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Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, provides the nation with a safe, flexible, and stable monetary and financial system. Federal Open Market Committee. Supervision Regulation Letters. Essay World War 2! Banking Applications Legal Developments. Pen Name Of The English Essayist Charles! Reserve Bank Payment Services Data. Financial Market Utilities Infrastructures. Essay War 2! Research, Committees, and Forums. Bank Assets and Liabilities. Diabetes! Exchange Rates and International Data. Money Stock and Reserve Balances.

This report was prepared at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City based on information collected on or before June 30, 2017. This document summarizes comments received from essay war 2, contacts outside the Federal Reserve System and is not a commentary on the views of Federal Reserve officials. Work! Overall Economic Activity. Economic activity expanded across all twelve Federal Reserve Districts in June, with the pace of growth ranging from slight to moderate. World! In addition, the majority of carpentry cover, Districts expected modest to moderate gains in essay war 2 the months ahead. Consumer spending appears to be rising across a majority of Districts, led by work and leisure, increases in nonauto retail sales and tourism. However, many Districts noted some softening in consumer spending, particularly in auto sales which declined in half of the Districts.

Manufacturing and nonfinancial services activity continued to grow, with most Districts reporting modest to moderate gains since the last report. Loan demand was steady to increasing in world most Districts. Residential and nonresidential construction activity was flat to expanding in most Districts. Most Districts cited low home inventory levels in mcgorman certain market segments which were constraining home sales in many areas. Agricultural conditions were mixed across the essay war 2 nation as moisture conditions varied considerably; several Districts continued to report weakness in dairy and some crop sectors due to low prices. Of The Essayist Charles Lamb! Energy activity generally improved since the essay war 2 last survey, particularly for oil and natural gas. Coal production remained sluggish although higher than year-ago levels. 2 Research! Employment across most of the essay world war 2 nation maintained a modest to andy mcgorman moderate pace of essay war 2, expansion, although the Atlanta and pen name charles St.

Louis Districts noted flat employment levels. Labor markets tightened further for both low- and high-skilled positions, particularly in the construction and IT sectors. Contacts across a broad range of industries reported a shortage of war 2, qualified workers which had limited hiring. Wages continued to type 2 research grow at a modest to essay war 2 moderate pace in most Districts, and many firms attributed these wage gains to tighter labor market conditions. Wage pressures generally trended with employment conditions, and rising wage pressures were noted among both low- and high-skilled positions. A few Districts also reported rising costs of benefits and variable pay. Prices continued to rise modestly in the majority of Districts, and a few Districts noted that price pressures had eased slightly. Several Districts reported higher construction materials costs and freight prices, while gasoline prices fell. Retail prices held steady or slightly increased, and the manufacturing sector noted steady to modestly rising input costs. Low agricultural prices were causing stress for some farmers, although some food retailers reported improved margins due to lower commodity prices. Home prices continued to increase in most Districts.

Highlights by Federal Reserve District. Economic activity in thesis the First District expanded at a modest pace in recent weeks. Hiring activity was mixed, proceeding at a moderate pace on average. Wage increases remained moderate with not much variation. War 2! Prices were mostly stable with some noteworthy exceptions. Contacts were cautiously optimistic concerning prospects for further growth. Economic growth has picked up to a modest pace in recent weeks. Labor markets have tightened further, as hiring has picked up. Input cost pressures have become somewhat less widespread, while selling prices continued to business help rise modestly. Essay World! Housing markets have strengthened, whereas commercial real estate markets have softened slightly. Overall, economic activity appeared to essayist charles slow to a slight pace of war 2, growth, as consumer spending declined sharply for apparel, and demand softened for autos, new home construction, and nonresidential construction.

Most other sectors continued to grow at teacher cover letter, a modest pace. On balance, employment and wages continued to essay world war 2 grow modestly, and prices grew only of the english lamb, slightly. Reports from business contacts were somewhat less positive, and war 2 the overall pace of growth was modest. Price and cost pressures eased slightly. Labor markets continued to tighten. Manufacturing activity increased, but at and leisure essay, a slower pace, especially for consumer packaged products. Demand for IT services was particularly strong. Economic activity expanded modestly, but at a somewhat faster pace. The manufacturing sector improved further, which boosted the transportation sector as more goods were moved through ports and around the country.

Retail sales increased and tourism and travel reports were mostly upbeat. Essay War 2! Construction and short real estate markets continued to improve modestly. Labor markets remained tight, and price increases were modest. Economic activity modestly expanded since the previous report. Labor market tightness continued. On balance, wage growth remained steady. Input costs were subdued. Consumer spending softened. Home sales increased and essay war 2 prices appreciated modestly. Nonresidential construction increased; however, multifamily construction showed signs of slowing.

Manufacturing activity grew, albeit at a slower pace. Growth picked up to a moderate pace and prices rose modestly. Employment, business spending, and manufacturing grew at moderate rates, while consumer spending and english charles construction and real estate activity increased modestly. Conditions were little changed in the financial and war 2 agricultural sectors. Economic activity has slightly improved since our previous report. Employers reported minimal hiring due to difficulties finding qualified candidates putting upward pressure on both wages and teacher benefits. War 2! There were positive developments on consumer spending as contacts reported a rebound in sales after a string of weak reports. Ninth District economic activity increased modestly during the reporting period. Essay! Professional services, commercial construction, manufacturing, energy, and mining saw growth, while employment was held back by tight labor availability. Essay World War 2! The already struggling agricultural sector weakened as severe drought conditions spread through the Dakotas and Montana. Economic activity in and leisure essay the Tenth District expanded moderately in June, and most sectors expected additional gains in the months ahead.

Consumer spending, manufacturing, services, construction and energy activity increased since the previous survey. The pace of growth in the energy sector was anticipated to ease slightly. The agriculture sector remained weak, with subdued farm revenue and low commodity prices. Economic activity grew moderately in the Eleventh District, and outlooks remained positive. Growth in retail sales decelerated, but there were reports of sales improving in energy-related areas and in the border region. Activity in the energy sector expanded further, partly driving increased manufacturing production. Demand for staffing services remained strong. Essay War 2! Apartment demand improved following a sluggish first-quarter. Economic activity in the Twelfth District continued to expand at a moderate pace.

Overall price inflation was flat, while upward wage pressures strengthened. Sales of retail goods were modest, and growth in the consumer and business services sectors remained strong. Diabetes Type! Conditions in the manufacturing sector improved. Activity in essay world the residential housing market was robust. Conditions in studies coursework gcse the financial services sector remained solid. Summary of Economic Activity. Business activity in the First District expanded at war 2, a modest pace on average, but reports were mixed across firms and industries. Short For Global Warming! Revenues are up by moderate margins on average among manufacturing and retail contacts, with year-over-year gains that varied from slight to robust. Software and information services firms reported year-over-year growth figures that ranged from a modest decline in one case to double-digit gains. Commercial real estate activity was flat or up slightly across the world war 2 District, while residential real estate sales were held back by declining inventories despite robust demand.

Some firms planned to increase headcounts by moderate or even large margins, while others expect to hold employment fixed. Planned wage increases remained moderate, and price increases were small to moderate, with some exceptions. Contacts expect either flat activity moving forward or further growth consistent with their own recent results. Hiring plans among First District contacts ranged from letter, flat to robust, and planned wage increases were stable at world, a slow-to-moderate pace. Mellitus Paper! Some retail contacts found it slightly harder to hire workers, but were not much concerned by that fact. Employment was flat or increasing at manufacturing firms. A furniture manufacturer reported difficulty in retaining production workers but not salespeople. A manufacturer of cardboard boxes was hiring additional workers without raising wages, but noted that finding qualified workers was difficult because production jobs increasingly involve using computers. Manufacturing firms reported year-over-year wage growth in the vicinity of 3 percent. A data storage firm plans to make double-digit percentage increases in its net headcount in 2017, while a healthcare IT firm expects a more modest 2 percent personnel increase. Essay World War 2! One enterprise software firm is keeping its headcount flat, but shifting its hiring focus to growth areas such as the internet of things.

Another software firm is hiring at a moderate pace and has had to increase starting salaries for engineers and sales positions. Firms are struggling to hire engineers and fill technical positions in greater Boston. Essayist Lamb! On average, software and IT firms are budgeting for moderate wage increases. Reports on price movements were mixed. Most manufacturing contacts reported stable prices. However, a cardboard box manufacturer increased its prices by 10 percent in response to war 2 a 10 percent increase in 2 research paper the price of linerboard, a key input, and a frozen fish manufacturer expects pollock prices to war 2 fall in the coming year. Retail output prices saw very little movement, although some retailers plan to post moderate price increases for work and leisure, premium fall merchandise and small price increases for basic goods.

Retail contacts reported that recent sales numbers reflect increases over one year ago ranging from roughly 2 percent to almost 10 percent, results that helped balance lackluster sales in early 2017. All retail contacts feel that the outlook rests on positive consumer sentiment translating into actual sales. One noted that the movement of consumers away from in-store shopping and towards online shopping is accelerating faster than anticipated. For the first four months of 2017, the hotel occupancy rate for the Boston area was up 0.9 percent from the same period a year earlier, and the average room rate was up 1 percent. Essay World! However, not including activity at business gcse, new hotel rooms, the hotel occupancy rate for Boston was effectively flat year-over-year, a marked contrast to the robust annual increases seen over the last six years. At the essay war 2 same time, contacts perceive that, between mid-May and studies gcse late June, Boston experienced strong tourism activity.

The recently concluded Sail Boston event boosted area restaurants in particular. The midyear outlook is that hotels will end 2017 with a net increase in essay world annual revenues, but may not achieve the 5 percent increase in average room rates initially predicted for 2017. Manufacturing and Related Services. Of the 7 firms contacted, all but one reported higher sales. The exception was a drug company, which attributed flat sales to increased competition. A cardboard box manufacturer reported 10 percent year-over-year growth resulting from increased e-commerce.

A manufacturer of sensors reported strong sales growth largely due to demand from the auto industry. A manufacturer of power supply devices reported a major revision to capital spending plans. After many years of reconfiguring existing plants to meet demand, the firm will build a new, highly automated plant in New England, in order to save on labor costs and bring engineers in work and leisure essay close proximity to production. The outlook among contacts remains positive but cautious. The drug manufacturer remained uncertain about the essay world prospects for the health care industry, and thesis the sensor manufacturer expressed concerns about slower growth moving forward in the auto industry. Software and Information Technology Services. Software and IT firms reported year-over-year revenue growth ranging from -2 percent to 10 percent. A data storage and security firm experienced strong revenue growth, spurred by the high cyber-threat environment. A healthcare software provider also had strong year-over-year revenue growth. A manufacturing enterprise software provider had flat revenue, but anticipates increased demand moving forward.

Data backup and healthcare IT contacts were optimistic about future growth. Contacts expressed concerns and doubts about the essay world war 2 impact of proposed national policy changes on business, and andy thesis uncertainty related to health care policy was seen as putting a damper on essay war 2, business for carpentry cover, health care IT firms. Conditions in the First District's commercial real estate markets were mostly unchanged in essay war 2 recent weeks. Office leasing activity remained very light in Hartford and light-to-moderate elsewhere in of the english essayist lamb the District. War 2! In Boston, leasing demand remains uneven across submarkets within the and leisure essay city. Investment sales demand held steady across the District, and essay Boston's premier properties remain in carpentry cover letter favor among foreign investors. In both Portland and Providence, demand for essay, industrial space exceeds the very limited supply, but the short essay for global warming impetus for essay, new construction remains low in light of high construction costs relative to rents. Andy Mcgorman! In Connecticut, however, plans were announced for construction of significant new warehouse space. Essay World War 2! Also, a modestly-sized user-built office building is slated for downtown Portland, and in and around Portland three hotel projects are underway. Contacts expect stable (if slow) leasing demand going forward, as well as ongoing changes in the retail landscape favoring entertainment and services over andy thesis, goods-selling businesses. Residential real estate markets in the First District headed into the summer with continued upward pressure on prices and depleted inventories.

Four of the six First District states reported year-over-year changes to May 2017, while Vermont and the Boston area reported year-over-year changes to April 2017. For single family homes, closed sales were down by essay world, moderate margins on andy mcgorman thesis, average in four of the six states and in the Greater Boston area, but increased by moderate-to-robust margins in Rhode Island and essay Connecticut. The lower sales numbers were attributed to declines in inventories over diabetes mellitus paper, the same period rather than weak demand--inventories declined year-over-year in all six states while median sale prices increased by modest-to-robust margins in all states except Vermont, which reported a moderate decline in essay world prices. Pending sales increased in every reporting state but Rhode Island and studies help gcse the Greater Boston area. In Rhode Island, single family home sales posted an all-time high since the association began keeping records in 1998. For condos, closed sales increased in every state but Massachusetts and Maine. Essay War 2! In a promising sign for inventories, Massachusetts experienced an increase in carpentry new listings for the first time in essay war 2 over a year.

Most contacts seemed optimistic about market activity and continued strong buyer demand, despite the low inventories. Warming! Many noted that low unemployment has helped spur consumer confidence, which contributes to demand for world, residential real estate. Andy Thesis! Despite the fact that interest rates have increased, contacts noted that rates are still relatively low and that prospective homeowners are eager to buy now before they increase more. Some expressed concern that continued upward pressure on prices will price out world war 2 first-time home buyers. Of The Essayist Lamb! For more information about District economic conditions visit:

Summary of world, Economic Activity. Economic activity in the Second District has expanded at a modest pace since the last report, while labor markets have tightened further. Input price pressures have eased slightly, while selling prices have continued to rise modestly. Manufacturers noted a pickup in business activity, while the cover letter various service industries indicated mixed results. Consumer spending has picked up a bit since the war 2 last report, and consumer confidence has remained close to a cyclical high. And Leisure Essay! Housing markets have strengthened, while commercial real estate markets were mixed but slightly softer. World! New residential construction activity has been steady at a subdued level, while commercial construction has picked up modestly. Banks reported that loan demand was steady to softer, while delinquency rates continued to decline.

The labor market has continued to tighten since the last report. Contacts at employment agencies noted that hiring has picked up and carpentry teacher cover letter that jobs have become harder to fill. A major New York City employment agency noted a pickup in hiring, especially from financial firms. In upstate New York, there has been a pickup in demand for both full-time and temporary workers--particularly for war 2, administrative and customer-care workers. Contacts also noted an ongoing shortage of software developers and skilled workers more generally. Manufacturers have continued to add jobs but at business studies, a somewhat slower pace than in essay world the last report.

Businesses in the finance, wholesale trade, real estate and construction sectors report that they are hiring, on work essay, net, while those in the restaurant hotel industry indicated some cutbacks in staffing levels. Businesses in manufacturing and most service industries expected to add jobs, on net, in the months ahead. Overall, wages are reported to have risen moderately, though contacts in the transportation, warehousing, wholesale trade, and leisure hospitality industries report more widespread increases in wages. Businesses generally reported upward pressure on essay world, input prices but to short essay warming a lesser degree than in the last report, while selling prices continued to rise modestly. Those in the wholesale and transportation industries reported modest increases in world war 2 selling prices, on balance, while businesses in other sectors indicated little change. General merchandise retailers reported that prices have been steady, while New York City hotels indicated that room rates have slipped modestly. Pen Name Essayist Charles Lamb! In contrast, Broadway theaters noted rising ticket prices, with the average price up 10-15 percent from world war 2, a year earlier. Retailers reported that sales have weakened, on balance, while they expect business to be generally steady for the second half of the year. Retailers in upstate New York reported that both shopper traffic and sales have been flat at weak levels. Type Paper! A major retail chain noted that sales were roughly on plan, though they weakened a bit from May to June. Retail business in New York City, which had been particularly soft, improved slightly.

Inventories were generally at or below normal levels, while prices were steady to essay world up modestly. Auto dealers in warming upstate New York reported that sales of new vehicles picked up in May and early June and were up from essay war 2, a year ago. Diabetes Mellitus Type! Vehicle inventory levels have crept up, but dealers are generally optimistic about the outlook. One contact noted that used vehicle sales have picked up, while another reports that they are steady. Retail and essay war 2 wholesale credit conditions were characterized as favorable, but credit remains tight on sub-prime auto loans. Consumer confidence in the Middle Atlantic states (NY, NJ, PA) edged down in June but remained near its cyclical high set in March.

Manufacturing and Distribution. Manufacturers reported that business activity has picked up substantially since the last report. Businesses in short for global the wholesale trade and essay world war 2 transportation industries, however, continued to report subdued growth. Similarly, while manufacturers remain broadly optimistic about the outlook for the second half of this year, those in transportation and wholesale trade remain only mildly upbeat. Businesses in most service industries reported steady to moderately growing business activity. Contacts in professional and business services noted a pickup in activity and cover expressed widespread optimism about the near-term outlook. Contacts in education health services noted a slowdown in growth, while information industry contacts reported little change in activity. The leisure hospitality sector has been mixed. A number of war 2, contacts have reported a pullback in mcgorman activity, coupled with increased pessimism about the outlook. While tourism activity in New York City has remained fairly buoyant, advanced travel bookings are reported to be down, especially from abroad. In general, visitors are reported to be spending less--partly reflecting a shift toward more domestic and fewer international visitors.

On a more positive note, Broadway theater attendance and revenues were reported to be fairly strong in May and essay June. Tourism was described as strong in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York. Real Estate and Construction. Housing markets across the District have strengthened somewhat. Sales volume has picked up throughout the New York City area--particularly for moderately-priced, single-family homes in pen name of the lamb outlying areas. In contrast, sales activity has slowed a bit in essay world war 2 parts of upstate New York, restrained by a lack of homes on english essayist lamb, the market. A real estate contact in essay world war 2 upstate New York State reported continued escalation in home prices, with homes in more sought-after areas often selling for above the list price. Selling prices of both single-family homes and apartments have also picked up in and around New York City, though prices of Manhattan condos and co-ops have risen only marginally. Carpentry Letter! New York City's rental market has remained mostly steady. Rents remain flat overall--rising on smaller, less expensive units but declining on larger and essay war 2 pricier apartments.

Landlord concessions have stopped rising but are more prevalent than usual. Commercial real estate markets have been mixed but slightly softer on business studies help gcse, balance. The market for office space has been steady to slightly weaker: availability rates edged up, while asking rents slipped in New York City but were little changed elsewhere. However, the industrial market has strengthened further, with availability rates declining and asking rents up roughly 10 percent over essay war 2, the past year. In contrast, the market for type, retail space has continued to slacken, with vacancy rates rising to multi-year highs and asking rents little changed. Both single-family and multi-family new home construction has been steady at essay world, a fairly subdued level, though there is warming still a good deal of multi-family development under construction. Commercial construction, on the other hand, has picked up. Essay World! New office construction has expanded noticeably in northern New Jersey and pen name of the charles New York City's outer boroughs but has been fairly restrained in other parts of the District. Essay War 2! Industrial construction has picked up in english charles northern New Jersey but has remained flat and fairly subdued elsewhere. World! Small to mellitus medium sized banks reported weaker demand for consumer loans, but no change in demand for residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, or commercial industrial loans. Refinancing activity decreased for all types of loans.

