which have some Relation to us: We breath out our Souls towards him, and make Addresses of Praise and Acknowledgment to him. Tho I will not assert it unlawful to sing to God the Words of other Men which we have no Concern in, and child essay observation, which, are very contrary to our Circumstances and the Frame of our Spirits; yet it must be confest abundantly more proper, when we address God in corporal punishment argumentative essay a Song, to use such Words as we can for the most part assume as our own: I own that 'tis not always necessary our Songs should be direct Addresses to essay observation, God; some of them may be mere Meditations of the History of Divine Providences, or the Experiences of oregon state former Saints; but even then, if those Providences or Experiences cannot be assum'd by child observation, us as parallel to our own, nor spoken in our own Names; yet still there ought to be some Turns of Expression that may make it look at least like our own present Meditation, and that may represent it as a History which we our selves are at that time recollecting. I know not one Instance in Scripture, of any later Saint singing any part of a Composure of former Ages, that is not proper for his own Time, without force Expressions that tend to accommodate or apply it. But there are a multitude of Examples amongst all the Scriptural Songs, that introduce the Affairs of preceding Ages in the Method I have described. Psal.
44. 1, c. When _David_ is recounting the Wonders of God in of the ring essay questions planting the Children of _Israel_ in the Land of _Canaan_, he begins his Song thus, _We have heard with our Ears O God, our Fathers have told us what Works thou didst in their Days, in times of old, how thou didst drive Out the Heathen with thy Hand, and plantedst them, how thou didst afflict The People, and essay observation, cast them out._ Psal. 78. 2, c. _I will open my Mouth in a Parable, I will utter dark Sayings of oregon college old which we have heard and known, and our Fathers have told us, we will not hide them from their Children, shewing to the Generation to come the Praises of the_ Lord. So he relates the Converse and Covenant of God with _Abraham_, _Isaac_ and _Israel_, as a Narration of former Providences and Experiences, Psal. By these Considerations we are easily led into the true Method of translating ancient Songs into Christian Worship.
Psalms that are purely Doctrinal, or meerly Historical, are Subjects for our Meditation, and may be translated for essay our present Use with no Variation, if it were possible; and in general, all those Songs of Scripture which the thesis questions about Saints of following Ages may assume for their own: Such are the 1st, the 8th, the essay observation 19th, and oregon, many others. Some Psalms may be apply'd to our Use by the Alteration of a Pronoun, putting _They_ in the place of We, and changing some Expressions which are not suited to our Case into essay observation a Narration or Rehearsal of God's Dealings with others: There are other Divine Songs which cannot properly be accommodated to our Use, and much less be assum'd as our own without very great Alterations, (_viz_.) such as are filled with some very particular Troubles or Enemies of oregon state college essay a Person, some Places of Journeying or Residence, some uncommon Circumstances of child observation a Society, to which there is oregon state, scarce any thing parallel in our Day or Case: Such are many of the Songs of _David_, whose Persecutions and Deliverances were very extraordinary: Again, such as express the Worship paid unto God by carnal Ordinances and child, Utensils of the Tabernacle and Temple. College? Now if these be converted into Christian Songs in our Nation, I think the Names of _Ammon_ and _Moab_ may be as properly chang'd into the Names of the child essay observation chief Enemies of the Gospel, so far as may be without publick Offence: _Judah_ and _Israel_ may be called _England_ and ring essay questions, _Scotland_, and the Land of observation _Canaan_ may be translated into _Great Britain_; The cloudy and thesis the holocaust, typical Expressions of the legal Dispensation should be turned into Evangelical Language, according to child, the Explications of the New Testament: And when a Christian Psalmist, among the Characters of questions about a Saint, Psal. 15. 5. meets with the Man that _puts not out his Money to Usury_, he ought to exchange _one that is no Oppressor_ for an Oppressor or Extortioner, since Usury is child observation, not utterly forbidden to Christians, as it was by the Jewish Law; and wheresoever he finds the Person or Offices of essay our Lord _Jesus Christ_ in Prophecy, they ought rather to child observation, be translated in a way of History, and those Evangelical Truths should be stript of thesis their Vail of essay observation Darkness, and drest in punishment in schools argumentative such Expressions that Christ may appear in 'em to all that sing. Child Essay? When he comes to Psal. 40.
6. and reads there Words, _Mine Ears hast thou opened_, he should learn from the british Apostle to child observation, say, _A Body hast thou prepared for of the essay questions me_, Heb. 10. Child Observation? 5. Instead of _binding the Sacrifice with Cords to the Horns of the Altar_, Psal. 118. 27. we should _offer up Spiritual Sacrifices_ (that is the Prayer and Praise of the Heart and Tongue) _acceptable to God by Jesus Christ_, 1 Pet.
2. 5. Oregon Essay? Where there are any dark Expressions, and difficult to be understood in the Hebrew Songs, these should be left out in our Psalmody, or at child least made very plain by a Paraphrase. Where there are Sentences, or whole Psalms, that can very difficultly be accommodated to of the questions, our Times, they may be utterly omitted. Such is Psal. 150. part of the 38, 45, 60, 68, 81, 108. and some others, as well as a great part of the Song of _Solomon_. Perhaps 'twill be objected here, that the Book of Psalms would hereby be rendred very imperfect, and some weak Persons might imagine this Attempt to fall under the Censure of Rev. Child Essay? 22. 18, 19. that is, of _taking away from, or adding to the Words of the Book of God_. But 'tis not difficult to reply that though the whole Book: of Psalms was given to be read by us as God's Word for our Use and Instruction, yet it will never follow from thence that the whole was written as a Psalter for the Christian Church to use in Singing. For if this were the Design of it, then every Psalm, and every Line of it might be at one time or another proper to be sung by Christians: But there are many hundred Verses in that Book which a Christian cannot properly assume in singing without a considerable Alteration of the Words, or at least without putting a very different Meaning upon them, from what _David_ had when he wrote them; and therefore there is no necessity of the fellowship ring essay questions translating always intire Psalms, nor of preparing the whole Book for _English_ Psalmody.
I might here add also Dr. _Patrick_'s Apology in his Century of Psalms first publish'd, that he took but the same Liberty which is allow'd to every Parish-Clerk, to chuse what Psalm and what Verses of child it he would propose to the People to sing. Give me leave here to mention several Passages which were hardly made for Christian Lips to assume without some Alteration: Psal. 68. 13, 14, 15, 16. _Tho ye have lain among the king arthur research paper outline Pots, yet shall ye be as the Wings of a Dove cover'd with Silver, and her Feathers with yellow Gold: When the Almighty scatter'd Kings in it, it was white as Snow in_ Salmon. _The Hill of observation God is as the thesis questions the holocaust Hill of Bashan, c. Why leap ye, ye Hills, c; ver. Child Observation? 25. The Singers went before, the Players on Instruments followed after, amongst them were the Damsels playing with Timbrels: Bless ye God in the Congregation, even the Lord from the Fountain of_ Israel: _There is little_ Benjamin _with their Ruler, the Princes of_ Judah _and their Council, the Princes of_ Zebulun, _and the Princes of_ Naphtali. _Because of thy Temple at_ Jerusalem _Kings shall bring Presents unto thee. The Holocaust? Rebuke the Company of Spearmen, the Multitude of Bulls, with the Calves of the observation People, till every one submit himself with Pieces of Silver._ Psal.
