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Audison THESIS TH quattro Advanced Manual. Related Manuals for Audison THESIS TH quattro. ADVANCED MANUAL TH quattro Car Audio Multichannel Amplifier www.audison.eu. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro INDEX THESIS - The project Packaging Contents Installation Fixing template Rear Panel Functions Description How to guidlines remove the nurture essay psychology, panel / the protection knob How to essay guidlines connect the power supply How to baccalaureate international replace the fuse How to connect the speakers in 4 Ch mode How to guidlines connect the speakers in 3 Ch mode How to era dbq essay connect the speakers in revision guidlines 2 Ch mode Input controls. Info and Alert sentences DRC - Digital Remote Control Info and network security Alert sentences How to connect How to essay revision guidlines install ACNet - Audison Control Network Descrizione delle funzioni System Display Amplifier Setting: Identification Amplifier Setting: Inputs Amplifier Setting: Sensitivity and coursework for phd Preout Level. Heart of the revision, system is a digital power microprocessor. Nurture Essay! It manages the amplifier functions and communicates with the user through a control panel as well as the Display Monitor, featuring the DRC remote control or, in a more complete and essay direct way, through the ACNet Audison Controller Network software. For Phd! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Packaging Contents - TH quattro amplifier - Printed Quick Start Guide - 1.0 m AC Link (RJ-12) cable - 1.0 m AD Link (RJ-45) cable - 2.0 m USB cable - USB/AC Link converter - TH crossover kit composed of: N. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Installation External size 510 mm / 20.07#x201C; How to essay guidlines fix Fixing size f 4.3 x 10.5 mm 3/16#x201D; x 7/16#x201D; 478 mm / 18.82#x201D;. Fixing tem Warning: to properly print the template at essay against corruption in india the real size, select the #x201C;None#x201D; option into the #x201C;Page Scaling#x201D; setup. After printing, cut the essay guidlines, sheets along the blue reference line and then glue them.

IN A IN B OUT A DC OUT DIGITAL AUDIO CONTROL BUS ADRS 1 - AC Link - 2 OPTICAL OUT - AD Link - IN Mode A level panel spacer 66 mm (2.6#x201D;) Mode B level panel 26 mm (1.02#x201D;) spacer. IN B OUT A DIGITAL AUDIO CONTROL BUS ADRS 1 - AC Link - 2 OPTICAL AD Link - IN level panel spacer 66 mm (2.6#x201D;) level panel 26 mm (1.02#x201D;) spacer. (6 AWG). Pay attention to connect speaker with polarity as indicated, wrong polarity causes a phase problem in the audio system. 5 #x2022; FUSE: Protection Fuse Connection Audison AFS 100 A. How to era dbq essay remove the essay revision guidlines, panel / the protection knob. Page 12: How To Connect The Power Supply.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Rear Panel How to connect the power supply Super Capacitor Fuse Holder Battery Ground Ground. Coursework Biochemistry! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Rear Panel How to replace the essay, fuse Fuse AFS 100 A (provided) Page 14: How To Connect The Speakers In 4 Ch Mode. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Rear Panel How to network security connect the speakers in 4 Ch mode About Input#x2019;s configuration see pages: PUSH LEVELS 2Ch (IN A) IN A IN A - 20 #xF7; 22 #x2013; Analog Input IN B Hi : 0.3 #xF7;. Page 15: How To Connect The Speakers In 3 Ch Mode. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Rear Panel How to connect the essay guidlines, speakers in 3 Ch mode About Input#x2019;s configuration see pages: PUSH LEVELS 2Ch (IN A) IN A IN A - 20 #xF7; 22 #x2013; Analog Input IN B Hi : 0.3 #xF7;. Page 16: How To Connect The Speakers In 2 Ch Mode. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Rear Panel How to connect the speakers in essay extended international 2 Ch mode About Input#x2019;s configuration see pages: PUSH LEVELS 2Ch (IN A) IN A IN A - 20 #xF7; 22 #x2013; Analog Input IN B Hi : 0.3 #xF7;. Page 17: Input Controls, How To Move From One Sensitivity Range To Another. Revision Guidlines! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Input controls Functions Description PUSH LEVELS 2Ch (IN A) IN A IN A IN B Hi : 0.3 #xF7; 1.2V RMS Lo : 1.2 #xF7; 4.8V RMS 1 #x2022; A / B LEVELS: A channels (Left and Right) and B channels (Left and network security 2010 Right) input sensitivity adjustment.

It features 2 ranges, Hi from .3 to essay revision 1.2 VRMS and Low from 1.2 to 4.8 VRMS. Network! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel Functions Description IN A IN B OUT A DC OUT DIGITAL AUDIO CONTROL BUS ADRS 1 - AC Link - 2 OPTICAL OUT - AD Link - IN 1 #x2022; IN A: Analog Left / Right A channels Input 2 #x2022;. Page 19: How To Connect The Remote. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to revision guidlines connect the remote L: 7 mm (5/16#x201D;) MAX: 16 AWG Rem Out. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to on abortion connect the essay, source through the controversial essay, preamplified analog input (standard mode) TH configured in 4 Ch mode Input: IN A (and IN B) Stereo Analog Pre Out: Stereo Analog (=IN A) Power Output: 4 Channels A Channels: Stereo B Channels: Stereo.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to guidlines connect the source through the essay extended international, preamplified analog input (standard mode) TH configured in 3 Ch mode Input: IN A (and IN B) Stereo Analog Pre Out: Stereo Analog (=IN A) Power Output: 3 Channels A Channels: Stereo B Channels: Mono (MIX L+R) ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to connect the source through the preamplified analog input (standard mode) TH configured in essay guidlines 2 Ch mode Input: IN A Stereo Analog Pre Out: Stereo Analog (=IN A) Power Output: 2 Channels A Channels: Mono (IN A Left) B Channels: Mono (IN A Right) Default preset. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Electronic Crossover Representing a high-end solution, the simplicity and power of the analog system found in the HV venti is thrust forward again in for phd biochemistry the TH, making use of the essay revision, amplifiers versatility. The crossover ONLY acts on psychology the amplifier power output, not on the PRE OUT output which is guidlines, always a bypass. The alignment is a Butterworth type as, when either of the progressive essay, TH amplifiers is set up in a mono configuration, the slope of the filter can be set for 24 dB Oct operation. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Electronic Crossover TH in 4 Ch Mode Filtering A channels and B channels TH in guidlines 3 Ch Mode Filtering A channels DO NOT INSERT TH-MXR.1MODULE 12 dB 12 dB Disabled Hi-pass Lo-pass 12 dB 12 dB 1.8k Disabled.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Electronic Crossover TH in 3 Ch Mode Filtering B channels TH in essay against 2 Ch Mode Filtering A channels (Left) and B channels (Right) Setup Xover Slope 12 dB (default configuration) When the amplifier is essay revision guidlines, set up in network 2010 a mono configuration, it is revision, possible to set the crossover slope at 12 or 24 dB/Oct. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Electronic Crossover TH in essay 3 Ch Mode Filtering B channels Setup Lo-pass Xover Slope 24 dB When the essay revision guidlines, amplifier is baccalaureate essay extended, set up in essay guidlines a mono configuration, and ASC is baccalaureate essay extended international, set at 24 dB Oct., it is anyway possible to set the crossover Low-pass at 12 or 24 dB Oct. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Electronic Crossover How to insert Not inserted module (default configuration) You can verify the crossover presence by checking the ASC Status Monitor. See page 53 A Channels TH-MXR.1 module B Channels TH-MXR.1 module Hi-pass Lo-pass 12 dB 12 dB 1.8k. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Two Way, multi-amplified, TH amplifier Analog Input In order to build a Standard System you have to: 1- Insert the revision guidlines, TH-MXR.1 boards with its relative filter modules (if required); 2- Connect power supply; 3- Connect the speaker system; 4- Connect signal inputs (IN A or IN A / IN B) and essay against corruption remote turn on;. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Two Way+Sub, multi-amplified, TH amplifier Analog Input In order to build a Standard System: You have to follow same steps as per the above example. The only difference is for point 4, where the revision guidlines, second TH is TH uno (mono);.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Three Way + Sub, multi-amplified, TH amplifier Analog Input Two Way +Sub, multi- amplified, amplifier Analog Input. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Three Way + Sub, multi-amplified, with and without TH amplifiers. Network Security! Analog Input. Page 32: Asc (amplifier Status Controller), Inputs And Pre-amplifier. Thesis TH amplifiers through the AD Link system (Audison Digital Link).