Bankers reported slightly easier credit standards for residential mortgages, and unchanged standards in other loan categories. Bankers indicated narrowing spreads of essay world war 2, loan rates over cost of funds for all types of loans. Pen Name English Charles Lamb! Respondents also noted an increase in the average deposit rate. Banks reported lower delinquency rates across all loan categories--particularly on consumer and residential mortgage loans. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

Summary of Economic Activity. Essay War 2! Aggregate business activity in carpentry the Third District grew slightly over the current Beige Book reporting period--a retreat from modest growth that had occurred during the prior period. Manufacturing continued at a moderate pace of growth, while nonfinancial services, new home sales, and war 2 tourism continued to grow modestly. However, auto sales and and leisure essay construction activity exhibited essentially no growth, if not a slight decline, and nonauto retail sales declined modestly. On balance, employment and wages continued to grow at a modest pace, while prices edged only slightly higher. Overall, firms appear to have lowered their expectations somewhat to modest growth over the next six months. Employment has continued at a modest pace of growth.

Manufacturing firms reported little change in essay employment and in carpentry teacher the average hours worked compared with the prior period. Employment indicators from nonmanufacturing firms were mixed, as contacts noted more net additions to full-time staff, fewer net additions to part-time staff, and a slight increase in hours. On balance, wage pressures continue to be muted; the percentage of nonmanufacturing firms that noted rising wage and benefit costs is war 2 as low as any time in the past three years. Wage pressures continued to be greater in those markets with low unemployment rates. Andy Mcgorman Thesis! Pennsylvania staffing firms struggled to find qualified and committed workers. Staffing contacts reported spending more time and world war 2 money on recruiting labor and refilling positions after the initial hire quit, sometimes after just a few days.

Workers appear to have less loyalty to the job, and more job-hopping is showing up on résumés. However, one large retailer reported having no difficulty getting quality job candidates in locations throughout the District after raising its base wage last year. On balance, price levels rose slightly as price pressures appeared to have eased off a prior modest pace. Of contacts responding, about two-thirds reported no change at all in prices paid and prices received. Generally, prices have held firmer for raw inputs to mellitus type 2 research paper and intermediate goods from manufacturers, while nonmanufacturing contacts reported significant drops in prices paid for their inputs and received for goods sold. Essay! Retailers and cover letter food service providers noted that ongoing low commodity prices have helped their margins, while homebuilders are facing 20 percent higher lumber costs caused by trade tariffs against Canada. Contacts noted that the added cost can be more easily absorbed while building high-end homes, but can make low-end homes less viable to bring to market. On balance, manufacturing firms continued to essay report moderate growth in general activity; however, the pace eased off once more. During the prior period, the pace of new orders lessened; this period, the pace of shipments slowed. Still, the pace of activity appears somewhat stronger than is typical of expansionary periods in the Third District.

The makers of paper products, chemicals, fabricated metal products, and industrial machinery continued to andy mcgorman note gains in activity; these were joined by gains reported by essay world, the makers of electronic products. Firms in the primary metal sector appeared to be gloomier, noting reductions of new orders and diabetes 2 research shipments. Generally, manufacturing contacts continued to expect growth over the next six months; however, the percentage of war 2, firms expecting future increases edged down slightly for employment, capital expenditures, and 2 research paper general activity. Nonauto retail contacts noted modest declines in sales overall, as apparel sales continued to be hammered. World War 2! Operators of outlets and short essay warming traditional malls have been buffeted by a surge in retail bankruptcies.

Even convenience store contacts noted that sales growth was below expectations, as lower-income households have continued to reduce spending. On balance, auto dealers reported a slight decline in year-over-year sales during the current period, with Pennsylvania sales edging up and New Jersey sales declining modestly relative to last year's high levels. Falling used car prices have been a contributing factor to softer demand for new cars. Dealer profitability continued to be a struggle, and some dealers and analysts are revising year-end sales totals downward. World! Tourism activity continued to grow at a modest pace, according to several contacts. Delaware shore contacts noted exceedingly heavy traffic on the roads and significant tourist spending, but that last-minute bookings had not lifted hotel occupancies as much as expected. Of The Essayist! Still, bookings remained ahead of essay world war 2, last season. Atlantic City casino revenues also remained up over the prior year. Pen Name Of The English Charles Lamb! Service-sector firms continued to report modest growth in general activity, with some notable improvement in sales (or revenues) over the prior period. One large service-sector firm noted that growth remained slow and essay world war 2 a bit below expectations, prompting the short firm to essay world war 2 institute discretionary delays in filling vacant positions. An area advertiser noted lower demand from carpentry teacher cover letter, local auto dealers, but more demand from the world health-care and financial sectors.

Expectations about future growth have ebbed further since the prior Beige Book period but have remained positive with a little over 50 percent of the firms anticipating increased activity. Financial firms reported slight growth of overall loan volumes (excluding credit cards)--a bit slower than the modest growth that had occurred during the prior Beige Book period. Teacher Cover! Commercial real estate loans and war 2 auto loans exhibited strong growth in loan volume; in contrast, mortgages and home equity loan volumes were essentially flat, while commercial and industrial loan volumes declined. Credit card volumes are highly seasonal but have grown over the year at a modest rate and grew during this Beige Book period at a robust pace similar to the change observed over the same period last year. Banking contacts tended to describe the economy as stable and their loan portfolios as healthy with low delinquencies and few areas of concern. Carpentry Teacher Cover Letter! Real Estate and war 2 Construction. Homebuilders generally reported a slight decline in activity, following moderate growth in the prior period, although one builder noted a pick-up in mid-June.

Contacts reported ongoing difficulty in securing skilled labor but stated that as long as overall demand for and leisure essay, new construction remains soft, so too will the world war 2 wage pressures. Brokers in most major Third District housing markets continued to report modest growth of existing home sales, but no increase of inventories. In the Greater Philadelphia area, pending sales of houses (under contract) dropped slightly. Overall, existing home prices continued to edge up with some variance across markets and price categories. Nonresidential real estate contacts reported essentially no change in construction activity, which had grown modestly last period, although individual markets do vary by type 2 research, sector and geography.

One contact noted that the construction pipeline may have begun to diminish. Leasing activity continued to essay exhibit little change overall. Carpentry Teacher Cover Letter! Rents were rising nearly everywhere for industrial/warehouse space; contacts noted plenty of demand and that new buildings continue to lease up before completion. However, rent concessions have emerged for multifamily units in the city of Philadelphia. Federal Reserve Bank of world, Cleveland. Summary of and leisure, Economic Activity. Growth in economic activity across the essay world Fourth District slowed to a modest pace during the reporting period. Labor markets continued to expand, with wage pressures noted primarily for high-skilled workers. Upward pressures on prices paid and received eased slightly.

Contacts facing higher input prices experienced little pushback from customers when raising their selling prices. Consumer spending at carpentry cover letter, brick-and-mortar establishments remained stable, while new motor vehicle sales rose. Production increased at manufacturing plants, although at a slower pace than in the previous reporting period. World War 2! Nonfinancial services firms experienced moderate revenue growth overall, but demand was strong for IT and management consulting. Housing market activity picked up as year-to-date unit sales remained above year-ago levels and selling prices were higher. Activity in the commercial real estate market remains elevated. Lending pipelines were satisfactory, but contacts noted softer loan demand in select categories. District payrolls continued to expand, although at a slightly slower pace than in pen name of the english essayist charles lamb the previous reporting period. Increases were notable in the construction and essay war 2 nonfinancial services industries. Carpentry Cover! Brick-and-mortar retailers again noted decreases in staffing levels. Banking contacts mentioned tight labor market conditions and essay war 2 wage pressures for skilled workers, including personnel in compliance and statistical modeling positions.

Building contractors experienced difficulty hiring workers in skilled trades, especially drywallers. Construction contacts also noted increased hiring for management and office staff positions. Freight haulers mentioned difficulty recruiting enough qualified drivers despite increasing driver wages recently. Manufacturing contacts experienced little change in hiring, which was mostly replacements or normal turnover. Staffing firms noted an increase in the number of listings for both temporary and diabetes mellitus type 2 research permanent positions, especially for occupations requiring specific skills or advanced degrees, while workforce development officials observed rising job placements for workers with less than four-year degrees.

Upward pressures on prices paid eased during the period. Some manufacturers remarked that changes in input costs were modest. Construction contacts mentioned higher prices for lumber and other materials such as copper and steel, and several contacts saw rising construction subcontractor prices. Freight haulers saw rising tire prices. Essay! Similar to andy thesis observations made in the previous period, contacts in the manufacturing and construction sectors noticed they were able to pass on increased costs to customers. Freight haulers reported improved pricing ability, and some contacts cited rising rates because of tightening capacity. Retail contacts observed little change in shelf prices except for war 2, some declines in food items. Similarly, retailers saw little change in vendor prices except for lower prices for some raw food ingredients.

Consumer spending at andy mcgorman thesis, District brick-and-mortar retailers remained largely unchanged from that of the previous reporting period. Sales of fresh food items were doing well, whereas electronics were selling poorly. Sales of apparel items at large chain retailers were soft. Retail inventories were generally in good shape. Year-to-date sales of new motor vehicles through May increased more than 3 percent compared to those of the same period a year ago.

Dealers saw higher-than-usual inventories because of lower demand for passenger cars. Essay World War 2! Manufacturing output grew at a slight pace during the reporting period, somewhat slower than earlier. The small pickup in demand from energy-related companies was more than offset by a decline in the motor vehicle and consumer packaged-product industries. Demand from the construction sector remains strong. Year-to-date production through May at District auto assembly plants fell about 9 percent when compared to that of the same time period during 2016. Pen Name! The large majority of manufacturing contacts were allocating capital spending budgets toward maintenance, although some contacts were also allocating monies toward new equipment and technology. Reports through May indicate that the number of drilling rigs operating in the District continued to increase compared with that of a year ago. A contact remarked that investment in regional oil and war 2 gas is up, and both pipelines and mid-stream plants are being built. Andy Mcgorman! Contacts credited increases in natural gas demand in part to essay world war 2 additional demand in gas-fired power generation. Contacts indicated that coal production declined during the andy reporting period because of reduced demand, but they anticipate higher output in the coming months. Real Estate and Construction.

Year-to-date unit sales through May of new and existing single-family homes increased 2 percent compared to those of world war 2, a year earlier. The average sales price rose 5 percent. Homebuilders described the housing market as improving at a steady pace, with higher unit sales compared to a year ago. One builder attributed strong sales to a strengthening labor market. Another builder observed that although demand is quite adequate, it is difficult to meet demand across price points because of for global warming, rising costs for land, lot development, and construction. Nonresidential real estate activity remains strong at elevated levels.

Nonresidential contractors report strong demand for education and world war 2 healthcare related buildings and for commercial buildings for ecommerce distribution. In contrast, contacts noted low demand for retail space in work both enclosed malls and shopping centers. War 2! Contacts reported little change in overall inquires and backlogs from the previous reporting period. Bankers generally reported that loan demand for the first half of 2017 is andy mcgorman below expectations. World War 2! Businesses and consumers may be looking for more clarity on thesis, potential changes to the tax code and regulatory reform before proceeding with spending plans. While most lending categories are slowing, CRE loans and residential purchase mortgages are performing relatively well. While most contacts cited stable consumer loan demand, some contacts noted softer demand, especially for credit cards, and indicated that consumers are deleveraging. Some contacts stated that credit standards for consumer loans, including credit cards, have eased somewhat.

There has been some credit tightening for world, financing multifamily and retail developments and for subprime auto loans. Bankers noted generally improving loan quality for both commercial and consumer loans. Pen Name English Charles! Activity in the nonfinancial services sector grew at a moderate pace during the period. Essay! Strongest demand was for IT, management consulting, and logistics services. IT consulting contacts noticed opportunities among retailers that are incorporating ecommerce into their business models. The pickup in freight volume seen during the past few months has diminished; however, the mcgorman volume remains above year-ago levels.

Freight haulers saw increased demand from oil and gas and strong demand from construction material producers. War 2! Summary of Economic Activity. The Fifth District economy expanded modestly, and at a somewhat faster pace since the last report. Labor demand remained firm but hiring was constrained by carpentry cover letter, worker shortages. Prices rose slightly, on balance.

Manufacturers' shipments increased but new orders softened due to a typical seasonal slowdown. The volume of war 2, freight moving through district ports was robust and continued to business studies gcse increase, while trucking firms reported renewed momentum in shipments. Retail sales increased and reports on world war 2, tourism and travel spending were mostly upbeat. Short Essay Warming! Home sales were up, despite labor shortages in homebuilding and world war 2 low existing home inventories. On balance, commercial construction and work and leisure real estate leasing picked up moderately. Loan demand increased, and while overall credit quality was said to be good, some lenders expressed concern over lenient terms for auto loans and leases.

Non-financial services firms saw modest increases in revenues. Labor demand strengthened moderately in recent weeks, and firms increased their focus on retaining and essay war 2 recruiting qualified employees. Employment agencies reported a moderate seasonal increase in new job openings across all sectors, but only a slight increase in applicants. Wage increases remained modest for most firms. Several transportation industry executives, however, noted recent moderate wage increases and stronger wage pressures compared to the previous report. Employment agencies said that entry-level salary offers increased at a higher rate across all job categories, since the previous report. Diabetes Mellitus 2 Research Paper! In general, prices were little changed to up modestly since our previous report. According to our most recent manufacturing survey, input prices increased slightly, and a little faster than final goods prices. Meanwhile, our services survey showed slight price increases overall, with the pace of growth in retail goods outpacing that in non-retail services. However, transportation executives noted that spot freight prices were rising, in some cases significantly.

Most agriculture and energy prices varied slightly, with the notable exception of a moderate increase in metallurgical coal prices. Manufacturing firms reported modest increases in shipments, while new order volumes slowed somewhat due to a typical summer slowdown. Machinery manufacturers and producers of primary and fabricated metal noted improved business conditions in essay world war 2 recent weeks. Additionally, textile mills indicated higher production. A few firms reported increased productivity resulting from recent new equipment purchases, and carpentry teacher cover letter they expected further efficiency gains once employees were trained on operating the equipment. Most firms expect orders to increase in the next six months. Ports and Transportation.

Since our last report, freight volumes through district ports were very strong and continued to increase modestly, on essay war 2, balance. Moreover, the gains were reported to cover be evident in imports and exports, and were widespread across shipping categories. World! Meanwhile, momentum appeared to be building in truck transportation as executives in the industry reported stronger than seasonal increases in shipments during the second quarter. Business Studies Coursework Help! In addition to being more robust, growth had also become less volatile, with sequential increases in shipments in the March through June timeframe, following a prolonged period during which freight was up one month, down the world war 2 next. While trucking firms expect some seasonal slowing in the third quarter, most executives indicated that conditions feel better than they have in essay for global a very long time.

Retail sales increased in recent weeks, with somewhat mixed results across segments. Essay World War 2! Hardware and home improvement stores reported strong sales, including for 2 research paper, big-ticket and seasonal items. A home furnishings store attributed an increase in essay war 2 sales to more people buying and building homes. Andy Mcgorman Thesis! Auto sales were mixed, with a dealer in central Virginia reporting a pickup in new car sales in June, while a dealer in western North Carolina saw a decline over the month. Clothing and shoe sales were said to be flat to down in recent weeks, despite a good Father's Day weekend.

Tourism in coastal North Carolina was stronger in recent weeks relative to the same time last year, prompting higher retail sales and restaurant spending. Rental rates remained flat, but included more offers of essay war 2, extra amenities. In western North Carolina, growth in tourist activity had slowed relative to the fast-paced growth of prior years, but room rates were holding steady as hotel supply continued to grow. Andy! An outdoor recreation facility in essay western Virginia experienced increased bookings from both leisure and business groups. Lamb! In Washington, DC, conference activity remained at normal seasonal levels, while average daily rates on hotels increased. Real Estate and Construction.

Residential real estate sales increased modestly since the essay world previous report. Mellitus 2 Research Paper! Generally, real estate agents reported that buyer traffic was down due to a typical seasonal slowdown. Inventories remained low, and Realtors were working harder to essay world attract sellers into the market. Average days on the market decreased modestly. Diabetes Type 2 Research! Brokers reported that demand for essay, lower to mid-range homes remained strong, with multiple offers and rising selling prices. Residential developers also noted that homes in the $200,000 price range were in high demand. Homebuilders continued to report that new home starts were constrained by labor shortages. On balance, commercial real estate leasing and construction rose moderately. Diabetes Type 2 Research! Industrial leasing transactions and speculative construction picked up, while retail leasing and sales remained strong. Office leasing was still constrained in most locations, with some agents reporting rising demand for Class A space.

Rental rates increased modestly in most industrial, retail, and world war 2 office markets. Carpentry! Retail and mixed-use construction remained strong. Multifamily construction continued at a moderate pace, although a few contacts noted fewer announced new projects in urban areas with previous high levels of world, multifamily development. Lastly, residential and commercial real estate prices continued to rise at a modest pace, overall. On balance, loan demand continued to grow at a moderate pace. Residential mortgage demand remained solid while refinance and home equity lending softened slightly. Diabetes Mellitus 2 Research Paper! On the commercial side, loan demand continued to grow moderately; however, multifamily lending slowed slightly and a rising number of retail establishments were reportedly seeking to essay lease rather than purchase. Auto lending remained robust, but some bankers expressed concerns over an industry-wide trend towards negative equity financing and extended purchase and lease terms. Competition among banks intensified slightly, according to a contact in mcgorman thesis North Carolina, as credit unions have begun competing for commercial deals in world war 2 some markets.

Credit standards were generally unchanged and credit quality remained strong. Carpentry Letter! Short term interest rates rose slightly but long term rates remained stable. Services firms generally reported modest revenue growth, according to our most recent survey. Specifically, engineering, architectural, accounting, and world housing related services such as landscaping, home improvement, and pest control reported revenue growth in recent weeks. Demand for english essayist lamb, self-storage units rose moderately. A few contacts in D.C. and Maryland cited concerns over essay world, slowing federal procurement spending. Agriculture and diabetes Natural Resources. Reports on energy markets were somewhat positive. Coal production was little changed in recent weeks but rose moderately compared to essay the same time last year. Cover Letter! Exports remained elevated, particularly for world war 2, thermal coal. Meanwhile, agriculture conditions were unchanged as the planting season got underway.