71. 2, 3, c. History Illustrated Reading? _Take a Psalm, and bring hither the Timbrel, the pleasant Harp with the Psaltery, blow up the Trumpet in the New Moon, in the Time appointed on our solemn Feast-Day, c._ Psal. 84. 3, 6. _The Sparrow hath found an House, and the Swallow a Nest for her self, where she may lay her Young, even thine Altars, O Lord of Hosts, c. Blessed is the Man whose Strength is in thee, in whose Heart are the Ways of them, who passing thro the Valley of_ Bacha _make it a Well, the Rain also filleth the Pools._ Psal: 108. 2, 7, 8, 9. _Awake Psaltery and Harp, I my self will awake early. God hath spoken in his Holiness; I will rejoyce, I will divide_ Shechem_, and mete out the Vally of_ Succoth; Gilead _is mine,_ Manasseh _is mine,_ Ephraim _also is the Strength of mine Head,_ Judah _is my Lawgiver,_ Moab _is my Washpot, over_ Edom _will I cast out my Shoe, over_ Philistia _will I triumph; Who will bring me into the strong City, who will lead me into_ Edom _Psal. 69, 8 109._ are so full of Cursings that they hardly become the Tongue of a Follower of the essay observation blessed _Jesus_, who dying pray'd for his own Enemies; _Father forgive them, for they know not what they do._ Psal. 134. is suited to the Temple or Tabernacle-Worship; the college essay Title is, _A Song of Degrees_, that is, as Interpreters believe, to be sung as the Kings of _Israel_ went up by Steps or Degrees to the House of observation God; In the _two first Verses_ the King calls upon the Levites, _which by Night stand in the House of the Lord, to lift up their Hands in the Sanctuary, and to bless the essay illustrated image photography Lord_; the _3d Verse_ is an Antiphona or Reply of the Levites to the King; _the Lord that made Heaven and Earth bless thee out of_ Zion. 'Twould be endless to give an Account of all the Paragraphs of ancient Songs, which can scarce ever be accommodated to Gospel-Worship. The Patrons of another Opinion will say we must sing the Words of _David_, and apply them in our Meditation to the things of the child observation New Testament: But can we believe this to essay history history man masculinities, be the best Method of worshiping God, to sing one thing and mean another? besides that the child very literal Sense of many of many of these Expressions is exceeding deep and difficult, and not one in twenty of a religious Assembly can possibly understand them at this Distance from the of the ring questions Jewish Days; therefore to keep close to the Language of _David_, we must break the Commands of essay God by questions, _David_, who requires that we _sing his Praises with Understanding_, Psal.
47.7. And I am perswaded, that St. _Paul_ if he lived in our Age and Nation, would no more advise us to sing unintelligible Sentences in _London_, than himself would sing in an unknown Tongue at _Corinth_, 1 Cor. 14. 15, 19. After all, if the literal Sense were known, yet the Application of many Verses of _David_ to our State and Circumstances was never design'd, and is utterly impossible; and even where it is essay observation, possible, yet 'tis so exceeding difficult that very few Persons in an Assembly are capable of it; and when they attempt it, if their Thoughts should be enquir'd one by one, you would find very various, wretched, and contradictory Meanings put upon the Words of the Hebrew Psalmist, and all for want of an Evangelical Translation of him. 'Tis very obvious and common to american british history history man masculinities, observe that Persons of Seriousness and essay observation, Judgment that consider what they sing, are often forced to break off in the midst, to omit whole Lines and Verses, even where the best of king research paper our present Translations at used; and thus the Tune, and the Sense, and essay, their Devotion is interrupted at once, because they dare not sing without understanding, and almost against their Consciences. Whereas the more unthinking Multitude go on singing in chearful Ignorance wheresoever the king paper outline _Clerk_ guides them, a-cross the River _Jordan_, thro' the Land of observation _Gebal, Ammon_ and _Amalek; He leads 'em into the strong City, he brings them into_ Edom; Anon they follow him _thro' the Valley of_ Bacha, till they come up to _Jerusalem_; they wait upon the fellowship ring questions him into the Court of Burnt-Offerings, and _bind their Sacrifice with Cords to the Horns of the Altar_; they enter so far into the Temple, till they join their Song in Consort with the _high sounding Cymbals_, their Thoughts are be-darkened with the Smoke of Incense, and cover'd with _Jewish_ Veils. Such Expressions as these are the beauties and Perfections of a _Hebrew_ Song, they paint every thing to the Life: Such Language was suited by Infinite Wisdom to raise the Affections of the Saints of that Day: But I fear they do but sink our Devotion, and observation, hurt our Worship. Essay History Illustrated Image? I esteem the Book of _Psalms_ the most valuable Part of the Old Testament upon many Accounts: I advise the Reading and child essay observation, Meditation of it more frequently than any single Book of Scripture; and what I advise I practise. Nothing is more proper to furnish our Souls with devout Thoughts, and lead us into a World of Spiritual Experiences: The Expressions of it that are not _Jewish_ or peculiar, give us constant Assistance in thesis questions about the holocaust Prayer and in Praise: But yet if we would prepare _David_'s Psalms to be sung by Christian Lips, we should, observe these two plain Rules. _First_, They ought to be translated its such a Manner as we have reason to believe _David_ would have compos'd 'em if he had lived in our Day: And therefore his Poems are given as a Pattern to be imitated in our Composures, rather than as the precise and invariable Matter of our Psalmody. 'Tis one of the Excellencies of Scripture-Songs, that they are exactly suited to the very Purpose and Design for which they were written, and that both in essay observation the Matter, in the Stile, and in all their Ornaments: This gives Life and Strength to state honors, the Expression, it presents Objects to the Ears and to the Eyes, and touches the Heart in the most affecting Manner. _David_'s Language is essay, adapted to his own Devotion, and to the Worship of the _Jewish_ Church; he mentions the very Places of his Journies, or Retirements, of his Sorrows, or his Successes; He names the Nations that were Enemies of the Church, or that shall be its Friends and tho for the most part he leaves the single Persons of his Time nameless in the Body of his Psalm, yet he describes them there with great Particularity, and often names them in the Title. This gives us abundant Ground to infer, that should the _Sweet-Singer of Israel_ return from the Dead into british essay history man masculinities our Age, he would not sing the Words of his own Psalms without considerable Alteration; and were he now to transcribe them, he would make them speak the present Circumstances of the Church, and that in the Language of the New Testament: He would see frequent Occasion to insert the Cross of Christ in child essay his Song, and often interline the corporal Confessions of his Sins with the Blood of the Lamb; often would he describe the Glories and child, the Triumphs of honors our blessed Lord in long and flowing Verse, even as St. _Paul_, when he mentions the Name and Honours of Christ can hardly part his Lips from 'em again: His Expressions would run ever bright and clear; such as here and there we find in a single Verse of child essay observation his old Composures, when he is arthur outline, transported beyond himself, and carried far away from _Jewish_ Shadows by the Spirit of Prophecy and the Gospel.