Each amplifier independently takes care of the essay revision guidlines, D/A conversion. 2003 Essay! While in the Digital Input mode the essay, DRC needs to be connected, so it works as an actual general volume and against source selector control, capable of repeating all the essay, low frequency controls (Master Volume, Balance, Fader, Sub Volume). ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Functions Description Default display 1 #x2022; TH quattro STATUS DISPLAY: it is the visual element of the network thesis, ASC system, a back-lit two line 32 character LCD display; While working, it can relate all of the guidlines, configuration parameters memorised by the amplifier during the installation, as well as the network security 2010, operational status of the amplifier. Page 34: Setup Amplifier: Main Input. Select this entry when the amplifier is essay, connected through the AD Link to a system managed by controversial essay on abortion an Audison external processor (such as the essay revision, Bit One). Essay Extended International! This entry gets active and is displayed only guidlines, when the processor is connected. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Digital Inputs How to adjust the volume control and input selector using a digital source In the following pages you will find examples of how to for phd connect the TH to guidlines a system driven by sources using the controversial, digital input.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to achieve same output volume level using an analog source (with its own volume control) and a digital source Once you have adjusted the system, therefore once the amplifiers input sensitivity has been adjusted, you can adjust the essay revision guidlines, digital sourcet volume level so that when selecting the coursework for phd, analog or the digital source no difference in sound is perceptible while listening. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to connect a source through the optical digital input in a system featuring more than one TH amplifier TH configured in 4 / 3 / 2 Ch Mode Input: Digital Optical S/P DIF Pre Out: Digital AD Link (Repeats the IN OPTICAL signal) ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to guidlines connect a source through an 2003 era dbq optical digital input in essay a system featuring other non-TH amplifiers TH configured in 4 / 3 / 2 Ch Mode Input: Digital Optical S/P DIF Pre Out: Stereo Analog (R and psychology L Ch of Digital Input) Power Output. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to connect an analog and a digital source in essay revision a system featuring more than one TH amplifier TH configured in essay 4 / 3 / 2 Ch Mode Input: Analog/Digital Optical S/P DIF Pre Out: Analog/Digital AD Link Power Output. Essay Guidlines! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to connect an controversial analog and a digital source in essay guidlines a system featuring other non-TH amplifiers TH configured in 4 / 3 / 2 Ch Mode Input: Analog/Digital Optical S/P DIF Pre Out: Stereo Analog Power Output: 4 / 3 / 2 Ch. Network Security Thesis 2010! Page 41: Setup Amplifier: Amp Id On 4 Ch Mode.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Setup Amplifier: Amp ID on 4 Ch Mode AMP ID stands for Amplifier IDentification. The AMP ID is essay revision guidlines, a way to identify the progressive, task the guidlines, amplifier performs inside the system. Controversial Essay! The AMP ID does not affect the essay revision guidlines, electric functioning and corruption in india does not act on the amplifier electronic crossover. Page 42: Setup Amplifier: Amp Id On 3 Ch Mode. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Setup Amplifier: Amp ID on 3 Ch Mode A channel - Stereo B channel - Mono MENU PRESS PRESS ENTER TO ENTER ENTER TO CONFIRM YOUR REACH SELECTION AND MOVE TO THE DOWN DOWN NEXT SETUP. Page 43: Setup Amplifier: Amp Id On 2 Ch Mode. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Setup Amplifier: Amp ID on essay 2 Ch Mode In this configuration the TH quattro is like a Stereo amplifier. You can assign the AMP ID as a Stereo model. A channel MENU PRESS ENTER TO PRESS.

Page 44: Setup Amplifier: Amp Id-preout. Network Security Thesis 2010! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Setup Amplifier: Amp ID-Preout The AMP ID can also be assigned to the PRE OUT output. This function is extremely useful in essay guidlines case the TH amplifier is added to psychology a pre-existing system featuring not only TH amplifiers or if you want to add to the TH system a non-TH amplifier. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Front Panel How to essay guidlines adjust the PRE OUT analog output As already said, the AMP ID can also be assigned to the PRE OUT output, but not only to it. Through the AC Net software also the PRE OUT sensitivity can be adjusted to essay align the essay revision, gain of the amplifier connected to that output, thus adapting sensitivity according to the system general volume increase and decrease. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Setup Amplifier : X-Over Slope of bridged channels (B) with TH quattro in nurture 3 Ch mode When the guidlines, amplifier is set in 3 Ch Mode, you can choose the network security 2010, crossover filter slope of the revision guidlines, B (bridged) channels. Essay Psychology! ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller DUAL POWER BIAS CONTROL A revolutionary function called Dual Power was introduced for the first time in essay revision guidlines the HV venti. Controlling the baccalaureate essay extended international, amplifier#x2019;s output power configuration, this function allowed the predetermination of the amplifiers output power and essay revision of the baccalaureate essay extended, grade of the outputs operational class.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller DUAL POWER Values 160 W 160 W 55 W 55 W 250 mA 80 mA 10 mA 7 mA 8.9 A 6.6 A 3.6 A 2.6 A 1 #x2126; 1 #x2126; 2 #x2126;. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Setup Amplifier: DUAL POWER Settings How to change presets on the Memory (DRC required) The TH quattro can be set with an essay revision operational mode for A Channels and an operational mode for psychology B Channels. Revision Guidlines! Using A Class or Energy Saving mode, these configurations will be automatically set on both channels. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Three Way+ multi-amplified Sub, TH amplifiers Digital Input. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Three Way + multi-amplified Sub, TH amplifiers Analog + Digital Input. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Example: Three Way + Sub, multiamplified with and without TH amplifiers.

Analog + Digital Input. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Status Monitor This feature of the ASC provides the international, ability to monitor the amplifier working status by moving through the different entries the data regarding the essay guidlines, working TH amplifier will show. When displaying a value, if you do not act on any of the essay against corruption, buttons for 5 seconds, the ASC automatically goes back to essay revision the default display screen. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ASC - Amplifier Status Controller Runtime Monitor This function of the ASC provides the ability to alternately show on security 2010 the amplifier display the information on essay its operational status. Essay Corruption! Through this setup you can select the fields you want to be visibile when the revision guidlines, amplifier is essay corruption in india, on. For each field you can select YES to guidlines have the entry show on 2003 the display. Essay Revision Guidlines! You have to access to network 2010 the ASC and at least set the AMP ID. Left or right A channel general protection.

Amp off The amplifier will try to restart 5 times. Contact Audison Technical Support. Left or right B channel general protection. Revision! Amp off The amplifier will try to restart 5 times. Page 56: Drc - Digital Remote Control. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro DRC - Digital Remote Control (not provided with TH amplifier) The DRC is a microprocessor digital system providing remote control and against corruption in india monitoring of the TH amplifiers. Revision! Once connected it performs important functions such as: - Source selection (it also provides the ability to use the optical digital input as main source, checking its main volume) - Main volume control - Subwoofer volume control. MODEL (ADRS) PROTECTION TYPE Left or right A channel general protection.

Amp off Call Audison Technical Support. Left or right B channel general protection. Amp off Call Audison Technical Support. Coursework For Phd! Left or right A channel overload Autoreset protection. Revision Guidlines! Check speaker load.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro DRC - Digital Remote Control DRC - How to connect IN A IN B OUT A DC OUT DIGITAL AUDIO CONTROL BUS ADRS 1 - AC Link - 2 OPTICAL OUT - AD Link - IN DRC/AC Link cable (provided) DRC - How to against install 35 mm / 1.38#x201D;. Revision! Page 59: Acnet - Audison Control Network. ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro ACNet - Audison Control Network Software to control Audison amplifier Hardware Requirements: 1024x768 Display Optimized - 96 dpi Font size - 1 x USB port (1.1 compliant) IN A IN B OUT A DC OUT. ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network Functions Description 1 #x2022; SYSTEM DISPLAY: On this area the TH amplifiers connected to essay on abortion the system through the ACLink will be displayed. Essay Revision! This screen will show the coursework, TH amplifier model name and its ADRS. ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network System Display When installing a system composed by essay guidlines TH amplifiers it#x2019;s possible to create a network between them by using ACLink series connection. It is fundamental that a different ADRS starting from zero is assigned to network security 2010 each amplifier (see page 18). Guidlines! Page 62: Amplifier Setting: Identification.

ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network Amplifier Setting: Identification The amplifier identification provides its S/N - serial number (fixed), the owner name (free-text), the installer name (free-text) and the Firmware release included in the microprocessor inside the TH amplifier. Essay On Abortion! - If the amplifier being set receives the signal from another TH amp, connected in essay guidlines analog and 2003 essay digital AD Link, select Optical Slave . - If the revision guidlines, amplifier being set receives the signal from an nurture psychology external audio processor (Ex: Audison Bit One) select AD Link. Page 64: Amplifier Setting: Sensitivity And Preout Level. ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network Amplifier Setting: Sensitivity and Preout Level From this section featuring drop down menus, it is possible to regulate each amplifier#x2019;s input sensitivity, acting also on the High/Low Level. There are sliders for each channel which can work singularly or together if #x201C;linked#x201D;. The software enables the fine tuning between right and left, acting on the corresponding slider. Page 65: Amplifier Setting: Dual Power Memory. ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network Amplifier Setting: Dual Power Memory In this section the TH amps operating modes memories can be selected. Essay Revision! The availabIe preset are: Hi-AB Class (default), Hi-Current, A-Class, Energy Saving. Essay Psychology! They can be assigned to each single memory by guidlines using the drop down menus. ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network System Audio Control These controls act on on abortion the whole system: - System Volume: it#x2019;s the main volume control of the system, the slider on Min position switches on the muting and shows #x201C;MUTE#x201D; in revision guidlines the specific box. The adjustment starts from -60 dB (muting) up to 0 dB Max, 0,5 dB steps.

ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network Amplifier Status The ACNet software performs a real-time check-up of the controversial, amplifiers operating conditions. Once an amplifier is selected, the guidlines, parameters monitored by the ASC microprocessor are shown on the specific boxes. Controversial Essay! ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network System Amplitude Setup Once each single amplifier in revision the system has been set, it is essay psychology, possible to revision use the setup window above, which allows the sensitivity adjustment of all amplifiers of the entire system. ADVANCED MANUAL / ACNet ACNet - Audison Control Network System Dual Power Setup This setup enables the complete management of the operating mode of the 2003 essay, amplifiers in the systems. The chart above presents in one window all the amplifier names and essay revision guidlines channels being used.

ADVANCED MANUAL / TH quattro Technical Specifications Power supply Voltage 11 #xF7; 15 VDC Idling current: A-Class 8.9 A Hi-AB Class 6.6 A Hi-Current 3.6 A Energy Saving 2.6 A Switched off 0.04 mA Consumption @ 14.4 VDC, 1 #x2126;, Max musical power 105 A Remote IN voltage 7 #xF7;.

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Servant Leader Research Paper Essay. As a result of the information revolution commerce is being subjected to a rapid change in many businesses and not-for-profit organizations away from the more old-style dictatorial and tiered models of leadership and in the direction of servant leadership as a way of being in correlation with others. Servant leadership strives to involve others in decision making, is stalwartly based in principled and compassionate comportment, and augments the development of workforces while cultivating the compassionate and essay eminence of organizational life. It is argued that leaders who combine their motivation to progressive essay, lead with a need to serve display servant leadership. Personal characteristics and culture are positioned alongside the guidlines, motivational dimension. For Phd Biochemistry? Servant leadership is guidlines demonstrated by empowering and developing people; by expressing humility, authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and stewardship; and by providing direction. A high-quality dyadic relationship, trust, and fairness are expected to be the most important mediating processes to encourage self-actualization, positive job attitudes, performance, and a stronger organizational focus on biochemistry sustainability and corporate social responsibility. This paper will examine the essay revision, characteristics and concepts of servant leadership, with a comparison of servant leaderships to two other leadership styles, The concept of Servant Leadership. The words servant and leader are usually thought of as being opposites.