Summary of Economic Activity. On balance, reports from Sixth District business contacts indicated that economic activity continued to expand at a modest pace from mid-May through June. Type 2 Research! The outlook among businesses remains positive as most expect an increase in activity over essay, the next year. District firms continued to report difficulties filling positions of all calibers. Wage growth, aside from wages for jobs in high demand, remained steady.

Businesses reported muted non-labor input costs. District merchants noted sales activity softened since the previous reporting period. The pace of vehicle sales slowed from a year ago. The tourism sector continued to report softness in activity in parts of the District. Reports from residential brokers and builders indicated home sales increased from year earlier levels. Real estate contacts also noted that home prices modestly appreciated. Commercial real estate contacts continued to short essay for global cite improved demand for most property types and construction increased from a year ago. Manufacturing activity grew, albeit at a slower pace than the previous report. Bankers noted credit continued to be available for qualified borrowers.

Contacts continued to world describe a tightening labor market in which they struggled to find and hold onto quality workers, a narrative that has broadened across job types and skill levels, from 2 research, construction, information technology (IT), finance, and transportation to low to mid-skill and professional positions. Several contacts maintained that labor market tightness was a major barrier to growth. Some contacts reported that planned changes to immigration policy made it more difficult to war 2 hire and retain high-skill immigrants, including engineers, technicians, and IT workers. Firms continued to deploy various tactics in carpentry teacher cover letter an effort to find and develop pipelines of talent and retain workers; for essay war 2, example, developing partnerships with workforce development entities, schools, and military bases, expanding internal and coursework gcse external training and apprenticeship programs, strengthening recruiting efforts, and seeking out retirees to return to work. Essay War 2! Some firms also enhanced compensation and pen name of the essayist charles lamb benefits packages, particularly variable pay, healthcare contributions, flexible work arrangement offerings, and added vacation time. Additionally, firms continued to world explore or deploy technology as viable future replacements for labor, especially in hard-to-fill jobs. Contacts report that wage pressures remained mostly stable, however there were also continued reports of rising starting salaries for andy thesis, lower-skill entry-level positions and ongoing upward wage pressure for some high-skill, low-supply positions. In general, growth in input costs was restrained.

Some contacts reported ability to pass along commodity input increases as they occurred. According to the Atlanta Fed's Business Inflation Expectations survey, year-over-year unit costs were up 1.9 percent in war 2 June. Survey respondents indicated they expect unit costs to rise 2.0 percent over the next twelve months. Thesis! Consumer Spending and Tourism. District retail contacts reported that sales levels were softer than expected in May. Retailers noted that overall sales activity during Memorial Day weekend was at or slightly below expectations and sales levels from international shoppers weakened since the essay last report. Automotive dealers reported a slow-down in essay the momentum of auto sales from a year ago. On balance, tourism and hospitality contacts across the District reported slightly softer than expected activity during the start of the summer season, which they attribute poor weather conditions. However, with the exception of South Florida, hotel occupancy and revenue per available room were up year over year. Year-to-date Mississippi casino gaming revenues decreased compared with the same time period last year.

The outlook among most contacts for essay war 2, the remainder of the summer season remains optimistic. Construction and Real Estate. Reports on activity in May from District residential real estate contacts continued to signal modest but steady growth. Most builders said construction activity increased from the year-ago level. Brokers and builders continued to report that home sales were up relative to one year earlier. The majority of builder and broker contacts noted that buyer traffic was up from the previous year's level. Many residential contacts indicated that inventory levels were down from the year-ago level.

Both builders and brokers reported modest gains in work essay home prices. War 2! Home sales expectations remained positive in May, with most brokers and builders anticipating that sales would hold steady or increase slightly over the next three months compared to the year-earlier level. Cover Letter! Most builders expect construction activity to match or exceed the current pace over the next three months. Essay World! Many District commercial real estate contacts reported improvements in demand that have resulted in rent growth and increased absorption, but they continued to caution that the rate of improvement varied by studies gcse, metropolitan area, submarket, and essay world property type. The majority of commercial contractors indicated that the pace of nonresidential construction activity had increased from one year ago, with many reporting increasing backlogs.

While most reports indicated that the pace of multifamily construction matched or exceeded the year-ago level, a growing share of contacts are reporting that multifamily construction is down. Business Coursework Help! Looking forward, the majority of District commercial construction contacts expect nonresidential construction activity to essay world increase, while expectations for essayist, the pace of multifamily construction was mixed. On balance, manufacturing contacts continued to world war 2 report growth in pen name of the english essayist lamb overall activity. New orders and production levels continued to essay world rise, but at a slower pace than the studies help gcse previous reporting period. Purchasing agents indicated that supply delivery times continued to get longer and world finished inventory levels increased slightly. The outlook for future production decreased somewhat, with just under half of firms expecting higher production levels over the next six months. Most District transportation contacts reported an expansion of activity during the reporting period. Logistics companies noted steady growth in ecommerce shipments, and trucking contacts reported notable increases in freight volume and tonnage. District ports cited continued strength in shipments of carpentry teacher, automobiles and machinery, and record container volumes. Rail contacts reported a slight uptick in intermodal traffic; however, year- over- year rail traffic was relatively unchanged since the previous report.

Credit remained readily available for most qualified borrowers. World War 2! Competition for loan customers increased among financial institutions. Overall loan growth varied--some institutions reported flat to slow growth while others indicated strong growth. Small business loans were up year over andy, year at some institutions. Credit card usage increased yet delinquency levels remained stable.

Deposit levels were up at essay war 2, many institutions. Reports from for global, energy contacts indicated that Tropical Storm Cindy caused limited disruptions to oil and gas operations in essay war 2 the Gulf of Mexico. Contacts noted that trends in continued gains in energy efficiency has slowed growth among residential and commercial gas customers. Reports indicated that natural gas demand was below normal and inventories remained above average levels. Contacts reported that Gulf Coast refineries ran at record high levels and crude oil inventories remained above average levels. Agriculture conditions across the District were mixed. By mid-June, rains had significantly improved drought conditions in much of the District. However, recent heavy rainfall due to Tropical Storm Cindy exacerbated areas' crop moisture conditions in much of the District that were already categorized as abnormally moist to excessively wet, and there were early indications of some crop damage. During the reporting period, the District's cotton crop was mostly on carpentry cover letter, par with the essay five-year averages and soybean planting in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee was ahead of their five-year averages.

The June forecast for Florida oranges was up slightly from May but remained considerably lower than last season's production. On a year-over-year basis, prices paid to farmers in April were up for pen name of the english charles lamb, cotton, soybeans, and world broilers but remained down for corn, rice, beef, and eggs. Summary of Economic Activity. Growth in carpentry teacher economic activity in the Seventh District picked up to world a moderate pace in late May and diabetes mellitus type paper June and respondents' outlooks for growth over the next 6 to 12 months also improved some. Prices rose modestly. Employment, business spending, and manufacturing grew at moderate rates, while consumer spending and construction and real estate activity increased modestly. Conditions were little changed in the financial and agricultural sectors. Employment growth continued at a moderate rate over the reporting period, and contacts expected it to continue at that pace for the next 6 to essay 12 months. Contacts indicated that the labor market was tight and that it was generally harder to fill high-skilled positions than low-skilled positions. Hiring was focused on professional and technical, sales, and production workers, and there was an increase in the number of contacts hiring sales workers.

A staffing firm that primarily supplies manufacturers with production workers reported a slight decline in cover billable hours. Wage growth was modest overall, with increases more likely for high-skilled occupations. A number of war 2, contacts with union workers reported wage increases that were well above inflation. Many contacts said that the cost of benefits increased. Overall, prices again rose modestly in late May and June. Retail prices increased slightly, with the for global exception of gasoline and food prices, which declined a bit. Materials costs were little changed overall and freight costs were up slightly.

Consumer spending increased modestly over the reporting period. Non-auto retail sales were up modestly, with growth in the building materials, gardening equipment, food and essay world war 2 beverage, and personal care segments. Tourism and carpentry letter entertainment contacts reported that the seasonal pickup in activity was proceeding as expected. The pace of world war 2, auto sales changed little on net, with reports of short warming, a pickup in May followed by a slowdown in June. Used-vehicle sales were steady. Contacts indicated that low fuel prices continued to shift the world vehicle mix toward light trucks and away from cars. Low fuel prices also helped spur increased sales of recreational vehicles. Growth in andy business spending remained at a moderate pace in late May and June. Retail inventories generally were at comfortable levels, although stocks appeared high for certain models of autos.

Manufacturing inventories were at comfortable levels overall, though inventories at steel service centers remained low. Growth in capital spending continued at a moderate pace, and contacts expected growth to continue at essay world, that pace for the next 6 to 12 months. Outlays were primarily for replacing industrial equipment, IT equipment, and renovating structures, though there was an andy, increase in the number of contacts reporting spending for expansion. Demand for electricity was little changed and shipping volumes increased slightly. Construction and Real Estate. Construction and real estate activity increased modestly over the reporting period. Residential construction increased slightly across home types and locations. Home sales increased a bit and house prices increased modestly on balance. Demand varied by price range, with strong demand and tight inventories for homes under $500,000 and modest demand and abundant inventories for world war 2, houses over $500,000. Nonresidential building changed little. A highway construction contractor in work and leisure essay Illinois reported that they would stop work on all state-funded projects at essay war 2, the beginning of July because the state does not have a budget and that they have already laid off some workers who were preparing for new projects.

The pace of commercial real estate activity remained strong and carpentry teacher cover even picked up a bit, led by gains in the industrial sector. Essay! Activity was especially strong in West Michigan, and pen name english charles a contact there reported that activity had increased moderately over the reporting period. Commercial rents edged up, as vacancy rates and the availability of sublease space decreased slightly. Manufacturing production continued to grow at a moderate rate in late May and essay war 2 June. Warming! Growth in steel production remained at a moderate pace, as increased demand from the essay war 2 energy and machinery industries offset softer demand from the auto industry.

Heavy machinery manufacturers themselves reported increased demand, driven by studies coursework gcse, the energy and mining sectors, particularly from overseas customers. Heavy truck manufacturers also reported a pickup in demand. Sales for specialty metals manufacturers increased overall, with greater demand coming from the aerospace, energy, and defense sectors. That said, some contacts noted that recent growth had been uneven, which raised concerns about future sales prospects. Production in the auto sector declined some, but remained at essay, a solid level. Financial conditions were little changed on balance over the reporting period.

Financial market participants noted that volatility continues to be low. Studies Coursework Gcse! Business loan demand ticked up overall, and essay world there was little change in loan standards or quality. Contacts reported an increase in thesis demand for capital equipment and real estate loans. Demand for essay world, consumer loans was little changed on balance. Home loan volume rose faster than the usual spring seasonal pattern and pricing was little changed.

Home loan quality remained strong. Pen Name Essayist Lamb! Demand for auto loans decreased slightly and there was no notable change in world quality. Andy Thesis! The agricultural sector continued to operate under stress in late May and world June, with reports of some crop and dairy operations exiting or filing for bankruptcy. Crop conditions and maturity lagged that of last year's bumper crop, but the overall harvest is still expected to be around trend. Contacts expected a smaller corn harvest than last year, but there is essay a small chance that the essay world soybean harvest will be larger because the wet spring led some farmers to teacher letter switch acreage from corn to world soybeans. Hog prices moved up, but cattle prices dropped. Milk prices were lower, which contributed to mounting losses for many dairy operations. Short For Global! For more information about District economic conditions visit: Summary of essay world, Economic Activity.

Reports from contacts suggest economic conditions have slightly improved since our previous report. Pen Name! Employers reported little hiring and moderate wage pressures due to difficulties finding qualified candidates. Retailers indicated that consumer spending modestly improved since our previous report. Manufacturing contacts continued to report modest growth. Real estate contacts indicated that, while demand remained strong, residential activity continued to decline amid supply constraints. Banking contacts indicate generally strong growth in loan demand from both businesses and households. Reports from the essay war 2 District's agriculture sector suggest modest improvement after flooding last period, but that generally conditions remain weak amid low prices. Anecdotal evidence suggests employment is studies gcse little changed since the previous report.

Many contacts reported a desire to hire, but they have been unable to world find suitable employees. Manufacturing contacts in Louisville and business gcse Memphis reported difficulties finding experienced or qualified employees, with some citing candidates' inability to pass drug tests or to consistently report to work. Hospitality contacts in Louisville noted that both entry-level and experienced workers have been challenging to find, and skilled positions in technical fields such as information technology and engineering remain difficult to fill. Contacts reported moderate growth in wages since the previous report, as tightness in the labor market has resulted in upward pressure on wages. In addition, several contacts reported enhancing benefits in an effort to attract employees. However, some employers noted factors holding back wage increases. A science and technology contact reported that rising costs of benefits have limited increases in wages, and a hospitality contact in Louisville noted that wages remain unchanged because any increases would result in higher prices charged to customers. Price pressures in the District remained moderate. Low commodity prices continue to put pressure on the agriculture sector.

Since the previous report, cash prices of wheat and world war 2 sorghum have increased moderately and prices of carpentry teacher cover, rice have increased slightly; there was no change in the price of coal, and prices of essay world war 2, soybeans, corn, and cotton decreased modestly. A contact in business Little Rock reported farm equipment prices are down. Across the District, home prices continued to world war 2 increase moderately. Contacts reported increased price pressures on new homes from for global warming, rising construction costs due to the shortage in labor supply. Essay World War 2! Price changes of diabetes type paper, construction materials were mixed. Essay! Contacts in business the Little Rock area reported solid wood prices decreased modestly due to increased supply, whereas a contact in the Memphis furniture industry reported higher wood and foam prices were putting upward pressure on the price of essay, their finished goods.

Reports from for global, general retailers, auto dealers, and hoteliers indicate consumer spending has grown modestly since our previous report. May sales tax collections in world war 2 Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee were higher than one year ago. Multiple auto dealers reported an increase in sales, albeit at a slower pace relative to a year ago. Furthermore, dealers in north Mississippi reported a shift in demand toward used vehicles. Hospitality contacts in Missouri indicated that business activity has increased since our previous report, while hotel occupancy rates continue to decline in downtown Louisville. Manufacturing activity has increased modestly since our previous report. Manufacturing activity was stronger than one month earlier in both Missouri and Arkansas, although the teacher letter pace of growth slowed sharply in Missouri and slowed slightly in Arkansas. In addition, contacts in world the furniture manufacturing industry reported a decrease in orders. Several companies reported new capital expenditure and facility expansion plans in studies coursework gcse the District, including firms that manufacture fabricated metal products, paper products, and plastic and rubber products. A contact in the aluminum industry reported record high capital expenditures. Reports of plans in world war 2 the service sector have been positive, on balance, since the pen name english essayist previous report.

Firms that provide transportation, warehousing, utilities, and information technology services reported plans to expand facilities and hire employees. World War 2! In the St. Louis area, reports from the education sector were negative, as two major universities announced layoffs due to budget cuts and declining enrollment. News from the short essay warming healthcare industry is essay world war 2 mixed. Some providers are cutting costs, leading to closures in 2 research healthcare-related businesses; however, other providers continue to expand operations in urban areas . Real Estate and Construction. Residential real estate activity has declined modestly since the previous report.

Seasonally adjusted home sales for essay world, May decreased slightly from the previous month in pen name of the english essayist charles most of the District's four major MSAs. Local real estate contacts continued to report that significant shortages in inventory have hindered sales while demand remains strong. War 2! Most contacts indicated that changes in interest rates have had little to no impact on the market. May permit activity in District MSAs declined slightly relative to the previous month. A Memphis contact indicated that little new construction is occurring, while a Little Rock contact noted that homebuilding in the region is approaching levels consistent with fundamentals. Commercial real estate activity has remained flat since the business studies coursework previous report. Demand for industrial properties continued to be robust, and a Louisville contact reported that there is essentially no warehouse space available in the area. Multifamily demand remained stable, but some contacts reported an increase in essay world demand for senior living facilities. Contacts reported that rising interest rates have had very little impact on commercial real estate markets.

Commercial construction activity continued to be strong. Andy Mcgorman! Several Memphis contractors indicated that they are optimistic about their future prospective projects. Industrial construction activity remained robust, particularly in Louisville. Contacts across the essay war 2 District expressed concerns over the number of cover, new hotels under construction. Lending activity in the Eighth District has expanded at a robust pace since the previous report and markedly outpaced the nation. Commercial real estate loan volumes grew at essay world war 2, a strong pace, rising by 14 percent on a year-over-year basis. District bankers reported that consumer loans--which comprise credit card, auto, medical, and student loans--experienced robust growth and have risen by 28 percent relative to year-ago levels. Work! Commercial and essay world industrial lending exhibited moderate growth over the period, though slightly softer than in work and leisure essay recent quarters. District bank deposits expanded at essay, a moderate pace and have been growing at roughly three times the national rate over the past three years.

Agriculture and Natural Resources. Agricultural conditions improved modestly by the end of June as row-crop farms recovered from andy mcgorman thesis, flooding. Contacts reported a few Arkansas fields had still not dried up enough to replant and many fields would be replanted with soybeans because other crops' planting windows had passed. As of June, the percentages of District corn and soybeans rated fair or better were below their 2016 values, but corn improved slightly from essay world war 2, a month prior. The percentage of rice rated fair or better was above the business studies coursework help year- and month-ago values, while the cotton percentage was slightly better than a year prior and war 2 slightly worse than a month prior. Natural resource extraction conditions declined slightly from April to May, with seasonally adjusted coal production decreasing 3 percent. However, production was still 7 percent higher than one year ago. Essay! For more information about District economic conditions, visit: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.

Summary of Economic Activity. World! Since the last reporting period, the Ninth District economy experienced modest growth. Employment grew modestly, held back by poor labor availability. Wages grew moderately to strongly, while price pressures remained modest. The District economy showed growth in professional services, residential construction, manufacturing, energy, and mining. Commercial and residential real estate, along with commercial construction, were mixed. Tourism activity was flat overall, while consumer spending fell, and agricultural conditions weakened.

Employment grew modestly since the last report, held back by andy thesis, poor labor availability. While total employment grew across District states, it grew by world, less than normal for this time of year. 2 Research Paper! Job demand continued to essay world war 2 be strong. A Minnesota construction contact said, Everyone is hiring in all markets. A Montana staffing contact said second quarter orders overall were stagnant, but June orders have seen an uptick. A staffing firm in southeastern Minnesota said job openings over the previous two months grew by 14 percent over the same period a year earlier, and a general labor shortage had clients concerned that this was going to coursework help gcse impact growth of essay, their business. Tourism businesses across the District reported difficulty finding workers; three Minnesota resorts reported close to 200 unfilled openings.

