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Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the thesis sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from fitness, P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and coursework evaluation, proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page.
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Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out resume, from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. On Image Processing. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Fitness. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.
5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an bioethanol thesis organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of fitness resume, books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of dependable friend, articles, chapters, and web pages are in fitness, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay.
It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. Thesis On Image Processing. (Year of fitness resume, publication). Friend. Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Fitness. Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Publish Online. A. Fitness Resume. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Thesis Processing. Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Fitness. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on homework sipser the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of fitness, headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. Thesis On Image. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on fitness resume font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Thesis On Image. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.
heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to resume, the page number. Of Warren Buffett Lessons And Managers Ebook. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay.
The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the fitness resume course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on online abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in fitness resume, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the thesis processing full form is mention in resume, the first time. Thesis. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism.
To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Fitness Resume. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. Dependable. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Resume. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to gcse physics coursework resistance of a wire evaluation, some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only fitness resume, has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on thesis the nature and fitness resume, the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers.
When writing an wire evaluation essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. Resume. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Homework Sipser. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in fitness, documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript.
Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of gcse coursework resistance wire evaluation, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in fitness, the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the thesis on image processing level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to fitness, consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of buffett 4th edition lessons and managers ebook, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing.
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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and fitness exam . Last week I ran a “competition” to write an essay on aid and poverty. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in the comments section. Homework Sipser? My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is I think much simpler than almost all the essays I received and resume perhaps a more practical model for exams.
I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and thesis are written especially for candidates who are aiming high. The moral is: 1. Read write read write read write read write read write read. What does this mean? It means that you should go back and read the paragraph you have just written before you start the next one. You may think that this is a waste of time. If so, you’d be wrong. Fitness Resume? It’s important to link your paragraphs together what more practical way to thesis on image processing, do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Look at my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to move onto the long term in the next paragraph. You may also want to check out my series of lessons on the process of fitness writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of 4th edition for investors and managers this, 2. Don’t be smart, be clear select your best idea.
One of fitness resume my very first posts/articles on this site was headed “IELTS is not a test of intelligence”. While the post itself now looks a little old, the thesis advice is still good. You are being tested on the quality of your English, not on the quality of your ideas. This advice is particularly important for fitness candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to being graded on quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is my thesis online quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the fitness ideas. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Don’t worry if it is not your best explanation, worry about whether it is homework sipser your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas.
This is a similar idea. IELTS is an international exam (that’s the fitness resume “I” in IELTS) and the questions are written to homework sipser, be answered by anyone around the world. Some people stress about finding ideas. They shouldn’t. The ideas you need are generally simple (eg”I disagree”, “This is fitness resume not a good idea”). The practical solution is to think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is homework sipser what it tells you to do. If you come from Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure.
You want to make things as easy for yourself as possible. One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why? It’s simply harder if you only fitness think “because”. Some of the ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to gcse of a evaluation, explain these with reasons.
What may happen is that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. The practical bit is to resume, concentrate as much on examples. Thesis? This is a good idea as examples tend to be easier to fitness resume, write as you are simply describing situations. Dependable Friend Essay? You should also note that the instructions tell you to use examples! All you need to do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea. 5. Don’t write too much the examiner is paid by the minute. There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isn’t a good idea to write 350 words or more.
Here’s why: Examiners will only fitness resume spend so much time looking at any essay. Write too much and they will read what you wrote “less carefully”. It is easier to physics coursework resistance of a evaluation, read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay! The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes. The more you write, the more likely you are to go off topic. The examiner won’t read/grade anything that doesn’t directly relate to the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the best words and fitness resume that’s what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and check what you have written. One of the friend essay most famous philosophical thoughts is “know yourself”. How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues?
Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldn’t check for mistakes generally that’s too hard and fitness probably a waste of time in the exam. What isn’t a waste of time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the friend essay whole essay in your head before you start writing. It’s very important that your essay is a whole that all the bits fit together. If you don’t do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response. This means planning of course. Planning bothers some people and bores others.
There are different ways to do this, but at the very least have a map of your essay in your head. 8. Focus on the backbone of your essay. This is a related point. All the fitness resume essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. Thesis? I’d suggest the practical thing to do is concentrate on the backbone of resume your essay, the bits that help you write better and the examiner to understand better. The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the homework sipser question and outline your position. Don’t rush it as it is the fitness first thing the examiner will read. First impressions count. Thesis? The first/topic sentences of each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to the rest of the essay. The practical tip is to keep the resume detail/clever ideas for thesis the body of the paragraph.
Start off general and then build towards the specific. The conclusion : this is the easiest part of the essay normally. Most often, all you need to do is go back to the introduction and rephrase it. Get these bits right and the rest of the essay tends to take care of itself. 9. Don’t just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to write essays is to write essays? True or false?
My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to fitness, practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only that. The different part of essays require slightly different skills. The Essays Of Warren For Investors Ebook? To write an introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the resume question. To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to explain ideas. To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. Essay? The practical suggestion is to practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions separately. Focus on skills. 10. Resume? Focus on friend essay the question and refocus on the question. I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea.
Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of these you may not be able to avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is fitness resume that you didn’t answer the question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didn’t read and think about the question properly. The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to gcse physics coursework resistance wire, remind yourself about resume what you are meant to write about. It is very easy to get carried away in the essays of warren for investors ebook, exams. Fitness Resume? You may start off on topic, then you have a “good idea” as you write.
So you write about that. Sadly, that “good idea” may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid. This essay which you can download below is intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. It is fairly simple in structure. It focuses clearly on the question I left many of my best ideas out. I concentrated on what I could explain clearly.
It comes in at only just over dependable essay, 300 words. This is where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for more specific advice, this is the place to start. The ideas here are similar and fitness you will find more general guidance on homework sipser dos and don#8217;ts in fitness, IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of homework sipser my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by fitness email. 96 Responses to 10 practical tips for dependable writing better exam essays.
Thank you, Dominic. Very useful. And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is excellent. Fitness Resume? Thanks for all your tips. I think it is really useful for me. Of A Wire? thank you!! This is a big help for me #128521; Thanks for good information.
Really it is very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips.. I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to resume, do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and not the real needs of the society in which they are sold#8217;. To what exten do you agree or disagree. Can I have the friend essay following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4. Fitness? Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the for investors and managers ebook eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this.
Umm how do you rate this introduction? Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. Fitness? So logically there should not be any problem, right? But the problem is physics coursework resistance of a wire evaluation I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one. Resume? Thanks in advance. Please tell me what is on image wrong with me writing and fitness how I should improve my writing to homework sipser, get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to be shown on the silver screen.
Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of resume merits, others have a different idea in this. In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details. Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on homework sipser the front page, and they can be viewed by viewers.
Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen. Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers. In addition, paparazzi and fitness journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to the essays of warren buffett ebook, know about their stars. As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of journalists who want to intrude their privacy. Furthermore, because of being a model for resume pupils and adults, they are responsible for their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of fame outweigh its positive points because of reasons which were cited in this essay. Thank you so much:D. Of Warren 4th Edition Lessons? thanks helped a lot.
I must say that you have worked really well on this piece of writing. Resume? It brings some new thoughts in reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in the way he usually thinks over a matter. Friend? The writing ideas you suggested is looking working and effective in both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to have some new skills. Good job,thank u. Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. Resume? God bless you abundantly. Thank you! You are my angel. Thesis On Image? i hope that ,it is useful my ilets exam,thanks for giving good message. Thank you for ur kind information#8230;.. These informations will be surely useful for ma future life#8230;. Fitness Resume? thank you, good advice is beyond price. A big thank you Dominic.. I was able to clear IELTS(7) by following your website.
It is extremely valid for IELTS preparation, since you should be aware of the scoring criteria. thanx a lot ,,4 nice tips. Thank you sir for your best effort#8230;. Myriad of bioethanol thesis thanks for letting me be courageous to dream for a better score than I really deserve in the real test. Good,better and resume even best tips. thank you for all informations. Thanks for your advice! it will be very useful to study for the exam. However, I want you to ask for one last advice#8230; I dont know how to start studying for the writing test, what do you think is the order of steps to success? thanks in the essays buffett 4th edition for investors ebook, advance. The practical advice here is to fitness, select your best idea and write about that.
That means not writing everything you know. these tips are obsolutely marvellous.i will use it to score my ielts writing. Really nice tips. I was first surprised that the thesis SBI PO exam also involves an fitness resume English descriptive test that may even ask you to publish, write essay. I was never good at essay writing, but now, I am getting better thanks to such wonderful tips and online practice material I got. Working more on resume my exam preparation with more practice tests. Thanks your tips have certainly cleared many concepts that were ambiguous for me. Homework Sipser? thanks again! very nice helpfull. Resume? I#8217;m just talking from that #8216;Lett#8217;s GCSE guide to get an A/A*#8217; Why are you doing their job in a complete opposite behaviour?! Writing essays in exam is very hard thing in our school days#8230;#8230;. So this article is very helpful for collage and homework sipser school students. Fitness Resume? Thank you for this valuable tips #128578; thanks you master.
thanx. Bioethanol Thesis? it was really helpful.. i want to know more about resume writing introduction for my thesis online an eassay. Brilliant essay your tips were most helpful#8230; keep on writing looking forward to read more of your essays #128512; Very useful. THANK YOU. Its use full knowledge. Thank you for this informative and useful website.
Superb! I would like to ask you a question about how to give a good or example in fitness resume, writing task 2. 1. What makes a good hypothetical or generalization example ? 2. Thesis Processing? Can we make up data for the example as in the report writing? For example, give specific organization name, data, percentage, etc. in order to fitness, make the example persuasive. Thanks in advance. 1. hard question to friend essay, answer without an example. But let me try. Let us imaging you#8217;re writing about #8220;happiness#8221;. You could use a conditional such as. Some men might lead more fulfilled lives if they became full-time parents and looked after their children.
2. Yes you can. Don#8217;t get silly about it though. Make sure the data is plausible and relates to the point you are trying to make, thanks for fitness resume your useful essay. Thank you very much your tips will help me a lot in my test#8230; Thanks for the remarkable points. Very well written guide for homework sipser writing effective personal essays. Brainstorming is the initial stage everyone must do. Following the things you mentioned in fitness, the post is publish online really beneficial for making the personal essay effective and fitness up to the mark. Thank You for your Fabulous tips. They are of great help to me. Nice thanx a lot for on image processing the tips.I was really in need of it. Thnq u very much.
Thanks for the advice, I jotted the main points and memorised it for fitness my selective exams. I really think your tips improved my way of essay #8216;thinking#8217; when it comes to essays. I found it v.helpful. thanx now i can prepare for my exams #128512; Its a good tip nw i think i will get satisfaction marks in my exam. Thank you very much with your tips hoping that i will Pass my Exams. thanks a lot for this information, this surely has improved my essay writing. Thanks for resume clear my mind.. Dependable Friend? Just about to fitness, do an English exam, this is by far the best site. Nice tips, especially those about examples and explanations, it was very interesting and helpful for me. But you now, it is very difficult to 4th edition for investors and managers ebook, invent a nice example on the spot. Some more tips about writing are here https://abcessays.com/en/essays.
I use it from time to time as they have plagiarism check there and some other helpful tools. Every student/writer should keep all these ten in mind. Resume? Keeping focus on all these, I think its a guarantee to a good score. Thanks for sharing. Thanks for your valuable tips.It has really given a better concept regarding the tests#8230;..Thanks again#8230;Have a good day. Good Read Dominic. Something I was looking for essay writing in exam. Thesis Processing? Thank you so much. The information is really helpful. I now have a better understanding on how to write good essays.
I appreciate all of your advices. Resume? Very very useful content.I am grateful to the essays buffett 4th edition lessons for investors and managers ebook, you for this service. Thanks a lot. thanks alot honey. Thank you very much. Resume? Great Website. Thesis On Image? It is extremely helpful for me. Fitness? Thank you so much for the information. Homework Sipser? It was extremely helpful. As you suggested for poverty we all are suggested by you for fitness resume writing thnx so much for having such a ability regard hanan.
we shell fallow this all instruction for essay writing. Thanks! Helped me a lot #128578; Thanks , for you tips . I think it will help me in my next exam . Dependable Friend? Thanks for your good tips. I found it useful. Resume? Keep on publish online working. very informative . Thank you Dominic Cole for widening our horizons of knowledge. Keep teaching and i must say you are really a good teacher. thanks really appreciate your tips. #8220;the road to band score 8.0 often means doing the simple things well#8221;, this concept helped me clear my writing exam and score 8.0. Fitness Resume? thank you so much for this wonderful website. you are a great ielts teacher..
I hope these tips will be helpful for me coz tomorrow#8217;s my exam. #8230; Your brilliant cue and suggest can give me better solution. Gcse Physics Coursework Evaluation? or it can be right point for whole IELTS students. I want to fitness resume, know thanks you into love and respect#8230;#8230; Thank you very much for your work, cheer #128578; Wonderful guidance and tips for essay writing. Homework Sipser? Thanks for resume your effort Dominic. Thanx for Ur useful information keep writing like this and give us these types of substantial conformance I think that it can enhance my vocabulary power and essay writing.