When two opposites are brought together in a creative and meaningful way, a paradox emerges. And so, the essay against corruption, words servant and essay revision guidlines leader have been brought together to create the paradoxical idea of nurture psychology servant-leadership. Revision Guidlines? The basic idea of controversial essay on abortion servant leadership is both logical and intuitive. Essay Revision Guidlines? Since the time of the era dbq essay, industrial revolution, managers have tended to view people as objects; institutions have considered workers as cogs within a machine. In the past few decades we have witnessed a shift in that long-held view. Essay Revision? Standard practices are rapidly shifting toward the ideas put forward by Robert Greenleaf, Stephen Covey, Peter Senge, Max DePree, Margaret Wheatley, Ken Blanchard, and many others who suggest that there is a better way to lead and manage our organizations. Servant-leadership, first proposed by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1970, is a conjectural agenda that promotes a leader’s principal incentive and role as service to others.

Servant leadership is a very prevalent leadership model. The servant leader serves the person he/she leads, which infers that employees are an end in themselves rather than a means to an organizational purpose or bottom line. Nurture Essay? There are ten characteristics of servant leadership: listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to essay guidlines, the growth of essay people, and essay revision guidlines building community. Which enhances Servant leadership replacement of the former command and control models of leadership, and to be more focused on the needs of others. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. The best test is: do those served grow as persons: do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on 2003 progressive essay the least privileged in society; will they benefit, or, at least, not be further deprived? (Greenleaf, 1977/2002, p. Essay Guidlines? 27) With that definition in 1970, retired ATT executive Robert K. Greenleaf (1904-1990) coined the term servant leadership and launched a quiet revolution in controversial essay on abortion, the way in which we view and practice leadership. Three decades later the concept of servant leadership is increasingly viewed as an ideal leadership form to which untold numbers of people and organizations aspire. Revision? In fact, we are witnessing today an unparalleled explosion of interest in, and practice of, servant leadership.

A way of leadership that states the leader is destined to work for people and community. Servant Leadership: What is Leadership? Leadership is the process of using social influence to organize a group of people toward common goals. Leaders point to the path to achieve goals and lead groups in order to accomplish objectives. Leaders may or may not have formal authority. According to coursework, the trait theory of leadership, certain human traits make people better leaders. Those traits said to be found in the most effective leaders are: intelligence, adjustment, extroversion, conscientiousness, openness to experiences, and general self-efficacy. Defining Servant Leadership. Servant leadership involves feeling responsible to essay revision guidlines, the world and actively contributing to in india, the well-being of people and communities. It begins with the feeling of guidlines wanting to essay on abortion, serve.

A servant leader looks at what people need and revision asks how to essay extended, help people in order to solve problems and promote personal development. He or she places the main focus on people, because content and motivated people will be best able to guidlines, reach their goals and fulfill expectations. Characteristics of Servant Leadership. Larry C. Baccalaureate Essay International? Spears identified 10 characteristics that are central to servant leadership.· 1. Essay Revision Guidlines? Listening: Traditionally, and also in servant leadership, managers must have communication skills. A servant leader listens to subordinates and supports them in network, decision-making. 2. Empathy: A servant leader attempts to guidlines, understand and empathize. Workers are considered not only employees but also people who deserve respect and appreciation for their personal development. 3. Network Thesis 2010? Healing: A great strength of a servant leader is the ability to heal oneself and others. A servant leader helps people solve problems and conflicts because they want to encourage and support individual personal development. 4. Awareness: A servant leader needs to cultivate general awareness and self-awareness. Such leaders need the guidlines, ability to view situations from integrated, holistic positions, resulting in a clearer understanding of ethics and values.

5. Persuasion: A servant leader does not take advantage of coursework for phd their power and status by revision guidlines, coercing compliance; they try to convince the people they manage. This element distinguishes servant leadership from traditional, authoritarian models. Essay? 6. Conceptualization: A servant leader thinks beyond day-to-day realities, seeing past the limits of the business and focusing on long-term goals. Essay? 7. Foresight: Foresight is the ability to foresee likely outcomes, enabling a servant leader to learn about the past and understand the changing nature of the current reality. 8. Stewardship: Servant leadership is seen as an obligation to help and serve others. Openness and persuasion are more important than control. 9. Against In India? Commitment to the growth of people: A servant leader is essay revision convinced that people have an intrinsic value beyond their contributions as workers. Therefore, he or she should nurture the on abortion, personal, professional, and spiritual growth of employees. 10. Building community: A servant leader builds a strong community within the organization and revision wants to develop a true community among businesses and institutions. 2) Compare and contrast servant leadership with at least two other models of leadership.

Discovering most favorable practices for gainful leadership consequences need not be caught up by the involvedness of the challenge to find an all-embracing leadership theory. In concern to the significantly significant leadership superiority of comprehensiveness, we can discover helpful attitudes contained by the perceptions of two chief leadership theories: transformational leadership and servant leadership. Nurture Psychology? The application or use, of these two leadership deportments in a harmonizing manner has the prospective for manufacturing an effective interaction in respect to an all-encompassing leadership style. Servant-leadership is most often compared with transformational leadership, a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. Essay Guidlines? Enacted in its authentic form, transformational leadership enhances the network security, motivation, morale and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms.

These include connecting the follower’s sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and essay revision guidlines weaknesses of followers, so the leader can align followers with tasks that optimize their performance. This theory was introduced in 1978 by James MacGregor Burns, and later extended by Bernard M. Bass (1985). Like servant-leadership, transformational leadership has become a popular leadership model in recent years because of its emphasis on extraordinary leader characteristics and security thesis its humanistic valuation of followers. Some behavioral scientists have contend that transformational and servant-leadership theories are both rooted in the charismatic leadership framework developed by Max Weber in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Smith, Montagno Kuzmenko, 2004). Indeed, both theories share the charismatic leadership model’s focus on leadership qualities and behavior.

Transformational and servant-leadership, however, are not the equivalents of each other, nor is one an instance of the other (Stone, Russell Patterson, 2003). Essay Revision Guidlines? Instead, they are complementary frameworks that share a focus on the individual, both in terms of appreciation of baccalaureate international followers and of emphasis on leadership characteristics, but differ significantly in leader motivation, organizational objectives, measures of success, resulting cultures, and guidlines contextual appropriateness. Smith, Montagno and Kuzmenko (2004) posit that “the leader’s motivation for behaving is a critical distinction between the two theories” (p. 85). Where the transformational leader is ultimately motivated by 2003 progressive era dbq, the need to essay revision guidlines, achieve organizational goals, the servant-leader is ultimately motivated by the need to essay against in india, support the self-actualization of followers.

In transformational leadership, the revision, personal development and empowerment of controversial essay on abortion followers is approached as a means for achieving the organizational goal; in servant-leadership, it is the goal. As a result, servant-leadership places a greater emphasis on people over production, and transformational leadership places a greater emphasis on the reverse. This results in different measures of success for the two theoretical frameworks. The differing emphases of the two theories also lead to guidlines, very different cultural environments, according to Smith, Montagno and Kuzmenko (2004). Transformational leadership’s combined emphasis on performance and controversial inspiration fosters an “empowered dynamic culture”, while servant-leadership’s emphasis on shared leadership and healthy follower relationships creates a “spiritual generative culture” (p. Revision? 86). Both cultures are markedly different, suggesting the two leadership styles may differ in contextual appropriateness. Similarities and for phd biochemistry Differences. Is there a real difference, if any, between transformational leadership and guidlines servant leadership? Is servant leadership just a subset of controversial transformational leadership or vice versa? Are transformational leadership and servant leadership the same theory, except for their use of different names?

The side-by-side comparison reveals that transformational leadership and servant leadership have relatively analogous characteristics. Perhaps this is because both transformational and servant leadership are attempts to define and explain people-oriented leadership styles. Essay? According to both concepts, their leadership frameworks incorporate: (a) influence, (b) vision, (c) trust, (d) respect or credibility, (d) risk-sharing or delegation, (e) integrity, and (f) modeling. Both transformational leadership and servant leadership emphasize the importance of extended appreciating and valuing people, listening, mentoring or teaching, and empowering followers. In fact, the theories are probably most similar in their emphasis upon individualized consideration and appreciation of followers. In comparison, transformational leadership and servant leadership do have points of variation. There is a much greater emphasis upon essay revision guidlines service of followers and service to followers in the servant leadership paradigm.

Furthermore, while both transformational leaders and servant leaders are influential, servant leaders gain influence in a nontraditional manner that derives from servanthood itself (Russell Stone, 2002). In so doing, they allow extraordinary freedom for followers to exercise their own abilities. Essay Extended International? They also place a much higher degree of trust in essay revision guidlines, their followers than would be the case in any leadership style that required the leader to be somewhat directive. Are there any real differences between transformational leadership and servant leadership, our position is that the concepts hold many similarities, and they are complementary theories in many respects. Nonetheless, they ultimately form a distinctly separate theoretical framework of leadership because of a primary difference. The principal difference between transformational leadership and servant leadership is the focus of the leader. While transformational leaders and servant leaders both show concern for baccalaureate essay, their followers, the overriding focus of the servant leader is upon revision guidlines service to their followers. The transformational leader has a greater concern for getting followers to on abortion, engage in and support organizational objectives. The extent to which the leader is able to shift the primary focus of his or her leadership from the essay revision guidlines, organization to baccalaureate essay extended, the follower is the distinguishing factor in determining whether the leader may be a transformational or servant leader. Furthermore, we proffer that this primary distinction influences other characteristics and outcomes, giving rise to secondary differences between the concepts. Servant Leadership vs.

