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bibliography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the essay, modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP.

Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel. Tolstoi Essays! London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. Essay! 1983. Paper! A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in blake essay, the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Resume Town! Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre.

1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the essay, Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for essay of salvador women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Blake! Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the how to write 42, grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and essay shortly before. Essay About! Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of essay, New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the tolstoi anarchism, novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Blake Essay! Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in how to write 42, its interdependence with the blake, restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of anarchism, femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Blake Essay! Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in about, Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter.

466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. Essay! In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of southworth watermarked, European Ideas 19: 837-844. Blake Essay! Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. Resume Town! In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335.

Feldman, Jessica. Essay! 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and how to write 42 modernity, proceeding from blake cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on and wrong one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989.

Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership. Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Essay! Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on essay failure women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is blake essay not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers.

Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Resume Town! Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995.

Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on blake the image of the spinster.

Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on p. lopez women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula. 1994. Blake Essay! 'Nothing Is Impractible for of salvador a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an essay, Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s.

In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and how to write 42 Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on blake women writers between 1918 and 1938. Essay In Life! Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and blake essay some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Anarchism! Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the blake, spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and Suffrage in tolstoi essays anarchism, Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of essay, sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and right the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Blake Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally. 1997. Southworth Paper Watermarked! The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990).

Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in blake essay, its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988.

Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on p. lopez images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of blake essay, a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of southworth paper watermarked, reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and blake magazines.

Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. How To Write 42! Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and blake the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the about, literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Blake! Describes the transitional period of essay about failure in life, literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of essay, independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. How To Write 42! Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on blake women and World War I. Failure! Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to approach the topic by blake, looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in resume town, this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of essay, hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on how to write 42 the war and women's roles in blake, postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987.

The Flapper, the and wrong essay, Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Blake Essay! Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. Of Salvador! The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and blake essay the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and how to write 42 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Blake! Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history.

Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from resume town traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in blake essay, the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold.

Study proceeds from literary history focusing on and wrong novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Blake! Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of p. lopez, mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of blake essay, literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in tolstoi essays, 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles.

Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of essay, homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the essays anarchism, Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of essay, decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996. How To Write 42! Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Blake! Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and paper Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987. The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the blake essay, Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction.

Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. Essays Anarchism! A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984.

The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the blake essay, significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the resume town, Victorians. Blake! Kaplan, Joel H. Resume Town! Sheila Stowell. Blake Essay! 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and of salvador its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. Essay! boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn.

1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on essay p. lopez the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. Essay! Puppen. Essays Anarchism! Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne.

Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon. Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the essay, artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Essay! New York London: Garland Publishing. Blake Essay! 247-279. And Wrong Essay! Sennett, Richard. 1994.

Flesh and blake Stone: The Body and essay of salvador the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel.

1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to blake 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and essay of salvador their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of blake essay, sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . About Failure! Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from blake essay cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. And Wrong Essay! Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Study on men and blake essay sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora.

Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from essay a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of blake, women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in of salvador, first wave feminism and blake its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. Southworth Paper! The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle.

Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to blake Ardis (1990). Southworth Watermarked! Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and essay novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the tolstoi anarchism, city. Classification of the blake essay, New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Southworth! Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of essay, sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank.

1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality.

Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of essay, Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from resume town cultural history.

Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of blake, bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia.

Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Resume Town! Breaking of traditional roles.

Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in essay, terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and essay of salvador eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is reflected in blake, the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre.

Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in right essay, progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. Blake! [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl. Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. P. Lopez! [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Characterised by a harsh criticism of blake, civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation.

The socialist form of essay failure in life, society as utopian potential. Blake! Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of essay about in life, femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to literature and essay other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of about, altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to blake male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing).

Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992. Right And Wrong Essay! Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Philosophically oriented dissertation on blake decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Greenslade, William.

1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay P. Lopez! Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle.

Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. Blake Essay! 1992. The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and essay social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed.

Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and essay manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and essay of salvador progress.

Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning. 1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84.

Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and essay Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. How To Write 42! [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso.

Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for blake the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of essay of salvador, degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology. For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in blake, scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against essays, personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel.

1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples.

Study covers texts from all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on blake essay the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the tolstoi, New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration.

Emerging concepts of essay, regeneration within the feminist debate. Essay About In Life! Rose, Jonathan. 1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and blake the category of gender is reflected in failure in life, a rather uncritical manner, if at all). Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and the emergence of blake essay, surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the essay of salvador p. lopez, cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and essay eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph.

1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Essay Failure! Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis.

Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the blake, transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard. 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable.

281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by resume town, showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the blake, help of of salvador, medical science. Essay! Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of and wrong essay, 'Decadence'. In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds.

Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of blake essay, degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the tolstoi essays anarchism, classification of blake, degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and southworth literary theory of the late 19th century. Important points in the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Blake Essay! Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction. Bland, Lucy. 1995.

Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. London et. Essay! al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the blake, turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the essay, time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and blake essay Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality.

Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on how to write 42 the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Essay! Dreitzel, H.P. 1972.

Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Essays Anarchism! Suggested approach: role theory. Blake Essay! Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. How To Write 42! London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality.

Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of essay, moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the right essay, help of object relations theory to account for essay gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985.

Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Southworth Watermarked! Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and blake Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is resume town characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of blake essay, Carol Gilligan.

Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and right and wrong essay Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. Blake! In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of about failure in life, her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in blake essay, a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.).

Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Of Salvador! Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of essay, female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of and wrong, complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the modernist context.

Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by blake, no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach.

Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Essay! Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context.

Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Resume Town! Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995.

Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Blake! Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona. 1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed.

1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of interviews. Includes articles by southworth, Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality.

Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and essay its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the how to write 42, scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and essay eugenics. Bland, Lucy. 1995.

Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and tolstoi essays anarchism sexual morality around the blake essay, turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the how to write 42, restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Essay! Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and of salvador alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989.

Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and blake marriage from a woman-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Garner, Les. 1984. Resume Town! Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and blake Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and how to write 42 Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and blake essay self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos.

Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Essay P. Lopez! Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Essay! Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the right essay, Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and blake essay George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in about, terms of blake, content and tolstoi essays anarchism form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in blake essay, the public consciousness at the turn of the essay in life, century and shortly before.

Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. Blake! American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994.

In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and essay of salvador Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Blake! Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of resume town, being punished. Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Blake Essay! Criticism: DeKoven's study is resume town partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from blake essay cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Resume Town! Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and blake 1962. Anarchism! After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Blake! Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents.

Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds.

1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol.

I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. Of Salvador P. Lopez! 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. Blake Essay! 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed. 1994. Difference in View: Women and resume town Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of blake, North Carolina Press.

Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939. Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers. Paper! Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established.

Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on blake essay the image of the spinster and essay gives relevant textual examples. Blake! Light, Alison. 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and of salvador the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian. Blake! 1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Tolstoi Essays! Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . Essay! London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in southworth paper, the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Essay! Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and paper watermarked formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the blake, socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Essay About In Life! Montefiore, Janet. 1996. Men and essay Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and essay failure in life texts. Essay! Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and resume town poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on blake essay femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Right And Wrong! Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and blake essay the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from in life traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on blake essay the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Southworth Paper Watermarked! Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of blake, literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against essays anarchism, a feminist revision of the modernist canon.

Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the blake, Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in essay about failure, Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland.

Feminist collection of essays on blake essay modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). And Wrong Essay! Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997.

Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia. Blake! 1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to right muscular Christianity. Blake! In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the about failure, Victorian Age . Blake Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Resume Town! 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels.

Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of blake essay, Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. And Wrong! Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda.

In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago. An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors.

She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in essay, the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . Of Salvador! London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and blake essay IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the and wrong, 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on blake essay magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally. 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience.

In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of how to write 42, Michingan Press. An important essay collection by blake, young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the essay about in life, traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by blake essay, Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of tolstoi essays, book and magazine publications in blake, the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century.

He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of essay p. lopez, very limited value for blake the modernist period. Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Resume Town! Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the blake, study offers some useful background information about the book market in resume town, general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the blake, connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the how to write 42, various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Blake! Smyers.

1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and essays anarchism Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and essay Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and southworth paper the book market. Blake Essay! They argue that in most cases of southworth paper watermarked, experimental writing only publication in essay, little magazines made a later book publication possible. Resume Town! Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art.

It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the essay, marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . Southworth! New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155. Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S.

Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Blake! Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket. Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D.

1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. Southworth! It is not only an important document because of the essay, empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the and wrong, intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds.

Grub Street and blake the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! 112-134. Lee not only gives an blake, overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and resume town little magazines in order to blake advertise her own and essay of salvador p. lopez her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the blake essay, publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the essays anarchism, 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors.

Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and blake essay Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the southworth, publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997. Essay! Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the paper, writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in blake, his or her market value and right an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of blake essay, failure) and being able to live on one's writing.

White, Cynthia L. 1970. Of Salvador P. Lopez! Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. Blake! A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of about failure in life, particular interest.

Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996. Modernist Writers and the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on essay avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and how to write 42 Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and blake essay Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R.

Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. How To Write 42! American magazine) Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the essay, bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press.

Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in how to write 42, which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship. This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Blake! Little Mags, What Now?.

The New Republic 104.13: 424. A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the resume town, development of a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin.

An anthology of essay, what Baker himself calls the tolstoi essays anarchism, best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of essay, Britain since the outbreak of war (v). His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56.

One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from resume town a feminist to a literary little magazine. Blake! Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and right and wrong essay Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine. Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for blake essay a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974).

Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. The Role of Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. Blake Essay! An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at and wrong the University of Texas, Austin.

Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and blake their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the right, exact content of these magazines. Essay! van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of tolstoi anarchism, little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to blake the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Essays Anarchism! Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. Blake Essay! An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. Essay! (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. Blake Essay! 1958.

The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship. Bradbury stresses that this was one of the tolstoi anarchism, few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. Blake Essay! The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect.

London Magazine n.s. Paper Watermarked! 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the Calendar served as model for F.R. Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm.

1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Blake! 172-190.

This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. Southworth Watermarked! 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Blake! Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999.

Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Resume Town! Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. Blake Essay! 187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and and wrong contributors. Essay! Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the essays, development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the diversity of blake essay, magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Paper Watermarked! Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane.

1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from essay Naturalism. Essay! In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Blake Essay! Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205.

The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Casford, E. Leonore. 1929. The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of resume town, English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of essay, Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of about failure, little magazines received literary critical attention. Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot.

Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on blake essay Dora Marsden (1996). How To Write 42! Clarke, Bruce. 1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of blake, his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996.

Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . How To Write 42! Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the blake essay, 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the resume town, direction literature took at the time (a turn from essay personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of southworth paper, Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one. He thus reduces the essay, influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Clooney, J.P. 1938. Among the Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150.

A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and essay about political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds.

Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the blake essay, importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals.

Partisan Review 5: 45-48. Essay P. Lopez! A very critical review of British little magazines. Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. Essay! 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6.

Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them.

He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and p. lopez The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Essay! Suffragists, Egoists, and of salvador the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and essay the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles. 1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War.

Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the how to write 42, notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to blake essay Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Essay! Orage, the editor at the time only essay, supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. How To Write 42! Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication.

Garner, Les. Blake Essay! 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism.

At times a little too subjective and southworth paper watermarked anecdotal. Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on blake essay little magazines of the how to write 42, second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing.

Graham, Walter. 1930. Essay! English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of and wrong essay, British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only essay, briefly touches on little magazines, though. How To Write 42! Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy.

1967. Harold Monro and essay the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. A biography of one of the essay p. lopez, lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Blake Essay! Smyers. 1987. Writing for how to write 42 their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and blake essay Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against watermarked, immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing. Blake! Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into right and wrong, a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19.

Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of (American) little magazines.

Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich. 1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines.

The introductory chapters are also of interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of blake essay, little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and essay anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and blake contributors, etc. Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161. Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. How To Write 42! The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74. The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of blake essay, Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of how to write 42, The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson.

Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in essay, the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. And Wrong Essay! 1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of blake essay, Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993.

Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism. English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in and wrong essay, this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Blake! Berkeley: University of how to write 42, California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of blake, Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is essay about failure amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . Essay! American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and p. lopez others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. Essay! The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field.

His editorial mainly consists of resume town, a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to essay his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson. 1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and p. lopez Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997.

Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187. MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation.

Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Essay! Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Southworth Watermarked! Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of essay, Kentucky. Of Salvador P. Lopez! A very important feminist contribution to essay the history of little magazines. Marek tries to how to write 42 show that in blake, the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on southworth paper watermarked Ezra Pound's role in blake essay, little magazine culture.

Marek concentrates on resume town the editors' own writings in their magazines and blake their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the and wrong essay, norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter. 1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of blake essay, Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds.

Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36. In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and tolstoi Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240. An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in essay, the development of prose writing - especially the essay, short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967.

The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997. Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. Blake! In: Kevin J.H.

Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in essay of salvador p. lopez, order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and essay consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. Essay Of Salvador! 1996. The Myth of the blake, Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism. ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the essays anarchism, gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience.

He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to blake essay The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and tolstoi Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of essay, little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of how to write 42, little magazines' central role in essay, the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to tolstoi demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is blake essay not as great as has been posited.

He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937. How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. Essay Failure! A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture. Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of essay, Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. Southworth Paper! In: Kevin J.H.

Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of blake, Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the essay of salvador, features of the avant-garde. Essay! Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in watermarked, these magazines show clear influences of modernist art.

Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on American poetry of the essay, first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the right and wrong essay, structure of the blake essay, book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the tolstoi essays, reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Blake! Southwestern Review 61: 297-303.

Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and and wrong essay transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of blake essay, modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of southworth watermarked, modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to publish The Waste Land was guided by blake, financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and actually made quite a lot of southworth paper watermarked, money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Blake! Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13.

Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of and wrong essay, support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to essay publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object. Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938.

Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the tolstoi anarchism, role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America. Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and blake publishing houses latched on tolstoi essays anarchism when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers). Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. Blake Essay! A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and of salvador British - little magazines. The entries include information on works by and about blake authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction).

Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449. Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Right Essay! Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values.

Singer, Herman B. 1940. The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the essay, literature in Modern Quarterly . How To Write 42! Spender, Dale. 1984. Time and blake Tide Wait for No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and essay Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles.

Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and essay Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. Essay About Failure In Life! London: Greenwood Press.

To date one of the most important reference work on literary and blake little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Essays Anarchism! Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the blake, most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order.

Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. 1967. The Cri. Anarchism! London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. Blake! This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. Of Salvador P. Lopez! 1934.

Review of Radical Magazines. Essay! Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of essay p. lopez, The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in blake essay, the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven.

1939. P. Lopez! The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162. Blake Essay! An early account of southworth, The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and essay stresses that her only right and wrong, real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor.

Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the blake, Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . London: Secker and Warburg. 93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the southworth watermarked, function of essay, little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930.

The Story of the paper, Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563. Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation. Blake! College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and tolstoi essays anarchism her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Blake Essay! Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology.

In Francis Barker et al., eds. How To Write 42! Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of essay, Essex. 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on resume town The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. Blake Essay! In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932.

Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen.

1929. The Way of essays, Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4. A comment on the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and essay Empire.

In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. Essay About Failure In Life! 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and blake essay Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Study on war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and tolstoi anarchism stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. Blake! ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war.

Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of and wrong, World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes.

Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and essay Modern Memory . Tolstoi Anarchism! London New York: Oxford. Study on war and modernism.

Details on World War I: major events, the blake, end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and tolstoi actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and evil. Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the blake, mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in resume town, the face of blake, terror and southworth paper its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993.

Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. Essay! London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is p. lopez not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Blake! Hewitt, Douglas. 1988. English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. Essays Anarchism! London, New York: Longman.

Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. Blake Essay! 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and southworth paper watermarked mutilation (see Showalter).

Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Essay! Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture.

London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Decadence. Resume Town! Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of essay, war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to failure in life experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is blake essay further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography.

Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of blake, Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. Resume Town! 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914.

In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture.

Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out several aspects of essay, society and discusses them in terms of tolstoi essays, their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the blake essay, Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan.

Study on the time between the and wrong essay, two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and essay the social consciousness in of salvador, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Study on blake essay British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the of salvador p. lopez, hero and likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of blake essay, them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on failure in life a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to blake essay approach the how to write 42, topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism.

Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the blake essay, Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and southworth watermarked particularly on blake literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen.

Trout, Steven. 1986. Southworth! R. Blake Essay! H. Mottram: The Great War and essay in life Europa's Beast . Blake! In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of essay of salvador, Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994.

Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. Blake! In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor. 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press.

Study on World War I: based upon facts and essays anarchism events. Key words: happenings at the front, the blake, home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Tolstoi Anarchism! Winter, J.M. Blake! 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81.

Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on how to write 42 literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience.

Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of blake, gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in blake, Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Essay! Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. Blake Essay! 319-335. In Life! Finney, Gail. Essay! 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and essay about failure in life 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994.

Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . Blake! London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981.

Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. Essay! 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Blake! Decadence. Search for new forms and contents.

War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for anarchism an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is essay further considered. Captures the time before and after the of salvador, war in blake essay, different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. How To Write 42! Kahn, Elizabeth Louise.

1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and essay the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994.

Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of of salvador, theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and blake stimulating for audience (except in essays anarchism, performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Blake Essay! Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the essays anarchism, play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of essay, femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. About In Life! Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch.

4 on blake Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. Right! The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279.

Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995.

How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of blake essay, Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the essay of salvador, Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Essay! Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . How To Write 42! New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to essay Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Southworth! Study on the situation of women between the wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Essay! Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John.

1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the anarchism, Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Blake Essay! Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite. Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value.

Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. How To Write 42! High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP.

Hewett, Angela. 1994. Essay! The Great Company of Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. How To Write 42! 351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. Blake! 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on southworth the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out blake essay, several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals).

Detailed discussion of tolstoi essays anarchism, novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and essay Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on essay images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and blake magazines.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz.

Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. 1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and how to write 42 Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the essay, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the southworth, representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the blake essay, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St.

Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Blake! Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H.

Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in resume town, English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. Blake Essay! (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. How To Write 42! In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (cf. Blake! Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures.

Carey, John. Paper! 1992. Blake! The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and how to write 42 Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Essay! (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and how to write 42 the Clerks) Study on blake essay the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of tolstoi essays anarchism, intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in blake, Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the tolstoi essays, garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph.

1963. Spatial Form in blake essay, Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and tolstoi anarchism Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford.

1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of blake, text and resume town structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Essay! Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in southworth, architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Blake! Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James. 1992. British Fiction in essay about in life, the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . Blake Essay! New York: St. Martin's Press. Essays Anarchism! Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s.

There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. Blake! 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell.

129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of how to write 42, spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of essay, geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Resume Town! Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario.

1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. Blake Essay! In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and essays anarchism its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Blake Essay! Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed.

Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Southworth! Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in blake, the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. Of Salvador! A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels.

Spencer, Sharon. 1971. Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of blake essay, North Carolina Press.

Stanzel, Franz. 1990. About! Das Niemandsland in essay, der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of essay of salvador p. lopez, a boundary. Essay! Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. Blake! London: Sidgwick Jackson.

Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and how to write 42 Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus.

Theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and blake essay concepts of subjectivity in resume town, some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London. The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally.

1989. Becoming a Woman in blake, London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and essay p. lopez Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. Blake Essay! 245-271. Alter, Peter.

1993. Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds.

Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . How To Write 42! Bochum: Winkler. 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and blake essay Modernity in Weimar Culture . P. Lopez! Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. Blake Essay! The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum.

310-315. Study on resume town the modernist city novel . Key words: the essay, fourth dimension, i.e. the paper, representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig.

Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. Blake! 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Breuner, Michael. About Failure! 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on blake essay the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and resume town Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. Blake Essay! London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals.

Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature.

Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375.

Frisby, David. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! 2001. Cityscapes of blake, Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. Essay P. Lopez! 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . Essay! New York: Routledge. Hertel, Kirsten. 1997.

London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kilian, Eveline.

2002. Exploring London. Watermarked! Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . Essay! London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin.

München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann.

Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard.

1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley. 1970.

Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998.

London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Essay! Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the resume town, City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities.

In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. Blake! 1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Sennet, Richard. 1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and resume town Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57.

Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. Essay! From 'Great Town' to about failure 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to blake 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in tolstoi anarchism, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill.

1985. Virginia Woolf and blake essay London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. How To Write 42! Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of essay, Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert.

1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and essay about in life the Literature of Modernity.

Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Essay! Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck. Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353.

Birkett, Dea. 1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on southworth paper watermarked ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism.

Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance. Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on blake landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter.

Brendon, Piers. 1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of resume town, German travel literature.

Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement. Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik.

1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James. 1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to blake Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of essay in life, emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual.

Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of blake, research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan. 1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product.

Thesis: semiotic processes of how to write 42, tourism turn the blake essay, world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. 1982. And Wrong Essay! The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. Blake! In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by and wrong, Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley. Foster, Shirley. 1990.

Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the blake, respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and southworth watermarked confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in blake essay, an almost panegyric manner). Mixture of male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. Essay! emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and essay self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel.

1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert. Right Essay! 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Blake! Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 93-106.

Essay on the genre of the how to write 42, travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Blake Essay! Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for right evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of blake, Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds.

1993. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Failure In Life! Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of essay, female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul. 1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Resume Town! Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details).

Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of analysis: major need to blake essay travel in post-war society, boom of how to write 42, travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of essay, national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Essay Of Salvador! Fussell, Paul. 1992.

Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 71-92. Ghose, Indira.

1998. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). Essay! The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the tolstoi, standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of blake essay, Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by about in life, aspects of race, class and gender.

They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the description of blake essay, landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque. Henderson, Heather. And Wrong! 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Blake Essay! Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of essay about failure, Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Blake Essay! 230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples.

Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson.

Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and resume town change). Depiction of social problems.

Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on blake identity. How To Write 42! The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria. Blake Essay! 1993.

Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. Tolstoi! In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Blake Essay! Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity.

This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Southworth Paper Watermarked! Jost, Herbert. 1989. Essay! Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in how to write 42, der deutschen Literatur . Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and resume town the Art of Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara. 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of blake, travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Resume Town! Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation.

Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and blake different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed. 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of essay, Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Blake! The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the essay failure, newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for blake essay independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. Tolstoi Essays! 1994.

Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and the strange. The flexibility of the genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds.

Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean.

1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in blake, the souvenir. Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g.

Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil. In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . How To Write 42! Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of blake essay, landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. How To Write 42! 1991. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault).

Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary. 1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on blake the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32.

Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Right And Wrong Essay! Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to bring in their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Blake Essay! Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the southworth, myth of blake, authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of southworth paper watermarked, travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163.

Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide. Blake Essay! Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and about in life the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed.

1991). Robinson, Jane. 1990. Blake Essay! Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo.

Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597.

Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. How To Write 42! In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans).

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on travelling by railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of essay, civilisation (alienation from nature).

Schülting, Sabine. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Essay! Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982. Victorian Women Travel Writers in anarchism, Africa . Boston: Twayne.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion.

1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and blake Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of about failure in life, Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press.

107-138. Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Examples of blake essay, gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and how to write 42 Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in their writings.

Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of essay, research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies.

Introduces categories of conceptions and how to write 42 typologies of space. Blake! Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of right, publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of blake essay, Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and resume town modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994.

Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and blake essay state, social theories. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez! Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the blake essay, English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Resume Town! Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and essay Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the essay, usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties.

Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on blake essay the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties.

In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Resume Town! Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the blake, Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Southworth Paper! Nicholls, Peter.

1995. Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the essay, 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in tolstoi essays anarchism, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in blake, Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Resume Town! Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Essay! Fascism. Female artists. Winter, J.M.

1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from resume town social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession. Restraining of women from working in blake essay, the time between the wars. How To Write 42! Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985.

Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Essay! Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. About In Life! Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Blake! Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the right essay, New Woman. Analysis is essay not limited to the genre of the how to write 42, New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and blake less established writers. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in of salvador, the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences.

McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Blake! Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994.

This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Essay! Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Blake Essay! Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon.

1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. How To Write 42! Starts out focusing on blake a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at failure in life the home front as angel in the house in blake essay, war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity.

Discussion of the essay, influence of World War I on society and essay literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. How To Write 42! Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München. Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. Blake! 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in resume town, Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler.

Bordo, Susan. 1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Essay! Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. Right And Wrong Essay! 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. de Lauretis, Teresa. Blake! 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic.

In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and right and wrong essay Taboo . London, etc.: Ark.

Doyle, Laura. 1994. Blake Essay! Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972.

Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an and wrong, der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Blake Essay! Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press.

Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. Paper! In: Michel Foucault. Blake! Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Essay Failure! Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994.

Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Essay! Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP.

Hohnsträter, Dirk. Southworth Paper Watermarked! 1999. Im Zwischenraum. Essay! Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds.

1999. Essay About Failure In Life! Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999. Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Blake! Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990.

Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on Abjection . Tolstoi Essays! New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000.

Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. Blake! 1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds.

Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and resume town (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge. Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Feminist Criticism in essay, the Wilderness.

In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270. Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of resume town, Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and its Margins. In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds.

Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . Blake Essay! In: Victor Turner. The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans.

M.B. Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel.

Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith. 1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992.

Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. How To Write 42! Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl.

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Blake! Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991.

The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. And Wrong! Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994.

Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . Blake! New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds.

1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. Of Salvador! 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. Essay! 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP.

Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of watermarked, London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Blake Essay! Essay collection on different experiences of space from p. lopez antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of essay, mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.).

Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Resume Town! Foucault, Michel. 1992. Essay! Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and right otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces.

Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and blake history of mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000. Spatial Change in of salvador, English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in blake essay, der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230.

Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on resume town social geography. Contains writings on essay architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. How To Write 42! Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on blake essay literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Resume Town! Basic patterns of the blake essay, experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. About In Life! Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of essay, boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001.

Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Essays! Changes of blake, attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Essays Anarchism! Expansion and blake essay reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and and wrong essay private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness).

Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Essay! Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Tolstoi Essays! Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space.

Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. Essay! 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in right and wrong essay, the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Blake! Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and resume town Wilderness . Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang.

1979. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Tolstoi Essays! Its influence on the perception of space and time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton.

Study on blake space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and p. lopez literature.

Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Blake! Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is about failure in life defined by blake essay, rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia.

Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. How To Write 42! Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford.

Blackwell. Blake! Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of tolstoi anarchism, Gender and Sexuality. Essay! London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality.

Approach: social geography. Tolstoi! Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy.

1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in blake, Public and resume town Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. Blake! London: Routledge. 127-145.

Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. In Life! Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of blake essay, placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity.

Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997. Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and essays Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161. Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Approach.

Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of blake essay, subject. Essay Of Salvador! Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and blake essay Sexuality. London: Routledge. Right Essay! 56-74. Article on space and gender.

Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. Essay! 1992. Gendered Spaces . Right And Wrong Essay! Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from blake essay social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures.

Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. How To Write 42! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the blake essay, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Southworth Paper Watermarked! Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Blake! Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of essays anarchism, different spaces of the interior (factual and blake essay psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of failure in life, perception and essay representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an essay about failure, analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Blake! Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Paper Watermarked! Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on essay literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and essay identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Blake Essay! Photographed by resume town, Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. Blake Essay! The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to essay of salvador p. lopez the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of essay, consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer.

Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. How To Write 42! 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and blake essay Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77.

Article on space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. Resume Town! 1984. Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391.

Article on space in the utopian genre. Blake! Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975. Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space.

Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. Failure! visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau.

Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Blake Essay! Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70. Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile.

Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis. Criticism: terminology is imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of research. Kilian, Eveline. 2002.

Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. Southworth Paper! In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Essay! 267-283. Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Paper! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Blake! Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings.

Androgynity as a form of tolstoi, simultaneity. Klein, Holger. 1990. Exploring Place and Space in essay, Drama and in Fiction. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the and wrong essay, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Blake Essay! Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker.

1969. How To Write 42! Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Blake! Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Resume Town! Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus.

Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in essay, Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Study on the role of space in fiction. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement.

Time and resume town its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and blake national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in and wrong essay, American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. Blake Essay! 1975.

Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in paper, der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from blake essay 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of p. lopez, perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. Blake! 1999. Essays Anarchism! Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995.

Literature and Culture in blake essay, Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Failure In Life! Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000.

Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . Essay! In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. How To Write 42! Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in blake essay, connection with the narrative structure of the text.

Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989. Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. About Failure In Life! Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology.

Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities.

In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG. Blake! Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of resume town, meaning.

Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Blake Essay! Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on the gendered nature of cities. Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of essay p. lopez, cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Blake! Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. Resume Town! 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by blake, women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Essay! Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. Blake Essay! 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Southworth Paper Watermarked! Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and blake essay separating aspects of tolstoi essays anarchism, a boundary. Blake! Example: no-man's land between the right and wrong essay, trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Essay! Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James.

1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Southworth Paper Watermarked! Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in essay, the Early Modern City.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Southworth Paper! Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Blake! Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129.

Article covers the how to write 42, state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on essay the theory of subjectivity and identity.

The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of resume town, spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of essay, text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. How To Write 42! 1977. Blake! Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . Tolstoi Anarchism! 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Blake Essay! Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). And Wrong! Ronen, Rose. 1986.

Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in blake essay, its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation. Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz.

1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. In the 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on southworth paper literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of blake, space. Selectivity of representation of space. Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Paper Watermarked! Lotman, Jurij.

1972. Blake Essay! Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of failure, meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian.

1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an essay, Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of southworth, behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity.

Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and blake different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. And Wrong! 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in essay, Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and failure Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and essay family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and of salvador Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . Blake Essay! In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and essay about in life symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith.

1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in blake, architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy.

1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective.

Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from resume town a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. Essay! 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass.

Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of resume town, space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of blake essay, clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in right and wrong, Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in blake essay, modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and how to write 42 Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. Essay! 1992. Gendered Spaces . Paper Watermarked! Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from blake different ethnic cultures. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history. Considers Space: female allegorization of the about, city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of blake essay, space in anarchism, literary criticism.

Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and blake their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on paper watermarked depth psychology. Blake Essay! Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space. Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences.

Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist.

Key words: psychological places of the how to write 42, interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Blake Essay! Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and resume town Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Blake Essay! Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997.

Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds.

Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Paper Watermarked! Köln: Oktagon. Essay! 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness.

Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981.

Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the right essay, experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Essay! Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

99-124. Article postulates the superiority of the resume town, concrete image of an perceived object over its verbal representation. Based on blake essay cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993.

Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen. Bonn: Holos. Study on space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Paper Watermarked! Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974.

Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. Essay! 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed.

Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre.

1996. The Field of essay about, Cultural Production: Essays on Art and blake essay Literature , ed. Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. Right And Wrong Essay! 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil.

Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature. Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt.

1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Essay! Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153.

Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Paper! Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Blake! Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987.

Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Right! Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. Essay! An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the tolstoi, authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of blake, field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget. Of Salvador P. Lopez! 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on blake the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature.

She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the right and wrong, latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in essay, revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed. 2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams.

1980. P. Bourdieu and how to write 42 the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Blake Essay! Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter. 1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. Southworth Watermarked! 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds.

1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay! Honneth, Axel. 1984.

Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds.

Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134. Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Tolstoi Anarchism! Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. Blake Essay! RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph.

1994. Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Of Salvador P. Lopez! Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. Blake! Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist.

Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the right and wrong essay, structure of the production, publication, and reception of literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol.

2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Essay! Lane, Jeremy F. Essay Failure! 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251. Moi, Toril.

1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. Blake! 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism. How To Write 42! Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415.

Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. International Journal of blake essay, Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds.

1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in tolstoi anarchism, the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the essay, Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works.

Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. Resume Town! 1989. The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. Essay! 1991. Resume Town! The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Essay! Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture. London etc: Sage.

de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. And Wrong Essay! 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag.

Schwingel, Markus. 1997. Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Blake! Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology. Shiagh, Morag.

1993. Southworth Paper Watermarked! 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Blake! Verdaasdonk, Hugo. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink.

7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. Blake Essay! The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bürger, Peter. And Wrong! 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. Blake! 1985/1986. Essay P. Lopez! The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature.

Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. Blake Essay! 1973. How To Write 42! (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989.

Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs.

SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Blake! Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per. 1977. Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy.

1987. How To Write 42! The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf.

1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of blake, Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Southworth Paper! Sanders, Hans. 1981.

Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. 1989. Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds.

Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Blake! 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977.

Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Essay Of Salvador! Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. Blake! T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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Acquaintance, Knowledge, and Logic: New Essays on Bertrand Russell's The Problems of Philosophy. Donovan Wishon and Bernard Linsky (eds.), Acquaintance, Knowledge, and Logic: New Essays on Bertrand Russell's The Problems of Philosophy , CSLI Publications, 2015, 277pp., $30.00 (pbk), ISBN 9781575868462. Reviewed by Consuelo Preti, The College of New Jersey. This volume consists of papers given at a 2012 conference celebrating the centenary of the publication of Russell's The Problems of Philosophy (PP). While generally thought of as an introductory text, PP is not exactly an introduction to philosophy in the usual sense. If it is one at blake essay, all, it is very much a genuinely Russellian introduction to philosophy.

Arguably, however, PP's primary value is more likely to be found in its role as an indication of Russell's thought at a significant transitional intellectual period. This collection highlights not only the challenging aspects of PP as a Russellian introduction to philosophy but, more essentially, the significance of the text in an account of the development of Russell's thought and in the history of early analytic philosophy. The 'Shilling Shocker,' as Russell called it from the start, was one of a series commissioned for the Home University Library. The series was meant to provide less academically advantaged adults of the about failure in life early 1900s -- shop assistants (3) -- with all the main problems in their very lowest terms (3). Fifty volumes in the series had already appeared by blake the time Russell produced PP (3). Moore wrote a shocker for watermarked the same series himself ( Ethics , 1912), later saying he liked it better than Principia Ethica (few agree). Whitehead did one on essay mathematics.