I really felt pink after reading this I think that it was the main problem in thesis, my exams thanku so much. Fitness? nice one..verry impressive i see you#8230;#8221;valuing charity#8221;#8230;keep it up#8230;i hope it can help my essay writing contest for tomorrow:-) Can anyone please advise me to publish my thesis online, what use weather pencil or pen for fitness essay writing.This would be a great help. Hi Dominic plz tell me whats is the dependable essay level of this essay.Kindly suggest me corrections. The rising trend of an increasing number of women turning as major bread earners of the family is pervasive these days. This essay will first accentuate that women empowerment is the major cause of this shift and then it will highlight its effect of abstained family and resume societal duties. Firstly, the most significant reason behind the women contributing to the proportionate amount of family earnings is, the orientation of the society towards revolutionary women empowerment . The Long felt need for the contribution of women to the economic and societal decisions was propelled by their inner thrust of self accomplishment . Hence, they broke the shackles of household chores and dependable moved out of the houses to earn money and equal status as that of men. Moreover, this movement was further supported by the governments of fitness various countries.For instance, reservations were made for women to occupy significant positions in public enterprises, services and other institutions. On the other hand, this positive development in the society has resulted into more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the heart and bioethanol thesis soul of the families are more proficient in accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the families for work has affected the family and societal bondings negatively to a considerable level.It is evident from the resume fact that younger generations are now more interested in hangout with friends than attending family and social rituals. The Essays Lessons And Managers Ebook? In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to their families resulting in better living standards nonethless, this has led to an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the family members in sharing role and responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance.
I#8217;m sorry but I really don#8217;t have time to give individual feedback of this sort.
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essay image africa Achebe, Chinua. Fitness! An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' Massachusetts Review. Thesis! 18. Resume! 1977. Rpt. in Heart of Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and Sources Criticism. 1961. 3rd ed. Ed.
Robert Kimbrough, London: W. W Norton and Co., 1988, pp.251-261. In the fall of 1974 I was walking one day from the English Department at the essays of warren 4th edition and managers ebook the University of Massachusetts to a parking lot. It was a fine autumn morning such as encouraged friendliness to passing strangers. Brisk youngsters were hurrying in all directions, many of them obviously freshmen in their first flush of fitness resume enthusiasm. An older man going the same way as I turned and remarked to me how very young they came these days. The Essays Of Warren Lessons For Investors Ebook! I agreed. Then he asked me if I was a student too.
I said no, I was a teacher. What did I teach? African literature. Now that was funny, he said, because he knew a fellow who taught the same thing, or perhaps it was African history, in a certain Community College not far from here. It always surprised him, he went on to say, because he never had thought of Africa as having that kind of stuff, you know. By this time I was walking much faster. Oh well, I heard him say finally, behind me: I guess I have to take your course to fitness find out. Physics Of A Wire Evaluation! A few weeks later I received two very touching letters from high school children in Yonkers, New York, who -- bless their teacher -- had just read Things Fall Apart . Fitness Resume! One of them was particularly happy to learn about the customs and superstitions of an homework sipser African tribe. I propose to draw from these rather trivial encounters rather heavy conclusions which at first sight might seem somewhat out of proportion to them.
But only, I hope, at first sight. The young fellow from Yonkers, perhaps partly on account of his age but I believe also for much deeper and more serious reasons, is fitness obviously unaware that the life of his own tribesmen in Yonkers, New York, is full of odd customs and homework sipser, superstitions and, like everybody else in his culture, imagines that he needs a trip to Africa to encounter those things. The other person being fully my own age could not be excused on resume the grounds of his years. Thesis! Ignorance might be a more likely reason; but here again I believe that something more willful than a mere lack of information was at resume work. For did not that erudite British historian and bioethanol thesis, Regius Professor at Oxford, Hugh Trevor Roper, also pronounce that African history did not exist? If there is something in these utterances more than youthful inexperience, more than a lack of factual knowledge, what is it?
Quite simply it is the desire -- one might indeed say the need -- in fitness Western psychology to set Africa up as a foil to Europe, as a place of negations at once remote and vaguely familiar, in comparison with which Europe's own state of spiritual grace will be manifest. This need is gcse coursework wire not new; which should relieve us all of considerable responsibility and perhaps make us even willing to resume look at this phenomenon dispassionately. I have neither the of warren 4th edition wish nor the competence to embark on fitness resume the exercise with the my thesis tools of the social and biological sciences but more simply in the manner of a novelist responding to one famous book of European fiction: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , which better than any other work that I know displays that Western desire and need which I have just referred to. Of course there are whole libraries of books devoted to the same purpose but most of them are so obvious and so crude that few people worry about them today. Conrad, on the other hand, is undoubtedly one of the great stylists of resume modern fiction and a good storyteller into the bargain.
His contribution therefore falls automatically into a different class -- permanent literature -- read and taught and gcse physics resistance of a evaluation, constantly evaluated by serious academics. Heart of resume Darkness is indeed so secure today that a leading Conrad scholar has numbered it among the homework sipser half-dozen greatest short novels in the English language. I will return to this critical opinion in due course because it may seriously modify my earlier suppositions about who may or may not be guilty in some of the matters I will now raise. Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as the other world, the antithesis of Europe and therefore of resume civilization, a place where man's vaunted intelligence and friend, refinement are finally mocked by triumphant beastiality. The book opens on the River Thames, tranquil, resting, peacefully at the decline of day after ages of good service done to the race that peopled its banks. But the actual story will take place on fitness the River Congo, the very antithesis of the Thames. The River Congo is quite decidedly not a River Emeritus. It has rendered no service and enjoys no old-age pension.
We are told that Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world. Is Conrad saying then that these two rivers are very different, one good, the other bad? Yes, but that is not the dependable friend essay real point. Fitness Resume! It is not the differentness that worries Conrad but the lurking hint of kinship, of common ancestry. For the Thames too has been one of the dark places of the earth. It conquered its darkness, of course, and is now in daylight and at peace. But if it were to publish my thesis online visit its primordial relative, the Congo, it would run the terrible risk of hearing grotesque echoes of its own forgotten darkness, and fitness resume, falling victim to an avenging recrudescence of the mindless frenzy of the gcse physics wire evaluation first beginnings. These suggestive echoes comprise Conrad's famed evocation of the African atmosphere in Heart of Darkness . In the final consideration his method amounts to no more than a steady, ponderous, fake-ritualistic repetition of two antithetical sentences, one about silence and the other about frenzy.
We can inspect samples of fitness resume this on pages 36 and publish my thesis, 37 of the present edition: a) it was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention and b) The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and fitness, incomprehensible frenzy. Of course there is a judicious change of friend essay adjective from time to time, so that instead of fitness resume inscrutable, for example, you might have unspeakable, even plain mysterious, etc., etc. The eagle-eyed English critic F. R. Leavis drew attention long ago to Conrad's adjectival insistence upon the essays of warren 4th edition lessons ebook, inexpressible and incomprehensible mystery. Fitness Resume! That insistence must not be dismissed lightly, as many Conrad critics have tended to do, as a mere stylistic flaw; for gcse physics resistance wire, it raises serious questions of artistic good faith. When a writer while pretending to record scenes, incidents and their impact is in reality engaged in inducing hypnotic stupor in his readers through a bombardment of emotive words and other forms of trickery much more has to be at stake than stylistic felicity. Generally normal readers are well armed to detect and resist such under-hand activity.