Authentic Leadership: What are the Differences? written by: N Nayab•edited by: Jean Scheid•updated: 6/8/2010. Authentic leadership is a concept introduced by management expert Bill George in his 2003 book “Authentic Leadership” and developed further in the later book “True North.” George describes authentic leadership as a leadership style that is consistent with a leaders’ personality and core values, and that is honest, ethical and practical. Both servant leadership and authentic leadership are positive leadership concepts that have much in common. The major difference between servant leadership and essay guidlines authentic leadership lies in approach, application, and style. slide 1 of network 2010 6. What is Authentic Leadership and Servant Leadership? Bob Terry, in his book “Authentic Leadership: Courage in Action” (1993) defines authentic leadership as knowing and essay revision acting on what is true and coursework for phd real inside the leaders self, team, and essay guidlines organization, along with knowing and acting on what is true and real in the world. Authentic leaders are confident, hopeful, optimistic, and resilient individuals deeply aware of how they think and behave. Such people display a high level of integrity and remain committed to building an organization through purpose, value, heart, relationships, and self-discipline. Servant Leadership is a positive leadership model that has emerged out of the root concept of authentic leadership.

Robert Greenleaf, in his 1970 essay “The Servant as Leader” describes servant leaders as individuals with a natural inclination to serve. Such people make a conscious choice to lead to serve rather than lead to gain power or acquire material possessions. Psychology? They try to serve their organizations through characteristics such as listening, empathy, healing relationships, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to essay revision, human resource development, and commitment to building community. slide 2 of 6. Similarities between Servant Leadership and Authentic Leadership Servant leadership and authentic leadership have many characteristics in common. Both leadership styles: Genuine desire to serve others and are interested in empowering the people they serve Place a high importance on values and remain guided by qualities of compassion, and passion Refuse to compromise on essay in india principles.

Place high importance on establishing relationships with people Rely on their personal charisma to get things done Leaders lead from essay personal conviction rather than a desire for status or reward Focus on building people’s strengths rather than focusing on what is network 2010 wrong with people and their weaknesses The basis of both authentic leadership and essay revision guidlines servant leadership lie in coursework for phd, either explicit or implicit recognition of the leader’s self-awareness and essay the focus on integrity, trust, courage, and hope. While these remain established traits in authentic leadership, they remain largely theoretical and not supported by empirical research in servant leadership model. slide 3 of 6. Difference between Servant Leadership and Authentic Leadership in Approach The fundamental difference between servant leadership and authentic leadership lies in the approach. While servant leadership strives to be “right,” authentic leadership strives to be “real.” Servant leadership is a normative leadership style that lays down set characteristics that all leaders are supposed to emulate to attain success and tries to shape the character and personality of the leader to such values. Authentic leadership on the other hand, is character driven and does not recognize leadership styles or a fixed set of characteristics that leaders are supposed to emulate.

The authentic leadership theory holds that each leader has their own unique style developed through study, experience, consultation and introspection, and consistent with their character and personality. slide 4 of 6. Difference between Servant Leadership and Authentic Leadership in Application A major difference between authentic leaders vs servant leaders relate to serving others needs. Essay? The core principle of servant leadership is to give priority to the interest of others. The primary duty of the leader is to serve others by fulfilling their needs, aspirations, and desires. Essay Revision Guidlines? Authentic leadership on the other hand does not encourage the leader to essay, be too responsive to the desires of essay revision guidlines others on going overboard to meet the desires of each individuals create problems such as: Organizational goals suffering due to competing interests. Danger of deviating from course of action. Leader not making difficult decisions due to fear of offending slide 5 of 6. Difference between Servant Leadership and Authentic Leadership in Style Servant leadership’s one-dimensional approach does not change in response to the situation. This leadership style recommends listening, persuasion, and empathy even during times of grave crisis. Authentic leaders are more proactive and adapt their style to fit the immediate situation.

Such leaders can be inspiring and essay corruption in india motivating on one occasion, and tough about people-related or financial decisions on revision another occasion. While both servant leaders and authentic leaders look for opportunities to partner with individuals and groups to coursework biochemistry, address organizational, societal, and environmental issues, the difference between servant leadership and authentic leadership is essay revision that authentic leaders foster innovation better and help their organizations discover unique and creative solutions to issues. slide 6 of 6. What Is an Authentic Leadership Style? Authentic leadership is a concept introduced by management expert Bill George in network 2010, his 2003 book “Authentic Leadership” and developed further in the later book “True North.” George describes authentic leadership as a leadership style that is consistent with a leaders’ personality and essay core values, and that is honest, ethical and practical. An authentic leader is more interested in empowering employees than in money or personal power, and is guided by compassion and heart in everything they do. While many authentic leaders may have natural abilities, George emphasizes that anyone can become an authentic leader through hard work and developing their leadership qualities. Baccalaureate Essay International? Authentic leaders are dedicated to continued personal growth and essay committed to building lasting relationships and strong organizations. Authentic leaders draw their inspiration from their own lives.

An example: Starbucks’ founder Howard Schultz was inspired by his fathers’ struggles with poor health to make Starbucks the essay corruption in india, first American company to provide health care options to part-time employees. Schultz consciously used his life experiences to revision guidlines, build a company that was a reflection of his personal values. Related Reading: The Effects of a Manager’s Leadership Style. An authentic leader is not afraid to admit mistakes and work to overcome shortcomings. By facing their weaknesses and refusing to controversial essay, compromise with them, authentic leaders can find ways to overcome their weaknesses and this makes them stronger leaders. An authentic leader develops her own leadership style, but this leadership style should not be overly rigid. An authentic leadership style is one that can adapt to changing circumstances and situations. You should also be able to delegate when necessary and not be afraid of changing the way that you do things to suit different situations. George suggests that to begin developing your authentic leadership style, you should begin by assessing yourself against the five qualities of an authentic leader. These qualities are: understanding your purpose, practicing your values, leading with your heart, establishing connected relationships and demonstrating self-discipline. 3) Describe the organization (e.g., industry, number of employees, vision, goals).

MDI being the service entity of the company actually is essay revision guidlines placed in the heart and soul of servant leadership. 4) Describe how servant leadership can be applied to network, your organization. 5) Explain how implementing servant leadership would impact the ability of the organization to realize its vision and accomplish its goals. 6) Explain how you might go about implementing servant leadership within your organization or within a specific part of the revision, organization if you were the leader. 7) Identify the following (relating to implementing servant leadership within your organization): (a) Stakeholders who would be advocates or supporters. (b)Potential challenges or obstacles and how you would overcome them. Arkin, A. (2004). Serve the servants. Nurture? People Management, 10(25), 30-33. Biberman, J., and Whitty, M. (1997). A postmodern spiritual future for work. Journal of Organizational Change, 10(2), 130-138.

Bass, B. M. Essay Revision Guidlines? (1998). Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Brody, D. (1992). First among equals: a corporate executive’s vision and the reemerging philosophy of trustees as servant leaders. Foundation News. Council on coursework Foundations. Retrieved November 22, 2005 Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership.

New York. Harper Row. Eicher-Catt, Deborah (2005). The myth of servant-leadership. Women and Language, 28(1), 17-25. Frick, Don M. Guidlines? (2004). Terre Haute’s Original Servant Leader: Robert K.

George, Bill Bennis, Warren. (2008) Authentic Leadership. Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value. Greenleaf, R.K. (1991). The servant as leader. Essay Against Corruption In India? Indianapolis, IN: The Robert K. Greenleaf Center. [Originally published in essay revision guidlines, 1970, by Robert K. For Phd Biochemistry? Greenleaf]. Greenleaf, R.K. (1996).

On becoming a servant-leader. San Francisco: Josey-Bass Publishers. Hunter, J.C. (2004). The world’s most powerful leadership principle: how to become a servant leader. New York: Crown Business. Joseph, E.E., and Winston, B.E. (2005). Revision? A correlation of servant leadership, leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 26(1), 6-22. Kiechel, W. Baccalaureate Essay International? (1992).

The leader as servant. Fortune, 125, 121-122. King, S. (1994). What is the latest on leadership? Management Development Review, 7(6), 7-9. Lee, C., and Zemke, R. (1993).

The search for spirit in revision guidlines, the workplace. Training, 30, 21- 28. Lloyd, B. (1996). A new approach to leadership. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 17(7), 29-32. McCormick, D.W. (1994). Spirituality and management.

Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(6), 5-8. Russell, R.F. (2001). Security 2010? The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 22(2), 76-83. Russell, R.F., and essay revision guidlines Stone, A.G. (2002). A review of extended international servant leadership attributes: developing a practical model. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157. Sarkus, D.J. Essay Revision Guidlines? (1996).

Servant-leadership in safety: advancing the cause and practice. Professional Safety, 41, 26-32. Sendjaya, S., and Sarros, J.C. (2002). Security Thesis 2010? Servant leadership: its origins, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadershiop and Organization Studies, 9(2), 57-64. Smith, B.N., Montagno, R.V., and Kuzmenko, T.N. (2004). Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10(4), 80-91. Spears, L. Essay Guidlines? (1996).

Reflections on Robert K. Greenleaf and servant-leadership. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 17(7), 33-35. Spears, L.C., and Lawrence, M. (eds.). (2004). Practicing servant-leadership: succeeding through trust,bravery and forgiveness. Security Thesis? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Stone, A.G., Russell, R.F., and Patterson, K. (2003). Transformational versus servant leadership: a difference in leader focus.

Leadership Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349-361. Tate, T.F. (2003). Servant leadership for schools and youth programs. Reclaiming Children and essay revision guidlines Youth, 12(1), 33-39. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to the adoption of e-business solutions for B2B activities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the literature to describe the essay guidlines, technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. 2010. It then explores the current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to revision, inform the development of its future e-business strategy. Findings – The results of the survey indicate a lack of network security thesis enthusiasm among Princes’ supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.

Research limitations/implications – The empirical survey is limited to the UK soft drinks sector and allows for the development of revision descriptive findings. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications – The work has significant implications for the development of Princes’ e-business strategy, and – by extrapolation – for other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value – The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Essay. Its value stems in part from the revision, examination of the security 2010, supply chain tensions created at tier-1– between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Essay Guidlines. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to for phd, the conducting f business transactions over electronic/computer networks, including the internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and therefore encompasses processes related to the buying, selling and guidlines trading of products, services and information, (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002).

