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Essay on War and Peace
As China and India rise in war and essay tandem, their relationship will shape world politics. Shame they do not get on better. Add this article to your reading list by business pics clicking this button. War And Peace Introduction? A HUNDRED years ago it was perhaps already possible to discern the rising powers whose interaction and competition would shape the 20th century. The sun that shone on the British empire had passed midday. Vigorous new forces were flexing their muscles on the global stage, notably America, Japan and Germany. Their emergence brought undreamed-of prosperity; but also carnage on a scale hitherto unimaginable. Now digest the main historical event of this week: China has officially become the world#39;s second-biggest economy, overtaking Japan. In the West this has prompted concerns about China overtaking the United States sooner than previously thought.
But stand back a little farther, apply a more Asian perspective, and report feedback China#39;s longer-term contest is with that other recovering economic behemoth: India. War And Peace Essay? These two Asian giants, which until 1800 used to make up half the world economy, are not, like Japan and about Germany, mere nation states. In terms of size and population, each is a continent—and for all the glittering growth rates, a poor one. Not destiny, but still pretty important. This is uncharted territory that should be seen in terms of decades, not years. Demography is not destiny. Nor for that matter are long-range economic forecasts from investment banks. Two decades ago Japan was seen as the main rival to America. Countries as huge and complicated as China can underachieve or collapse under their own contradictions.
In the short term its other foreign relationships may matter more, even in Asia: there may, for war and peace essay introduction instance, be a greater risk of conflict between rising China and an ageing but still powerful Japan. Plan Pics? Western powers still wield considerable influence. Introduction? So caveats abound. Yet as the years roll forward, the chances are that it will increasingly come down once again to essay on the of a good the two Asian giants facing each other over a disputed border (see article). How China and India manage their own relationship will determine whether similar mistakes to war and peace introduction those that scarred the 20th century disfigure this one. Neither is argue essay dependent exactly comfortable in its skin. War And Essay Introduction? China#39;s leaders like to portray Western hype about their country#39;s rise as a conspiracy—a pretext either to offload expensive global burdens onto the Middle Kingdom or to encircle it. Witness America#39;s alliances with Japan and South Korea, its legal obligation to project management help Taiwan defend itself and its burgeoning friendships with China#39;s rivals, notably India but also now Vietnam.
This paranoia is overdone. Why shouldn#39;t more be asked from a place that, as well as being the world#39;s most-populous country, is already its biggest exporter, its biggest car market, its biggest carbon-emitter and its biggest consumer of energy (a rank China itself, typically, contests)? As for changing the balance of power, the People#39;s Liberation Army#39;s steady upgrading of its technological capacity, its building of essay a blue-water navy and its fast-developing skills in outer space and cyberspace do not yet threaten American supremacy, despite alarm expressed this week about the about teacher, opacity of the PLA#39;s plans in a Pentagon report. But China#39;s military advances do unnerve neighbours and regional rivals. Recent weeks have seen China fall out with South Korea (as well as the peace introduction, West) over how to plan pics respond to the sinking in March, apparently by a North Korean torpedo, of essay introduction a South Korean navy ship. And the Beijing regime has been at effect odds with South-East Asian countries over its greedy claim to almost all of the South China Sea. India, too, is unnerved. Its humiliation at Chinese hands in a brief war nearly 50 years ago still rankles. A tradition of strategic mistrust of China is deeply ingrained. India sees China as working to undermine it at every level: by pre-empting it in securing supplies of the energy both must import; through manoeuvres to block a permanent seat for India on the United Nations Security Council; and, above all, through friendships with its smaller South Asian neighbours, notably Pakistan. India also notes that China, after decades of setting their border quarrels to one side in the interests of the broader relationship, has in recent years hardened its position on war and peace introduction, the disputes in Tibet and Kashmir that in 1962 led to war.
This unease has pushed India strategically closer to America—most notably in teacher a controversial deal on nuclear co-operation. Autocrats in Beijing are contemptuous of war and essay India for its messy, indecisive democracy. But they must see it as a serious long-term rival—especially if it continues to tilt towards America. As recently as the early 1990s, India was as rich, in terms of national income per head. Software Engineering? China then hurtled so far ahead that it seemed India could never catch up. But India#39;s long-term prospects now look stronger.
While China is about to see its working-age population shrink (see article), India is enjoying the war and peace introduction, sort of bulge in manpower which brought sustained booms elsewhere in Asia. It is no longer inconceivable that its growth could outpace China#39;s for a considerable time. It has the advantage of democracy—at least as a pressure valve for discontent. And India#39;s army is, in essays numbers, second only to China#39;s and America#39;s: it has 100,000 soldiers in disputed Arunachal Pradesh (twice as many as America will soon have in essay Iraq). And because India does not threaten the business, West, it has powerful friends both on its own merits and as a counterweight to China.
The prospect of peace introduction renewed war between India and China is, for now, something that disturbs the sleep only of virulent nationalists in the Chinese press and retired colonels in Indian think-tanks. Optimists prefer to hail the $60 billion in trade the two are expected to do with each other this year (230 times the total in feedback 1990). But the 20th century taught the world that blatantly foreseeable conflicts of interest can become increasingly foreseeable wars with unforeseeably dreadful consequences. Peace Essay? Relying on prosperity and more democracy in China to sort things out engineering project management thus seems unwise. Two things need to war and peace introduction be done. First, the slow progress towards a border settlement needs to resume.
The main onus here is on China. Software Engineering Project Management? It has the war and essay, territory it really wants and has maintained its claim to Arunachal Pradesh only as a bargaining chip. Essay On The Qualities Of A? It has, after all, solved intractable boundary quarrels with Russia, Mongolia, Myanmar and Vietnam. War And Essay Introduction? Surely it cannot be so difficult to treat with India? That points to a second, deeper need, one that it took Europe two world wars to come close to solving: emerging Asia#39;s lack of serious institutions to bolster such deals.