Initial unemployment insurance claims over the most recent six-week period dropped by 13 percent in the District over the same period a year earlier, with continuing claims dropping by 10 percent. An employer survey in District states found a small increase in the share of companies expecting to hire more staff in and leisure essay the coming quarter compared with the current quarter; the share of firms expecting to cut staff was low and roughly unchanged. Job losses continued from large retailers, and hiring in eastern North Dakota continued to be soft, while employers in the western, oil-producing region of the state were reportedly hungry to war 2 hire, according to a regional source. Wages grew moderately to strongly overall since the last report. Work And Leisure! A central Minnesota contact said wage pressure is a big deal for companies with entry level jobs, and a regional survey there found that half of respondents were increasing wages to deal with a tight labor market. Average wages for 18 Minnesota construction unions saw annual increases of between 3.3 percent and world war 2 5 percent in recent three-year contracts negotiated in May. Coursework Gcse! A Minnesota food processing company increased union worker wages by close to 3 percent annually over four years; a Montana natural resource company increased wages by a total of 5 percent over a two-year period.

In North Dakota, state budget difficulties have resulted in a freeze in salaries for many state and higher education workers. Price pressures remained modest since the last report. Pressure on construction materials prices has eased, according to industry contacts. Recent bids for a large highway construction project in Minnesota came in 18 percent below expectations. Iron ore prices have fallen in war 2 recent months, while scrap metal prices, by contrast, have been on an upward trend since late last year. Retail fuel prices in District states decreased slightly in June compared with a month earlier. Most prices received by short essay warming, farmers decreased in May from a year earlier, with the exception of hay, milk, cattle, chickens, and eggs. Consumer Spending and Tourism. Consumer spending was down slightly since the last report. May sales tax collections in South Dakota were down 2 percent from a year earlier.

Recent sales of passenger vehicles decreased, according to auto dealer contacts, while sales of war 2, trucks increased slightly. In contrast, a contact at a North Dakota mall reported that sales were up slightly. A regional big box retail chain and a supermarket chain were planning to work add stores. Tourism activity was flat overall since the last report. May visits to national parks in the District were down 2 percent from a year earlier. Demand for hotel lodging in Minnesota was flat in May from a year earlier. In contrast, gaming revenues in Deadwood, S.D., increased 8 percent in May. Essay World! Activity in the professional services industry increased moderately since the last report. According to preliminary results from an of the english charles, annual survey of District services firms, respondents reported that sales, productivity, and essay world war 2 employment all increased over the past year; firms expected more growth over the coming year.

An accounting firm reported increased activity, even as the busy tax season subsided. Contacts in the trucking industry reported flat activity over recent months. Construction and Real Estate. Commercial construction was mixed since the last report. According to type industry figures, commercial building and essay world nonbuilding construction activity in May was lower than a year earlier. A separate database of construction projects out for pen name of the english essayist charles lamb, bid across several District states through mid-June was flat compared with a year earlier. But a Minnesota industry association contact said most members seem to be having good years with full or potentially full calendars of work.

Commercial permit values in May grew considerably over a year earlier in several larger cities in the Minneapolis-St. Essay World! Paul region, including the core cities; however, they were flat or lower in pen name essayist charles a large majority of other larger cities in the District. In Rochester, Minn., construction was described as fairly subdued, but was expected to change. Residential construction grew modestly. Essay War 2! Single-family permits in May rose in only a small majority of large District cities compared with a year earlier. Multi-family construction continued its strong activity, with more than 900 units permitted in May across the pen name essayist Minneapolis-St. Paul metro, the highest monthly figure in war 2 almost four years. Commercial real estate was mixed since the last report. A contact in Rapid City, S.D., said transaction activity there has been strong. Diabetes Mellitus Paper! Apartment complexes get sold within a week of world, listing. Retail vacancy was described as pretty stable, while office vacancy appeared to be rising thanks to new space coming to the market.

Retail vacancy rates have continued to rise slowly in carpentry teacher Minneapolis-St. Paul, thanks to a significant amount of space vacated by large retailers. However, another source noted that retail space under construction was lower than a year earlier and grocery expansion continued to eat up available space. Despite strong construction activity, multi-family vacancy rates remained low in the region, and rents were rising. Residential real estate was mixed. Closed sales rose in northern and western Wisconsin counties located in the District compared with a year earlier; sales also grew in Sioux Falls, S.D. Sales were mixed in Montana--strong in essay the Flathead region, flat in Missoula, but lower in Helena. In Minneapolis-St.

Paul, May sales fell by almost 2 percent, while sales in the rest of the state were flat, attributed largely to low inventories of homes for sale. District manufacturing activity increased moderately since the last report. An index of manufacturing conditions produced by Creighton University indicated increased activity in May compared with a month earlier in Minnesota and the Dakotas. Several contacts in the metal-fabricating industry reported very strong recent activity; one contact had record sales in May and was expecting a similar level in June. A dealer of capital equipment and warming services reported that orders were up. An electronics producer announced a major new facility in Minnesota. Agriculture, Energy and Natural Resources. District agricultural conditions weakened since the previous report. Severe drought conditions affected the Dakotas and essay war 2 parts of pen name of the, Montana, hampering crop progress and war 2 triggering disaster relief payments to ranchers in some areas.

By contrast, crop conditions in the eastern parts of the District were mostly good or excellent as of late June. Activity in the energy and mining sectors increased slightly since the last report. District oil and gas exploration activity increased in late June from a month earlier, even as crude prices fell. Recent production at type 2 research, Minnesota iron ore mines has been running well ahead of levels a year earlier. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Summary of Economic Activity. Economic activity in world war 2 the Tenth District expanded moderately in June, and most sectors expected additional gains in the months ahead. Consumer spending increased at a moderate pace, with retail, restaurant and tourism contacts reporting stronger sales than the previous survey period. Work! Manufacturing activity picked up moderately, and professional, high-tech, and transportation contacts reported strong increases in sales.

Capital expenditures were anticipated to war 2 rise in the manufacturing, professional and andy mcgorman thesis high-tech industries, while wholesale trade and world war 2 transportation firms expected a modest decline. Residential and commercial construction activity rose in June, but home sales declined slightly as low inventories constrained sales. Work Essay! The number of active drilling rigs continued to increase, but the world war 2 pace of growth was expected to slow in coming months. District farm revenue remained subdued as most agricultural commodity prices remained low. Employment and wages increased modestly since the essay for global warming previous survey period, and contacts expected moderate wage growth in world war 2 the coming months. Input prices were up modestly in most sectors, and selling prices were mixed. District employment and employee hours continued to increase modestly in June, and contacts expected additional gains in work the months ahead.

Contacts in the retail, wholesale trade, professional and high-tech services, tourism, health services and real estate sectors reported a modest increase in essay war 2 employment since the previous survey period, while employment held steady in auto sales and restaurants. All sectors anticipated higher employment levels in the coming months except for the auto sector which expected a slight decrease. Average employee hours rose since the previous survey in short essay for global the services and manufacturing sectors and were above year-ago levels. Essay World War 2! Several contacts noted a shortage of commercial drivers, salespeople, and service workers. Wages rose modestly in most sectors in June, and moderate wage growth was anticipated in the coming months. Input prices were up modestly in most sectors compared to and leisure the previous survey period, while selling prices were mixed. World War 2! In the retail sector, selling prices edged up, and pen name english lamb input prices continued to rise, but at a slower pace than in the prior survey. Restaurant contacts reported slight declines in both input and selling prices, but expected both prices to pick up in the months ahead. Input prices in the transportation sector rose at a modest pace, while selling prices increased slightly. Essay World! Prices in the construction sector rose modestly, with slight increases anticipated in the coming months.

Manufacturers reported slight decreases in finished goods prices, while raw material costs continued to edge higher. Manufacturers anticipated modest growth in both finished goods and raw material prices over the next few months. Consumer spending increased moderately, and additional moderate gains were expected in the months ahead. Retail sales rose at a moderate pace and pen name essayist charles were well above year-ago levels. Several retailers noted stronger sales for lumber and building materials, while luxury and higher-priced products sold poorly. Retail contacts anticipated sales to grow moderately in the next few months, and inventory levels were expected to remain stable. Auto sales stabilized in June after declining for several months and were slightly above year-ago levels.

Dealer contacts anticipated a moderate increase in auto sales in the months ahead. Restaurant sales picked up moderately since the previous survey, and modest gains were expected in the coming months. District tourism activity increased moderately and remained above year-ago levels. World! Tourism contacts anticipated moderate increases in activity during the summer months. Manufacturing and Other Business Activity. Manufacturing activity continued to expand at a moderate pace in June, and most other business contacts reported improved sales. Manufacturers reported moderate growth in production, particularly for aircraft, plastics, and chemical products. Shipments and new orders expanded modestly, and activity was considerably higher than a year ago. Short For Global Warming! Manufacturers' capital spending plans were mostly positive, and world war 2 firms' expectations for future activity remained strong.

Outside of manufacturing, professional, high-tech, and diabetes 2 research transportation firms reported strong sales increases, while wholesale trade contacts reported a more modest growth in sales. War 2! Most firms expected a moderate improvement in sales in the next six months. Professional and high-tech firms expected capital spending to increase moderately heading forward, while wholesale trade and transportation firms anticipated a modest decline in capital expenditures. Real Estate and Construction. District real estate activity expanded slightly since the previous survey period, and respondents expected further gains moving forward. Residential home sales declined slightly from the previous month, with sales of low- and and leisure essay medium-priced homes outpacing sales of higher-priced homes. Residential home inventories moved modestly lower from year-ago levels. Essay War 2! Contacts expected low inventories to business coursework gcse constrain sales in the next few months and anticipated sales would be flat.

Residential construction activity grew slightly, as housing starts and traffic of potential buyers rose, while construction supply sales were stable. Respondents expected overall residential construction activity to world increase moderately in the months ahead. Commercial real estate activity continued to expand modestly as vacancy rates declined and absorption, completions, construction underway, sales, prices and work and leisure rents increased. A modest expansion in world war 2 the commercial real estate sector was anticipated in the coming months. A majority of mcgorman, banking respondents indicated stable demand for commercial and industrial, commercial real estate, residential real estate, and consumer installment loans. Demand for agricultural loans was mostly mixed in world war 2 June. Most bankers indicated loan quality was unchanged compared to a year ago, and expected loan quality to remain essentially the same over the next six months. Credit standards remained largely unchanged in all major loan categories, and work essay a majority of respondents reported stable deposit levels.

Energy activity rose at a modest pace, while expectations eased slightly but remained positive. The number of active oil and gas drilling rigs continued to increase across the essay world District, but respondents expected the pace of growth to slow in the coming months due to english essayist flat prices and the continued oversupply of oil. Contacts also reported a moderate decline in access to credit, particularly from banks, while private equity continued to be readily available. Expectations for essay world war 2, future oil and gas prices moderated somewhat as a result of the continued increase in U.S. oil production and ample natural gas supply. Furthermore, contacts said that although the business studies coursework help gcse oil and essay world war 2 gas prices needed to cover increase drilling substantially has continued to essay world war 2 decline modestly, it remained above their current one-year ahead price expectations. District farm revenue remained subdued since the previous reporting period as most agricultural commodity prices remained low. Corn and wheat prices increased slightly, but were lower than a year ago due to elevated global supplies. Similar to last year, District contacts reported that corn and wheat prices remained below levels generally thought to be profitable and financial stress continued to increase at a gradual pace for many producers.

Soybean prices declined slightly from the previous reporting period and pen name of the essayist charles lamb were also slightly less than a year ago. Livestock operators were slightly more optimistic than earlier, as cattle prices increased modestly from a year ago. War 2! Hog prices also increased modestly from the previous reporting period as global demand for andy mcgorman, meat products remained relatively strong. Summary of Economic Activity. The Eleventh District economy continued to expand at a moderate pace over the past six weeks. Manufacturing output rose, and activity in nonfinancial services increased. Growth in retail sales slowed, while auto sales dipped. World War 2! Housing demand grew, lending activity increased, and the energy sector saw continued improvement.

Crop conditions were mostly favorable. Employment and for global wages rose, as did prices. Outlooks remained positive, although some contacts noted uncertainty regarding changes in trade and healthcare policy as well as tax reform. Overall employment rose moderately, and essay war 2 wage pressures were similar to andy mcgorman the last report. Manufacturers added to payrolls, with some noting that labor shortages were pushing up wages. Hiring in the services sector, including retail, continued. The construction labor market remained tight, particularly in Dallas-Fort Worth and Austin. Two staffing firms cited wage pressures across most skill levels, while two reported that rising wage pressures were limited to higher-skilled positions. Contacts noted labor market tightness throughout the essay world oil and gas supply chain and diabetes mellitus 2 research paper continued to cite upward wage pressures particularly for experienced personnel and for certain skills sets. Selling prices increased at a slightly slower pace than in essay world war 2 the prior report. Some oilfield services firms noted a weaker outlook for margins as costs were rising at a faster pace than selling prices.

Accommodation and food services contacts noted higher prices. Staffing firms saw stable billing rates, while airlines noted higher fees and essay ticket prices. Cotton prices slipped in essay June on rising expectations of strong cotton production this year. Retail gasoline and diesel prices fell over the reporting period following the work and leisure decline in oil prices. Expansion in the manufacturing sector slowed over the past month. Among durables, output growth in primary metals and machinery manufacturing strengthened, but production was flat for fabricated metals and high-tech manufacturing. Food manufacturers reported an increase in demand. There were reports of strength in energy-related manufacturing activity, but exports remained a source of weakness for manufacturers who sell internationally.

Overall, outlooks stayed positive. A couple of contacts said they were uncertain about how long the current strength in activity would last. Refinery utilization rates along the Gulf Coast increased. World! Refiner margins in 2017 will likely be lower than previously expected, reflecting large product inventories and lower expectations of U.S. consumption growth. Chemical producers noted healthy global demand and good margins. Retail sales continued to rise, although at mcgorman thesis, a slower pace than the prior period. Some contacts noted that in-store sales continued to be weak.

There were a few reports of sales improving along the Texas-Mexico border and in energy-related regions. World! Auto sales fell during the reporting period. Auto lenders have tightened credit amid rising delinquencies. Outlooks among retailers generally improved compared with the prior report. Demand for nonfinancial services expanded moderately over the past six weeks. Demand for staffing services generally increased, with all contacts noting higher year-over-year activity. Placements of business, health care professionals generally remained high. Essay World War 2! Contacts saw a pickup in mcgorman thesis orders for essay war 2, mining-related work in East Texas and cited broad-based demand for white-collar workers in Dallas-Fort Worth. A contact in Houston noted surprisingly strong demand for entry- to short warming mid-level placements from oil and gas firms.

Professional and technical service firms saw revenue gains during the reporting period, with several firms noting a pickup in activity. Accommodation and food services contacts also noted slight increases in revenues, although there were some reports of persistent weakness in demand. Airlines said passenger demand held steady over the past six weeks. Domestic travel remained stable, while activity along transatlantic and South American routes increased. Transportation and warehousing firms noted higher revenues and an increase in essay cargo volumes since the last report.

Rail cargo rose, led by strong gains in shipments of fracking sand and grains, although shipments of petroleum products and cover motor vehicles continued to decline. Parcel shipments and essay seaport cargo increased, while air and trucking freight volumes were flat. Outlooks among nonfinancial services firms remained fairly optimistic, although some contacts expressed concern about economic and political uncertainty. Construction and Real Estate. Lamb! Homes sales continued to trend upward during the essay world reporting period.

Contacts in Austin, Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston noted that sales of low- to mid-priced homes mostly remained strong, however, sales at diabetes, the higher-price points varied by submarket. Home prices were flat to up, and more builders were focusing on bringing moderately-priced products to essay world war 2 the market. Apartment demand improved and occupancy edged higher in the second quarter, following a generally slow first quarter. Leasing activity picked up in Houston where overall market conditions were beginning to stabilize, and landlords were able to reduce rent concessions on select floorplans. Rental rates rose, with Dallas-Fort Worth seeing the fastest growth.

Outlooks were positive and studies coursework help contacts expected continued, gradual improvement in Houston's multifamily market. Transaction volume appeared to have slowed for multifamily properties as there was not much inventory on the market for world war 2, sale. Office demand in Dallas-Fort Worth remained solid and rent pressure persisted, although rental rates at the very high end have been relatively flat. One contact expressed some concern about the elevated level of office construction in and leisure essay the metroplex. Loan demand increased over the past six weeks, although at a slightly slower pace than in the previous reporting period. Growth in commercial real estate and commercial and industrial loan volumes slowed. Essay War 2! Residential real estate loan balances expanded at carpentry cover letter, a faster rate than in essay world war 2 the previous reporting cycle, while consumer lending declined slightly. Deposit volumes expanded, and lenders cited higher net interest margins as well as higher rates on loans. Contacts remained largely optimistic regarding future business activity and carpentry cover letter loan demand; however, several continued to express concern about the world regulatory environment. Work And Leisure Essay! Demand for oilfield services continued to improve, and essay oilfield services firms noted increased utilization of their equipment.

Drilling activity rose further, and exploration and production firms reported an increase in oil and gas production. Several contacts said that the pace of business help, increase in the rig count may not be sustainable and that they expect it to taper off or even plateau past mid-2017. Outlooks remained positive, although contacts were less optimistic compared with the previous report. Moisture levels remained favorable across the district, boosting crop conditions. The wheat harvest was wrapping up, and production was down sharply from essay, last year because of lower yields and fewer acres planted. While farmers were generally feeling positive about 2017 row crop production, they remained concerned about low crop prices and financial strain from not being able to cover production costs. Export demand for U.S. cotton will likely not be as strong this year due to average crop quality and teacher cover higher global supply. The cattle industry continued to benefit from very strong beef demand, both domestically and internationally. For more information about District economic conditions visit: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

Summary of Economic Activity. Economic activity in the Twelfth District continued to expand at a moderate pace during the reporting period of mid-May through June. Essay World! Overall price inflation was flat, while upward wage pressures strengthened. Sales of retail goods were modest, and growth in the consumer and business services sectors remained strong. Short Essay! Conditions in the manufacturing sector improved, and activity in world war 2 the agriculture sector picked up to a modest pace.

Contacts reported robust activity in residential real estate markets, and activity in the commercial sector picked up. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Research! Conditions in the financial services sector remained solid. Essay World War 2! On balance, wage pressures ticked up, and conditions in the labor market tightened further during the reporting period. Business Studies Coursework Gcse! Wage pressures for world, skilled software engineers intensified further as competition for programmers with experience in mellitus type 2 research cybersecurity and cloud computing remained fierce. Demand for unskilled warehouse employees in the transportation and logistics services sector increased. Contacts reported that they increasingly filled job openings with older workers who were reportedly seeking health-care benefits or supplemental income. Shortages of labor and world increasing wage costs fueled investments in short essay warming automation in war 2 the agriculture industry. Teacher Cover Letter! Sluggish sales growth and rising compensation costs slowed the pace of essay, hiring in work and leisure essay the restaurant industry. Overall, price inflation was flat over essay world war 2, the reporting period. Prices of pen name of the essayist charles lamb, construction materials picked up. Hotel rates firmed as tourism demand remained strong.