There has been considerable publicity given to the use of e-commerce in business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. However, the use of e-commerce for business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and progressive era dbq future revenue generation (Barnes and Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the supply base, i. e. for inbound procurement, and with customers for transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of guidlines ecommerce is seemingly unavoidable – “ . 2003 Essay. . . e-commerce is no longer an alternative, but an imperative. Revision. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the best approach for establishing and doing business in 2003 progressive era dbq, the digital economy? ” (Lee, 2001, p. 49). This suggests that, in moving into an e-commerce business environment – over which there is little choice – there is a need to develop an ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Lee goes on to argue that in addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for companies or industries and that developing an e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to doing business (Lee, 2001). It follows that the development of an e-business strategy is uniquely challenging and essential.

Such a strategy should concern not only the appropriate technology choices of tools and revision solutions, but also the essay extended international, coherence and integration of these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. , 2003) and with their wider strategy for supply chain management (Smart and Harrison, 2002). Revision Guidlines. The empirical component of this paper – presented after theoretical background – explores the situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of essay psychology this journal is available at www. meraldinsight. Essay Revision. com/1359-8546. htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353–362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for coursework biochemistry FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and the implications of these for the development of e-business strategy. Within the broad definition of e-commerce, it is clear that there are alternative technological routes by which ecommerce can be achieved – the internet being only one possibility. Moreover, both within the revision, literature and in ractice, there is progressive era dbq, confusion over the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term “e-commerce” synonymously with that of “e-commerce mediated via the internet”, or “I-commerce” (e. g. Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and Ng, 2003). The increasing accessibility of the internet and the wide availability of standard browsers is encouraging the expansion of essay revision guidlines e-commerce via the for phd biochemistry, internet (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Essay Revision. However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Structuring their discussion of the impact of controversial essay e-commerce on essay guidlines operations, Gunasekaran et al. (2002) distinguish between the principal contemporary options – email, EDI and the internet. This distinction mirrors the structure of the empirical research undertaken in support of this paper.

The three options are discussed below. Email was one of the first applications to run on the internet and 2003 involves the guidlines, direct transmission of text messages between 2 users. Using email provides the simplest form of ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). Baccalaureate Extended International. It is revision guidlines, quick and uncomplicated, but lacks the sophistication provided by EDI and internetmediated e-commerce solutions.

Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to eliminate the delays and errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for example, orders, delivery notes and thesis 2010 invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It has been in existence for over 20 years and has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to link suppliers into their business processes. On the inbound supply-side of an organisation’s operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to revision guidlines, orders and enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and frequently proprietary in nature. Standardisation of biochemistry approaches is restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and the cost of revision participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is 2003, typically characterised by closed groups of revision users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. The costs of coursework switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by EDI has tended to be limited to larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. It is less popular with smaller organisations or those in essay revision, non-stable supply networks where the costs of participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the internet is being promoted as a means to facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in controversial on abortion, cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and potential for guidlines innovation and 2010 new usiness opportunities (e. g. Revision Guidlines. Wagner et al. Essay In India. , 2003, Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. Revision Guidlines. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).

Internet technology differs from conventional EDI technology in several important ways. It is relatively inexpensive. It is based on open standards and baccalaureate extended international therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to accommodate changes in users with ease (Hawkins and essay revision guidlines Prencipe, 2000). It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to customers and suppliers worldwide. Moreover, pplications are not limited to inter-firm transactions.

Internet and Web technology can be used within the organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and improve process efficiency through the sharing of information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Intranets, the term used to describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware[1] applications (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). As such, they can be extended to encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to facilitate closer relationships with customers and suppliers, to improve the co-ordination of nurture essay psychology (supply chain) activities, and to improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and extensibility – i. e. the potential to access further applications via a web-server – (Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to match the robustness and capacity of EDI for carrying out B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the essay revision, obvious benefits offered by internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. Essay Psychology. , 2003). Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in particular, are failing to appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the majority of e-commerce transactions continue to be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and guidlines Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on a range of published literature to develop a macro view of the causes of this and of the nurture essay psychology, scale of the guidlines, problem.

The adoption of e-commerce solutions in supply chains In order to link with the subsequent empirical work within the controversial, paper, this section is structured around the perspective of a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. Essay Revision Guidlines. However, the data, upon which it draws, is not specific to the FMCG sector. On Abortion. E-business strategy development: an essay revision guidlines, FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 354 For some time, EDI has been the controversial essay on abortion, technological choice of large manufacturing and retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. (e. g. Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and Humphreys, 2004). For these major commercial and industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to the technology, represents an effective and efficient means of conducting e-commerce. Therefore, for these organisations, there is little need to consider the pportunities offered by the internet. Additionally, it has been said that the internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and guidlines that they therefore have little incentive to develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of retailers, it may be expected that they would have an equivalent reluctance to network security, develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on their supply-side. Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. On the supply-side, there is far less consensus and tandardisation of approach. Revision. Individual companies may supply many customers – some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.

In this situation the arguments for considering the relatively flexible and accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. Nurture. However, evidence suggests that industry is not rushing to adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. , 2003). There is revision, typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the baccalaureate essay, problem has been highlighted in a number of surveys, which are summarised in Table I. Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is scant and typically limited to the identification of generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Table II draws on published literature to develop a view of the factors that are thought to revision guidlines, be influencing decisions to develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.

These are classified as either drivers or barriers. The drivers for psychology adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the most dominant – particularly the desire to reduce costs – and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and guidlines improvements in efficiency (Clegg, 2001). In this case, the drivers seem to be strategic rather than tactical in nature. It has also been noted that the approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is exploratory and experimental (Williams et al. , 2001, Malone, 2001). This suggests that a cautious and possibly opportunistic view of the technology prevails and for phd biochemistry that an important factor influencing the extent and revision effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisation’s perception of the risks and benefits associated with the technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the principal options for developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the current status of ecommerce implementation. In the following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is presented. Coursework For Phd Biochemistry. Analysis of the case supports much of the essay guidlines, earlier discussion and provides empirical evidence of the status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in the supply base of Princes Soft Drinks, UK. In India. A case from the FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for Princes Soft Drinks.

It presents a survey of the company’s supply base, and discusses how the findings of this informed the essay, strategy development process. By contrast to essay in india, the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into the adoption of essay revision e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by the UK Office for National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of era dbq smaller businesses in essay revision, the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in the food and clothing sector 66% of manufacturers had no immediate plan to develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the essay, UK (Scotland – Wagner et al. , 2003; and guidlines Wales – Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to essay against in india, trade electronically and to use the internet to revision guidlines, achieve this 0% of essay those using e-commerce were doing so only because of pressure from essay revision guidlines, their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as “low” Multiple sector survey of 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of companies recognised the strategic importance of internet technology and were using it to develop new business models by re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of adding value International study (Baldwin et al. 2001) More advanced use of the internet in progressive essay, technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Essay Guidlines. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in era dbq essay, table I, the survey conducted as part of this study is focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to the findings of previous studies, it also elaborates on essay revision them by providing a ore detailed company perspective of the essay, issues. Practical context: the FMCG sector Within the FMCG supply chain a distinction is made between consumers – the end users of a product, and customers – retailers through which products are sold to consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Typically, manufacturers of FMCG products must use retailers to access their consumers and as a consequence the balance of power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on the side of a small number of extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and guidlines Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. These organisations, by irtue of nurture essay their position in the supply chain, are the change agents in the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for essay revision guidlines tier-1 suppliers, e. g. the introduction of product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the same.

A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on their top 100 suppliers to essay extended international, use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (O’Keeffe, 2001). This O’Keeffe refers to as the change from the “supply chain management era” to the “network era”, key components of the change being summarised in Table III. However, this by no means describes the sector as a whole. Revision. The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to the earlier supply chain management model characterised by fierce price competition, with “powerful buyers and traditionally weak sellers” (O’Keeffe, 2001); i. e. an nvironment in essay against corruption, which cost reduction is a management mantra.

Tier-1 companies in essay revision, the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for eventual sale to consumers via retailers and against corruption in india as such form the interface between a small number of powerful retail customers and a plethora of smaller industrial suppliers of essay revision guidlines both specialised and commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in the unenviable position of essay being squeezed between e-committed retailers on the outbound side and e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and guidlines is the coursework for phd, largest UK supplier of own-label processed grocery products. The Soft Drinks division within the group is the major supplier of fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. It is a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of e-commerce. Drivers (reactive – R, proactive – P, strategic – S, tactical – T) Barriers Pressure from others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to essay guidlines, maintain an e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of progressive new business models – e. g. the role of intermediaries and distributors (P,S) Cost reduction – e. g. transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency – e. g. reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and logistics (P,T) Business process integration – integration of purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in essay revision, supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of acquiring and maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about security and controversial essay control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the internet and e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of revision skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from employees – based on fear, inertia, lack of faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from suppliers – unwilling to drop proprietary systems and 2003 a lack of equipment and revision time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Incoherence and perceived lack of security and flexibility – internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of alternative business eras in retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of reason: efficiency The age of possibility: opportunity Taking costs out Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.

Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on progressive essay volume Focus on essay value Source: O’Keeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the supply chain to lower tier suppliers. Network Security Thesis 2010. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of guidlines Princes’ major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in baccalaureate essay, the FMCG marketplace, the report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. If Cotts’ system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of lower selling prices and improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the major supermarket retailers using EDI. Different technological approaches were used for different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in alternative solutions in order to trade downstream. Essay Revision Guidlines. The use of EDI enabled transactional data to be imported into and exported out of SAP – Princes’ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system – quickly and accurately. Essay Extended. The use of EDI, together with the integration of transactional data into Princes’ SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the company’s outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on a combination of telephone, fax and the traditional postal service.

During the latter part of the essay guidlines, 1990s, Princes had explored the essay on abortion, possibility of adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. Revision. At this time, with the rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to handle the transactional data that was required and this was frequently sent via fax or post. The company began to pilot an application called “Business Connector” which used the psychology, internet to essay guidlines, transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is essay against in india, far from essay, universal and many companies – large and small – make use of network 2010 alternative ERP packages. Thus, Princes’ use of this application had been restricted to only a small number of essay revision guidlines its total supply base (i. e. to those that used SAP). The company was aware of many national and security multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the quality and the value of the information that they exchanged with their business partners, the objectives of such collaborative initiatives being to revision, improve the overall performance of the supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and the potential threat posed by Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.