But Conrad chose his subject well -- one which was guaranteed not to put him in fitness conflict with the psychological predisposition of his readers or raise the need for him to contend with their resistance. He chose the role of purveyor of comforting myths. The most interesting and homework sipser, revealing passages in Heart of Darkness are, however, about people. I must crave the resume indulgence of my reader to quote almost a whole page from about the middle of the of warren buffett 4th edition lessons ebook stop/when representatives of Europe in a steamer going down the Congo encounter the resume denizens of Africa. We were wanderers on a prehistoric earth, on an earth that wore the aspect of an unknown planet. We could have fancied ourselves the first of thesis men taking possession of an accursed inheritance, to be subdued at the cost of profound anguish and fitness, of excessive toil. But suddenly as we struggled round a bend there would be a glimpse of homework sipser rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of hands clapping, of feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage.
The steamer toiled along slowly on fitness the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. The prehistoric man was cursing us, praying to us, welcoming us -- who could tell? We were cut off from the comprehension of our surroundings; we glided past like phantoms, wondering and secretly appalled, as sane men would be before an enthusiastic outbreak in dependable friend essay a madhouse. We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember, because we were traveling in the night of fitness resume first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign -- and no memories. The earth seemed unearthly.
We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of on image a conquered monster, but there -- there you could look at a thing monstrous and free. It was unearthly and the men were . No they were not inhuman. Well, you know that was the worst of it -- this suspicion of their not being inhuman. It would come slowly to one. They howled and leaped and spun and made horrid faces, but what thrilled you, was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours -- the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough, but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the fitness faintest trace of a response to the terrible frankness of that noise, a dim suspicion of of warren 4th edition lessons there being a meaning in it which you -- you so remote from the night of fitness resume first ages -- could comprehend. Herein lies the meaning of Heart of Darkness and the fascination it holds over the Western mind: What thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours . My Thesis! Ugly.
Having shown us Africa in resume the mass, Conrad then zeros in, half a page later, on a specific example, giving us one of his rare descriptions of an African who is of warren 4th edition for investors and managers ebook not just limbs or rolling eyes: And between whiles I had to look after the savage who was fireman. He was an improved specimen; he could fire up a vertical boiler. He was there below me and, upon my word, to look at him was as edifying as seeing a dog in resume a parody of breeches and a feather hat walking on his hind legs. 4th Edition And Managers Ebook! A few months of training had done for that really fine chap. He squinted at fitness resume the steam-gauge and at bioethanol the water-gauge with an evident effort of intrepidity -- and he had filed his teeth too, the poor devil, and the wool of his pate shaved into queer patterns, and fitness resume, three ornamental scars on each of his cheeks. He ought to have been clapping his hands and stamping his feet on the bank, instead of which he was hard at work, a thrall to of warren 4th edition and managers strange witchcraft, full of fitness improving knowledge. As everybody knows, Conrad is a romantic on the side. Gcse Physics Coursework Resistance Wire Evaluation! He might not exactly admire savages clapping their hands and stamping their feet but they have at least the merit of being in fitness resume their place, unlike this dog in a parody of breeches.
For Conrad things being in their place is of the utmost importance. Fine fellows -- cannibals --in their place, he tells us pointedly. Tragedy begins when things leave their accustomed place, like Europe leaving its safe stronghold between the policeman and the baker to like a peep into the heart of thesis darkness. Before the story likes us into the Congo basin proper we are given this nice little vignette as an example of things in their place: Now and then a boat from the resume shore gave one a momentary contact with reality. It was paddled by black fellows. You could see from afar the white of their eyeballs glistening. They shouted, sang; their bodies streamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks -- these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of movement that was as natural and hue as the surf along their coast.
They wanted no excuse for being there. They were a great comfort to look at. Towards the end of the story Conrad lavishes a whole page quite unexpectedly on an African woman who has obviously been some kind of friend essay mistress to fitness resume Mr. Kurtz and now presides (if I may be permitted a little liberty) like a formidable mystery over the inexorable imminence of buffett lessons and managers ebook his departure: She was savage and superb, wild-eyed and magnificent . She stood looking at us without a stir and like the wilderness itself, with an air of brooding over an inscrutable purpose. This Amazon is drawn in considerable detail, albeit of a predictable nature, for two reasons. First, she is in her place and so can win Conrad's special brand of approval and second, she fulfills a structural requirement of the story: a savage counterpart to the refined, European woman who will step forth to end the story: She came forward all in black with a pale head, floating toward me in the dusk. She was in mourning . She took both my hands in hers and murmured, I had heard you were coming.. She had a mature capacity for fidelity, for belief, for fitness, suffering. The difference in the attitude of the novelist to these two women is conveyed in too many direct and subfile ways to my thesis need elaboration.
But perhaps the most significant difference is the one implied in the author's bestowal of human expression to the one and the withholding of it from the other. It is clearly not part of Conrad's purpose to confer language on fitness the rudimentary souls of Africa. The Essays And Managers Ebook! In place of speech they made a violent babble of uncouth sounds. They exchanged short grunting phrases even among themselves. But most of the time they were too busy with their frenzy. There are two occasions in the book, however, when Conrad departs somewhat from fitness resume his practice and confers speech, even English speech, on the savages. The first occurs when cannibalism gets the better of gcse coursework evaluation them: Catch 'im, he snapped with a bloodshot widening of his eyes and a flash of sharp teeth -- catch 'im. Give 'im to us. To you, eh?
I asked; what would you do with them? Eat 'im! he said curtly. . . . The other occasion was the famous announcement:Mistah Kurtz -- he dead. At first sight these instances might be mistaken for unexpected acts of fitness generosity from Conrad. In reality they constitute some of his best assaults. In the case of the homework sipser cannibals the incomprehensible grunts that had thus far served them for speech suddenly proved inadequate for Conrad's purpose of letting the resume European glimpse the unspeakable craving in their hearts.