Overall prices for consumer electronics edged down slightly. However, increased demand for computational memory buttressed prices of some manufactured components. Prices for cloud computing services declined as data centers achieved greater economies of scale. Increased capacity in renewable energy generation held down energy price inflation. Overall, prices of agricultural commodities slipped as the pace of supply growth outpaced that of demand.

Retail Trade and Services. On balance, retail sales were modest over essay war 2, the reporting period. Teacher Cover Letter! Contacts reported that, while retail sales picked up overall, the shift in consumer preferences toward online purchases slowed sales at traditional brick-and-mortar retailers. Declines in gasoline prices reportedly boosted sales of light trucks. Inventories of world, automobiles grew as demand softened further, and contacts expected sales to remain weak for some time. Activity in coursework help gcse the consumer and business services sector generally grew at a strong pace. Business demand for security, cloud, and analytic services continued to boost sales in the technology industry. E-commerce sales supported strong volume growth in essay the transportation industry. English! Tourism demand remained strong, although contacts noted that continued uncertainty surrounding immigration policy slowed international bookings at hotels in Southern California. Restaurant sales remained sluggish, and contacts expect the sluggishness to continue through the end of the year.

Conditions in the manufacturing sector improved somewhat, but uncertainty around fiscal, trade, and essay world immigration policies tempered views on future growth. Increases in demand for andy mcgorman, memory on consumer devices boosted production of semiconductors, and contacts expect double-digit growth through the end of the year. Demand for primary and fabricated metals increased, buoyed by a pickup of business investment and solid residential and commercial construction. Production of manufactured pharmaceuticals expanded moderately. Deliveries of commercial aircraft slowed to a modest pace, but orders rose from the same period last year. One contact reported that improved sales at some manufacturers boosted their expected capital investments. Agriculture and Resource-Related Industries.

Activity in the agriculture sector picked up to a modest pace over the reporting period. In the essay Central Valley of California, yields of nuts and row crops were up over the previous growing season. Pen Name English! Ample water supplies boosted cherry harvests. On balance, improved global economic conditions nudged up demand for some agriculture products, particularly pork. Increased global production pushed raisin inventories higher, reducing profitability for world, some growers. Demand for electricity was flat, and persistent surpluses hampered profitability. Contacts reported that financial distress at short warming, many independent power generators continued to propel industry consolidation. Use of fossil fuels, particularly coal, in energy generation continued to decline, while demand for renewables continued to be robust. Real Estate and Construction. World! Real estate market activity picked up to essay for global warming a robust pace.

Residential construction activity continued to essay world war 2 be strong in of the english charles much of the District, slowed only by a lack of world war 2, available land and labor. Inventories of new homes dropped further. One contact in California reported extremely high presales in the residential market. Supply shortages continued to fuel strong price increases, and affordability remained a concern in thesis most metropolitan areas. Commercial construction activity was solid. Contacts reported an uptick in commercial investment aimed at remodeling and repurposing large retail spaces for health-care and entertainment services.

Financing conditions for commercial projects tightened slightly. On balance, conditions in the financial services sector remained solid. Loan demand softened slightly, although contacts in the Pacific Northwest noted that, after a soft first quarter, lending activity picked up briskly in that region. Credit quality, while strong by essay, historical standards, deteriorated slightly for commercial and industrial and auto loans. Deposits continued to increase but at a slower pace than in previous months.

Asset quality remained solid, and capital levels were at all-time highs. Net margins remained compressed, hindering bank profitability, and work contacts reported that community banks continued to essay consolidate.

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My Future Goals and studies help Why My future goal is to obtain enough education for me acquire some of the essay . skills I want to work with women and children that have been abused, either violently or sexually. One of my main reasons for enrolling In the Addiction Studies Program here at Peninsula College is because drugs and carpentry cover letter alcohol play a huge part in Domestic Violence and other forms of essay abuse among other things. I would like to open a unique center, where women and children could go for safety, and I would. ARIA Charts , Art , Goal 1625 Words | 4 Pages. ?Nowadays there so many different professions that one can be confused in choosing the perfect one for them.

The development of certain branches of essay warming science . and technology has led to the advancement of new skills. So, the profession that I want to dedicate my life to is a physician. The job of a doctor is world one of the oldest and most prestigious professions. Medicine is constantly changing and adapting to the changing world. New diseases require new knowledge.

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Erikson's stages of essay psychosocial development , Family , Girl Scouts of the USA 2271 Words | 5 Pages. ? My Future Career Plans - With A Free Essay Review PROMPT: My future career . plans , why I want and essay need to teacher cover study in the US at the graduate level, and how I hope to contribute to my country's democratic and economic development. My name is essay world war 2 Levan, I’m 23 years old. I was born in small city Dusheti, where i started learning. In 2000 I won the olympics in business gcse, mathematics and I came to the school of physics and mathematics “Comarovi” in world war 2, tbilisi, which I successfully graduated in 2005.

I have obtained. Economic development , Education , Knowledge 848 Words | 2 Pages. My Future Career Everest University Online My . Work. Future Career I have chosen a career as a paralegal. This is a field that I expect will be both challenging as well as professionally rewarding. As a paralegal, I will assist attorneys in the delivery of world war 2 legal services (National Association of short essay for global Legal Assistants, 2008). A career in paralegal studies is a prestigious, professional adventure and essay war 2 offers a wonderful opportunity while enhancing ones knowledge. Contract attorney , Law , Law firm 723 Words | 3 Pages. Abigail Snyder Essay I have had a desire to be a teacher for as long as I can remember. If I could be a teacher I feel as if I could make a great impact in work and leisure, . the essay world world. All of my teachers have been great influences on me and it would be so rewarding to have the opportunity to do the same for others.

Teachers are a major part of everyone’s foundation as a successful person. If it wasn’t for teachers many people would not have been able to get where they are today. I also want to join this profession. A Great Way to Care , Education , Goal 495 Words | 2 Pages. By this title, I am guessing most of you are thinking what you will be doing next weekend or even tomorrow. You would be expecting me to write that I’m going . to get ‘locked’ with my friends, but no! I hope to remember what I did the next day or even in a few years time…I want to be able to say when I’m old, that I lived my life to the fullest. Firstly, this summer, I don’t want to work and leisure waste it like I did every other summer. World. I don’t want to sleep all day. Andy. I want to essay war 2 live, I want to diabetes mellitus 2 research visit museums, go to.

American films 602 Words | 2 Pages. Future Life 1 Future Life My Life in the Future by world, Ornnicha . Apibantanakij US Culture Professor Russell Clark 1 August 2014 Future Life 2 Future Life My Life in the Future Time flies. It seems to me that only yesterday when I graduated my university. Life has been changing so rapidly since the carpentry cover letter time I was born, that it is probably impossible to world war 2 give an accurate picture of the 2 research paper next century. However, it is interesting for me to try and . 2008 albums , Future , Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis 611 Words | 3 Pages. My birth plan Your first name: Your surname: Name I like to be called i.e Catherine = Cathy: Your birthing companion’s . name(s): Your due date: Is there a particular midwife you would like to be there if she / he is available? Yes No If yes, midwife’s name: Midwife’s phone number: Would you like your birthing partner(s) to essay world be with you throughout labour? Yes Not necessarily What position would you like to be in for paper the birth? Standing Squatting Kneeling Sitting In. Birthing center , Childbirth , Infant 442 Words | 3 Pages.

ECE 101 “ My Classroom Plan ” My Philosophy of Education I believe that we are all active learners, constantly . absorbing new data from our environments, using our minds to merge the creative with the actual, and the fundamental with the essay war 2 ideal. Pen Name English Essayist Lamb. Active learning is defined as learning by being physically and mentally engaged in activities. As the teacher, my goal is to actively teach the essay children while maintaining a positive yet helpful attitude, in a low pressure and respectful atmosphere. Personally. Assessment , Developmental psychology , Early childhood education 2026 Words | 6 Pages. Axis Bank plans VRS to essay cut flab at top Anita Bhoir, ET Bureau Dec 12, 2012, 06.00AM IST * (The bank plans to roll out…) . MUMBAI: Three years after Shikha Sharma took the corner room at Axis Bank, the country's third-largest private sector lender is making another attempt to cut flab. The bank plans to roll out an early retirement scheme for senior employees aged 40 or more, who have been with the lender for 10 years or longer. This is the bank's second attempt to trim its 31,000-strong. Bank , Bank of Madura , Banks of India 1961 Words | 6 Pages.

Aaliyah Gaines April 11, 2013 College Summit- 1A My Future Plans Graduation is quickly approaching, and I . believe I am prepared. I have a lot of great things planned, and it is now time to accomplish my goals. I want to pursue a degree in world war 2, biology, attend Coastal Carolina University, and become a physician’s assistant. After graduation, I want to carpentry letter be very successful. I am going to war 2 attend Coastal Carolina University to further my education and major in biology. The University of South Carolina. Academic degree , Coastal Carolina University , Conway, South Carolina 416 Words | 2 Pages. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later.

An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed . an attacker to recover the router's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks. Charles. History: 802.11 technology has its origins in a 1985 ruling by the US Federal Communications Commission that released the ISM band for unlicensed use. World War 2. In 1991, NCR Corporation with ATT. Bluetooth , Digital Subscriber Line , Internet 3875 Words | 16 Pages. Reflecting on andy mcgorman thesis, My Past, Present and Future. Reflecting on My Past, Present, and Future Diana Koch Jones PSY 202 Laura Prout November 12, 2012 Outline Reflecting on . My Past, Present, and Future Thesis Statement: Our past creates the foundation that brings us to our present. Throughout life we are faced with choices. Those choices determine what road we travel. The past cannot be changed, only learned from. Essay World War 2. What we choose to do with those lessons will determine how we live our present and by our choices within our present we can. Choice , Differences , Future 2206 Words | 6 Pages.

maybe, lack of prioritization of my life’s goals. Carpentry. After some research, having a vision statement can assess the most desirable futuristic goals . in life. I have been working on my five year plan for almost one year, but I have chosen the broad aspect of my future instead of the details. My opinion of a vision statement is the world war 2 where, what, and business help how of essay your future . The three questions are “where do I want to essay be in essay war 2, five years”, “what am I currently doing for my future ”, and “how can I accomplish those. Answer , Carl Jung , Dream 800 Words | 3 Pages. My Personal Classroom Management Plan. Running head: MY PERSONAL CLASSROOM My Personal Classroom Management Plan Landon Hayes Grand . Coursework Help Gcse. Canyon University: EDU-536 June 12, 2012 Abstract The objective of this paper is to present my personal ideas on how to have effective classroom management. To run an effective classroom, the teacher should have a well developed classroom management plan that should be utilized at all times. A well thought out classroom management plan will not only be a major contributor to your. Behavior , Behaviorism , Education 1721 Words | 5 Pages. Psy 202: Journey from My Past to My Future.

Journey from essay world war 2, My Past to My Future Courtney L. Zellars PSY 202 Mr. Sperling December 19, 2011 Journey . from My Past to My Future Growing and developing into the person I am now has been quite a journey. I have had so many ups and andy thesis downs throughout my development, from childhood to adulthood, that it feels as though I am in essay war 2, a whirlwind. However, I have managed to stay strong and and leisure succeed in essay world war 2, everything I have set my mind to and leisure essay so far. As I talk about my journey in this paper, I will relate. Elasticity , Family , Future 1821 Words | 5 Pages.

The Factors That Play Into Making My Future. Making My Future Every living thing is essay war 2 born with their own sequence of DNA that has been passed down in its family for . generations. DNA is what individually defines every living organism. DNA can be found in every, single cell in short essay for global, the human body, making it easy to differentiate between people. Just like the way everyone has their own unique strand of DNA, they also have a script. A script includes everything about the person, including events before birth, after birth and also family values.

My personal. Biology , Family , Ganesh Chaturthi 1366 Words | 3 Pages. My Personal Classroom Management Plan. * Running Head: MY PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN * * * * My Personal Classroom . Essay. Management Plan Marwan Wilson Grand Canyon University EDU 450 – Classroom Engagement amp; Management Ashley Calhoun February 12, 2012 Abstract A teacher in the classroom setting is coursework considered a professional in that environment because they have the training and skills necessary by which to essay war 2 create a setting which is help conducive to learning. War 2. To aide in the establishment of a setting which. Behavior , Behaviorism , Education 1872 Words | 6 Pages. January 2013 My future It is carpentry teacher cover letter hard to think about my own personal future when I have not . experienced much of life. There are so many paths I could take. I don’t know what direction I will be heading in essay, tomorrow or if my mind will change the next day or the day after. I can only hope that I make wise and carful decisions about my life.

Every choice I make affects my future . I am confident that I have a bright future and I am on my way to a better life. I do not know what the future will bring but. A Great Way to Care , Academic degree , Graduation 717 Words | 2 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Future Futurity redirects here. For the ship, see MV Futurity. Pen Name Of The English Essayist. Near future . redirects here. For the song, see The Near Future . For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). Essay War 2. Time | | Major Concepts | Past ¦ Present ¦ Future Eternity Arguments for and leisure eternity | Broad Studies | Chronology History (Paleontology) Futurology | Philosophy | Presentism ¦ Eternalism, Fatalism Philosophy of essay war 2 Space and Time | Religion | Creation End Times Day of Judgement.

Forecasting , Future , Futurology 1732 Words | 7 Pages. class exercise to help me figure out of the lamb what my long term goals and my short term goals are for my . future . Essay War 2. I will have thirty thousand dollars to pay for my expenses and business studies coursework help gcse manage my life in essay, the future . I will have thirty thousand dollars a year to andy thesis pay for housing, food, automobile expenses, recreation, clothing, medical expenses, miscellaneous items, and any saving and essay world war 2 investing I want to work do in my future . After I graduate college I plan on moving back home with my parents, because it is much cheaper and. Automobile , Economics , Future 1153 Words | 3 Pages.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and essay sample images covering every resume format for your convenience.

Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to diabetes type paper, get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of war 2 advantages and work and leisure disadvantages for essay world war 2 different kinds of diabetes 2 research job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to world war 2, get every bit of information needed to create the of the english best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . Essay War 2? The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.

This structure allows you to pen name charles, present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to war 2, mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to pen name english lamb, apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here.

The functional resume format frames the candidate in world war 2, terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the work candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at world war 2, the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Business Coursework Help Gcse? Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into essay world, a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set.

I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. For Global? I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. War 2? I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in pen name of the english essayist lamb, included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is world war 2 literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and and leisure functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is essay world war 2 then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. Coursework Help Gcse? (This is the war 2 reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and of the charles well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to a different industry.

I am a master at war 2, what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills.

To learn more about 2 research what should be in essay, included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in short essay for global warming, the comments at the bottom of the page and one of war 2 our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for teacher cover you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. World War 2? Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of business studies help gcse luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format.

Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in war 2, planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to short, now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for essay your situation.

Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different).

I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is work Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of world war 2 this year, I have been trying to andy thesis, make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on world war 2, top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at diabetes mellitus 2 research, various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the war 2 past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format.

This will allow you to focus on andy, your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to essay world war 2, help me pay rent next year. Andy Thesis? I have never had to essay world war 2, write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to work and leisure, what to do. War 2? I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of 2 research my sophomore year. Essay War 2? Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to of the essayist lamb, include your research and writing experience.

Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over essay world, 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to work and leisure, look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Essay War 2? Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to for global warming, be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and world want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and mcgorman thesis before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager).

I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Essay World War 2? Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of business studies help gcse your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut.

However, if you truly feel that all of essay your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of type 2 research paper luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the world war 2 full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). Carpentry Cover Letter? After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999).

Then babies came. War 2? 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of english essayist Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume.

I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Essay World War 2? Thanks in carpentry cover, advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide:

While I was in world, high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and cover letter stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at essay world, the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an mellitus, administrative job, then stick with the essay world war 2 traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!

Hi there! This is great. Essayist Lamb? I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in essay world war 2, 2015 that I would like to studies, list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first.

Best of essay war 2 luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of andy thesis luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in war 2, doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to andy mcgorman thesis, get your application started on world, the right foot. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in and leisure essay, a call center. World War 2? Many of these could potentially be transferable. Teacher Letter?

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1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s. An attempt was made to form a national organization of essay world war 2, mosquito control workers under the name National Mosquito Extermination Society. The participants included such notable entomologists and mosquito control specialists as Wilton E. Britton, Daniel W. Coquillett, Harrison G. Dyar, Ephraim P. Felt, Leland O. Howard, Vernon L. Short Essay? Kellogg, Herbert Osborn, and John B. Smith. This association held only two meetings. Mosquito Control Conference, circa. 1905. Yellow fever outbreak in New Orleans and Pensacola. Demonstrated conclusively that mosquito control could eliminate this disease. World War 2? No further outbreaks of business studies coursework help, yellow fever in essay the United States. New Jersey becomes the carpentry teacher cover letter first state to authorize mosquito abatement districts.

The New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association is formed. California passes law creating mosquito abatement districts. 200,000 cases of dengue fever along the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida. The Florida Anti-Mosquito Association is essay world, formed. Utah becomes third state to pass legislation authorizing mosquito abatement districts. Florida legislature passes law creating mosquito control districts. Illinois Assembly passes legislation (written by J. Lyell Clarke) enabling the creation of mosquito abatement districts. Cook County MADs (Des Plaines MAD and North Shore MAD) were among the first to organize. The California Mosquito Control Association is formed.

Western states experience an pen name english charles, epizootic event that was later traced to WEE virus. 1000 human cases and 201 fatalities reported in St. Louis from essay a mysterious disease was later identified as being caused by the St. Louis Encephalitis virus. EEE virus is identified for the first time in Massachusetts. The Eastern Association of Mosquito Control Workers (EAMCW) was organized in 2 research paper Trenton, New Jersey on June 26. Twenty-five individuals were installed that day as charter members of the EAMCW.

At this meeting, the members of the EAMCW elected Thomas Headlee of New Jersey as president, Robert Glasgow of New York as vice-president, and essay world war 2, Thomas D. (Tommy) Mulhern, also of New Jersey, as secretary-treasurer. The business affairs of the EAMCW were handled by the secretary-treasurer, Tommy Mulhern, who resided in New Brunswick, New Jersey. EAMCW membership increases from 25 members to 37 members. EEE outbreak in Massachusetts; 38 humans, 248 horses. The EAMCW membership voted to levy annual dues of $4.00 per year to cover the publication and mailing costs of a formalized booklet, called Mosquito News, which was to consist of pen name charles lamb, quarterly issues. In an effort to help support this journal, advertising was also actively solicited. In March 1941, Volume 1, Numbers 1 and world, 2 (bound together) of Mosquito News made its appearance. Andy Mcgorman? The publication costs of the first volume consumed one-half of the $144.00 operating budget of the association. EAMCW membership increases to 67 members.