We have the more abundant Reason to child essay, believe this, if we observe, that all along the sacred History as the of the ring essay Revelations of God and his Grace were made plainer, so the Songs of the Saints express'd that Grace and essay observation, those Revelations according to the Measure of their Clearness and Increase. Let us begin at the Song of _Moses_, Exod. 15. and proceed to _David_ and _Solomon_, to the Song of the _Virgin Mary_, of _Zecharias_, _Simeon_, and illustrated, the _Angels_, the _Hosanna_ of the young Children, the Praises paid to God by the Disciples in the _Acts_, the child Doxologies of _Paul_, and the Songs of the Christian Church in the Book of the _Revelations_: Every Beam of new Light that broke into the World gave occasion of essay history history man masculinities fresh joy to the Saints, and they were taught to sing of Salvation in all the Degrees of its advancing Glory. _Secondly_, In the child Translation of _Jewish_ Songs for essay illustrated reading Gospel-Worship, if Scripture affords us any Example, we should be ready to child observation, follow it, and the Management thereof should be a Pattern for us. Essay? Now tho the Disciples and child observation, primitive Christians had so many and so vast Occasions for Praise, yet I know but two Pieces of Songs they borrow'd from the american british man masculinities Book of Psalms. One is mention'd in _Luke_ 19.38. Where the Disciples assume a Part of a Verse from the 118th Psalm, but sing it with Alterations and Additions to the Words of _David_. After we have found the true Method of translating _Jewish_ Songs for child essay observation the Use of the _Christian_ Church, let us enquire also how lawful and essay history illustrated image in photography photography reading, necessary 'tis to compose Spiritual Songs of a more evangelic Frame for essay the Use of king research outline Divine Worship under the Gospel.
The _First_ Argument I shall borrow from all the essay observation foregoing Discourse concerning the about the holocaust Translation of the Psalms of _David_: For by that time they are fitted for Christian Psalmody, and have all the Particularities of Circumstance that related to _David_'s Person, and Times alter'd and suited to our present Case; and the Language of _Judaism_ is essay, chang'd into the Stile of the Gospel; the Form and Composure of the Psalm can hardly be called inspired or Divine: only the image Materials or the observation Sense contain'd therein may in a large Sense be called the Word of God, as it is borrowed from that Word. Why then may it not be esteemed as lawful to take some Divine Sense and Materials agreeable to the Word of God, and suited to the present Case and Experience of Christians, and compose them into a Spiritual Song? Especially when we cannot find one ready pen'd in king arthur paper the Bible, whose Subject is near a-kin to our present Condition, or whose Form is adapted to our present Purpose. Child? The _Second_ Argument shall be drawn from the several Ends and Designs of Singing, which can never be sufficiently attain'd by king outline, confining ourselves to _David_'s Psalms, or the Words of any Songs in Scripture. The first and observation, chief intent of this part of Worship, is to punishment in schools, express unto God what Sense and Apprehensions we have of his Essential Glories; and essay observation, what notice we take of his Works of Wisdom and Power, Vengeance and Mercy; 'tis to vent the inward Devotion of our Spirits in Words of Melody, to speak our own Experience of divine Things, especially our religious Joy; 'twould be tiresom to recount the endless Instances out of the Book of Psalms and other divine Songs, where this is made the chief Business of them. In the Texts of the New Testament where Singing is requir'd, the same Designs are propos'd; when the _Ephesians are filled with the Spirit_, the Enlightner and Comforter, they are charged to indulge those Divine Sensations, and let them break out into a _Spiritual Song_, Eph. 5.19. When _any is merry_ or chearful, the Apostle _James_ bids him express it by _Singing_. _Giving Thanks unto God_, is the Command of St. _Paul_ to the Saints while he injoins Psalmody on them; And speaking the american Wonders of his Power, Justice and Grace, is the Practice of the Church constantly in the Visions of St. _John_. To _teach and admonish one another_, is mention'd by St. _Paul_ as another Design of Singing; the Improvement of our Meditations, and the kindling Divine Affections Within our selves, is one of the Purposes also of religious Melody, if Eph. 5. 19. be rightly translated. Now, how is it possible all these Ends should be attain'd by a Christian, if he confines his Meditations, his Joys, and child essay, his Praises, to the _Hebrew_ Book of Psalms?
Have we nothing more of the Nature of God revealed to us than _David_ had? Is not the Mystery of the ever-blessed Trinity brought out of Darkness into open Light? Where can you find a Psalm that speaks the in schools argumentative essay Miracles of Wisdom and Power as they are discover'd in a crucify'd _Christ_? And how do we rob God the Son of the Glory of his dying Love, if we speak of it only in the gloomy Language of _Smoke and Sacrifices, Bullocks and Goats, and the Fat of Lambs_? Is not the Ascent of _Christ_ into Heaven, and his Triumph over Principalities and Powers of essay observation Darkness a nobler Entertainment for our tuneful Meditations than the removing of the honors college Ark up to the City of David, to the Hill of God, which is high as the Hill of Bashan?
Is not our Heart often warm'd with holy Delight in the Contemplation of the Son of God our dear Redeemer whose Love was stronger than Death? Are not our Souls possess'd with a Variety of Divine Affections, when we behold him who is our chief Beloved hanging on the cursed Tree, with the Load of all our Sins upon him, and giving up his Soul to the Sword of Divine Justice in the stead of Rebels and Enemies? And must these Affections be confin'd only to our own Bosoms, or never break forth but in _Jewish_ Language, and Words which were not made to child, express the Devotion of the Gospel? The Heaven and the Hell that we are acquainted with by the Discovery of God our Saviour, give us amore distinct Knowledge of the future and punishment argumentative essay, eternal State, than all the former Revelations of God to Men: Life and Immortality is brought to light by the Gospel; we are taught to look far into the invisible World, and take a Prospect of the last awful Scene of Things: We see the essay observation Graves opening, and the Dead arising at the Voice of the Archangel, and the Sounding of the Trump of God; We behold the judge on his Tribunal, and we hear the dreadful and the delightful Sentences of Decision that shall pass on all the Sons and Daughters of _Adam_; we are assur'd, that the Saints shall _arise to american essay history, meet the Lord in the Air, and so shall we be for ever with the Lord_: The Apostle bids us, _Exhort or comfort one another with these Words_, 1 Thess. 4. 17, 18. Now when the same Apostle requires that the observation _Word of Christ must dwell richly in us in all Wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another in Psalms and of the ring questions, spiritual Songs_; can we think he restrains us only to the Psalms of _David_, which speak very little of all these Glories or Terrors, and that in very obscure Terms and dark Hints of Prophecy? Or shall it be suppos'd, that we must admonish one another of the old _Jewish_ Affairs and Ceremonies in Verse, and make Melody with those _weak and beggarly Elements, and the Yoke of Bondage_, and yet never dare to speak of the Wonders of new Discovery except in the plain and simple Language of Prose? Perhaps 'twill be replied here, that there are some Scriptural Hymns in the Book of _Revelations_ that describe the Affairs of the New Testament, the Death and Kingdom of our _Lord Jesus_, and these are lawful to be sung in a Christian Church; I am glad that our Friends of a different Opinion will submit to sing any thing that belongs to essay, the Gospel; I rejoice that the Bible hath any such Pieces of Christian Psalmody in it; lest everything that is Evangelical should utterly be excluded from this Worship, by those who will sing nothing but what is inspired; but how seldom are these Gospel-Songs used among our Churches? how little respect is paid to 'em in comparison of the Jewish Psalms? how little mention would ever be made of them, if it were not to defend the corporal punishment essay Patrons of Jewish Psalmody from the gross Absurdity of an entire Return to Judaism in this Part of Worship? But give me leave also to essay observation, add, that these Christian Hymns are but very short, and very few; nor do they contain a hundredth Part of those glorious Revelations that are made to us by _Christ Jesus_ and his Apostles; nor can we suppose God excludes all other Parts of the Gospel from Verse and Singing. Most express words of corporal punishment in schools Scripture furnish me with a _Third_ Argument, _Eph_. 5. 19, 20. Child Essay? _Col_.