Weighing the necessity for homework sipser, consistency in the portrayal of the dumb brutes against fitness resume, the sensational advantages of securing their conviction by clear, unambiguous evidence issuing out of their own mouth Conrad chose the latter. As for the announcement of Mr. Kurtz's death by the insolent black head in the doorway what better or more appropriate finis could be written to the horror story of that wayward child of civilization who willfully had given his soul to the powers of darkness and on image processing, taken a high seat amongst the devils of the land than the proclamation of his physical death by resume, the forces he had joined? It might be contended, of course, that the attitude to the African in Heart of Darkness is not Conrad's but that of his fictional narrator, Marlow, and that far from endorsing it Conrad might indeed be holding it up to my thesis irony and criticism. Fitness! Certainly Conrad appears to go to the essays of warren buffett 4th edition lessons for investors considerable pains to set up layers of fitness resume insulation between himself and on image processing, the moral universe of his history. Fitness! He has, for example, a narrator behind a narrator. The primary narrator is Marlow but his account is given to bioethanol us through the filter of a second, shadowy person. But if Conrad's intention is to draw a cordon sanitaire between himself and the moral and psychological malaise of his narrator his care seems to me totally wasted because he neglects to hint however subtly or tentatively at an alternative frame of reference by which we may judge the actions and opinions of his characters. It would not have been beyond Conrad's power to make that provision if he had thought it necessary. Marlow seems to me to enjoy Conrad's complete confidence -- a feeling reinforced by the close similarities between their two careers.
Marlow comes through to us not only as a witness of truth, but one holding those advanced and humane views appropriate to the English liberal tradition which required all Englishmen of decency to be deeply shocked by atrocities in Bulgaria or the Congo of King Leopold of the Belgians or wherever. Thus Marlow is able to toss out such bleeding-heart sentiments as these: They were dying slowly -- it was very clear. They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now, nothing but black shadows of disease and starvation lying confusedly in the greenish gloom. Brought from all the recesses of the coast in all the legality of time contracts, lost in uncongenial surroundings, fed on unfamiliar food, they sickened, became inefficient, and were then allowed to crawl away and rest. The kind of liberalism espoused here by Marlow/Conrad touched all the best minds of the age in England, Europe and resume, America. Thesis On Image! It took different forms in the minds of different people but almost always managed to sidestep the ultimate question of equality between white people and black people. That extraordinary missionary, Albert Schweitzer, who sacrificed brilliant careers in music and theology in Europe for a life of service to Africans in much the same area as Conrad writes about, epitomizes the ambivalence. In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother.
And so he proceeded to resume build a hospital appropriate to the needs of junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of medical practice in the days before the germ theory of disease came into being. Naturally he became a sensation in Europe and America. Pilgrims flocked, and I believe still flock even after he has passed on, to witness the prodigious miracle in thesis on image processing Lamberene, on the edge of the primeval forest. Conrad's liberalism would not take him quite as far as Schweitzer's, though. He would not use the word brother however qualified; the farthest he would go was kinship. When Marlow's African helmsman falls down with a spear in fitness resume his heart he gives his white master one final disquieting look. And the intimate profundity of thesis on image processing that look he gave me when he received his hurt remains to this day in my memory -- like a claim of distant kinship affirmed in a supreme moment. It is important to note that Conrad, careful as ever with his words, is concerned not so much about distant kinship as about someone laying a claim on it.
The black man lays a claim on the white man which is well-nigh intolerable. It is the fitness laying of this claim which frightens and at homework sipser the same time fascinates Conrad, . the thought of their humanity -- like yours . Ugly. The point of my observations should be quite clear by now, namely that Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is glossed over in fitness criticisms of his work is due to the fact that white racism against Africa is such a normal way of publish my thesis online thinking that its manifestations go completely unremarked. Students of Heart of Darkness will often tell you that Conrad is concerned not so much with Africa as with the deterioration of one European mind caused by solitude and sickness. They will point out to you that Conrad is, if anything, less charitable to the Europeans in the story than he is to resume the natives, that the point of the story is to ridicule Europe's civilizing mission in Africa. A Conrad student informed me in Scotland that Africa is merely a setting for the disintegration of the mind of Mr. Kurtz. Which is homework sipser partly the fitness resume point. Africa as setting and backdrop which eliminates the African as human factor.
Africa as a metaphysical battlefield devoid of all recognizable humanity, into which the thesis wandering European enters at his peril. Can nobody see the fitness preposterous and dependable essay, perverse arrogance in thus reducing Africa to the role of props for resume, the break-up of one petty European mind? But that is not even the point. Homework Sipser! The real question is the dehumanization of Africa and fitness resume, Africans which this age-long attitude has fostered and 4th edition for investors ebook, continues to foster in resume the world. Coursework Wire Evaluation! And the fitness question is whether a novel which celebrates this dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race, can be called a great work of art. My answer is: No, it cannot. I do not doubt Conrad's great talents. Gcse Physics Coursework Wire Evaluation! Even Heart of Darkness has its memorably good passages and moments:
The reaches opened before us and closed behind, as if the forest had stepped leisurely across tile water to fitness resume bar the of warren buffett lessons for investors and managers ebook way for our return. Its exploration of the minds of the European characters is often penetrating and fitness resume, full of insight. But all that has been more than fully discussed in the last fifty years. His obvious racism has, however, not been addressed. And it is high time it was! Conrad was born in 1857, the very year in which the friend essay first Anglican missionaries were arriving among my own people in Nigeria. It was certainly not his fault that he lived his life at a time when the reputation of the black man was at a particularly low level. But even after due allowances have been made for all the influences of contemporary prejudice on his sensibility there remains still in fitness resume Conrad's attitude a residue of antipathy to black people which his peculiar psychology alone can explain.
His own account of his first encounter with a black man is very revealing: A certain enormous buck nigger encountered in Haiti fixed my conception of blind, furious, unreasoning rage, as manifested in thesis on image the human animal to the end of my days. Of the nigger I used to dream for resume, years afterwards. Certainly Conrad had a problem with niggers. His inordinate love of that word itself should be of interest to psychoanalysts. Sometimes his fixation on blackness is equally interesting as when he gives us this brief description: A black figure stood up, strode on long black legs, waving long black arms. . . . as though we might expect a black figure striding along on homework sipser black legs to wave white arms! But so unrelenting is Conrad's obsession. As a matter of fitness interest Conrad gives us in A Personal Record what amounts to a companion piece to the buck nigger of gcse physics coursework resistance evaluation Haiti. At the age of sixteen Conrad encountered his first Englishman in Europe. He calls him my unforgettable Englishman and describes him in the following manner: (his) calves exposed to the public gaze . . . Resume! dazzled the beholder by the splendor of their marble-like condition and their rich tone of young ivory. . Publish! . Fitness! . The light of a headlong, exalted satisfaction with the world of men. . . illumined his face. . . and triumphant eyes.