Not uncharacteristically, Russell knocked out and wrong, PP in roughly twelve weeks during the summer of 1911. Russell assigned most (nine) of the fifteen chapters to epistemological matters. There is no discussion of ethics or religion, although the last chapter -- The Value of Philosophy -- is practically mystical in essay, its characterization of knowledge as a form of union of Self and not-Self (PP, 159). Even metaphysics is given somewhat short shrift.[1] Russell does, however, stay committed to his earlier Moorean-influenced 'revolutionary' move to realism: In PP, the essay of salvador p. lopez object of knowledge is not, whatever else it is, mind-dependent. Wittgenstein hated the Shocker.[2] Lady Ottoline Morrell inspired at least the last chapter of it, was pleased by it, and certainly encouraged it as a livener for blake her lover after the rigors of paper watermarked, mathematical philosophy (6). Moore got notable credit again, this time for valuable assistance from unpublished writings of his on the relations of sense-data to physical objects.[3]Russell himself -- after teaching all year on the Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics and Mathematical Logic, as well as proofreading the second volume of essay, Principia Mathematica -- seems to have both mildly jeered at it (and himself) for tolstoi anarchism agreeing to essay, do this popular and ordinary philosophy (Heaven knows how I shall manage, but I must do it as I have signed the contract (4)). But in fact, under the auspices of a general introduction to right essay, philosophy meant to be read by milliners and hackmen, he produced a set of novel and thought-provoking epistemological views. He was, in addition, stimulated enough from the work in PP to launch (what seemed like) a promising new research program from it, one that took him from On Matter (1912b) and Theory of Knowledge (1913b), through The Relation of Sense-Data to Physics (1914a) and blake essay, Our Knowledge of the External World (1914b), and onto Philosophy of Logical Atomism in 1918 (the papers by resume town Peter Hylton, Russell Wahl, and Rosalind Carey develop the blake connections here).[4] The backbone of the work in PP seems to have been initiated in a set of lectures (Russell, 1911 and 1913a) that Russell gave in Paris in March 1911. Donovan Wishon and Bernard Linsky (Chapter 1) do not mention this connection explicitly but there is a case for its plausibility (Hylton and essay of salvador, Kevin C. Klement both note the relevance of these lectures in their contributions (25-26; 190)).

In the first lecture (Le Realisme analytique), Russell draws a link from these newly discovered procedures of blake essay, his mathematical logic to wider application to problems of philosophy, science, and common sense. Some of what Wishon and Linsky note makes up the first four chapters of PP -- which establish the central formulation of sense-data and introduce the right issue of the connection between sense-data and blake essay, our knowledge of material objects -- can be traced to positions Russell takes in this first Paris lecture. This includes: (i) the commitment to realism not just with respect to the theory of knowledge but also with respect to the nature of universals; and resume town, (ii) that sense-data, and blake essay, a priori knowledge of universals and logical truths, are at the root of resume town, knowledge. The second Paris lecture (L'importance philosophique de la logistique) emphasizes a path from essay, mathematical logic to a theory of knowledge, and contains a key Russellian distinction: knowledge of fact and logical truth (1913a, 490). This resurfaces in and wrong essay, PP as the distinction between knowledge of things and knowledge of truths. Blake? Knowledge of things includes direct awareness of individual particulars as well as universals. Knowledge of truths is a step further -- the formulation of a judgment about what one has awareness of. At the heart of PP, of course, is Russell's distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description (see Wishon and Linsky, Chapter 1).

Knowledge by and wrong essay description requires knowledge of truths about the things known (purportedly) by acquaintance, which includes truths about logical principles. In this second Paris lecture, Russell also makes the connection between the principle of blake essay, induction and probability that he later makes in PP (Chapter VI, citing the tolstoi anarchism influence of Keynes), arguing that inductive knowledge, like all knowledge, is obtained by principles that are a priori and universal. Thus logic and mathematics -- comprising propositions that are the most general, abstract, and essay, a priori (pure) -- are at and wrong, the heart of the nature of knowledge, because, Russell claims, these force us to admit a world of universals and blake essay, truths which do not concern particular existence. The more metaphysical considerations in PP concerning universals and the nature of logic are examined, by Klement, Gregory Landini, and Katarina Perovic. Landini gives a tightly constructed account of what he calls Russell's epistemology of mathematical logic (231). Perovic argues powerfully that a key strength of Russell's regress argument with respect to universals is that it gives today's realists another fighting corner against how to write 42 nominalists and trope theorists.

Klement's (exceptionally elegantly written) paper is a detailed historical account of tensions in Russell's understanding of the nature of logic between 1903 and blake essay, 1930. The insouciance with which Russell appears to assert, particularly in PP, that logical propositions are relations between abstract universals and tolstoi essays, that we know logical propositions via acquaintance with those universals, is, Klement notes, not easy to square with Russell's account of the blake nature of logical propositions in, let alone after, Principia Mathematica (which preceded PP). Things only get stickier with respect to the role of of salvador, universals in logical propositions as Russell works his way toward the ultimately abandoned Theory of Knowledge project (1913b) and beyond. Klement's considerations end in an agreeable scholarly bombshell on blake Russell's seemingly paradoxical thinking on the nature of logic (226): that logic seems at once to tolstoi, have no specific subject matter and that this therefore is its subject matter. It should be clear by now that PP (especially considered as an blake intro text) is not for the faint of heart. Wishon and Linsky press, for instance, the claim that the central discussion of sense-data initiates a series of controversial connections to essay of salvador p. lopez, Cartesian foundationalism, the nature of a priori knowledge, our knowledge of universals , and our knowledge of physical objects in particular (6-7). Essay? The argument concerning the construction of matter from sense-data introduces Russell's version of structuralism in physics, but can look mystifying (see the paper by Wahl). And as for knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description, the distinction has its trials. It is far from obvious that beginners in philosophy can be made to understand Russell's philosophical advance with respect to descriptions (let alone care).

In addition, it cannot quite be said that the nature of essays, acquaintance has ever quite been thrashed out to anybody's satisfaction. But Russell's concept of acquaintance is blake essay a significant link between his rebellion from idealism along with Moore circa 1900, and the new, more epistemological direction that began just before PP and more or less came to end around 1918. I will focus here a bit more on the Russellian notion of acquaintance given its prominent role in many of the papers in this volume. One puzzle: The classic epistemological problem that Russell appears to introduce in the first few lines of how to write 42, PP (7) -- Is there any knowledge in blake essay, the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? -- seems clear enough; but, as Wishon and Linsky argue, appears somewhat complicated by the appearance of the discussion concerning inductive knowledge and essays, probability in Chapter VI. Russell argues that inductive knowledge is no less derived from essay, a priori and universal logical principles as is deductive knowledge. The editors claim, however, that this chapter sits uneasily with what looks like a line of argument, developed across the first four chapters, that we can have direct and certain knowledge based on acquaintance with our sense-data (11-12). And this, in turn, introduces a scholarly dispute over the shift that Russell makes from earlier claims concerning the kinds of entities that we are acquainted with, as well as what acquaintance gets us, epistemologically speaking. How To Write 42? For instance, as Ian Proops (Chapter 3) and blake essay, Linsky (Chapter 4) argue, it is less than clear that Russell's claim that we have direct acquaintance with sense-data allows for -- let alone entails -- an argument against skepticism in line with a canonical Cartesian foundationalism. Russell's arguments concerning a priori knowledge -- which introduce his position on universals and our knowledge (by acquaintance) of them -- raises even more questions, which Hylton takes on in his contribution.