In particular, they were interested in establishing the essay against, positions and views of the organisations within their supply base on the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and anticipated impact of the internet on B2B communication and revision business transactions might be. Network Security Thesis 2010. The results of the investigation were to essay guidlines, inform the development of a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the progressive era dbq, company forward into the twenty-first century. Essay Guidlines. As a tier-1 business within an aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. In order to develop and implement future strategic direction for the use of ecommerce in all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the prevailing degree of progressive enthusiasm for e-commerce. Revision. Study design issues Prior to undertaking this research, Princes’ knowledge of its suppliers’ views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an controversial essay on abortion, FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 357 understanding in this area would have been unwise. There was therefore a critical need to carry out an revision guidlines, exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of this supply chain.

In the sense that it should allow the coursework biochemistry, company to focus on understanding the dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to essay, develop an essay against corruption in india, enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and Meredith, 1993), the study needed to be case-based. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the views of as many members of the supply network as possible. Essay Revision Guidlines. Detailed dyadic data relating to a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of network all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to revision, inform the 2003 progressive era dbq, development of an e-business strategy. Accordingly, a study design based on revision the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. Essay In India. e. he statistical analysis of essay revision guidlines data gathered by essay against in india, large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the most popular approach used in OM research, representing approximately 60 per essay revision guidlines cent of the published research in this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of network this approach is that the techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by the research community. Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for essay guidlines relatively little cost. The means by essay against corruption in india, which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and hence the value of the results obtained. In this case, care needed to be taken in the design of the questionnaire and also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the supply chain could be built up. Study methodology and limitations Princes’ procurement strategy had been to work in partnership with a small number of suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. As a consequence of this consolidation strategy, Princes’ supply base consisted of approximately 100 suppliers.

Of these, 61 ere selected to take part in the survey. The selection criteria applied was that the volume of business from each should exceed 1 per cent of Princes’ annual purchases. A survey questionnaire was designed for which completion would be unsupervised. It was structured around the following key themes and essay revision guidlines topics: . current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and current communication methods; . suppliers’ views of the psychology, specific electronic communication channels, i. e. EDI, Email and internet/websites; and . a section on organisational details. The majority of the questions were of the “closed” type as these were felt to be most suitable for essay revision guidlines the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the essay in india, understanding of the issues, “open” questions were also included. Given the relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. Essay. To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to identify the on abortion, appropriate respondent by essay revision guidlines, name, to encourage their cooperation and to ask if they would participate in the study. 4 (88 per cent) responded positively and were sent the questionnaire. Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per cent of the 54) were received in time for the subsequent analysis. Whilst this response does not cover the entire Princes’ supply base, it is estimated that it represents over 85 per cent of all annual procurement transactions measured by essay against in india, value and volume. Revision. Additionally, the responding organisations included all but two of the company’s top 20 suppliers (measured by annual value).

The constitution of the respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of e-Business. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of analysis that would undoubtedly have led to greater depth of progressive essay understanding. Guidlines. However, the primary purpose of the study was for the rapid collection of data that would inform the development of strategy. Coursework For Phd. The findings are largely descriptive. Revision. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of the strategy-formulators, 33 per cent identified the use of psychology EDI as part of the strategy, and 28 per essay guidlines cent mentioned the use of their SAP ERP systems within it. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the development of websites and portals were other common themes. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to nurture, formulate one. The percentage of this group looking to their key customers to contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.

All survey respondents currently used at least two methods of communication with their business partners, and the majority used at least four methods. Essay Revision. The most popular methods of communication were email, fax, and network security thesis phone, used by 92 per cent, 92 per cent and 90 per cent of respondents respectively. By contrast, use of the internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per cent adoption rate. Essay Guidlines. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per network cent of the sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the essay revision, internet. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents’ views of the 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for B2B communication has been rapid and network thesis far-reaching and essay guidlines has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in developing an e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and 2003 essay many saw it as equally essential to business as the telephone or computer.

It was used for both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Transactional security and difficulties of essay guidlines backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of use and low cost of email meant that it remained the preferred medium of nurture many organisations and for many transaction types. It is seen as less useful for payment and invoicing transactions than for transactions such as notification of order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and acknowledging receipt. Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 358 process email messages by printing or downloading to preadsheet software, although 15 per cent of respondents are able to essay guidlines, integrate some of the messages directly to internal business systems. The disadvantages cited for email included the high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of security.

The percentage of essay in india respondents who expect the importance of email as a B2B communication channel to increase numbered 97 per cent. Of the respondents, 59 per cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. Guidlines. This may be explained by the relatively high adoption rate in the FMCG sector as a whole, where – as discussed earlier – tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by the major retailers and distributors who appear to against, have the power to essay revision guidlines, force its adoption (Hill and corruption in india Scudder, 2002). A number of Princes’ suppliers – described as “dual suppliers” in Figure 1 – are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the sugar suppliers).

Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of EDI is relatively high. Additionally it may have been influenced by the fact that the average turnover of the responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in the sample. In the survey, EDI is most used for essay revision conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on the demand-side. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Others either download the EDI output to spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of EDI by the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for nurture cost or technology reasons. There appears to be a possible link between the essay revision, adoption of 2003 essay EDI and company turnover – with adopters tending to essay, have higher turnover than non-adopters. Of all respondents, 59 per cent believe that they will be using EDI for business transactions in the future. Only 35 per cent of respondents felt that the importance of EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.

Overall, this suggests that the scope for uture EDI adoption is essay international, limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. The most cited advantage perceived for using EDI is the efficiency gains that derive from its use for transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned – but with much lower frequency – included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Essay Revision Guidlines. Evidence that supports an observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the use of EDI in the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies “may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for developing supply chain management” (ibid, p. 383).

The most cited disadvantages relate to costs, inflexibility and technical complexity. Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the danger of obsolete technology, security and the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to use the internet (excluding its use for email) to communicate with partners, only essay international, 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for business communication. Of the essay, adopters, rivate exchanges were the network 2010, predominant platform used, although this may be because many of guidlines Princes’ suppliers are already hooked into an exchange that has been set up by one of their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of baccalaureate extended business processes were being executed through the internet, including both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and delivery receipt. Less common uses are for invoicing, forecasting, and payment.

Unlike EDI, the majority of messages transmitted hrough the internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into internal business systems. The most commonly cited reason for the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Other reasons included the essay revision, view that the 2003 progressive era dbq essay, technology was still too immature to be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to use it. However, all respondents expect its use to increase in the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of use, high availability of revision nformation, flexibility and speed.

These benefits were expected to contribute to business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and business integration, increased processing and labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and inventory holdings. As indicated in Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of personal interaction, and the inefficiency of the internet. Respondents identified technological needs in order to implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for software middleware[2] and for essay against in india integrative hardware. Study summary As summarised below, the study’s findings indicated that the development of a B2B procurement strategy needed to take account of three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of essay revision generic B2B software solutions were found to be: . the immature nature of the B2B marketplace and of the software available within it; . the lack of 2010 universal standards for e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and transactions; and a lack of evidence of the ability of essay guidlines B2B software to synchronise supply chains, to improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on essay investment (Fontanella, 2001). Particularly important to Princes was the costs already sunk in the company’s ERP system (SAP). Essay. This had given the company a high degree of thesis internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to essay, automate the procurement process from order generation through to settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and essay on abortion could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of these issues. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Essay. Beach and against in india I. Essay. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the grocery retail industry continues to be intense and retail customers continue to exert pressure on biochemistry their tier-1 suppliers.

Price pressures increased during the time in which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the essay guidlines, justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to Princes’ suppliers. Thus, there was a need for solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of in india investment. Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes’ suppliers. The technical sophistication of essay revision their approaches to internal business processes also varied from leading edge ERP systems to controversial essay on abortion, those using stand alone PCs. It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by Princes had to essay revision guidlines, be capable of operating over a variety of channels and communicating in a variety of formats. Furthermore, in order to achieve full integration of the biochemistry, supply chain, information needs to flow seamlessly up and down the chain in the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of essay securing the extended, open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to essay revision, integrate inter-business processes.

Cultural change is necessary to develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Nurture Essay. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 360 a unified vision of the essay guidlines, supply system. For many of Princes’ suppliers, the volume of trade does not justify the financial and resource-based investment needed to develop this level of collaboration and for others, the nature of the coursework, trading elationship precludes its achievement. High levels of interbusiness integration and collaboration are not considered appropriate for all partnerships. Thus the B2B solution for Princes would have to essay guidlines, be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Nurture Psychology. Discussion and conclusions The constitution of the respondents to the Princes survey means that the findings of the essay revision, research are likely to reflect the essay corruption in india, views of essay guidlines those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of ecommerce. Given this, the findings are somewhat depressing. The lack of enthusiasm for e-commerce in general and for internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the evidence summarised earlier in the paper that industry is not yet ready for full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.

However, although it has shown the nurture, use of internet-enabled transactions to guidlines, be limited, a notable statistic is the baccalaureate essay extended international, number of respondents that use email to communicate within the guidlines, supply chain and who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the benefits are clear and the osts and risks acceptable, companies are willing to adopt new technology, to identify its limitations and to essay against, exploit its potential. This case-based evidence supports the findings of Hawkins and Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in their approach. The adoption of contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the supply chain. Considering the particular position of tier-1 suppliers in essay revision, FMCG chains where the nature of relationships has raditionally been transactional and adversarial, it is controversial essay on abortion, clear that the essay, development of an e-commerce strategy is extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.

The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes’ suppliers is understandable, but difficult to incorporate into progressive essay a “one-sizefits- all” supply-side e-commerce strategy. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and retail customers, with the revision, result that they were unwilling and unable to invest in a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to continue with a piecemeal approach to supplyside e-commerce in the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to improved accessibility and greater standardisation. Thesis 2010. As shown in Figure 1, Princes is squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Whilst there is some coherence of approach to e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the supply base. Princes finds itself forced to adopt different prescribed systems at its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at its supply-side. Arguably this uncomfortable position is a general feature of essay revision tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.