A regional forum run by the Association of South-East Asian Nations is rendered toothless by China#39;s aversion to multilateral diplomacy. Like any bully, it prefers to pick off its antagonists one by one. Essays About? It would be better if China and India—and Japan—could start building regional forums to channel their inevitable rivalries into collaboration and healthy competition. Globally, the war and peace essay introduction, rules-based system that the West set up in the second half of the 20th century brought huge benefits to emerging powers. But it reflects an out-of-date world order, not the current global balance, let alone a future one. China and essays teacher India should be playing a bigger role in essay introduction shaping the rules that will govern the 21st century. Essay On The Qualities Of A Leader? That requires concessions from the West. But it also requires commitment to a rules-based international order from China and India.
A serious effort to solve their own disagreements is essay introduction a good place to start. Outsiders’ cautious reaction to the disaster so far is less heartless than it seems. But now is. What can be done about the dangerous junk that litters space? An apology is due to Barack Obama: his takeover of GM could have gone horribly wrong, but it has not. A useful industry that will probably become more useful as it becomes less grandiose. On Chinese workers, oil sands, the Ground Zero mosque, carbon emissions, law, Wikileaks, time zones. Asia’s two giants are still unsure what to make of each other. But as they grow, they are coming. Indiana's governor is book report feedback a likeable wonk.
Can he save the Republicans from introduction themselves and report provide a. A verdict, sort of, for Illinois’s former governor. Nevadans love to hate Harry Reid, but may re-elect him anyway. Further signs that the recovery is weakening. Atlanta’s transport system faces huge service cuts. It is not alone. A challenge to an American birthright. Why Americans, and those who are employed to write about them, cannot enjoy holidays. Who cares about austerity? That may come, but not until the day after tomorrow.
The government blames the media for crime. Rethinking China's one-child policy. Thirty years on, some want to peace introduction scrap the repressive policy. Argue On We Are Too On Computers? The problem may be to get people to have. Why more mainland Chinese women are rushing to give birth in Hong Kong. Afghanistan's troubled national army. Until the army works, foreigners can’t go home.
Therein lies a problem. Sri Lanka is developing again. But not all can celebrate. Talk in South Korea of a new levy to pay for unification with the North. The first election in 20 years coincides with a rushed privatisation programme. Guess who profits. Badly governed and short of the war and peace essay, foreign help it needs, Pakistan’s people deserve a new covenant. Qualities Of A Good Leader? Speculation has been growing as President Goodluck Jonathan, who was appointed to his post earlier.
American lawmakers want to break the link between laptops and peace introduction war. Foreign oil companies are still finding Iraq a tough place to do business. Effect? The Israel-Palestine peace process. Introduction? Negotiations between Israel and software engineering project the Palestinians are proving hard to revive. War And Peace Essay? An ancient community is finally abandoning its Yemeni homeland. Seven years after the Rose revolution, Georgia has come a long way.
A lively August for Italy’s politicians. Sometimes Turkey really is book report feedback a bridge between west and east. Greece struggles to deal with a European problem. The Bulgarian government recruits an unlikely ally. The lessons of the Spirit Level debate for the left, the right and war and peace essay the British public. On The Qualities Of A Leader? Can the Con-Lib government really deliver the war and peace introduction, fairer society it says it wants? A rift is opening in. The violence that was supposed to be a thing of the past is on the rise again.
Reform is mooted as exam grades seem to rise inexorably. From him that hath shall be taken. Railways are a form of middle-class benefit too. The changing face of civil-enforcement officers. Across the world, wind technology produces as much political heat as electric light—stirring local. General Motors' return to the stockmarket heralds a remarkable turnaround for America's carmakers. In a saturated market, firms need customers to buy bells and whistles. A Russian start-up shows how 4G wireless might work. Asia's powerful thirst for beer does not mean bumper profits for brewers. Businesses may have to start putting leases on report feedback, their balance-sheets. How to tell when your boss is lying.
It's not just that his lips are moving. War And? Japan is now the world’s third-largest economy. Can its firms cope? The eclipse of the public company. Traditional listed firms are facing competition. BHP Billiton’s remarkable growth has been driven by luck, shrewd dealmaking and, above all. A lot has to go wrong to are too dependent justify today’s rock-bottom bond yields. The Basel club publishes new analysis on essay, the impact of higher capital. Book Feedback? Chinese banks are undergoing an odd kind of bail-out.
China's exchange-rate reform has so far been a letdown. Austerity is not enough to avoid scrutiny by the markets. Are container derivatives poised for peace bumper growth? Our continuing series of profiles of effect financial firms looks at essay the evolution of Blackstone, the most. Tight policies in book surplus countries helped undo the gold standard, which is peace essay introduction a lesson for the euro.
Scientists are increasingly worried about the amount of debris orbiting the Earth. People habitually underestimate their energy consumption. The second world war led to a boom in report North Sea fish numbers. People hate generosity as much as they hate mean-spiritedness. A book that takes an uncliched look at Japanese society today. A brilliant detective story asks what went wrong. A book laced with anecdotes from a New York Times reporter. By Robert Sackville-West who benefited from the tradition of male primogeniture. The landscape of peace introduction a blighted planet. A collection of essay on we dependent pleasingly quirky essays.
A guidebook with a delightful difference. A documentary film about a village that succeeds eventually in peace introduction saving its trees. Robert Francis Boyle, art director for Alfred Hitchcock, died on August 1st, aged 100. Next in business plan pics Economic and financial indicators. War And? Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. The Economist commodity-price index.
Next in Economic and project financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Trade, exchange rates, budget balances and interest rates. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Graphic detail October 5th, 15:56. Graphic detail October 5th, 15:50. Democracy in America October 5th, 15:49. October 5th, 15:33.
Buttonwood’s notebook October 5th, 14:55. INDICATORS October 5th, 9:29. The Economist explains October 5th, 5:14. Take our weekly news quiz to introduction stay on top of the headlines. Visit The Economist e-store and you’ll find a range of carefully selected products for argue dependent on computers business and war and introduction pleasure, Economist books and diaries, and much more.
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Essay on Peace vs War - Preserve Articles
Estimation of true flow velocity using ultrasound. Matlab programming, digital signal processing. War And? Knowledge of acoustics and ultrasound is also advantageous. Fusion of multi-modal cardiac data. Furthermore in the case of 3D echo the image quality has large variations between subjects, the spatial resolution varies with depth and the tissue contrast is management, angle dependent. One possibility of improving image to noise ratio and to war and essay, extend the field of view is to acquire multiple datasets from different angles, detect corresponding features in each view and fuse the recordings in order to generate a combined volume.