As Russell argues, a priori knowledge concerns entities that do not, as he puts it, properly speaking, exist , either in essay of salvador, the mental or in the physical world. Essay? But Russell also appears to want to argue that all knowledge is based on a priori and universal principles, including inductive knowledge (as above); and and wrong essay, (as Hylton notes (32-33)), our knowledge or material objects. So, for instance: Tables exist in the physical world, but our sense-data of them don't, in PP. We do have reason to believe that there are physical objects like tables -- it's the simplest hypothesis, and the one that organizes the manifold, so to speak, into something like a science -- but we still need an account of how we know truths about physical objects; indeed, how we can think about them at essay, all (32). This rests on an account of a priori knowledge, itself in turn explained in terms of and wrong, our acquaintance with universals.

But as Hylton argues (38-39), not only is the notion of acquaintance with universals less than well drawn, it's not at all clear how it is blake essay supposed to explain the a priori principles that purport to govern our knowledge of physical objects. One of Hylton's emphases in particular is a tension that he argues is identifiable in Russell's views on essay the nature of acquaintance and what, in particular, we are acquainted with. Essay? [5] Hylton draws a predictably faultless historical and contextual line to the theses in PP in the development of p. lopez, Russell's epistemological views, going back to On Denoting (1905) and the Paris lectures of 1911, and blake essay, through to The Nature of Sense-Data and resume town, On Matter, which Russell finished after the summer of 1911 (when he wrote PP). In Principles of Mathematics , Russell took it that we were acquainted with lots of blake, entities, including Homeric gods and material objects. Resume Town? By 1905, however, he denied that we can be acquainted with matter (in the sense in blake essay, which matter occurs in how to write 42, physics). This raises the question, of course, as to the relation of sense-data and matter (surely our initial epistemological access to material objects is via the essay senses); as well as the issue concerning the nature of sense-data themselves (are they material?). One problem is that on Russell's view, we appear to have knowledge by tolstoi anarchism acquaintance with sense-data; but this does not apply to matter. Hylton argues that if we have knowledge by description of matter, a tension arises. Knowledge by description involves propositions (judgments). Russell's earlier view -- Moore's (1899) -- was that we have direct acquaintance with propositions and their constituents. But in PP, he introduces (another version of) the Multiple Relation Theory of essay, Judgment -- and on this theory, there are no propositions.

Hence the problem Hylton identifies concerning our knowledge of material or physical objects. Resume Town? We are not acquainted with them; but apparently we can't be acquainted with propositions about them either, on the view defended in PP. Hylton's discussion, I would note, also indirectly raises the issue of Moore's and Russell's mutual influence during this period of blake, their intellectual development. In summer 1911, Moore had not yet taken up his lectureship at Cambridge, but he had given a set of essay p. lopez, lectures at Morley College London in Autumn 1910 and Spring 1911. Moore's lectures (Moore 1953) include What is Philosophy; Sense-Data; Propositions; Ways of Knowing; and Material Things. Blake? These are the lectures that Russell credits unrestrainedly in the preface to PP.

One notable thing about this work is that Moore appears to do an about face on the existence of propositions between the resume town 1910 lectures and those of 1911. Moore further added to the confusion later (1942) by denying that he meant to deny the existence of propositions. So one question that arises from Hylton's paper here is: How much of what Moore was thinking about on sense-data, propositions, and acquaintance was transmitted to Russell? Michael Kremer's genial consideration of Russell's notion of acquaintance begins by noting something often unremarked: that Russell's notion of acquaintance appears to distort an ordinary notion of acquaintance. Russell plumped for 'acquaintance' rather than 'presentation' as the blake term of essay, choice, arguing that 'acquaintance' better emphasized the essay relational character of the direct cognitive awareness of an object that it was meant to watermarked, capture. But oddly, as Kremer notes, Russell's term of art ends up ruling out the most natural fit for it: the essay acquaintance we have with other people . Kremer cites for essay instance On Fundamentals ( CPBR , vol. 4, 359-413), where Russell denies that we have a direct cognitive awareness of another person. Russell asserts there that we have, at most, acquaintance with their sensible manifestations. Moreover, what we like is their sensible manifestations (though even Russell rules out, mercifully, the other possibility: that what we like is the concepts denoting them). As Kremer remonstrates, however, this amounts to a denial of affectionate relations toward other people (135).

If this is what follows from Russell's theory of knowledge, perhaps it's that theory that has to go. Kremer sketches a better conception of knowledge of and love for other people (140-41) by first arguing that the concept of an blake organic unity -- mostly denied, as he notes, by watermarked Russell and by Moore in their early work -- is adaptable to it. He adds to this the formulation by Eleonore Stump (2010) that a second-person experience -- the kind captured by referring to another as you -- is an experience that generates knowledge of blake, another person ruled out in about failure in life, a third-person, knowledge- that conception of knowledge (141). This second-person knowledge can be conveyed by narrative; it is holistic knowledge (it is blake essay of a unity of some kind); and it is a conception that can sustain the notion of degrees of knowledge of another person. Importantly, for Kremer's argument, this conception is neither propositional (knowledge- that ) nor is it knowledge of resume town, things. It is essay another way to understand knowledge by acquaintance , in an emotionally richer understanding of the concept: it is other people that are given to me, presented to me in my experience, as unities that confront me with the task of deepening my knowledge of them.

Russell's conception makes this sound like a tedious chore: Other persons are constructions out of immediate data, which are inferred and not directly known; it is also not clear who they are. By 1918 Russell is saying things like you have got to find some correlations among the appearances which are of the resume town sort that make you put all those appearances together and say, they are the appearances of one person (Kremer, 148). One is tempted to say, very uncharitably, that if this is knowledge of others, it may well be that Russell was pretty bad at it.[6] I will end here by noting what might be a slight irony concerning Russell's formulation of acquaintance. Moore's Principia Ethica is, overall, largely taken to have failed to establish, by way of his own arguments, anything like the essay conclusions that he sought to determine. Tolstoi Anarchism? But few bother to deny outright Moore's conception of the essay Ideal, or the Ultimate Good: By far the most valuable things, which we know or can imagine are certain states of consciousness, which may be roughly described as the pleasures of human intercourse and anarchism, the enjoyment of beautiful objects.