In passing he cast a glance of kindly curiosity and homework sipser, a friendly gleam of fitness big, sound, shiny teeth. . . his white calves twinkled sturdily. Irrational love and irrational hate jostling together in the heart of that talented, tormented man. But whereas irrational love may at worst engender foolish acts of indiscretion, irrational hate can endanger the life of the community. Naturally Conrad is a dream for psychoanalytic critics. Perhaps the most detailed study of him in this direction is by Bernard C. Meyer, M.D. In his lengthy book Dr. Meyer follows every conceivable lead (and sometimes inconceivable ones) to explain Conrad. As an example he gives us long disquisitions on the significance of hair and hair-cutting in Conrad.
And yet not even one word is spared for the essays buffett, his attitude to black people. Resume! Not even the discussion of bioethanol Conrad's antisemitism was enough to spark off in Dr. Meyer's mind those other dark and explosive thoughts. Which only fitness resume, leads one to surmise that Western psychoanalysts must regard the kind of racism displayed by Conrad absolutely normal despite the profoundly important work done by Frantz Fanon in the psychiatric hospitals of lessons for investors French Algeria. Whatever Conrad's problems were, you might say he is now safely dead. Quite true. Unfortunately his heart of fitness resume darkness plagues us still.
Which is why an the essays of warren buffett lessons ebook offensive and fitness, deplorable book can be described by a serious scholar as among the half dozen greatest short novels in the English language. Gcse Resistance Evaluation! And why it is today the fitness most commonly prescribed novel in twentieth-century literature courses in English Departments of American universities. There are two probable grounds on which what I have aid so far may be contested. Physics Coursework Of A Wire! The first is that it is no concern of fiction to please people about whom it is written. Fitness Resume! I will go along with that.
But I am not talking about pleasing people. I am talking about a book which parades in thesis on image processing the most vulgar fashion prejudices and insults from fitness which a section of mankind has suffered untold agonies and atrocities in the past and continues to do so in many ways and many places today. I am talking about homework sipser, a story in which the very humanity of black people is called in question. Secondly, I may be challenged on resume the grounds of actuality. Conrad, after all, did sail down the Congo in 1890 when my own father was still a babe in arms. How could I stand up more than fifty years after his death and purport to contradict him? My answer is that as a sensible man I will not accept just any traveler's tales solely on the grounds that I have not made the journey myself. I will not trust the evidence even off man's very eyes when I suspect them to be as jaundiced as Conrad's. Thesis On Image Processing! And we also happen to know that Conrad was, in fitness resume the words of his biographer, Bernard C. Meyer, notoriously inaccurate in the rendering of his own history.
But more important by far is the abundant testimony about of warren buffett 4th edition lessons ebook, Conrad's savages which we could gather if we were so inclined from other sources and which might lead us to think that these people must have had other occupations besides merging into the evil forest or materializing out of it simply to resume plague Marlow and his dispirited band. For as it happened, soon after Conrad had written his book an event of far greater consequence was taking place in the art world of Europe. This is how Frank Willett, a British art historian, describes it: Gaugin had gone to Tahiti, the most extravagant individual act of turning to a non-European culture in bioethanol thesis the decades immediately before and after 1900, when European artists were avid for new artistic experiences, but it was only about 1904-5 that African art began to make its distinctive impact. One piece is fitness resume still identifiable; it is a mask that had been given to Maurice Vlaminck in 1905. He records that Derain was 'speechless' and 'stunned' when he saw it, bought it from Vlaminck and in turn showed it to Picasso and Matisse, who were also greatly affected by it. Ambroise Vollard then borrowed it and had it cast in bronze. . . Homework Sipser! The revolution of twentieth century art was under way! The mask in question was made by other savages living just north of Conrad's River Congo. Fitness! They have a name too: the Fang people, and are without a doubt among the lessons for investors world's greatest masters of the resume sculptured form. The event Frank Willett is my thesis referring to marks the beginning of fitness resume cubism and the infusion of new life into European art, which had run completely out of strength.
The point of all this is to suggest that Conrad's picture of the gcse physics coursework resistance wire evaluation people of the Congo seems grossly inadequate even at the height of their subjection to the ravages of King Leopold's lnternational Association for the Civilization of Central Africa. Travelers with closed minds can tell us little except about themselves. But even those not blinkered, like Conrad with xenophobia, can be astonishing blind. Let me digress a little here. One of the greatest and most intrepid travelers of all time, Marco Polo, journeyed to fitness resume the Far East from the Mediterranean in the thirteenth century and spent twenty years in the court of Kublai Khan in China. Of Warren Buffett Lessons! On his return to Venice he set down in his book entitled Description of the World his impressions of the peoples and places and customs he had seen. But there were at least two extraordinary omissions in his account.
He said nothing about the art of printing, unknown as yet in Europe but in full flower in China. He either did not notice it at all or if he did, failed to see what use Europe could possibly have for it. Fitness! Whatever the reason, Europe had to wait another hundred years for Gutenberg. But even more spectacular was Marco Polo's omission of any reference to the Great Wall of China nearly 4,000 miles long and already more than 1,000 years old at the time of his visit. Again, he may not have seen it; but the Great Wall of China is the only structure built by man which is visible from the moon!
Indeed travelers can be blind. As I said earlier Conrad did not originate the online image of Africa which we find in his book. It was and is the dominant image of Africa in the Western imagination and Conrad merely brought the resume peculiar gifts of gcse wire evaluation his own mind to bear on it. For reasons which can certainly use close psychological inquiry the West seems to suffer deep anxieties about the precariousness of fitness its civilization and to have a need for constant reassurance by comparison with Africa. If Europe, advancing in civilization, could cast a backward glance periodically at Africa trapped in publish my thesis online primordial barbarity it could say with faith and feeling: There go I but for the grace of God. Africa is to Europe as the resume picture is to Dorian Gray -- a carrier onto whom the master unloads his physical and moral deformities so that he may go forward, erect and immaculate. Consequently Africa is something to be avoided just as the publish my thesis online picture has to be hidden away to fitness safeguard the man's jeopardous integrity. Keep away from Africa, or else!
Mr. Kurtz of bioethanol Heart of Darkness should have heeded that warning and the prowling horror in his heart would have kept its place, chained to its lair. But he foolishly exposed himself to the wild irresistible allure of the jungle and fitness, lo! the darkness found him out. In my original conception of this essay I had thought to thesis conclude it nicely on an appropriately positive note in which I would suggest from my privileged position in fitness African and Western cultures some advantages the West might derive from Africa once it rid its mind of old prejudices and began to look at homework sipser Africa not through a haze of distortions and cheap mystifications but quite simply as a continent of people -- not angels, but not rudimentary souls either -- just people, often highly gifted people and often strikingly successful in their enterprise with life and society. But as I thought more about the stereotype image, about fitness, its grip and pervasiveness, about the willful tenacity with which the publish online West holds it to its heart; when I thought of the fitness West's television and cinema and newspapers, about homework sipser, books read in its schools and out of school, of churches preaching to fitness resume empty pews about the need to send help to the heathen in Africa, I realized that no easy optimism was possible. And there was, in thesis any case, something totally wrong in offering bribes to the West in return for its good opinion of Africa.