In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to trade using a particular approach (e. g. EDI) the associated investment may be seen as too large and uncertain. On the other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the same approach then the investment may more easily be justified. 2003 Progressive. Where customers demand different approaches, the supplier must apportion the investment among the different relationships. This process of investment may ultimately lead to structural changes within the industry via the guidlines, development of a range of tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of e-commerce. At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to maintain several means of electronic trading.

As a supplier, Princes falls within the essay, latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to essay, fund a variety of solutions and hence little enthusiasm for e-commerce. Essay Against Corruption. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional “dual suppliers” fall into revision the same category as Princes – typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. This view of controversial essay on abortion future industry re-structuring has parallels to revision, developments within the essay against in india, automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in power and size, and are able to rade with a range of customers using alternative e-commerce solutions[3]. Notes 1 Groupware is revision, a range of software tools and associated technology that is used to support groups of essay people working together. Essay Guidlines. Typically, this includes a number of personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. The span can range from coursework for phd, a single room to revision guidlines, full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the transfer of information and he synchronisation of nurture essay psychology activities between the two applications. 3 The ideas discussed in revision, the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an anonymous reviewer.

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Essays schrijven - het literaire zelfonderzoek. Naast hoofdredacteur van Schrijven Magazine en Schrijven Online is revision guidlines Louis Stiller ook docent essayschrijven bij de Schrijversvakschool in corruption in india, Amsterdam, en auteur van een aantal essayboeken. Tevens is hij auteur van het boek 'Essays schrijven', in revision guidlines, de Schrijfbibliotheek van Augustus. Essays zijn overal, elke dag. Network Thesis 2010. In de krant, op de radio, in revision, de Tweede Kamer, in controversial on abortion, de klas, in essay guidlines, de kerk. 2003 Essay. Elke dag vergasten auteurs Ca of guidlines Mu ons op een essayjuweeltje in het linkerbenedenhoekje van de Volkskrant. Elke week spreken dominees en pastoors hun uitgesponnen religieuze essays vanaf de preekstoel.

Elke maand verschijnen tientallen literaire essays in tijdschriften als Tirade, De Gids of on abortion Bunker Hill – soms vermomd als recensie, monografie of revision guidlines ingezonden brief. Door deze alomtegenwoordigheid zouden we het essay het meest succesvolle literaire genre kunnen noemen. Security Thesis. Nog meer dan gedichten en verhalen. Essay Revision. Die tref je weliswaar tegenwoordig ook op de merkwaardigste plaatsen aan, maar de veelkoppigheid van het essay maakt dat je vaak als lezer, kijker of essay psychology luisteraar nauwelijks door hebt dat je met een essay te maken hebt. Guidlines. Ingezonden brief van een brandweercommandant in nurture essay, NRC Handelsblad: essay. Essay Revision Guidlines. Slotbeschouwing bij het najaarsoverleg: essay: Gesproken column van Francisco van Jole in De Leugen Regeert: essay. Ondanks deze brede verschijning lijkt het essay nog altijd het literaire genre met de minste status te zijn.

Romanschrijver, dat willen we worden, of essay corruption in india dichter; toneelschrijver zou ook mooi zijn, misschien scenarist. Essay Guidlines. Verhalenverteller, ook leuk. Maar essayist? Ooit een groepje adolescenten bij de studie Nederlands met rode konen horen discussieren wie betere essays schrijft: Piet Meeuse of Bas Heine? Weliswaar wordt de PC Hooftprijs afwisselend uitgereikt aan een dichter, een prozaist en een essayist, maar nog nooit hoorde ik een aangeschoten jongedame in de kroeg opscheppen dat zij de beste essayist van Nederland wil worden. Baccalaureate Extended International. Veel uitgevoerd, weinig begeerd: dat is essay revision guidlines het lot van het essay. Het zij zo. Bedenk: waar kun je essays aantreffen? In welke media, op welke plekken?

Wat doen die essays? Wat is essay extended international hun doel, hun functie? Probeer voor jezelf te formuleren wat essays zijn. Deel 2: Op zoek naar de persoonlijke vraag. Wat een essay precies is, is revision nog altijd voer voor vele discussies. Network Thesis 2010. Is elke willekeurige column en recensie in een dag- of weekblad er een, hoort een biografie ook tot het genre, en kun je alle schoolopstellen essays noemen? Dat laatste is essay guidlines nog niet eens zo’n rare veronderstelling, als je naar het curriculum van Amerikaanse en Engelse scholen kijkt.

Essayschrijven wordt daar gedrild: inleiding, these, uitwerking, conclusie. Essay. Ook de dikke Van Dale lijkt een Angelsaksische knieval te maken door een essay te definieren als ‘een persoonlijk gekleurde verhandeling over een wetenschappelijk of letterkundig onderwerp’, met daarachter een grote pijl en het woord ‘opstel’. Er zijn echter verschillende redenen om het schoolopstel niet tot de kerngroep der essays toe te laten. Een van de belangrijkste argumenten is revision dat een echt essay een persoonlijk onderzoek is, een gedachtenexperiment waarbij je van te voren niet weet waar het je zal leiden. En zelfs als je nergens uitkomt, dan nog is het soms boeiend om op te schrijven hoe je van punt A naar punt G kwam, via F, S, L en – wederom – A. Een opstel heeft daarvoor een veel te rigide structuur. Alleen al die verplichte conclusie: dat heeft weinig te maken met het meanderende, onderzoekende karakter dat het echte essay kenmerkt. De Franse werkwoorden assayer / essaier die ten grondslag liggen aan het genre betekenen dan ook proeven, toetsen of for phd uitproberen. Revision. ‘Essayisten zijn vrijbuiters, ze zijn niemand ook maar een zier verplicht,’ concludeert Tanny Dobbelaar dan ook in haar boek Schrijven met Montaigne (besproken in Club Schrijven Magazine 9/5). Wat zijn dan wel ‘echte’ essays, welke horen tot de kerngroep? Een naam werd hiervoor al even genoemd, namelijk de grondlegger van het genre, Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) die zich halverwege zijn leven terugtrok op zijn landgoed om zijn gedachten te ordenen en te scherpen in against corruption, een nieuwe vorm, die hij de naam essai meegaf.

Wie Montaignes drie kloeke delen essays leest (niet te snel, ze zijn voor fijnproevers), ziet al snel wat deze onderscheidt van opstellen, scripties en dissertaties. Essay Revision Guidlines. Bij een Montaigne-essay ga je namelijk uit van je persoonlijke ervaringen, gedachten en emoties – iets wat je in (semi)wetenschappelijke werk juist te allen tijde probeert te vermijden. Vrijwel alle goede essays geven dan ook inzicht in het persoonlijke leven of in controversial, de persoonlijke gedachten van de auteur. Essay Revision. Niet omdat die belangrijk zijn (soms gaat het om hele eenvoudige waarnemingen), maar omdat ze een aanleiding kunnen vormen om algemeen geldende ideeen te onderzoeken. Baccalaureate International. Wanneer kun je zeggen dat iemand een gelukkig leven heeft gehad? Wat betekent het om verbannen te zijn? Mag een arts fouten maken? Wat is de waarde van vriendschap? Dat soort kwesties worden door Montaigne en zijn nazaten onderzocht. Uiteindelijk gaat het niet om ‘hoe je ergens over essay revision guidlines, denkt’, maar ‘hoe je ergens over progressive era dbq essay, denkt’.

Ofte wel: het gaat niet om je mening, niet eens om je argumenten, maar om de manier waarop je redeneert, voelt, verbanden legt: de logica, evenzeer als de plotselinge invallen. Als je een goed essay schrijft, geef je de lezer een kijkje in essay revision guidlines, je geest. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in je hoofd rondwarrelt. Thesis. Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten. Liever niet. Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Elke essay begint in wezen met zo’n vraag. Revision Guidlines. Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is voor een essay. Nurture. Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Zoek een vraag, een kwestie, een zorg die al een tijd in essay revision, je hoofd rondwarrelt. Essay. Je hoeft er nog geen antwoord op te weten.

Liever niet. Essay Revision. Probeer je gedachte op te schrijven en kijk of essay je er een algemene, abstracte vraag uit kunt afleiden. Essay Guidlines. Elke essay begint in on abortion, wezen met zo’n vraag. Kijk vooral naar kwesties waarover je twijfelt: hoe duidelijker het antwoord je voor ogen staat, hoe ongeschikter het onderwerp is revision guidlines voor een essay. Corruption. Formuleer nu je basisvraag. Een persoonlijke aanleiding, zorg of essay revision guidlines vraag is nurture essay het beginpunt van een essay, maar daar moet het niet bij blijven. Revision. Met een essay wil je uiteindelijk proberen uit je persoonlijke ervaringen een algemene kwestie aan te snijden en te onderzoeken, zoals Jorge Luis Borges deed in controversial essay on abortion, zijn beroemde mini-essay ‘Argumentum Ornithologicum’ uit het boek De Maker . ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels. Het visioen duurt een seconde of misschien korter; ik weet niet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien. Revision Guidlines. Was hun aantal bepaald of security onbepaald? Deze vraag impliceert die naar het bestaan van God. Als God bestaat, is revision het aantal bepaald, want God weet hoeveel vogels ik heb gezien.

Als God niet bestaat, is network security thesis 2010 het aantal onbepaald, want dan kan niemand de telling verrichten. Revision. In dat geval zag ik niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, vier, drie of network security 2010 twee vogles. Essay Guidlines. Ik zag een aantal tussen de tien en een, dat niet negen, acht, zeven, zes, vijf, enz., is. Controversial Essay. Een dergelijk getal is niet voorstelbaar: ergo, God bestaat.’ Slechts tien regels telt het essay, dat begint met de beroemde zin: ‘Ik sluit mijn ogen en zie een zwerm vogels.’ Hoeveel vogels het zijn weet Borges niet, en juist dat intrigeert hem.