3. 16, 17. Which are the two chief Commands of the New Testament for Singing; both bid us _make Melody, and give Thanks to God the Father, in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ_. This is one of the Glories of Gospel-Worship, that all must be offer'd to the Father in his Name. So very particular is our _Lord Jesus_ in this Command, that his last Sermon to his Disciples mentions it four times, _John_ 14. 13, 14. 16. 23, 24.
Nov why should we make Conscience of praying in the Name of _Christ_ always, and offer up our Praises in his Name when we speak in Prose? And yet when we give Thanks in Verse, we almost bind our selves to take no more notice of the Name of _Christ_ than _David_ or _Moses_ did. Why should every part of Divine Worship under the Gospel be express'd in Language suited to that Gospel (_viz_.) Praying, Preaching, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; and yet when we perform that part of Worship which brings us nearest to the heavenly State, we must run back again to the Law to borrow Materials for this Service? And when we are employ'd in the Work of Angels, we talk the Language of the Infant-Church, and speak in Types and Shadows? While we bind our selves to corporal, the Words of _David_ when he inclines his Ear to a Parable, and opens his dark saying upon the Harp, Psal. Child Observation? 49.
4. we have given too great Countenance to the fellowship ring essay, those who still continue the use of the Harp while they open the dark saying. The _Fourth_ Argument may be thus drawn up. There is almost an child infinite Number of different Occasions for Praise and Thanksgivings; as well as for Prayer, in the holocaust the Life of a Christian; and there is child, not a Set of Psalms already prepared that can answer all the Varieties of the Providence and the Grace of God. Now if God will be prais'd for all his Mercies, and Singing be one Method of Praise, we have some Reason to believe that God doth not utterly confine us even to the Forms of his own composing. Essay? This is thought a very sufficient Reason to resist the Imposition of any Book of child observation Prayers; and I grant that no Number of british essay history Prayers of humane Composure cam express every new Difficulty or future Want of a Christian; scarce can we suppose a Divine Volume should do it, except it be equal to child essay observation, many _Folio's_. However I can see no thing in the inspired Book of Praises that should perswade me that the Spirit of God design'd it as a universal Psalm-book; nor that he intended these to essay man masculinities, include or provide for all the Occasions of Thanksgiving that ever Could befal _Jews_ or _Christians_ in essay a single or social Capacity. We find in the History of Scripture, that new Favours receiv'd from God were continually the Subject of new Songs, and the very minute Circumstances of the present Providence are describ'd in the Verse. The Destruction of _Pharoah_ in the _Red-Sea_; the Victory of punishment essay _Barak_ over _Sisera_; the various Deliverances, Escapes and Successes of the Son of _Jesse_ are described in the Songs of _Moses_, _Deborah_ and _David_.
The Jews in a Land of Captivity sat by the Rivers of _Babylon_, and essay, remembred _Sion_; they could find none of the antient Songs of british essay man masculinities _Sion_ fit to express their present Sorrow and Devotion, tho some of child essay observation them are mournful enough; then was that admirable and artful Ode written, the _137th Psalm_, which even in essay history history man masculinities the Judgment of the greatest humane Criticks, is observation, not inferiour to the finest Heathen Poems. 'Tis a more dull, and obscure, and unaffecting Method of Worship to preach, or pray, or praise always in Generals: It doth not reach the Heart, nor touch the corporal punishment essay Passions; God did not think any of essay his own inspired Hymns clear and full and special enough to express the Praise that was his due of new Blessings of Grace and Providence; and therefore he put a new Song into the Mouths of _Mary_, _Zecharias_ and _Simeon_; and punishment essay, 'tis but according to his own Requirement, that the _British-Islands_ should make their present Mercies under the Gospel the child observation Subject of fresh Praises; _Isa_. 42. 9, 10. _Behold the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare; before they spring forth I tell you of essay reading them; Sing unto the Lord a new Song, and his Praise from the End of the Earth; Ye that go down to child essay, the Sea, and history image photography, all that is therein; the Isles and essay observation, the Inhabitants thereof_. As for british essay the new Songs in the _Revelations_, the occasions of some of them are very particular, and observation, relate to the Fall of corporal punishment in schools _Anti-Christ_; It can never be imagin'd that there are a compleat Collection of Psalms to suit all the Cases of a Christian Church: They are rather given to us as small Originals, by Imitation whereof the Churches should be furnished with Matter for essay observation Psalmody, by those who are capable of composing spiritual Songs according to the various or Special Occasions of Saints or Churches. Now, shall we suppose the Duty of questions Singing to be so constantly provided for when there was any fresh Occasion under the Old Testament, and just in essay observation the very Beginning of the New, and yet that there is no manner of Provision made ever since by ordinary or extraordinary Gifts for the Expression of our particular joys and Thanksgivings? This would be to sink the Gospel, which is a Dispensation of the Spirit, of Liberty, of Joy, and of Glory, beneath the Level of Judaism, when the Saints were kept in corporal punishment in schools argumentative essay hard Bondage, and had not half so much Occasion for Praise. The Fifth Argument may be borrow'd from the extraordinary Gift of the child observation Spirit to american essay history, compose or sing spiritual Songs in the primitive Church, express'd in 1_Cor_. 14. 15, 26.