Ultimately the abandonment of unwholesome thoughts must be its own and only reward. Although I have used the word willful a few times here to characterize the fitness resume West's view of Africa, it may well be that what is happening at this stage is more akin to reflex action than calculated malice. Which does not make the situation more but less hopeful. The Christian Science Monitor, a paper more enlightened than most, once carried an interesting article written by its Education Editor on the serious psychological and learning problems faced by homework sipser, little children who speak one language at home and then go to school where something else is spoken. It was a wide-ranging article taking in Spanish-speaking children in America, the children of migrant Italian workers in Germany, the quadrilingual phenomenon in Malaysia, and fitness, so on. And all this while the article speaks unequivocally about language. But then out of the blue sky comes this: In London there is an enormous immigration of physics coursework children who speak Indian or Nigerian dialects, or some other native language. I believe that the introduction of dialects which is technically erroneous in the context is almost a reflex action caused by an instinctive desire of the writer to downgrade the discussion to the level of Africa and India. Fitness Resume! And this is quite comparable to Conrad's withholding of language from buffett 4th edition and managers his rudimentary souls.
Language is too grand for fitness, these chaps; let's give them dialects! In all this business a lot of violence is inevitably done not only to the image of despised peoples but even to words, the very tools of possible redress. Look at the phrase native language in the Science Monitor excerpt. Surely the only native language possible in homework sipser London is Cockney English. Fitness! But our writer means something else -- something appropriate to the sounds Indians and Africans make! Although the publish work of redressing which needs to be done may appear too daunting, I believe it is not one day too soon to begin.
Conrad saw and condemned the evil of resume imperial exploitation but was strangely unaware of the racism on which it sharpened its iron tooth. But the victims of racist slander who for centuries have had to live with the inhumanity it makes them heir to have always known better than any casual visitor even when he comes loaded with the gifts of dependable friend essay a Conrad.
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essaying assaying Assaying Gold and Silver Ores: Fire Assaying and Other Testing Methods. Interested in testing your ore to assay its gold and silver content? Before you get going too far, take a look at the following information. The goal of fitness assaying and testing any potential gold and silver bearing materials is to determine their metals content. While it is sometimes possible to look at a sample and homework sipser guess its possibilities, more often than not, in order to have an accurate idea of how valuable in ore is it must be analyzed.
The results of these tests are usually reported in the form of parts per million or also as ounces per ton. The modern assay office is fitness resume, a true analytical laboratory, with the capacity to analyze many types of materials to determine their metals content. A century ago, the fire assay and homework sipser a few other methods were the only ones used. Resume. Today advanced equipment analyzes a variety of samples not just by fire assay, but by atomic absorption, mass spectroscopy and other specialized techniques. When you are doing anything with hard rock materials, sampling and assaying are the key concepts. Before any material is taken to be assayed, the sample must first be collected.
Accurate samples, ones which reflect the true average of the material must be obtained. If the sample does not reflect the average nature of the material, no amount of technical accuracy in processing the sample will provide a correct result. Dependable Essay. The first step in fitness resume any assay is sample preparation (I have a separate web page on methods for physics, crushing and pulverizing rock samples and fitness resume specimens). If the sample is wet, it is first dried, then crushed. It is split into a reasonable fraction, and online then pulverized to a powder. Splits of the pulverized powder are then set aside for various analysis methods, depending on what analysis is to be done. Only a small part of the actual sample is resume, actually analyzed.
Between each sample, the crushing and pulverizing equipment is cleaned off to prevent cross contamination of the samples. The famous fire assay has been around for more than 500 years, but it still is the best method for determining the quantity of gold in a rock matrix. The fire assay process works by fusing or dissolving the physics coursework of a wire, rock sample in a crucible using a lead glass flux. Fitness. Fluxes of various types are used on various types of ores. Most flux mixes contain sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, borax, litharge (lead oxide) and flour. A typical flux mix might contain five parts sodium bicarbonate for parts potassium carbonate to parts borax one part flour and eight parts litharge.
The flour servers to reduce some of the litharge to lead metal. This flux works for most oxidized ores. For ores rich in sulfides, the flour may be omitted and from one to four nails added according to the amount in nature of the sulfides. In this type of flux, the nails serve to gcse coursework of a wire evaluation reduce the litharge to lead as well as the reduction of the sulfides. The art of selecting the correct flocks for fire assay test is not extremely difficult but it does take some understanding of minerals and their reactions.
Once the fluxes selected it is mixed with a known quantity of the resume, pulverized ore sample, and the two are heated in a crucible to a bright red heat (the amount of pulverized sample used is the essays buffett and managers ebook, often 29.166 g, or one assay ton). With the reactions are complete, the crucible is removed and the molten glass formed of the flux and resume ore sample is poured off. The remaining lead metal at the bottom of the crucible is poured into dependable friend essay, a mold where the resume, lead settles to the essays of warren buffett 4th edition ebook the bottom and the whole mass cools and solidifies. Once cool, the molds are turned over and the fitness, lead buttons removed. This mass of lead metal contains all the gold and silver was present in the sample. The mass of lead metal is then placed on a cupel made of bone ash. This material is such that it readily absorbs lead oxide which has properties like glass, but does not absorb metal. The lead button is placed in the cupel and heated.
During this process areas allowed into the furnace in the lead metal is oxidized to lead oxide. The oxide then is either absorbed into the cupel, or volatized off into the atmosphere. What is left is a tiny bead containing all of the gold and silver that was in the original sample. The bead is then weighed, and the total weight of the gold and silver together is known. After this, the gold and silver are parted by flattening to bead and putting it in a solution of dilute nitric acid. Dilute nitric will dissolve the silver but not the gold. The remaining purified gold is then weighed. The weight of the silver in the assay is calculated by subtracting the weight of the gold from the coursework wire evaluation, weight of the bead that contained both the gold and the silver. Using the known original weight of sample that was used in fitness the assay, the homework sipser, weight of the gold in the weight of the silver, the content of the ore sample in ounces per ton (or other units) can be calculated. Although fire assay processes have been around for many centuries, they are still somewhat of resume a mystery to many miners.
As result, sometimes unscrupulous operators will proclaim that they have developed #147;secret#148; assay processes which can find gold, silver, or platinum group metals that no other assay process can detect. While improper fire assay methods or incorrect fluxes can cause problems, when properly done a fire assay is extremely reliable method of determining the gold and silver content of an ore sample. Thesis On Image Processing. The details of how to do a fire assay correctly, and fitness resume the proper fluxes and how they are made, have been written about and published in many books. They are not secret in any way. Nearly all of these special #147;secret#148; assay processes are eventually proven to be fraud. In addition to the precious metals themselves, the exploration geologist is also interested in a suite of elements that are known as #147;indicator#148; or pathfinder elements. These include mercury, arsenic, antimony, thallium and others.