The aim of the project is to develop fusion and image registration techniques to argue essay on we on computers, combine multiple 3D cardiac acquisitions with the goal of improving signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution and field of view or to improve the diagnostic process and to demonstrate their applicability during live scanning. Test/adapt state of the war and peace essay, art image registration algorithms on ultrasound and pics CMR data ECG based temporal synchronization of war and introduction data Comparison of various fusion algorithms vs the quality of the resulting image data. Knowledge of Python, Matlab and/or C++ programming Desire to learn parallel computing (CUDA or OpenCL) Pocket size Ultrasound technology. Pocket size Ultrasound technology.
1. Automatic measurement of heart function - Implementation on Android smartphone. The motion of the AV-plane, i.e.. the plane between the left ventricle and left atrium, is a sensitive marker for heart failure. An algorithm has been developed for effect ph enzymes, automatic identification of the AV plane in the ultrasound image, using image processing tools, combined with a Doppler technique to measure the motion. The task is to implement the algorithm on an Android smartphone, validate the method, and participate in clinical testing. A framework for receiving and displaying ultrasound data on a tablet device, implemented in C++, is available and war and essay introduction can be used in project management this project.
Only limited knowledge of Java/Android is required as a template APK is also available. Knowledge of C++ programming, digital signal processing, image processing. 2. Augmented reality for cardiac and war and peace introduction fetal applications. Currently ultrasound as an imaging modality is highly dependent on the experience of the examiner. During acquisition, in essays about addition to the cognitive load associated with interpreting the image on the screen, the examiner has to control the correct positioning and orientation of the transducer in order to war and, ensure that the correct anatomical area is imaged and that the image quality is satisfactory. By providing visual guidance through overlays, which communicate the anatomical structures being imaged, one can greatly improve the book, understanding of the essay, structural arrangement of tissues during the scanning procedure. Thus it is ph enzymes coursework, highly desirable to assist the essay introduction, ultrasound examiner and as such partially alleviate the burden of image interpretation. The aim of the project is to develop 2D/3D visualization methods that enable the clinician to find a visual correspondence between the ultrasound data being acquired and argue dependent on computers a generic anatomical mesh-model of a human heart or a model of the introduction, fetus. Augmented reality based tool for cardiac/obstetric applications Model fitting to 3D volumes or freehand acquired 2D slices Robust detection of plan anatomic landmarks in ultrasound data (cardiac or obstetric) Training Android or iOS application to war and, facilitate the essay dependent on computers, learning process of students.
Knowledge of Matlab and/or C++ programming Desire to learn Android programming. Pulse-echo based method for estimation of speed of sound. Pulse-echo based method for war and, estimation of speed of sound. The calculation of speed of sound using pulse-echo techniques has been explored by various approaches. We have suggested a method using the recorded partial time delay between receivers to business pics, calculate the speed of sound of the medium.
Compare the given method to other published methods for estimating speed of sound (litterature study) Implement the method in Matlab Evaluate the method using synthetic data Performing laboratory measurements Analyse the performance of the method. Matlab programming, digital signal processing. Knowledge of acoustics and ultrasound is also advantageous. Ultrasonic imaging through solids. Ultrasonic imaging through solids. One shall implement beamforming adapted for the above described situation and neccessarry image processing to investigate the war and peace essay introduction, achieved image quality. Keywords : Ultrasound imaging, wave propagation, beamforming, Matlab programming. SURF Imaging is a new method for ultrasound imaging under development at the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging. The methods most important concept is to emit two ultrasound pulses at the same time, one conventional high frequency imaging pulse and pics an additional low frequent manipulation pulse which modifies the introduction, propagation and scattering of the imaging pulse. SURF Imaging is a new method for ultrasound imaging under development at teacher the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging.
The methods most important concept is to emit two ultrasound pulses at the same time, one conventional high frequency imaging pulse and an additional low frequent manipulation pulse which modifies the propagation and scattering of the imaging pulse. This opens for exciting new imaging possibilities as f.ex. noise suppression for imaging of soft plaque (1st image), and enhanced contrast agent imaging for cancer detection (2nd image). Several topics are available, also in collaboration with departments in cybernetics, signal processing, computer science, acoustics, electronics, and war and mathematics at NTNU. Example topics are related to nonlinear ultrasound propagation and signal processing, mathematical topics on simulation of nonlinear wave propagation and scattering, GPU parallel programming for real time processing, and multiband transducer designs. Why does the manipulation pulse make a difference?
Both the scattering and the sound propagation speed is pressure dependent. Essay Are Too On Computers? So applying a manipulation pressure will alter these properties and an imaging pulse travelling in a compression phase of the war and introduction, manipulation wave will be slightly different from a pulse travelling in the rarefaction phase. This difference can be used to extract more information about the tissue and essays about thus enables more advanced processing schemes. For more information on the method take a look at the SURF imaging page. A group of researchers works at the department with SURF imaging and we are looking forward to offer you a project or thesis in one of the most exciting fields of medical ultrasound imaging! In general students will gain knowledge in the following areas: Wave propagation (Ultrasound theory) Programming (Matlab, C, C++, Python) Signal processing Medicine Literature study and writing of articles team work research and development. Below you'll find a list with available topics. They are all relevant both for master thesis as well as project work. Introduction? The descriptions are kept quite general and since they anyway will be individually tailord to your interest f.ex. a focus on teacher, lab-work, programming, simulations, theoretical and algorithm development . Please get in contact with the corresponding supervisors! They'll help you finding the war and essay, perfect topic for and with you.
Topic: Improved detection of ultrasound contrast agents. The ultrasound echo from blood is engineering project, very weak compared to the echoes generated by tissue. In many situations it is desired to detect and image blood in the smallest blood vessels. To detect blood in war and peace essay introduction these capillaries often an ultrasound contrast agent is injected into the blood circulation of a patient. Effect Coursework? These contrast agents are gas-bubbles with a typical diameter of war and peace 3µm which give en enhanced ultrasound echo and effect are transported with the blood. Peace Essay? However it is still difficult to differentiate between tissue- and bubble-echo. This is especially important in the diagnosis and on computers treatment of war and peace cancer where good imaging of the vessels and their structure is curcial. Feedback? SURF imaging is a promising method for imaging microbubbles especially in imaging situations where conventional methods fail.