The several Parts of Divine Worship, Praying, Preaching and essay, Singing, were performed by immediate Inspirations of the holy Spirit in that Day, for there two Reasons. (1.) That there might be a Discovery of Divine Power in them, and the Seal of a Miracle set to state honors, the several Parts of essay observation Christian Worship, to convince the World, and to confirm the british essay Church. (2.) Because there was not time to acquire a Capacity of Preaching, Praying, and composing Spiritual Songs by child observation, Diligence and Study, together with the ordinary Assistance of Grace and Blessing of Providence, which would have taken up many Years before the Gospel could have been universally preached. Thesis? But even in those Times of Inspiration, as _Timothy_ himself was _not to neglect the Gift that was in him given by Imposition of Hands_, so he was charg'd to _give Attendance to Reading, to Exhortation, to Doctrine, to meditate upon these things, to give himself wholly to them, that his profiting might appear unto all_, 1 Tim. 4, 14, 15. Child Essay? And it is granted by king arthur paper outline, all, that the Ministers of the Gospel in our Day are to acquire and improve the Gifts of Knowledge, Prayer and Preaching, by Reading, Meditation and frequent Exercise, together with earnest Requests to God for the ordinary Assistance of his Spirit, and, a Blessing on their Studies; Why then should it be esteem'd sinful, to observation, acquire a Capacity of composing a spiritual Song? Or why is it unlawful to put this Gift in Excercise, for the Use of Singing in the Christian Church, since 'tis one of those three standing Parts of Worship which were at first practis'd and confirm'd by Inspiration and Miracle? Some may object here, that the ring essay questions words _psallo_ and _Psalmos_, which the Apostle useth in this Chapter, intend the Psalms of essay observation _David_, and not any new Song: But if we consult the whole Frame and Design of that Chapter, it appears that their worship was all performed by extraordinary Gifts: Now, 'twas no very, extraordinary thing to bring forth, one of _David_'s Psalms; nor would it have been proper to have hindered the inspsired Worship with such an Interposition of the research ordinary Service of an antient _Jewish_ Song; 'tis very credible therefore that the child essay observation Word _Psalm_ in questions about the holocaust this Place signifies a new spiritual Song, and child, 'tis so used frequently in the Writings of the Primitive Fathers, as appears in the Citations, _pag_. 274. To close this Rank of Arguments, I might mention the Divine Delight that many pious Souls have found in the Use of spiritual, Songs, suited to their own Circumstances, and to, the Revelations of the New Testament. If the spiritual Joy and Consolation that particular Persons have tasted in honors the general Duty or Singing, be esteem'd a tolerable Argument to encourage the Duty and confirm the Institution, I am well assured that the child essay observation Argument would grow strong apace, and seal this Ordinance beyond Contradiction, if we would but stand fast in the Liberty of the Gospel, and not tie our Consciences up to questions about, meer Forms of the Old Testament. The Faith, the Hope, the Love, and the heavenly Pleasure that many Christians have profess'd while they have been singing evangelical Hymns; would probably be multiply'd and diffus'd amongst the Churches, if they would but breath out their Devotion in the Songs of the Lamb as well as in the Song of _Moses_. Upload: 17-Mar-2017 02:31 SSMenber.
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Sample Fish Farming Business Plan Template. If you are looking for a sample fish farming business plan template, here is a template business plan for starting a fish farm and free feasibility study you can use. Are you searching for a business plan sample for your fish farming business ? This article presents you with a fish farming business plan sample that you can easily use as a template to write one for your business. The fish farming business is a very profitable one, yet, it is not very capital-intensive. Basically, fish farming is a subset of the agriculture industry. This business chiefly focuses on observation the raising of various species of fish, as well as other sea foods. Let us begin with the business plan. BUSINESS NAME: Holly Fish and Sea Foods Ltd. Executive Summary Our Products and Services Vision Statement Mission Statement Business Structure Market Analysis Sales and Marketing Strategy Sales Forecast Financial Plan Conclusion. Holly Fish and Sea Foods Ltd is a duly registered and licensed business that is set to operate in inner city, Arizona, United States.
The business is a private owned fish farming business that will be owned and managed by questions, the James Hamilton family. The business will focus on essay raising various species of fish, and the sales of numerous sea foods such as oysters, shrimp, molluscs, clams, goldfish, etc. In our first five years, we will operate on a medium-scale, after which, we will expand our fish farming business into a much grander scale; providing our products and ring essay, services to customers all over the United States. As part of child essay observation, our plans and preparation in starting up our fish farming business, we have been able to come up with an estimate of the the fellowship of the questions start-up capital that will be required. A total sum of essay observation, $550,000 will be needed to start-up our fish farming business. OUR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. Holly Fish and Sea Foods Ltd is a fish farming business that will put everything in place for the raising of thesis questions the holocaust, fish and the sales of sea foods to consumers all over Arizona and the United States. In the course of running our fish farming business, we will focus on the following: Growing and child essay, selling of corporal in schools argumentative essay, finfish such as catfish, tilapia, trout, etc. Growing and essay observation, selling of ornamental fish such as goldfish. Growing and selling of shellfish such as oysters, shrimp, mollusc, clams, etc.
Our vision in the fish farming industry is to establish a business which will become reputed as the number one leading fish farming business in Arizona, and among the top five (5) leading fish farming brands in the whole of the oregon state college United States. We have set out some business objectives which we hope to accomplish as best as possible: To provide shipping services to our customers at affordable fees. To report more than $15,000 in sales every month. To sustain an inventory revenue ratio of six. Our fish farming business will be a standard fish farm which will be focused on providing quality products and services, that cannot be found anywhere else, to customers. We will be solely focused on providing nothing short of the best of our products – a variety of species – to our customers wherever they are in the United States. Our products and services will be distinct from the usual ones customers get from other fish farms.
Holly Fish and Sea Foods Ltd is a fish farming business that will be a private owned business. We have established the structure of the business in such a way as to facilitate our business growth and essay observation, success. The fish farming business will be owned by the James Hamilton Family. The business will first be run and operated by king research outline, Mr and essay, Mrs James Hamilton within the first five years, after which, more employees will be employed to handle the business as it continues to expand. In view of the above, we will hire employees to take up the following positions:
Fish and Sea food Farm Manager. Cashier / Accountant Sales Executives Field Employees. One notable trend in the industry is the fact that fish farmers and health experts leverage on the health benefits of fish and sea foods in promoting the fish farming business and products. Corporal Punishment Argumentative. Fish is not only a very great source of child, protein, but also a very healthy source of fats and the fellowship ring essay, omega fatty acids. Our target market encompasses the following groups of people: SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. In the essay observation course of state college essay, running our fish farming business, we have been able to hire experts who will provide their services in child observation, setting out fine sales and marketing strategies to help us beat the illustrated image in photography reading competition and always stay ahead. We have been able to come up with the following strategies to promote our fish farming business: We will ensure to first introduce our fish farming business to prospective customers in the whole of Arizona.
We will do this by handing out our business fliers and encouraging our friends and family to make use of word of mouth to help us promote our business. We will place adverts on business magazines, local newspapers, and radio and essay, television stations in Arizona. We will create a website for our fish farming business, and take advantage of the the fellowship of the essay internet and social media platforms such as Facebook in promoting our business. We will create special promo and essay observation, loyalty programmes to build a good customer base. Below is the sales forecast for our fish farming business for the next three years:
This sales forecast is a calculated estimate which is only based on some reliable sources. Source of essay illustrated image in photography photography, Start-up Capital. A total sum of $550,000 is what we will require to start up our fish farming business in Arizona. This start-up capital will be used properly to get all the essay observation needed equipment and resources in place to get started with our fish farming business. The start-up capital will be sourced from our savings in king research, the bank, from my extended family, and from my trusted friends.
We have been able to come up with $200,000, which we hope to raise to $250,000 as part of child essay observation, our contributions. $200,000 will be borrowed from my extended family, while the final $100,000 will be borrowed from both of my close friends, Teague and Louis. This business plan is a fish farming business plan. It bears the business title “Holly Family Farms Ltd”. King Research Paper Outline. The fish farming business will be owned by the James Hamilton family. It will be located at child essay observation, a very large plot located in inner city, Arizona, United States. Thesis Questions About. The start-up capital that is needed for this fish farming business to essay, start is american essay a total sum of $550,000, which will be sourced from various sources. Free Sample Business Plan in Fish Farming: Fish Farming Business Plan Template. Commercial fish farming business plan free download sample. Enactus is an international student run non-profit organization focused on child observation improving the quality of life and living standards for those in need. With the aid of academic advisors and business experts students aim to design sustainable projects for target groups, focused on empowering and improving their lives. Integrated fish farm business plan.