Orlando USDA laboratory received first samples of DDT. First experiments on use of DDT against lice and mosquitoes revealed spectacular toxic properties. With wartime travel restrictions in war 2 effect, the EAMCW did not hold a formal annual meeting. Andy Mcgorman Thesis? On March 16, the EAMCW was renamed the essay war 2 American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA). AMCA assumed the responsibility of publishing Mosquito News. Starting with Volume 4(2), Robert Glasgow was appointed as its first editor. Essay? AMCA membership dues increased to $5.00 annually. War Production Board released DDT for civilian use. USPHS launched Extended Malaria Control Program. In 1946, the essay world U.S. surgeon general transferred responsibility for anti-malaria work to the newly created Communicable Disease Center (CDC). In 1947, Congress expanded the CDC's anti-mosquito mandate allocating $4.6 million dollars to eradicate malaria in pen name charles lamb five years.

Perry Ruth and Roland Dorer organize the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. On November 30, 1948, the AMCA was incorporated as a non-profit corporation in world New Jersey. Coursework Help? The Articles of Incorporation appear in the 1948 edition of Mosquito News (8:190-192). The original incorporators were Roland Dorer, Robert Glasgow, Harold Gray, Willard King, Tommy Mulhern, TravisMcNeel, H. World? Duke Peters, Donald Rees, and Lester Smith. The AMCA published its first special bulletin entitled, The Use of Aircraft in the Control of pen name of the charles, Mosquitoes. This publication, edited by Robert Glasgow, was unique in that the text of this bulletin was compiled in only three days when some fifty mosquito control experts met in Asheville, North Carolina, in October 1947.

Don Rees led efforts to form the Utah Mosquito Abatement Association. At the essay world AMCA Annual Meeting in Fort Pierce, Florida, the Board of business studies coursework gcse, Directors adopted the policy of holding annual meetings of the association in conjunction with state or regional associations around the country. Robert Glasgow, who had served the association as the first editor of Mosquito News, retired and was replaced by Donald L. Collins. This marked the beginning of a 24-year term for Don Collins as the journal's editor. Between 1935 and 1949 the world war 2 association's business office was located at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ. In 1949, Tommy Mulhern, the association's secretary-treasurer, accepted a position with the California Department of Health and moved to Fresno, California. The association's business office was relocated to Fresno. The duties of the association's secretary-treasurer were divided.

Tommy Mulhern assumed position of letter, executive secretary. Roland Dorer (Virginia) agreed to serve as the association's treasurer. Dorer served as treasurer until 1953. After much discussion, the AMCA membership adopted new bylaws. AMCA Bulletin Number 2, entitled Ground Equipment and essay war 2, Insecticides for letter Mosquito Control was published with Edward J. Knipling serving as the editor. California experienced a major WEE outbreak. World? Theodore (Ted) Raley succeeded Tommy Mulhern as the association's second executive secretary. The association's business office was relocated to Selma, California, where it remained until the 1970s. Lester W. Smith of New Jersey became the association's treasurer following Roland Dorer. Illinois Mosquito Control Association was reformed (following a temporary start in 1950).

First annual conference was held at teacher letter, the University of Illinois. Essay World? Through the for global leadership of essay world, Harry H. Stage, the mcgorman AMCA launched a Good Neighbor Club. The objective was to aid individuals in foreign countries who were interested in mosquito control. World War 2? The aid consisted of sponsored AMCA memberships, subscriptions to Mosquito News, and other literature. Andy Thesis? This goodwill gesture was supported by voluntary contributions from essay world U.S. based members of the AMCA. By 1956, some 25 individuals in pen name of the english essayist charles lamb foreign countries were being helped in this manner. Bulletin Number 3, entitled Mosquito Culture Techniques, was published with Helen Louise Trembley Durkee serving as editor. Formation of the Texas Gulf Coast Mosquito Control Association and world, Northeastern Mosquito Control Association. Six years later (1961) the Texas organization's name is changed to the Texas Mosquito Control Association. In 1957, the AMCA Bylaws were once again revised.

The new bylaws established the position of president-elect. Edward S. Hathaway and Anderson B. Ritter led efforts to organize the Louisiana Mosquito Control Association. Minnesota legislature established the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District to control mosquitoes, black flies and disease-bearing ticks in the seven-county metropolitan area of Minneapolis and diabetes mellitus paper, St. Paul. First recorded human EEE cases in New Jersey, 33 confirmed cases between August 16 and October 15. Also that year, 56 horse cases and 16 EE outbreaks in pheasant flocks around the war 2 state. Most of the cases occured in the southern portion of New Jersey. The AMCA published Bulletin Number 4, entitled Organization for Mosquito Control, with Harold F. Mellitus Type Paper? Gray serving as the editor. Publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. AMCA Past Presidents circa 1963.

Membership dues increased to essay world war 2 $8.00 annually. The AMCA Board of Directors awarded the first and only Harold Farnsworth Gray Memorial Citation Award to Fred Bishopp. William D. Murray of mcgorman, California appointed as the AMCA's third treasurer. Membership dues increased to $10.00 annually. The first and only Dr. Thomas J. Headlee Memorial Award was given to George H. Bradley. AMCA published a revised, updated edition of Bulletin Number 2 (1952), Ground Equipment and Insecticides for Mosquito Control.

AMCA began publication of the scientific quarterly Mosquito Systematics Newsletter. Kenneth L. Knight served as the publication's editor for the next ten years. AMCA published Bulletin Number 5, entitled Manual for Mosquito Rearing and Experimental Techniques, which superseded the previously published Bulletin Number 3. Eugene J. Gerberg served as the world war 2 editor. Creation of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Medal of Honor Award was created to acknowledge outstanding service in the field of mosquito control, while the Meritorious Service Award was established to andy mcgorman recognize outstanding service to the AMCA. The journal Mosquito Systematics Newsletter was renamed Mosquito Systematics.

EPA bans DDT. Congress passes the Clean Water Act (CWA) introducing the concept of point source pollution while establishing water quality standards. The CWA was amended in 1977 and 1987 (Water Quality Act). Essay? Ted Raley, who served as the association's executive secretary between 1953 and 1973, became the AMCA's first executive director. Raley held this post for one year. During his tenure as executive director, Raley managed the association's business affairs out of his home in Selma, California. The AMCA provided a small stipend to help defray the cost of maintaining the office. The current official seal of the association was approved. Donald Collins, who had served as the mcgorman second editor of Mosquito News since 1949, retired.

He was replaced by William E. Bickley. South Carolina Mosquito Control Association formed. Tommy Mulhern accepted the position of executive director. The association's business office was moved from Selma, California to Fresno. Mulhern hired Linda Shields Raiche to serve as the association's first full-time, salaried business manager. AMCA reincorporated in California as a non-profit tax exempt scientific/educational association. The New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association changes its name to the New Jersey Mosquito Control Association. Formation of Pennsylvania Vector Control Association and the West Central Mosquito and Vector Control Association. Largest SLE outbreak in U.S. (2,131 cases reported).

AMCA initiated the printing of a quarterly newsletter to facilitate better communications among its members. Mid-Atlantic Mosquito Control Association formed. Membership dues increased to war 2 $15.00 annually. Methoprene, the first compound that mimics the action of insect growth-regulating hormones is registered for mellitus paper use as an insecticide by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first Directory of Mosquito Control Agencies in the United States Canada was published. Essay World War 2? Gilbert L. Challet served as the editor. Formation of the Georgia Mosquito Control Association. Short Essay Warming? Formation of the Indiana Vector Control Association. Essay World? Tommy Mulhern stepped down as AMCA Executive Director. Paper? Katherine A. Moore wrote and illustrated a children's coloring book entitled, Mosquitoes - presented by Skeeter Mosquito, which was published by the AMCA.

Proposition 13 (People's Initiative to world Limit Property Taxation) passes in California. Drastic reduction in funding for of the english lamb mosquito abatement forced many districts to essay make significant cutbacks. Essay? AMCA Board of Directors (BOD) holds first interim board meetings. William D. Murray was appointed as executive director. Membership dues increased to $20.00 annually. A student membership category was created, with the annual dues being half the price of regular membership. Largely through the initiative of Lewis T. Nielsen and the cooperation of a number of commercial firms, the association established an essay war 2, annual Memorial Lecture and Memorial Honoree Award.

This award recognized an outstanding lecturer in the field of andy, mosquito control, while at the same time offering a tribute to war 2 a deceased individual(s) who made a significant contribution to mosquito control. Kenneth L. Knight, the editor of coursework gcse, Mosquito Systematics since its inception in 1969, retired and essay war 2, was replaced by Lewis T. Nielsen. An eight page educational pamphlet containing 24 color pictures was published by the AMCA. This booklet, entitled Mosquitoes and their Control in the United States was compiled by the AMCA's Public Relations Committee, under the editorial direction of Harry D. Pratt. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory becomes part of the University of Florida.

AMCA Newsletter (November) underwritten by Zoecon. This reflected BOD 1978 decision to solicit advertising to type 2 research help defray publication costs. Tommy Mulhern agreed to world resume the post of the association's executive director on an acting basis. The BOD created the Presidential Citation Award to recognize those individuals who were not eligible to receive other AMCA awards, but who were eminently deserving of special recognition by the association. AMCA established the John Belkin Memorial Award to honor individuals who have made outstanding contributions in the field of diabetes type 2 research paper, mosquito systematics and/or mosquito biology. Publication of Richard Darsie and Ronald Ward's Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. World? This is the largest financial undertaking of the AMCA (approximately $40,000) to date.

William Bickley retired as editor of Mosquito News. And Leisure Essay? Ronald A. World War 2? Ward was named as his successor. Membership dues increased to $25.00 annually. Mcgorman Thesis? AMCA published revision of AMCA Bulletin #1 Air Spray (Use of Aircraft for Mosquito Control). AMCA President Richard Axtell wrote to EPA expressing the organization's concern about proposed pesticide label restrictions. BOD approved Historical Records and Museum Committee recommendations to change the essay war 2 committee's name to AMCA Archival Committee and prepare a 50 year overview of the AMCA since the 1985 meeting…is the 50th anniversary. Recommendation was made by Jimmy Olson and seconded by Gil Challet.

Report from archival committee contained recommendation at interim meeting (October 2-3, 1983) which recommended that there be a slide show at the 1985 Meeting at Atlantic City, celebrating the 50th annual meeting, the narrator to be the chairman of the thesis program committee. EPA registers Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) as an insecticide. Essay World? In 2009, there are 26 Bti licensed products. The AMCA Central Office entered the Computer Age with the purchase of a Radio Shack Model 16 Computer. Of The English Charles? AMCA BOD adopted a resolution at the annual meeting recommending the essay war 2 name of the AMCA journal be changed to Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. The members attending the General Business Meeting approved the BOD's resolution. It was decided to submit the proposal for the general membership's approval through a mail ballot. The resolution was approved. AMCA BOD established a memorial fund in memory of Dr.

Marco Giglioli. The Giglioli Fund was to be used to business help gcse support publication of papers by foreign authors who could not obtain U.S. funds. AMCA-EPA Cooperative Agreement to establish a Mosquito/Vector Control Information Network (MVCN). The MVCN was conceived as part of a larger program that was intended to serve as a database on all insect control methodology. Kentucky Mosquito Control Association organized in Bowling Green; the essay world name of the association changed in 1985 to include the word vector. Short Essay For Global? Stuttgart (Arkansas) Mosquito Control Program began operations culminating in a hard-fought campaign to launch control on rice lands based on world war 2, advances in carpentry research. Bill Clinton named Allan Inman, the program's director, recipient of the Governor's Award in recognition of the district's contribution to war 2 the quality of life in Stuttgart. Essay? Starting with the March 1985 issue, the essay journal is andy mcgorman, renamed The Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association while still retaining Mosquito News as a subtitle on the cover. AMCA produces two films: Mosquito Control and Biology (27 minutes) and Mosquitoes (10 minutes). Twenty-four students from twelve states attended the world war 2 first AMCA – Centers for Disease Control (CDC) training course in Columbus, Ohio.

AMCA published Bulletin #6, The Biological Control of Mosquitoes, edited by Harold Chapman. Health problems compel Tommy Mulhern to carpentry resign as executive director. BOD named Mulhern executive director emeritus and authorized his invitation to all future AMCA annual meetings as an invited guest. James Caton, AMCA treasurer, resigned his post to assume the position of interim executive director. AMCA President Gil Challet reported that on February 28, 1985, AMCA treasurer James Caton informed him that a serious misappropriation of AMCA funds had occurred. Challet noted that executive director Tommy Mulhern, who was recuperating from a recent illness and not supposed to put himself in world war 2 any stressful situation, was deeply shocked by the betrayal in confidence of so trusted an employee. The responsible party was confronted and pen name of the english charles lamb, admitted responsibility. Following the advice of legal counsel, it was recommended that the responsible party be allowed to essay make full restitution to AMCA in order to avoid prosecution. Lamb? Seven hundred individuals attended AMCA's Fifty-First Annual Meeting in Atlantic City commemorating the founding of the world Eastern Association of Mosquito Control Workers (EAMCW), parent organization for the AMCA, in 1935. Michael Chambers, reflecting a consensus of the Archival Committee and BOD to date the AMCA's foundation to the EAMCW, prepared a review of and leisure, AMCA's First 50 Years.

Jim Hart and Rolland Dorer, who attended the EAMCW's organizational meeting ( June 25-26, 1935), were present. Aedes albopictus was found in tires stored outdoors in 12 states: Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida and in tires shipped from Japan and off-loaded in Seattle, Washington. World War 2? The largest outbreak of diabetes mellitus paper, malaria in world war 2 the United States since 1952-1953 occurred in southern California. There were 27 cases of P. vivax. Many of the patients had slept outdoors near a lagoon where Anopheles freeborni was abundant. Considerable SLE activity in the South Central Region.

Harris County, Texas reported 27 human cases with 5 deaths in the state. Jack Salmela, director of the Brevard County (Florida) Mosquito Control District was presented the Conservation Award from the U.S. Diabetes Mellitus 2 Research Paper? Department of the Interior in recognition of his contributions to the effective management of wildlife resources. Harold Chapman assumed duties of essay world, executive director. The central office was to officially be relocated to and leisure Louisiana in April 1986. Delays involved in the move pushed the formal opening to August 6. John Combs resigned as the essay editor of the AMCA Newsletter.

Jimmie Long of Sam Houston State University assumed the thesis editorship with the essay world August 1986 issue of the short essay warming Newsletter. Essay War 2? Formation of the Michigan Mosquito Control Association. Organized mosquito work began in Saginaw, Bay, and Midland counties, Michigan in warming 1974-75 after an increase in SLE cases. Each of these counties formed mosquito control districts. AMCA Newsletter began to include News from the Regions as a regular feature of the Newsletter.

BOD passes resolution to accept use of credit cards. Essay? AMCA joined with 20 scientific and public health organizations in calling for of the english essayist lamb the CDC to take the essay world lead in determining distribution and devising a plan of attack against the Aedes albopictus invasion. Pacific Region: California Symposium entitled The Epidemiology of Mosquito-Borne Viral Encephalitides in the United States, 1943-1987 held in mcgorman thesis honor of William C. Reeves. AMCA formed a special subcommittee on Aedes albopictus chaired by Margaret Parsons. A CDC task force at Ft. Collins led by Chet Moore launched an Ovitrap Surveillance Program in 50 cities. Pacific Region: California legislature debated Assembly Bill (AB) 946 requiring that all tires imported into state must be certified pest free. Mid Atlantic Region: North Carolina completed first open marsh water management program (80 acres) in Onslow County. Dr. Alice Anderson led the project.

In Maryland, water management work was delayed because of environmental concerns that questioned the need for control of salt marsh mosquitoes in marshes more than a few miles distant from populated areas. Dan Ariaz and his wife, P.J., contributed $200 for the unofficial launch of the Grass Roots Contest to fund travel expenses of essay world war 2, field technicians to attend annual AMCA meeting. South Central Region: Mississippi formed the State Mosquito Control Commission with the carpentry teacher cover letter goal of educating people in mosquito control methodologies. AMCA dues increase from $25.00 to essay $35.00. Annual meeting held in Denver included an AMCA Student Symposium. AMCA President Bruce Eldridge noted William Reeves' concerns about the potential of the greenhouse effect to have a significant impact on mosquito breeding and mosquito control problems in the next fifty years. Pen Name Charles? Pacific Region: California State Legislature and Governor Deukmejian approved AB 4114 requiring all government employees who handle, apply, or supervise the world use of pesticides for pen name of the english essayist lamb public health purposes to be certified by war 2 the California State Department of Health Services (CSDHS) and meet minimum continuing education requirements. The CSDHS and the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California jointly prepared a revision of all vector control training and education materials.

Florida's First Workshop on Salt Marsh Management and Research was held at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory. The symposium grew out of the State of Florida's Subcommittee on Managed Marshes chaired by AMCA's Doug Carlson. AMCA Board approved Environmental Protection Committee's draft for a model public health exemption plan. AMCA published Supplement #1 to the Journal of the mellitus AMCA, The Biology of Aedes albopictus ($5.00). War 2? North Central Region: Michigan Legislature authorized formation of Pest Management Districts. Studies Help Gcse? AMCA Aedes albopictus committee chair Margaret Parsons announced that a newsletter entitled Tiger Tales would begin publication. Judy Hansen assumed office as AMCA's first female president. AMCA President Judy Hansen appeared on NBC's Today Show. Essay World War 2? Hansen stressed the role of AMCA in developing sound vector control programs. Research and stable funding were the prerequisites for the continued success of mosquito control programs.

AMCA Aedes albopictus committee's Tiger Tales (Vol. 1, No. 1) is distributed in the November AMCA Newsletter. Andy Thesis? Margaret Parsons headed the committee. World? Alabama Vector Management Society is launched. SLE outbreak in Florida (226 human cases with 11 deaths). 2 Research? California Mosquito and world, Vector Control Association (CMVCA) formed a nonprofit public benefit corporation, CMVCA Research Foundation, Inc., to promote scientific research for the control of disease bearing mosquitoes and and leisure essay, other vectors.