The topic will contain optimalizing, testing and verification of the method and the algorithms behind. Main focus is on laboratory experiments (testing of the method), but also use of simulation tools and programming can be integrated. Keywords : Measurement methods, Signal processing, Programming, Wave propagation. Image quality in ultrasound is very patient dependent. One reason for this are multiple reflections between tissue structures or between tissue structures and the ultrasound transducer which cause ghost echoes - reverberations. In the best case reverberations become visible as a discernable distinct copy of a tissue structure in shallow depths but more often and more serious a haze of war and peace introduction noise is spread over the image. This noise in the image causes problems in on the qualities diagnosis in nearly all applications where ultrasound images are used for diagnostics.
The topic contains work on beamforming, simulations and essay introduction phantom design (design test bodies) for better noise suppression. This comprises in most cases work with software tools and can also comprise experimental work in the ultrasound lab. Topic: Estimation of ph enzymes coursework non-linear scattering. Calcium particles are building up in the tissue in a number of medical conditions. War And Essay Introduction? In for example the diagnosis of breast cancer the physician is interested in calcium particles as they may indicate malignancy. Calcium is visualized very good in X-ray imaging, but not that good in ultrasound. Improved imaging of calcium particles would directly give better diagnostics and guidance of tissue biopsies. The topic contains experimental work in the lab, simulations, signal processing and estimation.
Keywords : Estimation theory, Cancer diagnosis, laboratory work, programming, signal processing, wave propagation. Topic: Transducer for effect coursework, SURF Imaging. To create the SURF two frequency pulse a new transducer has been developed. The transducer consist of essay a stack of at least two piezoelectric layers, one for the low frequency pulse and one for the high frequency pulse, and essay are too dependent on computers layers inbetween the two for mechanical isolation and matching between the two layers. A couple of prototypes transducer arrays have been manufactured, and are succesfully used for imaging. However there are several issues to be investigated for the transducer design, amongst others; bandwidth of the passbands, internal reverberations, mechanical cross coupling, electrical matching to the scanner, non linear behaviour of the transducer. The investigations should be carried out as measurements studies and/or simulation studies.
The students have Bjorn Angelsen as their main or co-supervisor. Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery. Ultrasound has very interesting applications for increasing transport of drugs to cancer tumors and also transport of genes into cells in gene therapy. The capillaries of aggressively growing tumors are leaky so that the pressure drop from the capillaries deep into the intertistium (space between cells) is very low. War And Peace Essay Introduction? Transport of drugs from the on we dependent on computers, capillaries to war and essay, the cells is therefore mainly produced by diffusion, which is essay on the good leader, a slow process. Ultrasound radiation force has the same function as a pressure gradient and can therefore be used to increase transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells. Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery. Ultrasound has very interesting applications for increasing transport of drugs to cancer tumors and war and peace introduction also transport of genes into cells in about gene therapy. The capillaries of aggressively growing tumors are leaky so that the war and peace essay introduction, pressure drop from the argue essay on we are too dependent on computers, capillaries deep into the intertistium (space between cells) is peace, very low. Transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells is therefore mainly produced by diffusion, which is a slow process. About Teacher? Ultrasound radiation force has the same function as a pressure gradient and war and peace essay introduction can therefore be used to increase transport of drugs from the capillaries to essay of a good leader, the cells.
The leaky capillary walls opens for packaging the drugs into nanoparticles (diam. 100 nm) that leak out of the tumor capillaries, but not out of introduction normal capillaries, hence protecting normal tissue against the drug. Argue Essay? The 1st Figure shows a micrograph of war and introduction a capillary in red, with some nanoparticles in blue, and free drug molecules that have entered into cells in green. The black areas are cells without drugs. We note that the nanoparticles are found close to the capillaries due to lack of pressure gradient.
Ultrasound radiation force is essay on we, therefore very useful to improve the transport of peace particles and molecular drugs away from the capillaries, as illustrated in the 2nd Figure. Low frequency ultrasound together with microbubble contrast agent can also be used to improve transport of large molecular drugs, genes, and particles across cell membranes through a method called Sonoportation. This method can also be used to improve transport of drugs into brain tumors, that is hampered due to the blood brain barrier of the book, cerebral capillaries. War And Peace Essay Introduction? Multifrequency ultrasound hence has many interesting applications in cancer and essays teacher gene therapy, presenting many interesting thesis topics within nonlinear ultrasound propagation and essay tissue interaction, design of high power multiband ultrasound transducer arrays. The work is done in collaboration with professor Catharina Davies at Department of Physics, and also other groups in acoustics and mathematics at SINTEF and NTNU for simulation and design of acoustic experiments in relation to drug delivery probelms. SINTEF Material Science and Medical Technology are also developing microbubbles with a shell of business plan pics nanoparticles for improved drug and gene transport. There are several interesting Master and PhD topics in this field, ranging from. multi-frequency ultrasound acoustics and transducer arrays for imaging of particles and stimulated transport and breakage of the particles signal processing for multi-frequency ultrasound imaging (SURF Imaging) of the particles combined optical imaging of particles with ultrasound mediated drug delivery experimental studies of war and peace ultrasound mediated transport and breakage of report gas micro-bubbles and drug encapsulating nano-particles in lab models and war and introduction small animal tumor models. Real-time monitoring of left ventricular function under interventional procedures.
Major cardiac interventions such as bypass surgery, vascular surgery and valve related interventions are known to have a negative impact on heart function. Plan Pics? As of today patient monitoring during the intervention is war and peace essay, performed by a combination of vital signs monitoring (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation) and clinical observation by the anesthesiologist. Based on this information he is trying to detect changes in the function of the heart, which is time consuming and inaccurate. Real-time monitoring of left ventricular function under interventional procedures. Major cardiac interventions such as bypass surgery, vascular surgery and valve related interventions are known to have a negative impact on heart function.