In contrast to other forms of humanitarian organisations, Enactus aims to empower the target communities through the use of social entrepreneurship. Guided by academic advisors and business experts students of Enactus design a business approach which will provide the target groups with the necessary skills and resources for self-sufficiency. We, at image in photography, University College Utrecht, are one of the 17 Enactus teams based in the Netherlands. We are part of the essay observation Fish Farm Project, a project focused on building a fishfarm for essay Red Hill Baraka School to child, generate income to fund scholarships for oregon state orphaned and child essay, needy children. Recently the state honors school has started fish-farming tilapia, to feed the children at school. This led to the idea that fish farming could be used to child essay, help the school less reliant on essay history illustrated image reading sponsorship. If the fish farm could be expanded to a larger scale it would be able to child observation, be turned into a business which should be able to generate profit that would enable the school to essay image photography, become more self-sufficient. This is where Enactus UCU came in.
Through personal connections a board member came into contact with Lazarus and proposed a project wherein Enactus UCU would design a recirculating tilapia fish farm business plan and help raise funds to make fish farming a sustainable source of income for the school. Design and Development. Initially the plan was to build the plan was to child essay, build a fish farm on the compound of the school, this was however was not possible. After re-evaluating, a decision was made to build the fish farm, on a quarter acre plot in Eldoret, West Kenya. Eldoret is currently the fastest growing urban center in Kenya and the fifth largest city in the fellowship of the ring, the country. Re-locating the child observation fish farm to Eldoret was a strategic move, which significantly cut costs of rent, as well as Eldoret having a suitable temperature for growth of tilapia. In the model, the fish farm project should be up and british history, running around June/July.
Having recently invested 2500€, land has been rented and fenced off. An employee, Kalistas, with previous experience in fish farming, has been hired and placed on site, where he shall continue with preparations of the start-up of the farm. Here a house and toilet have also been built to accommodate him, as he shall be working here fulltime. Essay Observation. Through the help of a government initiative; a rural electrification program, there has been power installation. The next steps shall be the excavation of fish farm pond that shall be 8 by 21 meters, which shall have a depth of 3 meters in the deep-end and a shallow-end of 1.5 meters. Excavation shall be performed through voluntary manual labor. A greenhouse to further stabilize temperatures shall cover the fish tank. A borehole will need to thesis about, be drilled and a water tank shall be installed; this will be the source of water for observation the fish farm. Fortunately, Lazarus has a good working relation with Jambo Fish Farm (Nairobi), an expert business focused on fish farming in Africa, and through them aeration filters, greenhouse materials, and other necessary equipment shall be purchased.
The project shall not be involved in king, breeding fish, as this would incur to many start up costs, rather juvenile fish shall be bought and developed. Initial stocks of juvenile fish, as well as fish feed shall also be purchased from Jambo. The juvenile fish will be transported from Nairobi to child essay, Eldoret using the school bus, whereas the fish feed, which shall be bought in the fellowship ring essay questions, bulk every two weeks, shall be transported on shuttles (a transport system used to transport goods in Kenya) from Nairobi to Eldoret. Additionally, Aquaspark, a global aquaculture investment fund based in Utrecht7hj, is advising project fish farm. In the timeline, the fish farm will be fully functional by July 2015. Child Essay Observation. The aim is to have two harvests of 6000 fish each per year, with the first harvest in oregon state honors college essay, January 2016.
Tilapia grows to their full size, between one and child essay, one and a half kilograms in approximately 6 months. The first harvest would therefore be in essay history photography reading, January 2016. Action and Marketing Plan. We, as Enactus University College Utrecht, will supply the Redhill Baraka School with the financial means to set up the fish farm in child, the first place. In the table below, you can find the breakdown of all these costs. American Man Masculinities. All the costs shown here are final estimates, as given to us by our Kenyan partners. As can be seen, the total costs of getting the first pond up and running will be €10.148. Child Essay Observation. These costs include, apart from the much needed building materials, the payment of the rent of the plot of land on which the fish farm is situated for the first two years, the payment of the loan of the guardian for british essay man masculinities the first nine months, and the maintenance costs for the first six months.
Revenue and child observation, Profit. The most important part is king arthur research of course the eventual profit that will be made by this fish farm. Child Essay. Our Fish farm would produce about 5800 full grown Tilapia filets every half year (that is because on average 200 out of the 6000 fish will not be suitable for sale). For the sale of the fish, we have made an arrangement with the urban butchery ‘’Super Cut Ltd.’’, who are willing to buy our fish at 280 KSH per kilo. However, we are also looking into essay history in photography, the possibility of selling the fish to local fishmongers in Eldoret itself, what would increase the selling price even more. When the Tilapia fish are full-grown, they weigh about child essay observation 1-1,5 kilos each. Taking an average weight of 1,25 KG, this would come down to a revenue of approx.
2,030,000 KSH per king arthur paper outline half year, or 4,060,000 KSH per year. This is a conservative estimate, using the lower price offered by Super Cut Ltd, the fact that some fish might weigh less than others and the fact that some fish might not be suitable for sale. This comes down to a yearly revenue of child observation, approx. €39,077. The yearly costs consist of the rent of the essay illustrated land at €242 a year (even though we would pay for the first two years of essay observation, rent), the monthly salary of the supervisor on of the essay site at 87*12 = €1044, the maintenance costs (including fish feed) of 213*12= €2556, miscellaneous and unforeseen costs (including electricity) at child observation, €2500, and the initial fish stock of 6000 fish one every six months, coming down to 2*900= €1800. Oregon. The total yearly costs will thus be €7142, which results in a yearly profit of child essay observation, €30,935. A second fish farm.
In anticipation of oregon honors college, growth, a quarter acre of land was rented to allow for enough room to child observation, build a second fish farm. Furthermore, the start up costs of this would be significantly lower. Electrical installation, land, bore hole and water tank will all have already been paid for. Ideally a second fish farm would be up and british essay man masculinities, running in June 2016, allowing Redhill Baraka School to benefit from four harvests of fish per child essay observation year. Questions About. This would equate to child essay, approximately €60,000 profits per american british history year. A second fish farm would allow for four staggered harvests per year, which would not only increase profits but importantly also be a fail-safe and provide an economical buffer in essay observation, case one of the harvests got infected by disease.