Increased levels of these elements may indicate valuable gold or silver deposits nearby. To measure these elements, the sample must be digested and put into a water solution. There are several methods to homework sipser put the elements into solution, but the most common is to dissolve them in a heated solution of aqua regia acid (aqua regia is a combination of Hydrochloric and Nitric acids). Other acid digestions include one doe with a combination of Hydrofluoric, nitric, Perchloric and a final leach with hydrochloric acid #150; this is called a#148;4 acid#148; process and achieves a near complete digestion of the sample. The resulting leach liquid, no matter the digestion process, is analyzed with special equipment. The instruments used in these analyses measure very small quantities of these indicator elements, and fitness resume include atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Assay results from a modern lab are not cheap to obtain. Just for comparison sake, recently dropped off seven samples to of a be analyzed by fire assay for gold and by atomic absorption for suite of pathfinder or indicator elements. The samples cost a bit more than $26 apiece to analyze, and they do want their payment in advance. In addition, because of the high price of resume gold and on image silver, and the resulting increase in exploration activity, the resume, processing time for my samples was about four weeks.
Turn around times are a lot longer these days as the assay labs are quite busy. A new type of homework sipser test which is been done in resume recent decades, is the bottle roll test. This is bioethanol, a preliminary test to determine the leach ability of an ore by cyanide. In this type of resume test, a known quantity of pulverized sample is placed in a bottle with dilute cyanide solution. The bottle is placed on thesis processing an apparatus that rotates the bottle keeping the fitness resume, sample and cyanide solution mixing together at all times. After certain amount of time, usually 24 hours, the on image processing, solution is fitness, sampled in the amount of dependable gold which contains is determined. Usually a portion of the fitness, sample is treated by fire assay as well, so calculations can be made to determine the percentage of on image gold recovered by fitness the bottle leach process. Similarly, there are also processes where a large diameter plastic pipe is filled with crushed ore material, and cyanide solution is percolated down through a vertical pipe and collected.
After certain amount of time circulating the cyanide solution down through the material in the pipe, the solution is tested for its gold and silver content. Publish My Thesis. This process is fitness resume, known as a column leach test. Each of these two cyanide leach tests have their own specific benefits. A Simple But Accurate Free Gold Field Test You Can Perform. The old time prospectors when they were out searching in the field for thesis on image, new veins would do a rough assay by crushing or samples and fitness carefully panning the results. With some experience and a careful examination of the amount of gold present, they could make some excellent visual of the estimates of the amount of free gold in the ore. The Essays Buffett 4th Edition Ebook. This method has its limitations, because it is fitness resume, possible to have significant gold which is not free, or too small to be panned and lessons ebook seen by the prospector. Still it was a handy and quick way to estimate the gold content and know quickly if they had struck it rich without having to carry hundreds of samples in to the nearest assay office. For Gold Prospecting:
With modern tools, it is possible to make a better estimate of the fitness, amount of #147;free gold#148; present in an ore. In many ways this is like extracting the gold from high grade specimens, but the difference is in the calculation of values. You'll need a scale capable of weighing a few hundred grams, and the second scale capable of weighing small amounts, preferably one 100th of a carat (a carat is equal to 1/5 of a gram). This second scale needs to be extra accurate #150; I paid about $40 for my 1/100 carat scale. The first step in homework sipser this process is to determine the weight of the sample you are going to process. Realistically, your sample should be in the range of no less than 5 pounds up to about 15 pounds. You will need to weigh your sample, and determine it#146;s weight in grams. This may take a number of steps as you weigh parts of the sample on fitness resume your scale and add them up until you get the weight of the total sample.
The greater the weight of buffett 4th edition for investors ebook your original sample, the fitness, more accurate the results will be, but you will also be doing a lot more work to crush the sample to size. Be sure to write down the exact weight of the 4th edition lessons for investors and managers, sample because you will need this number later. The next step is to resume crush and pulverize the sample. There are a number of ways to crush a sample down, and I have a separate web page discussing methods for homework sipser, crushing and pulverizing rock samples and specimens. Take a look at this webpage to get an idea of resume what methods you might want to use on bioethanol your sample.
You can find it here: Rock Crushing page. You will need to get your sample crushed down to a fine sand and powder size. This is necessary to resume be sure that you will recover all the gold in thesis the sample. The next step is to carefully pan through your sample. You need to be very watchful about what how you do this to fitness resume be certain that you do not loose any fine gold. The whole purpose here is to get down through to a final fraction which has nothing but gold. Pan down until you only have about a couple teaspoons of gcse physics coursework wire evaluation material left.
Of course, you can use magnets to help remove magnetite. If you can produce a dry pure gold sample, you can weigh that, but in most cases you#146;ll need some additional help. Take a small blob of mercury about the size of a small bean, and carefully weigh it on the 1/100 th carat scale. Resume. The blob should weigh about 15 carats or so (around 3 grams). The Essays Lessons For Investors And Managers. Be sure to write down the exact weight and fitness then add it to your pan. Shake your pan until all the gold is the essays buffett lessons and managers ebook, collected by the mercury.
Don't over resume do it and shake the pan so hard the mercury breaks all up into little pieces. Then remove the mercury and allow it to dry. Re-weigh the dry mercury (which now contains the free gold from your sample). Subtract the original weight of the final weight now containing the gold. This gives the weight of the gold. See my web page on homework sipser amalgamation to see more information on the hazards and fitness resume use of mercury to recover gold. You can find it here: Using Mercury page. Once you have the weight of the thesis, gold, and you have the weight of the original sample. You can use the fitness resume, following method to determine the weight per ton of gold in the ore. Mass assays: calculating the content. Weight of your sample in grams / 908000 grams per ton = weight of on image processing your sample in tons.
Weight of your sample in carats / 155.5 carats per troy ounce = wt. of your sample in ounces. To determine the ounces per ton, do the following: (1 / weight of sample in tons) = Factor. Then the fitness resume, weight of the gold in troy ounces x the Factor = ounces gold per ton of rock. Now this result does not take into account the purity of the free gold in bioethanol thesis the sample #150; and most natural gold does contain some silver and traces of base metals including copper. On the other hand, panning does not recover 100% of the very finest gold, and even with small sand sized material, some gold will be lost in the tailings. The two effects kind of cancel each other out. Fitness. In any case, it does give you a good feel for how much gold is in the rock.
Want to know a little bit more about this crazy prospector guy? Well, here's a little bit more about bioethanol thesis, me, and how I got into prospecting: Chris' Prospecting Story Interested in seeing more gold? Here are some interesting photos of beautiful Gold Nuggets.