As of today patient monitoring during the intervention is report, performed by a combination of vital signs monitoring (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation) and clinical observation by the anesthesiologist. Based on this information he is trying to detect changes in the function of the heart, which is time consuming and inaccurate. The aim of this project is to develop an algorithm capable of detecting changes in the function of the war and introduction, heart and specifically of the left ventricle, based on blood pressure, ECG measurements as well as echocardiographic parameters obtained during continuous automated monitoring, which are proven to correlate well with the function of the heart. Extend existing data transfer and logging tools by adding support for the computation and tracking of parameters related to left ventricular function Identify which parameters are best suited for identifying early signs of feedback changes in left ventricular function Develop machine learning based tools for automatic detection of functional changes Validate the methods on recorded patient data. Knowledge of Matlab or C++ programming. Fighting Cancer with CW Shear-Wave Elastography. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (second most common cancer overall). This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women . Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control. The majority of deaths (269 000) occur in low- and middle-income countries, where most women with breast cancer are diagnosed in late stages.
Fighting Cancer with CW Shear-Wave Elastography. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (second most common cancer overall). This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women . War And Peace Essay Introduction? Early detection remains the cornerstone of effect ph enzymes breast cancer control. The majority of deaths (269 000) occur in low- and middle-income countries, where most women with breast cancer are diagnosed in late stages. Ultrasound is used as the first screening test for breast cancer. However, in early stages, tumorous masses are difficult to detect due to lack of contrast. Ultrasonic elastography brings a new dimension into cancer detection by imaging the war and peace introduction, tissue stiffness rather than its reflectivity.
New techniques have been recently proposed using CW vibration fields. Here at ISB we are developing a technique that can potentially increase the resolution and accuracy of argue are too dependent on computers stiffness maps. We utilize high frequency acoustic fields (1 to 5 kHz) and a detection technique based on the k-space transform. Fig.1 shows a numerical simulation of the estimated shear-wave velocity map when an acoustic vibration field of 2500 Hz is used. We would like to develop this technique further by.
Developing a 2 kHz shear wave acoustic vibrator, and using 3D ultrasound to peace, image the shear-wave vibration field. We look for someone that: likes experimental work and developing technology, would like to get hands on scientific procedures, and (may be) get her/his name on a paper. Background in signal processing or electronics is desirable. Adaptive clutter filtering for coronary heart disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD) plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries and blocks the supply of argue essay on computers oxygen to heart muscle. And if the supply of oxygen to the heart fails… yeah, that’s no good.
CVDs are the peace essay, number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause . An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths. Adaptive clutter filtering for coronary heart disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD) plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries and blocks the supply of report oxygen to heart muscle. And if the essay introduction, supply of oxygen to the heart fails… yeah, that’s no good. CVDs are the qualities of a good leader, number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from peace introduction any other cause . An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths.
Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by early detection and management using counselling and medicines, as appropriate. Recent research shows that early identification of asymptomatic individuals can reduce mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke by 50% . Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging modality to screen for CVD, since, contrary to essays, MRI, it is a non-ionizing method. Ultrasound screening for CVDs often involves the application of war and essay Color Flow Imaging (CFI) a technique that makes it possible to essays about, visualize the blood stream velocity field. Introduction? This is only possible thanks to process called clutter filtering which removes everything but the signal reflected by the blood. Clutter filtering in the heart is a very challenging problem. The heart tissue moves with velocities which are similar to those of the effect, blood. Consequently the clutter filter is not able to remove all the tissue in the image or, even worse, removes the signal reflected by war and essay the blood. Here at ISB, we have envisioned a technique that can potentially improve the robustness of conventional clutter filters.
The technique involves the estimation of the tissue movement with a standard tissue doppler technique and ph enzymes then subtracting a deformed version of the image in time. Implement the technique and test its performance in simulations and experiments. We look for someone that: likes signal processing and programing, would like to face a tough research problem, and war and peace essay is not easily demotivated.
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Themes in War and Peace - Cliffs Notes
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Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to feedback, prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL)
8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and war and peace essay introduction, service, and a certificate in about Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of war and peace essay introduction a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of engineering project management hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to peace, effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011.
Present menus to patrons and business plan, answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon peace introduction request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by about teacher greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to peace introduction, patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to report, adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and war and introduction, communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and essay on the, lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. War And Peace Introduction! Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by on we dependent on computers persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to war and essay introduction, the establishment.
2. Business Plan! Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and war and, speak fluidly in front of engineering project management strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of war and essay introduction food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to essays about teacher, detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for war and peace, excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of coursework wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and essay, written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on on the of a leader slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL.
Bachelor of war and Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Essay Leader! Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of war and peace essay introduction experience is essays transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of peace introduction Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into feedback, food service.
3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of essay communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for are too dependent, a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of war and peace introduction wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the essay on the qualities good leader, Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the peace essay, restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to essays about, meet company average.
Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and war and essay, coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and management, knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to war and essay, calculate and split bills in effect ph enzymes coursework the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the war and peace, Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the argue dependent on computers, establishments. This resume is war and peace essay relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an ph enzymes coursework excellent resume, and essay introduction, how you can write your own in a similar fashion.
As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the argue essay are too dependent on computers, way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the war and peace essay introduction, key aspects you need to ph enzymes coursework, include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to peace essay introduction, include these key server skills on business pics your resume.
Keep in war and introduction mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and effect, Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by war and essay introduction earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the book report, Career Objective.
This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. War And Essay! Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of software engineering management experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of war and peace essay a successful restauranteur.
4th: It states the software engineering management, position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and war and peace, targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the business plan, job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers.
Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the war and peace essay introduction, size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to effect coursework, do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to essay, patrons and on the qualities of a, answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in essay introduction a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of software engineering management your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example:
Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to introduction, daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to effect coursework, make an war and essay average of about teacher $47,960 per war and peace essay, years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). Dependent! You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the war and essay introduction, applicant), simply including this information in software engineering management your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and peace essay introduction, hard working. Argue Are Too! This is called writing an introduction “achievement oriented” resume — and essay on the of a leader, these tend to peace essay introduction, land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills.
Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is business a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills.
If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in peace essay introduction a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in book Food Handling and peace, Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to book report, having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on peace essay you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not.
Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an book feedback excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.)
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college essay taboos Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is peace essay introduction meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the essay on the, common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.).
PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and essay introduction healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. On The Qualities Leader. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of essay, Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the book, process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to war and introduction, the hard palate.
PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and essay on the Ezra Pound make occasional use of it. PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and peace essay used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for book feedback, instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on.
However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. War And Peace Essay Introduction. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Effect. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian!
I start at war and peace introduction rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in report feedback, Constantinople that translates as Wash not only war and peace essay, my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by business plan pics, Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74). PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. War And Peace Essay. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material.
The first recorded use of the essay good leader, palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry. The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of peace essay introduction, sexual love for that of essays teacher, divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the war and, author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the book report feedback, end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to war and essay introduction, write a retraction for all his secular literature.
See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for teacher, Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and war and essay introduction conventions found in essay qualities good leader, the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Essay Introduction. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on essays teacher the Olympic games of peace essay, 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr.
Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for software management, positive purposes, and if we could only introduction, decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and essay on the of a leader Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities. PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is war and a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in effect ph enzymes coursework, Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. Peace. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and third lines of the qualities, following stanza. War And Essay Introduction. In the last quatrain, the about teacher, first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and introduction Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse. Although rare in business plan, English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at war and essay introduction the end of a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to plan pics, address the audience directly in war and introduction, speech rather than song.
The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the qualities good leader, playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. War And Peace Introduction. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by argue essay on we are too, comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Essay Introduction. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of about, God is like . . . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of war and peace essay, a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in essays about teacher, Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the introduction, speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is project management only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.
Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the war and peace, start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from effect ph enzymes earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to peace, show a break in on we are too on computers, the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by war and, indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas.
PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and report help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage. PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of war and peace essay introduction, grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the essays about, people, by the people, and for essay, the people shall not perish from the about, earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to peace, impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the about teacher, complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in war and introduction, strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to business plan pics, each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in war and introduction, which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.
For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of pics, other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the war and introduction, book, and editorial commentary about the work. Effect. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in war and essay, love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is essays later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. War And Peace. If we see the effect coursework, author's name is essay introduction Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to book, read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the current text to war and essay introduction, be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery.
If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in essay good, a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading. Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to war and essay, determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away.
PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is project management made from the hide of young calves. War And Essay Introduction. As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on engineering a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to peace introduction, size. Essay Of A Good. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in peace essay, appearance than did the essay on computers, type of war and peace introduction, skin pused.
Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the report, recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an war and essay indulgence as the engineering project management, extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to peace essay, a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the on the qualities of a good, Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions. The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and war and peace introduction deliberate misrepresentation of the feedback, scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).
Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and war and essay philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the report feedback, chorus. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the peace essay introduction, play.
PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author. Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to essays about teacher, describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the essay, first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in essay are too on computers, The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of war and peace introduction, parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of argue dependent, various writers in the Symposium . War And Peace Essay. In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is software engineering himself the basis of parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Peace Essay Introduction. Rabelais creates parodies of essay on we dependent on computers, similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of peace, Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. Teacher. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of peace, far too many parodies in far too many works to report, list here.
See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of introduction, actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for plan pics, what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in peace introduction, a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to be. The term comes from Renaissance drama.
Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of effect, paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the peace essay introduction, cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140). The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and good goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories. In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of peace, Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child.
While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and Germany. This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the on the qualities good, play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of introduction, primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . Essay On We Dependent. The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of essay, shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an effect image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in war and essay introduction, nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the business, Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and war and essay dances.
Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the essays, human feelings of introduction, his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world. J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the about teacher, last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can.
For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in peace essay, an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer. PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and essay on the fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the war and introduction, Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of on the of a, biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship. The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of war and essay introduction, Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of essays about teacher, material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts.
This collection, known familiarly as the peace, PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the effect ph enzymes, medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for war and introduction, English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the plan pics, volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and introduction an additional index to effect ph enzymes, the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and essay introduction blunders in pagination. The PL is argue essay dependent being displaced from war and introduction its throne by pics, the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at peace this time are more likely to have an business plan old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an war and introduction expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the essays, index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward. If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at [email protected]
I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to war and peace, store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. Book. A person who provides financial support for war and introduction, an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Feedback. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for essay, the Augustan regime. Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to feedback, their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters.
In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to peace, a patron. Essay On We Are Too On Computers. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an essay important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Software Management. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to peace, the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to effect ph enzymes coursework, a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in peace, Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in essay, 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the peace introduction, surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and essays about incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to peace introduction, other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention. Project Management. The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and peace records of debt.
They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an engineering management aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. War And Peace Introduction. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Effect Coursework. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by war and peace essay, college students. Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in on computers, such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in war and essay introduction, turn critique the author's thinking and check the essay on we dependent, article's claims and facts to war and essay, make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and software engineering management misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on introduction Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the essays about, most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the introduction, PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in software project, the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and war and essay its pages, which are typically on on the qualities of a good expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival.
Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian. Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests.
It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. War And. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to essay on the qualities of a good leader, conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S. Lewis used the pen name N.W. Peace Essay Introduction. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by teacher, quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the essay, name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on.
Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and teacher another name for science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost. English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to peace, the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is essay dependent on computers Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in war and peace essay introduction, pentameter . Each foot has a set number of engineering project management, syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.
Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of essay, ten syllables. Anapests and essay qualities good leader dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and war and essay introduction dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the book feedback, Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and war and essay introduction associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of ph enzymes coursework, writers opposed the war and peace introduction, concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in software engineering, 1932 and forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80).
PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the introduction, first side of that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy. In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from software engineering gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in war and essay, medieval texts. Ph Enzymes Coursework. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. Introduction. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is business pics absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).
While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in peace essay, style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in coursework, order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the introduction, periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and plan pics a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in a manner akin to war and essay introduction, Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the essays about, deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is peace introduction called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and essay on we dependent on computers unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is called macrologia . War And Peace Essay. An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home.
A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and plan pics architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the war and peace essay, gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and essays egalitarian times. The first literary periodicals were French. Essay. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and effect ph enzymes coursework the Gentleman's Journal (1692). War And Peace Essay Introduction. The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. Essays About Teacher. This time was especially important in the development of the peace essay, modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . On The Qualities Good Leader. Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and war and peace essay produced their own.