With €30,935 as yearly profit from essay reading, a single fish farm, the Redhill Baraka School will be able to become fully self-sufficient. We would therefore like to ask you to help us make this wonderful project happen, and give the students of RBS the chance to child observation, get a good education, and the opportunity for a better life! Free fish farming business plan. Do you need a free business plan for fish farming? This free guide can be used as a template when setting up your farm. Download free fish farm business plan. Mission Statement of Business. State clearly in 2-3 sentences what you intend to do in business.
a) Description of your proposed business. 1) describe your product or business. 2) support with diagrams, illustrations or pictures (if available) b) Summary of your proposed marketing plan– design ponds or tanks to the fellowship of the questions, a size that all the fish produced. could be marketed in one day. 1) describe the market you’re aiming for- look for value added, niche markets for catfish or tilapia. 2) outline the way you plan to reach your market – The fish farmers should seek to reach buyers through as.
many approaches as possible to provide the child essay observation best profit, such as direct sales at the farm as well as through. c) Summary of your financial estimates. 1) state the total sales you aim to reach in each of the first three years. 2) state the estimated profit for each of the first three years. 3) state the estimated starting capital you’ll need. 2.Statement of objectives. a) Statement of the desirability of your product or service. 1) describe the advantages your product or service has, its improvements over existing products or services. 2) state the long-range objectives and the short-range objectives of your proposed business. 3) describe your qualifications to run the business. 4) describe the ‘character’ you want for arthur your business, the image you’d like your customers to see, such as hygienic conditions of essay, highest standard, live fish sales with cleaning and dressing of fish as per customer preference.
For example, samples of cooked fish could be given to customers along with recipes. 3.Background of thesis questions the holocaust, proposed business. a) Brief summary of existing conditions in the type of ‘industry’ you’re intending to observation, enter. 1) where the history illustrated image in photography photography reading product or service is now being used. 2) how the product or service is now being used. b) Detailed explanation of your place in the industry. 1) describe the projections and trends for the industry. 2) describe competition you face.
3) state your intended strategy for meeting competition. 4) describe the special qualities of your product or service that make it unique. a) A description of your marketing strategy. 1) design the farm with different sizes of ponds to meet different market demands and be able to sell all fish. harvested from essay, a particular pond.
2) describe the market you plan to reach. 3) keep costs low with feeding of quality fish feeds by a feed manager who feeds by feeding response. 4) under price the competition and make profit by tight management and low costs with lowest Feed. 5) describe in detail how you plan to distribute your product or service (retail shops, door to history illustrated in photography, door, etc.) 6) describe the share of the market you expect to capture. 5. Selling tactics.
a) An outline of the activities to be used in selling the product or service. 1) state the methods you expect to use to child essay, promote your product or service (word of mouth, radio, 2) include a sample brochure or other promotional literature. 3) present any data which supports your ability to meet your sales goals (i.e. Of The Ring Essay. actual orders, potential. 4) explain the margins of safety you’ve allowed in your sales forecasts. b) Propose entering different fish markets as in the North and SE, where prices remain high. 6.Plan of operation.
a) Description of the proposed organisation. 1) show an organisation chart describing the needed business functions and observation, relationships. 2) describe the key positions and identify the persons to fill them. 3) list equipment or facilities and thesis questions about the holocaust, the space and location required. b) Farm pond operations. 1) stagger pond stocking to allow one pond to be harvested per month, to maintain cash flow. 2) manage to maintain low feed conversions and best management practices. 3) plan to purchase fingerlings and child essay, stock ponds every month to assure regular harvests. 4) maintain proper storage of fish feeds without pests and moisture. 5) practice proper sanitation programme of corporal punishment in schools, sterilizing tanks and child, liming ponds before restocking. 7. Supporting data.
a) Information required to support the major points in the business plan. 1) a set of drawings of the product(s) to be made or a detailed description of the service to be offered. 2) show a list of the equipment you’ll require for your business and estimates of the state honors essay cost of that equipment. 3) List the capital equipment you’ll need and essay, its estimated cost. 4) List a price schedule for your product line or service.
5) Include your market survey data (perhaps from the fellowship of the questions, your focus group) 6) supply the child observation following financial data: – projected statement and balance sheet for the first two years by the month. – Income statement for two years. – cash flow projection for two years. 8. Conclusions and honors essay, summary. a) statement of child essay, proposed approach in starting the new business. 1) state the total capital you’ll need and the safety factor you’ve used. 2) state how much profit you expect and when you expect to essay, show it. 3) decide what percentage of child observation, ownership you want for yourself and your partners. 4) indicate the total capital you’ll need and how it’s to be made up: – your share of the history illustrated photography starting investment.
– how much you’ll need from others and when you’ll need the money. – state what share of the business you’ll give to child, investors or lenders. 5) state your planned schedule for starting your business. Are you looking for a fish farming business plan template ? Here is a sample business plan for a fish farm and free feasibility report. Taking everything into essay, account, I need to state completely that catfish cultivating is an undiscovered goldmine. You can bring home the essay observation bacon off it by meeting the correct individuals and corporal punishment, eating up the correct data in your fish farming business plan .
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and essay observation, marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. King Arthur Research Outline. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the child observation Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience.
As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of american essay history man masculinities, advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and essay observation, an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . College Essay. The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to essay oldest (least relevant). About The Holocaust. This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and child observation, end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to king paper outline present yourself in terms of child essay, your promotions and upward career mobility , and state college, is therefore particularly useful for child observation, entry to mid level applicants looking to honors boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if…
I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. Child Observation. I want to apply to king arthur research outline a job in essay observation a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. Honors College Essay. I am considering working in child observation a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and corporal punishment, abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.”
Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the essay candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for oregon state honors essay, the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for child observation, a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into oregon state honors a new industry. Child Essay. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if:
I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about american british history what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and child, functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. Oregon Honors Essay. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is essay then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to history illustrated in photography reading showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry.
I am a master at essay observation, what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to thesis the holocaust emphasize my educational experience. Essay Observation. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in american british man masculinities included in a combination resume format, click here.
If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of essay observation, our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for honors essay, you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Child Essay Observation. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.
Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Argumentative. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. Child Essay Observation. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age.
Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at corporal essay, HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from child observation 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Oregon State College. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment.
Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to observation get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in oregon state honors 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. Child Essay Observation. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to illustrated photography stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at child observation, various bars and clubs at night.
I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from illustrated image in photography reading this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Child Essay Observation. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service!
Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to the fellowship of the help me pay rent next year. I have never had to child essay observation write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an oregon state honors college, entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and essay observation, about half of my sophomore year. In Schools Argumentative. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help!
Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. Child. I do not include employment start – end dates on american british essay history history, my resume for essay, many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to the fellowship of the essay questions be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and child essay, want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me?
In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in the fellowship ring construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for observation, a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for arthur paper outline, this job opportunity. Essay Observation. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format.
Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of arthur research paper outline, your content is relevant and of interest to essay observation the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt!
I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on in schools argumentative essay, Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Essay Observation. Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of king arthur research paper, Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of child essay, English as a Second Language. British Essay History. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. Child. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back.
Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into history image in photography reading communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the child dates of corporal punishment in schools argumentative essay, your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in child observation high school I did my internship at for State Farm. Essay In Photography Reading. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years.
I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Child Observation. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for king research, is also an child essay, administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on oregon honors essay, the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great.
I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in observation doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on the fellowship of the ring essay questions, your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Child Essay. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the college essay soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change.
Good luck making the child essay observation shift back into image photography your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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Child Observation essays
analis essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Child! Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. Arthur Research Paper! The core of this argument is child essay observation called a thesis. Oregon State! It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about?
You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of essay literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is what you draw out the fellowship of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the essay observation, text. Thesis statement: At least once during the image in photography photography, course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and child observation, reasonable?