The venerable Florida Anti-Mosquito Association (FAMA) changes its name to the Florida Mosquito Control Association (FMCA). New Jersey governor Jim Florio proposed elimination of world war 2, funding for New Jersey State Mosquito Control Commission (NJSMCC). The NJSMCC coordinated the short for global warming state's aerial spray program for world counties bordering along the of the english Atlantic Ocean and administered state aid to world war 2 NJ counties. Carpentry Cover Letter? Tom Candeletti, AMCA's Northeast Regional Director, declared all state funded water management projects are now in jeopardy as well as Rutgers University's Mosquito Research and Control Efforts. Robert Kent reported that the governor's proposed cuts were countered with a continuous onslaught of support from a variety of directions (including several individual out-of-state AMCA members), result[ing] in the restoration of essay world, funds for these extremely important programs. Work And Leisure? AMCA Board approved creation of associate membership in the association. EEE outbreak occurred in war 2 the South Atlantic Region with 200 horse cases in Florida, 49 in Georgia, 80 in South Carolina, and 5 in Alabama. In addition, Florida had 5 human cases. AMCA held its first annual meeting with a scientific session in Spanish. Lamb? Marco F. Suarez and Gary Clark organized the session. The U.S.

EPA registered Bacillus sphaericus (Bs). Lucas G. Terracina, Director of the Calcasieu Parish Mosquito Control District in war 2 Lake Charles, Louisiana, assumed responsibilities of thesis, AMCA's interim executive director. AMCA hired Mark Vinsand as its first full-time executive director. Proposed changes in bylaws include the election of an industry director. William Zawicki is named the first industry director. Judy Hansen proposed the essay idea during her presidency. William Hazeltine (California) and George Wichterman (Florida) represented the association before congressional committees and executive branch agencies.

Carl Tanner, of Zoecon Corporation, offered to assist the studies coursework AMCA in essay addressing legislative concerns. Zoecon's support ($25,000 per year) continued for coursework help five years. Virginia Mosquito Control Association succeeded in winning the governor's approval for an annual mosquito and essay, vector control awareness week. AMCA adopted a new mission statement at the annual meeting in Corpus Christi, Texas. AMCA and Zoecon prepared a questionnaire for all members to determine the impact federal and state regulations have on mosquito control programs.

The questionnaire is part of the AMCA 5 Year Legislative and business studies help gcse, Regulatory Strategy Plan. AMCA Board approved resolution to engage in legislative advocacy. AMCA Board adopted resolution allowing researchers to submit more papers not only on essay world, mosquitoes but other vectors of public health importance. AMCA's first full-time executive director Mark Vinsand resigned following allegations of malfeasance; Harold Chapman agreed to coordinate activities at St. Charles office.

Lucas Terracina assumed duties of interim executive director. Bylaws Committee (chaired by Fred Holbrook) recommended and short warming, the BOD approved changing the association's name to American Mosquito and Vector Control Association (AMVCA) and the journal's name to Journal of the American Mosquito and Vector Control Association. Vote on the proposed changes was to take place at the April 1993 annual meeting in Ft. Myers. AMCA established a Legislative FAX Network to provide early warning to members of legislation concerning mosquito control matters.

206 individuals joined the world war 2 network between January and March 1995. An additional 35 individuals requested the AMCA Policy Statements on legislation. 100 people attended the Legislative Workshop at the 1995 annual meeting in mellitus Portland. The name Asian Tiger Mosquito was officially established as the common name of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by the American Entomological Society. Chet Moore, Bruce Harrison, and George Craig petitioned for the name change from Forest Day Mosquito. (In 1995, Ae. albopictus was established in New Jersey with the first reported locations in Keyport, Monmouth County.) A vote on the proposed name change did not take place at April 1993 annual meeting.

Ballots were sent to association's members. AMCA Public Information Committee (Sally Wagner, chair) developed a prototype of an educational module Learning About Mosquitoes for elementary school teachers. American Cyanamid contributed $30,000 for the project. BOD decides to hold a vote on the proposed name change at world, the 1994 annual meeting in San Diego. BOD rejected an invitation from Florida to move the central office to Gainesville after the demise of executive director Mark Vinsand disrupted the administrative process in Lake Charles. Clinton Administration proposed a comprehensive package of improvements to the Federal wetlands program in of the english a document entitled Protecting America's Wetlands: A Fair, Flexible and Effective Approach. Dan Ariaz (Reno, Nevada) called for the AMCA to reach out to the smaller programs on the technician's level. Tommy Mulhern, who was instrumental in the creation of the AMCA and had served as the association's secretary-treasurer, president, and executive director, died.

AMCA hired a second full-time executive director, Robert T. Graham, formerly director of the essay National Vocational Agricultural Teachers' Association. The EPA, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration initiated the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP). The AMCA BOD approved 8 policy statements pertaining to matters that affect mosquito and vector control. The BOD's concerns included: wetlands management; loss, preservation, and improvement of essay, public health pesticides; funding for mosquito research and federal support for vector and vector-borne disease research; the endangered species act; public health and mosquito control; public notification; tire disposal and scrap and used tire shipping and storage; and minor use pesticides. In summer 1995, Dr. Robert Rose (EPA) informed Douglas Wassmer (Pasco County, Florida) about war 2 PESP. In October 1995, the AMCA's Environmental Protection Committee suggested that the AMCA BOD consider participating in PESP. The BOD tabled the recommendation until more complete details of the short for global program were ascertained.

AMCA Scientific and Regulatory Committee recommended that the Federal Wildlife Refuge Administration examine the impact that refuge and system operations might have on essay, the health and well being of human beings. The AMCA Newsletter's name changed. Commencing with the November/December 1995 issue, the new name was AMCA Newsletter: The American Mosquito Control Association's Vector Review. The December issue of the Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association contained a final News and Notes section. For more than four decades, Austin Morrill prepared this section of the work and leisure essay JAMCA. George Craig, AMCA Past President and University of Notre Dame professor, died while attending annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America. Essay World War 2? John VanDyk (Iowa State) established a list server, Mosquito-L, to business studies coursework help gcse serve as an electronic mailing list for discussion of topics related to mosquitoes.

The AMCA BOD approved elimination of world war 2, Mosquito Systematics (MS) as a separate publication. Commencing in 1996, MS was to be included in future issues of JAMCA. Ralph Barr and studies coursework, Past-President Jay Graham died. FIFRA was amended to create a new class of Public Health Pesticides. President Clinton signed it into law. This had been one of AMCA's objectives since the late 1980s. World? Robert Washino became editor of JAMCA and William Black served as associate editor. The Tennessee Valley Authority announced that it would discontinue mosquito control work in 1996- 1997. AMCA Legislative and Regulatory Committee calls for the adoption of a resolution opposing this decision. Diabetes Mellitus? California Mosquito and Vector Control Association (CMVAC) changed its name to Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California (MVCAC).

The BOD directed Doug Carlson to pursue PESP application. Essay World? Executive director Robert Graham resigned after allegations of financial improprieties. Lucas Terracina and Charles Palmisano agreed to manage the Lake Charles office until the new BOD determined a future course of action. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 was signed into law. It contained Minor Use pesticide provisions. The Delaney Amendment was reformed. It was part of 1958 legislation that stipulated no substance found to cause cancer in humans or animals can be added to processed foods – regardless of the health risk to humans. Doug Carlson presented a draft of the PESP Strategy Document to the BOD.

Ronald Ward retired as editor of business studies coursework, JAMCA. AMCA President Robert Novak forms a presidential advisory Cyberspace Committee. AMCA began a campaign to establish a day to recognize and win public recognition of the world contributions of mosquito control programs. Dreda McCreary, Stanton Cope, Christine Musa, Rebecca Kline, and Fran Krenick (Public Relations/Education Committee) developed the idea of a National Mosquito Awareness Week each June to commemorate the AMCA's launch as the Eastern Association of Mosquito Control Workers in pen name english essayist lamb June 1935. (This idea originated in a conversation between Gary Clark and Warren Stickle on Christmas Eve 1996.) AMCA BOD approved an agreement with Florida Mosquito Control Association (FMCA) regarding the essay world publication of the FMCA's magazine Wing Beats as the work and leisure essay AMCA's operational magazine for mosquito control personnel. AMCA established an expert witness program in response to the federal fish and wildlife agency's request to war 2 provide knowledgeable authorities for advice on carpentry cover, public health insects, their control, and environmental concerns. Fifty members volunteered, representing all the national fish and essay world war 2, wildlife districts. None of the volunteers were ever solicited. AMCA retained Warren Stickle of Environmental Strategies, Inc. in Alexandria, Virginia to provide legislative advice. A major dengue outbreak occurred in short Cuba. The last major outbreak in Cuba was in 1981 with 344,000 cases.

The AMCA Publications Committee proposed that JAMCA's name be changed. Possible names included Journal of Vector Research and International Journal of Vector Research. AMCA president Gary Clark and editorial board chair, Jonathan Day, supported the essay war 2 proposal. AMCA BOD approved submitting PESP application. AMCA's Strategy Document served as basis of PESP application. Gary Clark reported that AMCA has 2,039 members, including 261 international members. In an effort to get the word out about National Mosquito Control Awareness Week, the AMCA Cyberspace Committee proposed a domain name of Christine Musa and Ron Montgomery secured for AMCA as an initiative of the Public Relations/Education Committee. AMCA was approved for PESP partnership status.

The BOD established a PESP Working Group. AMCA received EPA approval for developing a mechanism for state and andy, regional organizations to participate as a PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices. Bruce Eldridge succeeds Robert Washino as JAMCA's editor. The majority of the BOD voted at the September interim meeting to change the journal's name to Mosquito and war 2, Vector Research. After considerable deliberation by the BOD and the membership, the work and leisure membership disapproved the proposed name change at world war 2, the annual business meeting in 1998 at pen name of the, Sparks, Nevada. At the fall (September) interim BOD meeting, the world war 2 BOD formally creates an ad hoc Cyberspace Committee to establish policy and enhance the AMCA's presence on the World Wide Web. Christine Musa agreed to chair this committee. The domain name becomes the official AMCA website. The BOD decided to incorporate the Canada Region into the respective adjacent U.S. regions.

When EPA established the concept of teacher cover letter, a risk cup for pesticide classes, AMCA President Dan Ariaz questioned EPA about the potential impact on public health pesticides. EPA responded that the concept did not include public health pesticides. The Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control published Florida Mosquito Control: The State of the Mission as defined by mosquito controllers, regulators, and environmental managers (known as the White Paper). The annual meeting program book was divided into two separate sections in essay world order to provide members with a permanent abstract booklet. The program booklet was reduced to a convenient pocket size without the normal historical information, which was placed in the abstract booklet.

This procedure was formally adopted in the 1999 annual meeting guidelines. Dan Ariaz met in short essay for global warming Portugal with individuals hoping to form a European Mosquito Control Organization (EMCA). Dr. War 2? Norbert Becker drafts the bylaws for the new organization drawing on cover, the AMCA's bylaws. AMCA co-sponsored the International Conference on world, Emerging Infectious Diseases held at CDC in Atlanta at the same time as the association's annual meeting. A two day workshop was held following the annual meeting on Detection of Insecticide Resistance. Gary Clark, AMCA President, appointed Janet McAllister to chair an ad hoc committee on Prevention of Insecticide Resistance. AMCA mailed a pesticide-use survey to all members. The data collected was used in EPA's product reevaluations.

AMCA President Dan Ariaz, Past President Robert Novak, and President-Elect Bill Zawicki led a group to Washington to expand awareness of AMCA on mcgorman thesis, Capitol Hill. Dreda McCreary organized a meeting with Senator John Warner (R. Va.) who agreed to co-sponsor with Senator Robert Torecelli (D-NJ) a Joint Resolution proclaiming a National Mosquito Control Awareness Week. Dreda McCreary chairs special ad hoc committee charged with organizing an AMCA Day in Washington May 11-13, 1999. AMCA held a Legislative and Regulatory Conference during the Washington Day. A second ad hoc committee is formed to examine the formation of new regions of the AMCA outside the western hemisphere.

AMCA President Ariaz coordinated Field Day activities at annual meeting. A traditional Field Day took place in which individuals presented displays and reports. For the first time, Dreda McCreary organized an educational Field Day in world war 2 which a dozen AMCA members were teachers for a day in a Sparks, Nevada elementary school. The AMCA Board formalized its Grass Roots Award program. AMCA President David Dame revised and updated the long-neglected association personnel guidelines. The BOD adopted the conditions of service document in 2000. AMCA received the PESP Excellence Award for Pesticide Risk Reduction. At the annual meeting, the BOD established the position of technical advisor (TA). The BOD created the carpentry cover letter position of essay world war 2, TA as an independent contractor who would assume many of the activities that previously were the business coursework help gcse responsibility of the war 2 president. The BOD's objective was to lighten the presidential load and improve AMCA's public relations and short essay for global, committee oversight.

Legislative functions were initially prohibited. The TA was directly responsible to the president and held no administrative duties. The BOD authorized the establishment of a procedural template and guidelines for the annual meeting program and assigned oversight responsibilities to essay world the president-elect. This was done to perpetuate the 1998 meeting format. The meeting format previously had been the prerogative of the incoming, and type 2 research, often inexperienced in this activity, vice-president. The new format included a free breakfast poster session and resolved several program conflicts that had adversely affected previous annual meetings. World? 70 AMCA members participated in the association's first Washington Day. AMCA's first two PESP-funded grants are completed. The grants were: Production of an education module about andy thesis mosquitoes and essay war 2, their control for andy thesis use in elementary schools ( Jim McNelly, Rutgers); and Enhanced wetlands mosquito control using GIS environmental monitoring ( Jim Camy, Butte County Mosquito and Vector Control District).

Three thousand copies of the Mosquito Control Educational Game for elementary schools will be distributed. Pamela Toups resigned as AMCA's chief administrative officer. World War 2? Marlene Comeaux assumed post of of the english essayist, business manager at war 2, Lake Charles. West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 2 research New York City. Animal and essay, human cases occurred in Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York. Wording of EPA household advisory on mosquito control raised concerns that undermined public confidence in actions taken against West Nile vectors. At the interim BOD meeting in Atlantic City, the andy mcgorman thesis BOD voted to move the AMCA office to John B. Smith Hall at Rutgers University. Essay World War 2? The highly contested move from diabetes mellitus type Lake Charles, Louisiana to Rutgers was to be completed by June 2000 despite the BOD's 1998 pledge to retain the Lake Charles office through 2001.

EPA held a Stakeholders Briefing on Three Public Health Pesticides (Fenthion, Naled, and Temephos) in essay world war 2 Orlando, Florida. Several AMCA members and officers, including AMCA President David Dame, actively participated in the fact-finding exercise. WNV reported in 12 states: Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia. The first silent auction was held at the annual AMCA meeting in Atlantic City, NJ. Rutgers University agrees to provide AMCA with administrative office space in John B. Essay Warming? Smith Hall at 174 Jones Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ. AMCA agrees to pay monthly fee of $761.71. AMCA election results are nullified because of essay war 2, failure to comply with ballot submission rules. Reelection was held in May. AMCA accepted an invitation from the World Health Organization (WHO) to become a member of the Global Collaboration for carpentry teacher cover Development of Pesticides for war 2 Public Health (GCDPP). EPA's proposed Public Health List posted on the Federal Register included only cockroaches (5 species), lice (3 species), and mosquitoes (7 genera). Thesis? During the response period allowed for this federal register item, the AMCA BOD challenged EPA's initial list of public health pests.

As the list would eventually be used to determine the availability of public health pesticides, it jeopardized the future of pesticides used for the unmentioned pests. Because of the response from the profession, EPA expanded the list as requested. Robertamarie Kiley assumed post of AMCA business manager. AMCA President David Dame protested to EPA Administrator Carole Browner that mosquito spraying against WNV vectors in the northeast had been misrepresented in EPA's online household guidelines. He stated that the guidelines incorrectly depicted mosquito aerosols as creating large pesticide deposits that need to essay be removed by householders before turning on air conditioners, using outdoor furniture, children's playthings, etc.

As the EPA's online advice was in direct conflict with advisories coming from the mosquito control researchers, mosquito control's credibility was being challenged by the public. EPA responded by revising the online household guidelines before the start of the 2000 spray season, which drew a letter of thanks from AMCA. Joe Conlon assumed post of AMCA's first technical advisor. The Missouri State Vector Control Association held its inaugural meeting in St. Louis. AMCA BOD offers technical assistance to U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) in andy mcgorman the fight against WNV. Additionally, AMCA offered to organize teams of retired medical entomologists for short-term local assistance.

HHS administrative policies, however, made it impossible for the Department to utilize AMCA's expertise because [the AMCA] it [was] is a private organization. WNV reported in 27 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin. After unsuccessfully approaching senior CDC officials for funds to essay world war 2 provide assistance to community decision-makers on essay warming, methods for essay world controlling WNV vectors, AMCA submitted a formal proposal for approximately $600,000 for essay a 3-year period. War 2? Although judged appropriate for funding, the proposal did not receive a high enough ranking to andy mcgorman receive funding. AMCA held a workshop on emergency response at the annual meeting with the objective of essay war 2, creating a useful emergency response document for use at work and leisure essay, the community level. Although several participants provided written input for the proposed document, it was not possible to complete the document. Ed Ruckert from essay world McDermott, Will Emery was hired as AMCA legislative advocate. 2 Research Paper? The BOD established a formal lottery procedure to world randomize the position of booths in the exhibit hall during the annual meeting.

The new procedure and and leisure, subsequent slight modifications made in 2002 reduced tensions among exhibitors that had developed during prior years. AMCA unsuccessfully solicited Congress and essay, CDC to embark on the minor use/public health pesticide research authorized by the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). No agency responded to AMCA's request that funding be appropriated for this important research endeavor. Cover? The effort to amend the FQPA has continued to present (2010). Aedes albopictus found in California in a shipment of essay war 2, Dracaena lucky bamboo from China. Ae. albopictus initial introduction in the U.S. occurred in essay 1986. U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals expanded Clean Water Act (CWA) jurisdiction over application of pesticides in Headwaters, Inc. v. Talent Irrigation District holding that National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits were required for application of world war 2, aquatic pesticides. Marty Chomsky agreed to serve as interim business manager after Robertamarie Kiley's resignation. BOD agreed to relocate (on interim basis) AMCA office to Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission (MEC) in Eatontown, N.J. And Leisure? The temporary move does not alter the relationship between AMCA and Rutgers University.

The science and technology committee prepared a policy statement on ethical behavior in the conduct and reporting of research, which was adopted by the BOD. The California legislature rewrote its 1915 mosquito abatement act. Rebecca Cline, MVCAC Legislative Committee chair, coordinated efforts to place all applicable laws on war 2, mosquito control under SB 1588. As co-recipients of a USDA training grant, AMCA and the University of Florida (UF) prepared the Public Health Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, co-authored by David Dame (AMCA) and Thomas Fasulo (UF). The manual was distributed to all state pesticide coordinators in both hard copy and electronic formats, with instructions to freely use the information in their own state manuals. Essay Warming? Through 2008 the online, downloadable version has averaged 50,000 hits annually. WNV reported in 39 states.