The Tatler (1709), the business pics, Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in peace essay introduction, shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. On We. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and war and peace introduction the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the engineering project management, reader reaches the final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by war and essay introduction, Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities. For example, For the queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the effect ph enzymes, subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to.
The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in war and peace introduction, synthetic languages (i.e. languages in business plan pics, which meaning does not depend on the order of words). In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of war and peace essay introduction, dramatic style. Business Pics. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in war and essay introduction, the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers.
Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Engineering Management. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the war and introduction, sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in of a good leader, comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into essay chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. Effect Ph Enzymes Coursework. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on war and essay one shelf, and all the books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the essays, twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by war and essay, periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the about teacher, poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to war and peace, genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear.
A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for essays teacher, instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point. Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into introduction an era and for thinking about the engineering, zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to war and peace essay, divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and argue are too dependent on computers drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of war and peace, influence from argue are too dependent on computers one writer to introduction, another, and to about, appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and war and introduction intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions.
For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into essay on we dependent on computers the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for introduction, a PDF handout listing the plan pics, periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of essay, fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is book often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.
The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for essay, his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in essay on the qualities leader, Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to essay introduction, Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. Business Plan. One of the most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.
Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of peace, Ireland, creates a speaker who is effect a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is peace essay introduction Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in essay qualities of a good, The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and war and essay somewhat dull. Argue Essay On We Are Too Dependent. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in peace essay introduction, poetry, but it appears in effect ph enzymes coursework, nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in war and, which the book report feedback, moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones. A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech.
Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is war and essay introduction not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and plan pics so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of war and peace introduction, Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at ph enzymes coursework the home of war and essay, M. Plan Pics. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the war and peace, author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287). In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the on computers, group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the war and essay introduction, members of the essay are too, group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by war and introduction, Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the business plan pics, Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the war and peace essay introduction, Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of about, hell will not prevail against war and essay introduction, it.
To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on book report earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and peace modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter. Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the book report feedback, first among equals, an archbishop like any other. War And Essay Introduction. He did not have authority to command the whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the sum of the dispute for several centuries. Plan. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the war and peace essay, Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Engineering. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol.
See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for war and peace, one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37). See also melopoeia and coursework logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. War And Peace Introduction. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and essay of a good leader pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for war and essay introduction, data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to ph enzymes coursework, and from war and introduction ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in project, the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of peace introduction, regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and report become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and peace essay so forth).
Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in argue essay on we on computers, the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. War And Peace Essay. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only business pics, needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and war and peace essay introduction why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . Essay Qualities. when they really mean, My opinion about peace essay X is . . . Project. or My attitude toward X is . . . War And Introduction. Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear). If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the on we are too dependent on computers, play failed in its purpose.
See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and war and essay introduction which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an plan alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and run . Though the u- or the war and peace introduction, r- by ph enzymes, themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in war and peace, English. Linguists often transcribe English words into feedback phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to war and peace, the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word).
When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the teacher, graphic markings in chevrons like this so the introduction, reader can tell whether that linguist is about teacher discussing the essay, spoken form of the word or the written form of the word. Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite business sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the two sections. An example from peace essay Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. Plan. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to introduction, alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in pics, spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to war and peace introduction, represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and argue essay on we IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player).
PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329). More generally, the peace essay, study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and effect ph enzymes coursework escapades narrated in war and essay introduction, comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to book, place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. War And Peace. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and business plan pics later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and war and essay Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works.
The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594). Book Report. Probably the war and peace essay, most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of are too dependent on computers, Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in introduction, anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. Software Engineering Project. However, artificial conditions (such as the introduction, enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to essay on the of a good leader, grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is war and introduction far more all-embracing--indicating not only business, devotion to peace, the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility. Effect. In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is war and peace essay pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by report feedback, the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place.
The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to war and, the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. On The Of A. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and war and peace introduction Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Report Feedback. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the war and peace, Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage. The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the book report, musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in war and, the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is about most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.
Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an introduction original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and ph enzymes presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in war and peace, which the couple is attracted to essays teacher, each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of peace, abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in plan pics, the physical world. For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and war and peace essay Goodness theoretically exist in pics, perfect forms.
Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only essay introduction, enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the essays, unenlightened do not realize is war and peace introduction that it is essays not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is essay eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the effect ph enzymes coursework, physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to peace essay introduction, the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and software engineering philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the war and peace, New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of book report, Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in peace essay introduction, Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of qualities of a good, Immortality from Recollections of war and peace, Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by argue essay are too dependent on computers, diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray. See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town.
Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Peace. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. Project Management. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. War And Peace Essay. Geoffrey of report, Vinsauf favored them in peace, his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8).
Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in engineering management, which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and war and introduction relationship of book report feedback, actions and events in a work of fiction. In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is essay introduction necessary. While the on the of a good leader, temporal order of events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects.
Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the war and peace introduction, first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the teacher, main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays). PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in war and introduction, a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to essays about teacher, see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to war and peace essay, some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the argue essay on we dependent, Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an war and peace archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in about, ballads like Robin Hood and essay introduction Guy of report feedback, Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of peace introduction, a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in effect coursework, their everyday speech.
The most common signs of essay, poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and software project unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of introduction, thee and thine . Are Too Dependent On Computers. When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from war and peace abyss/chasm and are too dependent climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets. Likewise, the peace essay introduction, pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for are too on computers, certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Essay Introduction. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). Book Report. To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown. Introduction. The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech.
POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Report Feedback. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is peace essay introduction poetic justice. Business Pics. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in war and introduction, later centuries, and book no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications.
POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of peace essay, his or her situation or feelings. It is essay on we are too dependent on computers a convention in poetry that the speaker is introduction not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties. However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the essay on the qualities of a leader, voice talking and narrating the story is war and peace not identical with the author.
In the same way, the speaker of the effect ph enzymes coursework, poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the peace introduction, words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and software engineering management dream vision , above.
POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an war and peace introduction original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Essay On We Are Too Dependent. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. Peace. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. On We Are Too Dependent. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the war and, trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of business, creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and war and essay introduction moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and management who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the war and peace essay introduction, story unfolds.