Als God bestaat, weet hij het juiste aantal en is het een bepaald getal. Revision. En als God niet bestaat is in india het een onbepaald getal, want niemand heeft het aantal vogels geteld: het kunnen er drie, vijf, acht of essay guidlines negen zijn. Coursework For Phd Biochemistry. En dus zag Borges in revision guidlines, die flits een getal dat niet twee, drie, vier, etcetera was, en dat kan niet. En dat bewijst dat God bestaat. Van een eenvoudig fantasiebeeld naar een Godsbewijs in against corruption in india, tien zinnen: dat is essay revision guidlines het essay ten voeten uit. Controversial Essay. Wat ook goed te zien is essay revision aan dit voorbeeld is thesis hoe een essay bij de lezer werkt: het biedt geen voordehandliggende conclusie, maar zet aan tot denken, tot redeneren, tot het verzinnen van tegenargumenten. Essay Revision. Klopt het wel wat Borges beweert? Hoezo is 2003 progressive een onbestaand getal een bewijs dat God bestaat? Kun je het bestaan van God wel beredeneren? De lezer maakt als het ware zelf het essay af. Bedenk hoe je zelf een lezer over essay revision guidlines, je onderwerp kan laten nadenken.

Wat prikkelt hem? Hoe kun je hem laten nadenken? Natuurlijk niet door hem alleen maar te overladen met argumenten en voorbeelden. Hoe moet je redeneren, schrijven, om je lezer in corruption in india, zijn hoofd je essay 'af te maken'? Om een essay goed op te kunnen bouwen, moet je als schrijver eerst vele wegen in essay guidlines, je hoofd aflopen. Coursework Biochemistry. Sommige wegen lopen al snel dood, andere zijn te evident: daarvoor hoeft een lezer je artikel niet te lezen. Revision Guidlines. Zoek dus naar de onverwachte sporen, die je een eind verder brengen. Essay. Doe dit door jezelf voortdurend vragen te stellen, argumenten en voorbeelden te verzinnen, losjes te associeren.

Je materiaal mag je overal vandaan halen, van wetenschappelijke rapporten tot songteksten. Revision. Juist die vele mogelijke dwarsverbanden onderscheiden een essay van een wetenschappelijke tekst. Stel bijvoorbeeld dat je je al een tijdje ergert aan mensen die trein en tram proberen in te komen voordat iedereen de trein verlaten heeft – een verschijnsel dat de laatste jaren steeds vaker de kop opsteekt. 2003 Progressive Era Dbq. Als je rechttoe rechtaan je ergernis zou uitschrijven, zou je geen essay hebben, maar een opinierend stuk, een column. Revision. Je onderzoekt namelijk niets, poneert alleen maar. Dus: zet je ergernis opzij en probeer onder, achter, in, over coursework for phd biochemistry, het probleem te duiken. Je medepassagiers voor laten gaan is essay revision een kwestie van etiquette, maar wat is nurture essay psychology de functie van etiquette?

Kan die functie veranderen? Ken je nog meer voorbeelden van modern voordringen? Waar doet je die langs elkaar duwende en schuivende massa aan denken, welk beeld komt in guidlines, je op? Hoe gaat het in coursework for phd, de ons omringende landen? Hebben we eigenlijk al een naam voor de voordringers? En hoe noemen we de mensen die zich laten wegdringen? Probeer in guidlines, deze fase zoveel mogelijk ideeen en sporen te verzamelen: het bekritiseren en uitwerken ervan komt later. Ga terug naar je basisvraag of security thesis 2010 –kwestie uit oefening Zet deze middenop een vel papier. Associeer nu vrijelijk en zet de beelden, woorden, vragen, voorbeelden en argumenten eromheen. Schets met pijlen welke elementen met elkaar te maken hebben. Doe nu hetzelfde met de beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden: werk ze verder uit door ze op hun beurt weer te omringen met eigen beelden, woorden, vragen en voorbeelden.

Hoe ga je hier een essay uitschrijven? Bedenk een route, een structuur, een vorm. Na het vrijelijk associeren begint het bekritiseren van je eigen ideeen: welke zijn te evident, welke sporen lopen dood. Zoek naar de gedachtensporen waarvan je – vaak intuitief – vermoedt dat er veel achter schuilt. Essay Revision. In het voorbeeld van de voordringende treinreizigers kun je bijvoorbeeld al snel vermoeden dat de gedachten over essay corruption, etiquette een beetje voor de hand liggen. Essay Revision Guidlines. En een sociologische verkenning van treingedrag bij onze buurlanden is meer iets voor Elsevier. Psychology. Zoek naar een vager, lastiger spoor, zoals de naamgevingskwestie of een intrigerend beeld dat spontaan bij je opkwam, toen je over revision, dit onderwerp nadacht. Progressive Essay. Wat je altijd kunt doen: een paar uur op een groot station doorbrengen en observeren wat er nu precies gebeurt. Revision. Nogmaals: niet om je te ergeren (probeer die emotie even aan de kant te schuiven), maar om te weten wat dat nu precies inhoudt, dat voordringen, hoe het eruit ziet, wat de geluiden zijn, de geuren, de kleuren. Het gebruik van je zintuigen is baccalaureate essay sowieso een belangrijk onderzoeksmiddel bij het schrijven van essays. Revision Guidlines. Je bent je eigen controlemiddel, je eigen meetinstrument.

Een goede essayist is essay psychology een scepticus, iemand die veel bekritiseert, over essay revision, weinig een pasklaar oordeel klaar heeft, en alles zoveel mogelijk onderzoekt. De zintuigen spelen daarbij een cruciale rol. Coursework. Wat betekent vriendschap? Observeer ‘ns een verjaardagsfeestje, probeer in essay guidlines, het cafe de echte vriendschappen te onderscheiden van de onechte, en stel enkele cruciale vragen aan je beste vriend of nurture essay psychology vriendin. Essay. Kijk, meet, leer. Neem je onderwerp, je vraag of je twijfel en verzin een onderzoek dat je zou kunnen doen: een literatuuronderzoek in corruption in india, de bibliotheek, observeer het gedrag van mensen, of essay guidlines houdt een weeklang je eigen leven in de gaten. Nurture. Kijk, meet, leer.

Probeer vervolgens hier conclusies uit te trekken, maar liever nog vervolgvragen, argumenten, verdere associaties. Bij het uitwerken van een essay ben je zo vrij als een vogel: het essay heeft geen vaste vorm en geen vaste formule. Revision. Je kunt er voor kiezen je gedachtenroute in z’n geheel op te schrijven, en je lezers deelgenoot te maken van je mentale reis. Network 2010. Maar je kunt ook alleen de resultaten van die reis weergeven, ongeveer zoals Borges zijn ornithologische argument in revision guidlines, tien zinnen wist weer te geven. Belangrijker nog dan de vorm is de stijl waarin je dit alles giet.

Een essay is network 2010 een literaire vorm en probeer daarom zo weinig mogelijk te preken, ook al geloof je zeer sterk in essay, je eigen opvattingen. Essay Extended International. Wees vooral sceptisch – ook over essay revision guidlines, je eigen gedachten, waarden en ideeen. Onderzoek veel, geloof in weinig. Probeer verder algemene uitspraken zoveel mogelijk te concretiseren. Corruption. Dat de verkeersveiligheid eind jaren ’60 bar en boos was, is essay revision guidlines een algemene uitspraak, dat er toen meer dan drieduizend verkeersdoden per jaar waren (nu: om en nabij de 1100) is network thesis een concreet feit waar je lezers zich iets bij kunnen voorstellen. Een ander iets dat je bij het schrijven in essay revision guidlines, de gaten moet houden is dat je natuurlijk met een rationeel betoog bezig bent, met argumenten en redeneringen.

Dat kan een gortdroog betoog worden. Presenteer daarom de feiten zo levendig mogelijk. Essay International. Wees evocatief: geef je lezer iets om voor z’n ogen tevoorschijn te toveren. Essay Guidlines. Mondialisering is baccalaureate essay extended een groot woord, maar een korte beschrijving van de Amerikaanse callcenters in New Delhi of revision guidlines de bloemenveiling van Aalsmeer waar rozen uit Rwanda worden verhandeld, levert je lezer een beeld. Om het spannend te houden kun je werken met de bekende middelen die je ook bij proza of toneel toepast: werp vragen op, laat opzettelijk gaten vallen die je elders pas invult en kom steeds terug op je hoofdvraag, het liefst in verschillende varianten. 2003 Era Dbq Essay. Werk niet met een vast plan, maar wel met een basisidee, een sfeer, een grondtoon. Revision. Wat je altijd kunt doen om een langzaam inzakkend essay te versterken is een tweede lijn aan te brengen.

Dat kan zelfs een prozaverhaal zijn, zoals Milan Kundera toepaste in zijn novelle Ballingen. Pas met zo’n afwisseling van betoog en verhaal wel op dat je de lezer niet te snel heen en weer laat schieten: geef hem rustig de tijd om in network, je betoog of in essay revision, je verhaal te komen. Essay. Liever een paar pagina’s per deel, dan afwisselen per essay revision alinea. Leun bij je redeneringen zo weinig mogelijk op de autoriteit van anderen. 2010. Citeren mag, maar nog beter is essay revision guidlines het, om het gelezene te herkauwen en in je eigen woorden neer te pennen. Werk je gedachtenstroom uit. Controversial Essay. Kies voor een uitgangspunt en bepaal je toon, maar maak geen schema hoe je betoog zal gaan. Guidlines. Laat je leiden door je eigen geschrijf. Nurture Psychology. Zorg er wel voor dat je blijft redeneren, argumenteren, naar voorbeelden en (zintuigelijke) ervaringen zoekt. Revision. Ga niet te snel, wees precies in je redeneringen en argumenten.

Hoe scherper je gedachtengang kunt beschrijven, hoe dichter je bij nieuwe inzichten komt, zo blijkt uit de ervaring. Nurture. Tijdens het schrijven ontstaan vaak de interessantste gedachten – geef ze de ruimte. Lees vervolgens je eigen essay en probeer te achterhalen of essay hij ‘werkt’. Waar ga je te snel, waar te langzaam? Blijft er genoeg over om als lezer door te willen lezen? Is het slot intrigerend genoeg om nog ‘ns flink over controversial, na te denken? Laat het geheel vervolgens aan anderen lezen en vraag hen om commentaar. Essay Guidlines. Herschrijf, herformuleer tot je de scherpste route door je eigen geest hebt blootgelegd. Heb je een tip voor een onderwerp van een schrijfoefening?

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