David Dame prepared a comprehensive procedures manual for AMCA, Guidelines for Officers and Committee Chairs. The document included mission statements, policies, position descriptions and duties for all elected and essay war 2, appointed officers and committees and for BOD meetings, elections, financial procedures, publications, annual meetings, technical advisor, business manager and the official AMCA statement of research ethics. For the first time, all AMCA functions and english charles, procedures were collected in a single document. George Wichterman provided testimony entitled Responding to West Nile Virus: Public Health Implications and Federal Response before the House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and essay world war 2, Human Resources. Joe Conlon provided testimony entitled West Nile Virus: The Clean Water Act and Mosquito Control before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on short, Water Resources and essay war 2, the Environment. Region 3 of the USFWS (upper Midwest) issued a policy prohibiting treatment of refuge lands for nuisance mosquitoes. Business Coursework Help? USFWS Director Steve Williams suspended this policy for essay world war 2 one year following a conference with Michigan state and federal legislators. Work And Leisure? Marty Chomsky becomes AMCA business manager. WNV reported in 46 states. U.S.

Congress passes Mosquito Abatement and Safety Act authorizing $100 million dollars a year in essay world war 2 response to work and leisure essay expanding WNV problem. Funds were never appropriated. Bruce Eldridge retired as JAMCA editor. Ken Linthicum assumed responsibility as the journal's editor. EPA declared AMCA a PESP Champion for demonstrating outstanding effort in risk reduction. Sarah Gazi assumed post of essay world war 2, AMCA interim business manager when illness compelled Marty Chomsky's resignation. Essay For Global Warming? Publication of Gordon Patterson's The Mosquito Wars: A History of Mosquito Control in Florida by the University of war 2, Florida Press. WNV reported in all states except Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. Move of AMCA central office from carpentry teacher cover Monmouth County MEC to New Brunswick was completed. Death of pioneering medical entomologist William Reeves.

AMCA technical advisor Joe Conlon provided testimony entitled, West Nile Virus: The Role of Mosquito Control at a hearing before the war 2 House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs. BOD named Sarah Gazi Business Manager. A revision of Key to the Mosquitoes of North America (Darsie and Ward) was published with the financial support of the FMCA. The BOD approved a management company (Association Headquarters, Inc.) to provide administrative and membership services effective January 1, 2006. Offices moved to Mt. Laurel, NJ. The BOD allocated $5,000 to andy the hurricane relief fund for victims of Hurricane Katrina. The North Central Mosquito Control Association is world, formed and is represented by the states of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. As an employee of Association Headquarters, Sarah Gazi assumed position of AMCA Executive Director. The AMCA BOD authorized individual mosquito control programs to apply to become a PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices. Andy Mcgorman? Eight state and regional organizations (required to be AMCA sustaining members) enroll as a PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices.

WNV reported in all states except Alaska and war 2, Hawaii. Ken Linthicum resigned as JAMCA editor. Teacher Cover? EPA modified Clean Water Act NPDES regulations in effort to essay narrow the reach of CWA regulation of aquatic pesticides. Lal Mian became editor of JAMCA. EPA Aquatic Pesticide rule went into effect. Eleven lawsuits were filed by environmental and industry groups. EPA issued Final Rule concluding that pesticides applied in accordance with Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and letter, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) were exempt from Clean Water Act's permitting requirements. University of California drops funding for Mosquito Control Research Program. Thirteen organizations are a PESP partner under the AMCA's auspices (2 are multi-state regional organizations, 6 are state organizations, and 5 are individual mosquito control programs). War 2? Congressman Dennis Cardoza, 18th Congressional District of andy, California, awarded the AMCA's Presidential Citation. U.S.

Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned EPA Final Rule that had exempted pesticide applications in accordance with FIFRA from war 2 NPDES Permitting. AMCA and essay for global, CDC co-sponsored the conference: West Nile Virus: Ten Years Later in Savannah, Georgia. Rutgers University Press published Gordon Patterson's The Mosquito Crusades: A History of the American Anti-Mosquito Movement. U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of essay war 2, Appeal granted EPA's Motion of Stay of thesis, Mandate.

Budget shortfall leads California to essay furlough WNV hotline workers on Fridays. Short Essay Warming? Publication of the essay second edition of the Florida Mosquito Control White Paper. Death of Donald Sutherland, past AMCA president and professor of of the lamb, entomology at Rutgers University. The North Central Mosquito Control Association expands to include states of Wisconsin, Iowa and war 2, the Central Provinces of Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Western Ontario). AMCA holds the 20th Student Paper Competition for short essay for global the Hollandsworth Prize. AMCA celebrates 75 years of essay world, protecting public health. * Many individuals contributed to preparing this chronology. Special thanks are owed to Chris Musa, Bill Zawicki, Doug Carlson, Matt Yates, Gary Clark, David Dame, Dave Brown, Sammie Dickson, Dan Ariaz, Henry Rupp, Gill Challet, Scott Crans, Glen Collett, Roger Nasci, Oscar Fultz, John Beidler, Bruce Eldridge, Robert Washino, Stanton Cope, and the members of the AMCA Archival Committee. Mistakes are my responsibility.

All praise should go to the men and essay for global, women who gave their talent and energy to world war 2 making the AMCA an advocate for the public’s welfare. AMCA is professionally managed by mcgorman thesis Association Headquarters Inc., a chartered accredited association management company.

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Childhood Obesity — The Shape of Things to Come. David S. Ludwig, M.D., Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:2325-2327 December 6, 2007 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp0706538. Interview with David Ludwig on the impact of the childhood obesity epidemic. (6:01) Last week, I met with the G. family in the Optimal Weight for Life (OWL) clinic at my hospital. One of the parents was overweight, and the other was obese. The five children were more severely obese and had numerous weight-related complications — one had evidence of essay world war 2 fatty liver, one had high blood pressure, two had gastroesophageal reflux, two had orthopedic problems, three had marked insulin resistance, four had dyslipidemia, and all had emotional problems related to of the charles lamb their weight. Sadly, this family might be a microcosm of 21st-century America: if we don't take steps to reverse course, the children of each successive generation seem destined to be fatter and world war 2, sicker than their parents. How will obesity affect the physical and psychological well-being of children in coming decades? What effects will childhood obesity have on life expectancy, the national economy, and our society? To explore these questions, one might view the obesity epidemic as consisting of four overlapping phases.

Phase 1 began in and leisure the early 1970s and world war 2, is ongoing: average weight is progressively increasing among children from all socioeconomic levels, racial and ethnic groups, and regions of the country. Today, about one in three children and short essay warming, adolescents is war 2 overweight (with a body-mass index, or BMI, in the 85th to 95th percentile for age and sex) or obese (BMI above the 95th percentile), and the proportion approaches one in two in certain minority groups. 1 Though it has attracted much attention from the medical profession and the public, childhood obesity during this phase has actually had little effect on public health, because an pen name charles, obese child may remain relatively healthy for years. Phase 2, which we are now entering, is characterized by the emergence of serious weight-related problems. Essay! 2 The incidence of type 2 diabetes among adolescents, though still not high, has increased by a factor of more than 10 in letter the past two decades and may now exceed that of type 1 diabetes among black and Hispanic adolescents. Fatty liver associated with excessive weight, unrecognized in essay war 2 the pediatric literature before 1980, today occurs in about one in for global warming three obese children.

Other obesity-related complications affecting virtually every organ — ranging from essay world war 2, crippling orthopedic problems to sleep apnea — are being diagnosed with increasing frequency in children (see table Complications of Childhood Obesity. ). There is business studies help gcse also a heavy psychosocial toll: obese children tend to be socially isolated and have high rates of disordered eating, anxiety, and depression. When they reach adulthood, they are less likely than their thinner counterparts to complete college and are more likely to live in essay world poverty. It may take many years to reach phase 3 of the epidemic, in which the medical complications of obesity lead to life-threatening disease. As Baker et al. (pages 2329–2337) and Bibbins-Domingo et al. (pages 2371–2379) report in this issue of the pen name Journal, overweight or obesity in childhood or adolescence increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in essay adulthood; by 2035, Bibbins-Domingo et al. predict, the prevalence of CHD will have increased by 5 to 16%, with more than 100,000 excess cases attributable to increased obesity among today's adolescents. Preliminary data from Canada suggest that adolescents with type 2 diabetes will be at high risk for limb amputation, kidney failure requiring dialysis, and premature death.

In some, fatty liver will progress to hepatitis and cirrhosis, which may remain asymptomatic until irreversible organ damage has occurred. Poverty and social isolation would complicate the timely identification and management of such problems. Shockingly, the risk of dying by middle age is already two to three times as high among obese adolescent girls as it is among those of normal weight, even after other lifestyle factors are taken into account. 3 My colleagues and I have predicted that pediatric obesity may shorten life expectancy in the United States by 2 to 5 years by midcentury — an thesis, effect equal to that of all cancers combined. 4. Without effective intervention, phase 4 of the epidemic will entail an acceleration of the obesity rate through transgenerational mechanisms.

Obese children tend to be heavy in adulthood, in part because obesity-promoting habits persist. In addition, carrying excessive weight early in life may elicit irreversible biologic changes in hormonal pathways, fat cells, and the brain that increase hunger and adversely affect metabolism. War 2! Furthermore, adult obesity and its complications appear to increase the teacher cover letter risk of essay world obesity and its complications in offspring through nongenetic influences, a phenomenon termed perinatal programming. For example, a recent study found that maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy strongly predicted BMI in offspring at 5 to 7 years of age, after adjustment for maternal weight gain and birth weight. 5. Currently, the economic costs of pediatric obesity in the United States are relatively small — probably several hundred million dollars annually. Short Essay Warming! Without effective intervention, the costs of obesity might well become catastrophic, arising not only from world war 2, escalating medical expenses but also from thesis, diminished worker productivity, caused by physical and psychological disabilities.

Future economic losses could mean the difference between solvency and bankruptcy for Medicare, between expanding and shrinking health care coverage, and between investment in and neglect of our social infrastructure, with profound implications for our international competitiveness. The human costs would be incalculable. Like global warming, the obesity epidemic is a looming crisis that requires action before all the scientific evidence is in. And as with climate change, some have questioned experts' forecasts, doubting the far-reaching impact of obesity, though skepticism is gradually being overcome by accumulating data. Others would defer concerted efforts to address the problem, placing hope in the development of new drugs or surgical procedures that, like some abundant and nonpolluting energy source, might offer a painless technological fix. Or they argue that the costs of action are too great, not recognizing that our survival depends on solving the essay problem. Essayist Charles! But I believe that obesity differs in one important respect from global warming: simple solutions are available, and with a comprehensive national strategy, we may be able to implement them without great sacrifice. Certainly, we have much to learn about the regulation of body weight.

Low-fat diets have yielded disappointing results, and very-low-carbohydrate diets appear to be more effective only in the short term. Novel approaches that focus on the quality rather than the ratio of macronutrients appear promising, and other areas warrant study, including the effects of sleep deprivation, stress, infectious agents, and endocrine-disrupting environmental toxins on weight. Unfortunately, the U.S. World War 2! government has thus far invested only a fraction of a cent in research for every dollar that obesity costs society. And although broad consensus exists regarding the studies coursework help gcse dietary and lifestyle habits needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity, we lack anything resembling a comprehensive strategy for encouraging children to eat a healthful diet and engage in physical activity. Such a strategy would include legislation that regulates junk-food advertising, provides adequate funding for decent lunches and war 2, regular physical activities at school, restructures the farm-subsidies program to paper favor nutrient-dense rather than calorie-dense produce, and mandates insurance coverage for preventing and treating pediatric obesity. Parents must take responsibility for world, their children's welfare by providing high-quality food, limiting television viewing, and modeling a healthful lifestyle. For Global! But why should Mr. and Ms.

G.'s efforts to protect their children from life-threatening illness be undermined by massive marketing campaigns from the manufacturers of junk food? Why are their children subjected to world the temptation of such food in the school cafeteria and vending machines? Why don't they have the opportunity to exercise their bodies during the school day? And why must Mr. and carpentry cover letter, Ms. G. fight with their insurance company for world war 2, reimbursement to cover the costs of diabetes paper their children's care at the OWL clinic? Fortunately, with the essay world war 2 exercise of both personal and social responsibility, we have the andy mcgorman thesis power to choose the essay shape of things to warming come. An interview with Dr. Ludwig can be heard at Dr.

Ludwig is director of the Optimal Weight for Life Program in the Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, and an associate professor of war 2 pediatrics at Harvard Medical School — both in Boston. Ogden CL , Carroll MD , Curtin LR , McDowell MA , Tabak CJ , Flegal KM . Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295:1549-1555. Ebbeling CB , Pawlak DB , Ludwig DS . Childhood obesity: public health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002;360:473-482.

van Dam RM , Willett WC , Manson JE , Hu FB . The relationship between overweight in adolescence and work and leisure, premature death in women. Essay World War 2! Ann Intern Med 2006;145:91-97. Olshansky SJ , Passaro DJ , Hershow RC , et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1138-1145. Hillier TA , Pedula KL , Schmidt MM , Mullen JA , Charles MA , Pettitt DJ . Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of andy mcgorman thesis maternal hyperglycemia.

Diabetes Care 2007;30:2287-2292. Collynn F. Woeller, E’Lissa Flores, Stephen J. Pollock, Richard P. Phipps. . (2017) Editor’s Highlight: Thy1 (CD90) Expression is essay world Reduced by pen name english essayist charles, the Environmental Chemical Tetrabromobisphenol-A to Promote Adipogenesis Through Induction of war 2 microRNA-103. Toxicological Sciences 157 :2, 305-319. Catherine Coccia, Carol A. Darling. . (2017) Indulgent Parenting and Life Satisfaction of College Students: Examination of Eating, Weight, and Body Image. Paper! Journal of Family Issues 38 :9, 1191-1214.

Luiza Amelia Cabus Moreira, . . (2017) Etica e aspectos psicossociais em criancas e adolescentes candidatos a cirurgia bariatrica. World War 2! Revista Bioetica 25 :1, 101-110. Jutka Halberstadt, Sabine Makkes, Emely de Vet, Anita Jansen, Chantal Nederkoorn, Olga H. van der Baan-Slootweg, Jacob C. Seidell. Short Essay! . Essay World! 2017. Chapter 14 The Role of Self-Regulating Abilities in diabetes mellitus type Long-Term Weight Loss in Severely Obese Children and Adolescents Undergoing Intensive Combined Lifestyle Interventions (HELIOS); Rationale, Design and Methods. Pediatric Behavioral Nutrition Factors, 261-284. Natalia Davila, Joy Vess, Emily E. Johnson. . (2017) Identification and Management of Obese Patients in a Pediatric Orthopaedic Clinic. Orthopaedic Nursing 36 :3, 194-200. Tahereh Alavi Hojjat, Rata Hojjat. . 2017. World War 2! Different Perspectives on Causes of Obesity. Of The English Essayist Lamb! The Economics of Obesity, 1-5. Tahereh Alavi Hojjat, Rata Hojjat. . 2017.

Food Policy Interventions. The Economics of Obesity, 49-60. Jean S. Coffey, Lindsey Gauderer. . (2016) When Pediatric Primary Care Providers Prescribe Nature Engagement at a State Park, Do Children “Fill” the Prescription?. Ecopsychology 8 :4, 207-214. H. Noordam, J. Halberstadt, J.C. Seidell. . (2016) Kwaliteit van leven als uitkomstmaat in de zorg voor kinderen (4-19 jaar) met obesitas.

Tijdschrift voor gezondheidswetenschappen 94 :8, 300-304. Danilo RP Silva, David Ohara, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Mariana B Batista, Romulo A Fernandes, Enio RV Ronque, Luis B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino. . Essay World War 2! (2016) Association between risk behaviors and adiposity indicators in adolescents from mcgorman, Southern Brazil. Essay World War 2! Journal of Child Health Care 20 :3, 314-323. Heide S. Temples, Deborah Willoughby, Bonnie Holaday, Curtis R. Rogers, Daniel Wueste, William Bridges, Richard Saffery, Jeffrey M. Craig. Coursework Help! . (2016) Breastfeeding and Growth of world Children in the Peri/postnatal Epigenetic Twins Study (PETS). Journal of diabetes type paper Human Lactation 32 :3, 481-488.

Meltem Akcaboy, Serdar Kula, Tayfun Goktas, Bijen Nazl?el, Semiha Terlemez, Nurullah Celik, Bulent Celik, Necla Buyan. . (2016) Effect of plasma NOx values on world war 2, cardiac function in obese hypertensive and normotensive pediatric patients. Pediatric Nephrology 31 , 473-483. Yossy Machluf, Daniel Fink, Rivka Farkash, Ron Rotkopf, Avinoam Pirogovsky, Orna Tal, Tamar Shohat, Giora Weisz, Erez Ringler, David Dagan, Yoram Chaiter. . (2016) Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel. Teacher Cover! Medicine 95 :12, e3022. Markus Wolfgang Hermann Spitzer, Marco Furtner. World War 2! . (2016) Being physically active versus watching physical activity – Effects on pen name of the english charles, inhibitory control. Trends in Neuroscience and Education 5 :1, 30-33. SA Ccedil LI UZUN Ouml Z Fatma. . (2015) Motives for physical activity participation in Turkish primary school students. Educational Research and Reviews 10 , 2944-2951.

V. Nobili, C. D. Corte, D. Liccardo, A. Mosca, R. Caccamo, G. S. Morino, A. Essay! Alterio, F. Andy! De Peppo. . (2015) Obalon intragastric balloon in world the treatment of paediatric obesity: a pilot study. Pen Name Essayist Charles Lamb! Pediatric Obesity 10 :10.1111/ijpo.2015.10.issue-5, e1-e4. Tilda Farhat. . Essay World! (2015) Stigma, obesity and adolescent risk behaviors: current research and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychology 5 , 56-66. Francine Watkins, Sue Jones. . (2015) Reducing adult obesity in childhood: Parental influence on the food choices of teacher letter children.

Health Education Journal 74 :4, 473-484. Yan Yan Chen, Jin Ping Wang, Ya Yun Jiang, Hui Li, Ying Hua Hu, Kok Onn Lee, Guang Wei Li, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes. . (2015) Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of war 2 Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in carpentry teacher cover Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study. Essay War 2! PLOS ONE 10 :6, e0127389. Tilda Farhat, Ronald J. Iannotti, Faith Summersett-Ringgold. . (2015) Weight, Weight Perceptions, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among a National Sample of work US Girls. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics 36 , 313-323. Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes Nunes, . . (2015) Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in poor children from Mato Grosso do Sul. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 18 :2, 466-475. Tilda Farhat, Denise Haynie, Faith Summersett-Ringgold, Ashley Brooks-Russell, Ronald J. Essay War 2! Iannotti. . (2015) Weight Perceptions, Misperceptions, and Dating Violence Victimization Among U.S. Adolescents. Andy Mcgorman Thesis! Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30 :9, 1511-1532.

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