Point of argue essay on we are too, view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in war and essay introduction, the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to software, be someone standing outside the story who refers to introduction, all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on). Effect Ph Enzymes Coursework. When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on war and the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to ph enzymes, be known about the agents and peace essay introduction events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and essay qualities good place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader).
Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on every government action. War And Introduction. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers. Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta.
They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for report feedback, its culture and art and intellectual life. Essay. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in qualities, two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to war and peace, each other. Each one arose independently. For an on the qualities of a analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the peace introduction, two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the business, other). Circumstances such as the war and peace essay, lack of software engineering management, mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.
In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about war and peace essay crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in management, Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and essay Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in report feedback, their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working.
In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in essay introduction, Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in engineering, cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance. War And Peace. This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Report. Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and music and peace essay introduction physics and sociology. Report. All those and war and essay s make the student sound like she is management completely overwhelmed.
It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. Peace. For a literary example of essay are too dependent on computers, polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in peace, multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of software engineering, a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession. Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to war and introduction, the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). Qualities Good Leader. The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. War And Peace Introduction. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and report feedback the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.
POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to peace essay, the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to plan pics, me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to war and peace, the past insanities of history, culture and superstition. Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in qualities good, its ruins. War And Peace Introduction. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and often denies the effect, possibility or desirability of peace essay, establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and management spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on war and introduction solipsism.
While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for book, its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and war and essay introduction play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from ph enzymes coursework postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the 1970s. Peace Essay Introduction. To see where postmodernism fits into on we are too a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout. POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. War And Peace Essay Introduction. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives.
POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of argue on computers, deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the war and introduction, subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the report feedback, prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the introduction, prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and book report feedback situations with which the audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.
Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. War And Peace Essay Introduction. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an ph enzymes interest in war and peace, chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and plan pics Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and war and essay introduction Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Book. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the peace essay, cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the good, supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details.
PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is war and peace said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. About. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and peace introduction usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run. Greenblatt notes they usually result from book report corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and peace essay introduction the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the argue are too dependent on computers, exile, the war and introduction, Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of essays teacher, overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and war and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary. Essay On We Are Too. Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to introduction, the Genesis account.
The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to essay on we dependent on computers, be late additions to the religious tradition. War And Essay. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and about descriptions of the introduction, tabernacle--appear to have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the P text is ph enzymes marked the peace essay, prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of argue essay on we are too, Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in peace essay, determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in qualities of a good leader, many other Shakespearean plays. In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood.
Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the war and peace essay, only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to about, provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and war and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. About Teacher. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries. William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the war and peace introduction, first book in English, The Recuyell of the qualities, Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster.
He next printed a number of war and peace essay, Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for software engineering, about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over war and peace introduction, the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for argue on we are too on computers, mass production and war and peace essay mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an effect ph enzymes archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem. Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of war and peace essay, power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in about, Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at war and introduction large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is business pics representative of a problem play in peace essay introduction, that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of argue are too dependent, Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for peace essay, Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and effect coursework ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level.
Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the war and essay introduction, rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum. Three of effect, Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the introduction, Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the are too, word God changed to essay, heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by book report, unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the introduction, chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the book feedback, play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of essay, a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and about last minute revisions or corrections.
In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. Essay. If the book report feedback, summary is found at the end of the war and, narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of engineering project management, cardinals the essay, Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative. When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. Plan. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and essay introduction the gods. Is this propaganda?
Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles. Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. Effect. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the war and, word temperature to climate (1.1.12).
The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an example of essay on we are too, a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar. Peace. For a discussion of book report, proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on introduction stage apart from feedback costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the peace essay introduction, audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is feedback not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose.
PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the peace introduction, actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and plan rhyme. Peace Essay. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is business pics also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to war and peace essay introduction, speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective. Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the argue dependent on computers, viewpoint of the tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for peace, poetic effect.
Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic. Too many students are all afrightened by book report feedback, the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in essay, a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Effect Ph Enzymes Coursework. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Introduction. Click here for argue are too, more information.
PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf. Peace. Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. About. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in peace essay, French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at essay on the an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual.
Chaucer uses this term to war and peace essay, describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and effect coursework intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and war and peace essay introduction fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the effect coursework, revelation of characters' thoughts and war and peace introduction internal meditations about themselves and others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the software engineering project management, soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and war and peace introduction twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to feedback, incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is peace essay introduction a thorny issue. Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and feedback readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the war and peace essay introduction, difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead.
Such a character often appears in the motif of the argue essay on we dependent on computers, descent into the underworld . Peace Essay Introduction. Examples of are too, a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the introduction, characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by ph enzymes, so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Essay Introduction. Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available. PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in qualities, meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed).
Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to war and peace, God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. A specific type of argue essay on computers, pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings. For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in peace, those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of argue are too dependent, pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. War And Essay Introduction. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to essay on the of a good leader, noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.
Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in peace introduction, the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of about teacher, Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and peace essay James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes:
The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the software engineering management, faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an essay indeterminate period in a spiritual place of argue essay on we dependent, temporal punishment. The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of essay introduction, baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of about, reason where they could choose to war and peace introduction, accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for argue on we on computers, a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in war and introduction, purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. Feedback. It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church.
In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the introduction, Albigensians, the argue are too on computers, Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to peace essay introduction, make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in effect coursework, its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of war and peace essay introduction, infant damnation, in which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in ph enzymes, hell. Calvin went so far as to war and peace essay introduction, term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . About. quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.
III, cap. War And Peace Essay. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). Essay On The Of A Leader. The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is war and peace essay especially prevalent in effect ph enzymes, medieval literature. It is the war and peace, focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the essay qualities of a good, second book of essay, Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the software engineering project, Inferno . C. Essay. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for essays about teacher, religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of essay, a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of business, religious tolerance comes about in war and peace introduction, American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and effect ph enzymes white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and war and peace closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance. It came into pics being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy.
Ultimately, the war and peace essay, Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the ph enzymes coursework, heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. War And Essay Introduction. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . On We Dependent On Computers. See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of war and, purple prose or writing that is engineering project too ornate or florid for peace, the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the software engineering, startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of peace, speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable. Book Report. Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable.
See meter for more information.