If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the british essay history history man masculinities, Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is child essay observation asking yourself what the opposite college side of child essay observation your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to honors essay be true about child observation, this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. About! Your job in the paper is to essay observation convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an american man masculinities effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at child, x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of ring essay questions pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better?
What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the child, consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the punishment in schools, work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to essay escape from society). Question this major premise and questions, see where it takes you.
Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to essay develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the of the, book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the child, author start where they start, end where they end?
What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on the holocaust, a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the essay, piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into essay illustrated image photography, sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Child! Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to college essay refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Essay! Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase.
Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to corporal in schools argumentative you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in child essay observation a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in essay history illustrated image Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is essay observation a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. History Illustrated Image In Photography Photography Reading! Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction.
Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the child essay observation, process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in state college essay the air at once. Essay Observation! Consider breaking the paragraph in essay history image photography half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is essay usually necessary.
Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from state honors college essay getting too far away from the observation, text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in essay in photography order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by essay observation, an interpretation, a deeper reading of corporal in schools argumentative essay what is being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the observation, claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the about the holocaust, paragraph will connect to the larger argument. Essay! It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said.
Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. College! to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. Essay! To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the about the holocaust, reader follow the flow of your ideas.
The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in essay revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and corporal argumentative, why you are doing it.
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Essay on Child Observation | nassirhassan
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Essay on Child Observation | nassirhassan
Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on child essay, Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to corporal punishment argumentative leave essay grading to the computer. It was developed by EdX, the nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to other schools for free. The story says that the child observation software “uses artificial intelligence to grade student essays and short written answers.” Multiple-choice exams have, of american history course, been graded by machine for a long time, but essays are another matter.
Can a computer program accurately capture the depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an essay? The National Council of child essay observation Teachers of English says, unequivocally, “no” in its newest position statement. Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and veracity in your essay. If this is true I don’t believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and grade me fairly. — Akash, student. [H]ow can the feedback a computer gives match the carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at the end of your paper? — Pinar, student. (Responses to New York Times The Learning Network blog post, “How Would You Feel about a Computer Grading Your Essays?”, 5 April 2013) Writing is a highly complex ability developed over years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and contexts, and british essay with copious, meaningful feedback.
Students must have this kind of sustained experience to meet the demands of child essay higher education, the needs of the holocaust a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and the realization of full, meaningful lives. As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into child essay, individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the the holocaust importance of writing to students’ education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in developing assessment systems that do not threaten the possibilities for the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in the CCSS. Effective writing assessments need to account for the nature of observation writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on the fellowship of the ring essay, the assessment of student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by denying students the opportunity to think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and revise their emerging texts over time.
Often, the results of child essay such tests can affect the livelihoods of teachers, the fate of schools, or the essay history illustrated image photography reading educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to subvert attention to other purposes and varieties of writing development in the classroom. Eventually, the child essay observation tests erode the foundations of excellence in essay history in photography reading, writing instruction, resulting in students who are less prepared to meet the demands of their continued education and future occupations. Especially in the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by tests that ignore the ever-more complex and varied types and uses of writing found in higher education. Note : (1) All references to research are supported by essay observation, the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns — increasingly voiced by parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and members of the general public — are intensified by the use of machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students’ writing. To meet the outcomes of the corporal punishment essay Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and testing agencies propose to use computerized assessments of student writing. The attraction is obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the costs otherwise associated with the human labor of reading, interpreting, and evaluating the child writing of our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs — to students, to our educational institutions, and to american british history man masculinities society.
Here’s why: Computers are unable to recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of organization, types of persuasion, quality of evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of repetition, to name just a few). Using computers to child observation “read” and evaluate students’ writing (1) denies students the chance to have anything but limited features recognized in of the ring, their writing; and child essay (2) compels teachers to ignore what is most important in writing instruction in order to teach what is least important. Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students’ writing. For example, some systems gauge the sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and how often the words are used in a corpus of texts; or they gauge the development of ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per paragraph.
Computers are programmed to score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to develop innovative and creative occasions for writing, even for assessment. Essay Illustrated Image In Photography Reading? Computers get progressively worse at scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to child essay design shorter writing tasks that don’t represent the range and history man masculinities variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in college. Computer scoring favors the most objective, “surface” features of writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the essay most easily rectified in corporal punishment essay, normal writing conditions when there is child observation time to king paper revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the result of essay observation humans being trained to score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on the accuracy of king arthur research outline information). Computer scoring systems can be “gamed” because they are poor at working with human language, further weakening the validity of their assessments and separating students not on the basis of writing ability but on child observation, whether they know and can use machine-tricking strategies.
Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to write or complete tests. Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for every student and american british skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the child essay purpose from written communication — to create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of the fellowship of the ring meaning making — and sends a message to students that writing is not worth their time because reading it is not worth the time of the people teaching and assessing them. What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the child National Council of man masculinities Teachers of English has established research-based guidelines for essay observation, effective teaching and assessment of writing, such as the Standards for essay illustrated image, the Assessment of Reading and child essay Writing (rev. ed., 2009), the Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the thesis questions the holocaust Teaching of Writing (2004), and essay the Framework for 21st Century Curriculum and Assessment (2008, 2013). Ring Essay? In the broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to become engaged in literacy learning, to reflect on their own reading and writing in observation, productive ways, and to set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and essay illustrated image in photography reading the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the quality of student work) with the need to assess formatively (engage in ongoing, in-process judgments about what students know and can do, and what to teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in essay, today’s society and reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students’ literacy development, and familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and corporal in schools argumentative essay district-based) assessments designed and child essay administered by classroom teachers; and “audit” teams of teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to history history man masculinities review samples of student work and child the curriculum that has yielded them. We focus briefly here on portfolios because of the extensive scholarship that supports them and the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of research teachers in evaluating portfolios at the building, district, or state level has the potential to honor the child observation challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices.
Portfolios offer the opportunity to. look at student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over essay history time while avoiding the limitations of “one test on one day”; look at the range of child essay observation writing across a group of students while preserving the individual character of each student’s writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in the context of local values and goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about their own writing, about ways to identify and describe its growth, and about how others — human readers — interpret their work. The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing. History? The discussions about collections of writing samples and criteria for assessing the writing contribute to a shared investment among all participating teachers in the writing growth of all students. Further, when the portfolios include a wide range of artifacts from learning and writing experiences, teachers assessing the portfolios learn new ideas for classroom instruction as well as ways to design more sophisticated methods of observation assessing student work on king outline, a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and child essay observation California have experimented with the development of large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of teams of essay teachers working collaboratively to assess samples of student work.
Rather than investing heavily in assessment plans that cannot meet the observation goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and educational institutions could direct those funds into refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. This investment would also support teacher professional development and enhance the british quality of child essay instruction in classrooms — something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of illustrated in photography reading states “to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the course of the school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests” (United States Department of child essay observation Education). Further, these assessments will need to align to the new standards for learning in English and american essay history man masculinities mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable. By combining the already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods.
By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at the classroom level. For a fraction of the cost in time and money of building a new generation of machine assessments, we can invest in rigorous assessment and teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Our students and their families deserve it, the research base supports it, and literacy educators and administrators will welcome it.