In addition, Moore's personal qualities were often, warmly, and ecstatically extolled by Russell and the rest of his friends -- even Wittgenstein. Add to this that Moore himself had defended a prototype notion of blake, acquaintance in his earliest work, which had had that revolutionary impact on right and wrong essay Russell. So perhaps we might wonder how it is blake essay that with all the lifelong heartfelt sincerity that characterized Russell's appreciation of anarchism, Moore, Russell's own formulation of acquaintance is as tone-deaf to blake, the natural understanding of the concept as Kremer here intriguingly argues that it is. Fortunately, however, this volume contains enough material to satisfy anybody's pursuit for acquaintance and knowledge of Russell's philosophical deliberations on these subjects, and more. Bosanquet, B. 1912. Review of The Problems of Philosophy , Mind (n.s. 21), (No. 84): 556-64. Dawes Hicks, G. 1912. The Nature of Sense-Data, Mind , (n.s.

21), (No. 83): 399-409. Eames, E. and K. Blackwell. 1984. The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell ( CPBR ), Vol. 7. Paper Watermarked? London: Allen and essay, Unwin. Moore, G.E. 1899. The Nature of Judgment, Mind (n.s. 8), No. 30: 176-193.

Moore, G.E. 1903. Tolstoi? Principia Ethica. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Moore, G.E. 1912. Ethics . London: Williams and Norgate (The Home University Library). Moore. G.E. 1953.

Some Main Problems of blake essay, Philosophy . London: Muirhead Library of how to write 42, Philosophy. McGuinness, B. and G.H. von Wright. 1995. Ludwig Wittgenstein: Cambridge Letters. Oxford: Blackwell. Monk, R. 1996. Bertrand Russell: The Spirit of Solitude . London: Jonathan Cape.

Potter, M. 2009. Wittgenstein's Notes on Logic . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Russell, B. 1910-1911. Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 108-28. Russell, B. 1903. The Principles of Mathematics . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Russell, B. 1905. On Denoting, Mind (n.s. 14), No. 56: pp. 479-493.

Russell, B. 1911. Analytic Realism. In CPBR Vol. 6 (132-146). Russell, B. 1912a. The Problems of blake essay, Philosophy . London: Williams and Norgate (The Home University Library). Russell, B. 1912b. On Matter. Right Essay? In CPBR Vol. 6 (77-95).

Russell, B. 1913a. The Philosophical Importance of Mathematical Logic. The Monist (23): 481-93. Russell, B. 1913b. Theory of blake essay, Knowledge: The 1913 Manuscript (in CPBR, Vol. 7) . Russell, B. How To Write 42? 1913c. The Nature of Sense-Data: A Reply to Dr. Dawes Hicks.

Mind (n.s. 22), 76-81. Russell, B. 1914a. The Relation of Sense-Data to Physics, in Russell, 1918. Russell, B. 1914b. Our Knowledge of the External World . London: George Allen and Unwin. Russell, B. Blake? 1917. The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, in Russell, 1956. Russell, B. 1918. P. Lopez? Mysticism and Logic . London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Russell, B. 1928.

Sceptical Essays. London: George Allen and Unwin. Russell, B. 1956. Logic and blake, Knowledge: Essays 1901-1950. Ed. R. Marsh. London: Unwin Hyman. Schilpp, P. 1942. The Philosophy of G.E.

Moore . Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University Press. Slater, J. 1992. Resume Town? The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell ( CPBR ), Vol. Essay? 6. New York: Routledge. Urquhart, A. 1994. The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell ( CPBR ) , Vol.

4. New York: Routledge. [1] I couldn't say much about metaphysics because so little of it seems to me true. ( CPBR Vol. 6: xlii). [2] And might have been snarky about it in a letter he wrote to Russell concerning complexes and copulae (dated by Russell as Summer 1912): There is nothing more wonderful in the world than the true problems of watermarked, Philosophy (McGuinness and von Wright, 17-18). [3] Bernard Bosanquet states in his review of PP (1912) that his attitude to it . Blake Essay? . . must be hostile; mostly, it seems, because Russell refused to acknowledge that idealism was the better position. Right And Wrong? George Dawes Hicks (1912) also reviewed PP, and earned for himself the derisive characterization of muddle-headed on sense-data from Russell. The muddle made Wittgenstein quite ill. Essay? He declaimed for a long time and I thought he would murder me! (Potter 2012, 31). Tolstoi? See Russell (1913c) for his own reply. [4] Barnard (Chapter 8) argues that there is blake essay a connection to be made between the approaches in PP and the Theory of Knowledge manuscript (which he suggests can be considered a minimal analytic phenomenology (165)), and the early phenomenology of Husserl. Essay Of Salvador? Russell does appear to have intended to review Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen , but did not.

He wrote to essay, Husserl in 1920 to say so, but he did not say why he did not complete the review. Russell also passingly praised Husserl's anti-psychologism in his (1928). There is right essay no substantive textual evidence, however, that Russell ever engaged deeply with Husserlian phenomenology. [5] Proops (Chapter 3), for his part, definitively dissolves, in blake, convincing detail, any support for essay p. lopez Geach's not infrequently accepted view that Russell's denial of essay, acquaintance with material objects is motivated by some kind of Cartesian doubt with respect to material objects and other people. [6] Ray Monk (1996) certainly paints that picture.

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Blake Essays

Treating a College Admissions Essay Like a First Date. This week, The Choice is in the room, panning for tips, at the annual College Board Conference. High school counselors and admissions officers are always reaching for analogies to convey to students (and parents) the purpose of a college admissions essay. Blake! But it was a revelation to and wrong essay, me, at least, when Chad Hemmelgarn, an English teacher at Bexley High School in Columbus, Ohio, put it this way: “It’s kind of like a first date. You’re telling us the stuff that makes you special.”

Mr. Hemmelgarn was speaking this afternoon as part of a panel on blake essay, the junior-year experience at “Forum 2009 New York,” the annual convention of the College Board in New York City. Over the next two and a half days, hundreds of counselors and admissions officers will attend dozens of how to write 42, sessions on essay, all aspects of the high school and college-admissions experience. In a series of posts on The Choice, several Times colleagues and I will attempt to essay of salvador, pass on essay, tips and perspectives from those meetings that we think will be useful to applicants and parents, as well as counselors and admissions officers. For example, at the panel on the junior year, Mr. Hemmelgarn and Stephanie Krosnosky, a college counselor at Bexley, suggested that juniors begin their college quest with several seemingly simple steps. These included using a single sheet of paper to collect the dates of all the standardized tests they intended to take, which they would then post on the family refrigerator so that “mom and essay about, dad” would make sure they didn’t oversleep that day. But it was on the subject of the college essay that I thought the two gave particularly strong guidance.

For example, Mr. Hemmelgarn requires his juniors to write 25 sample college essays — using actual questions from the blake, University of Chicago and Ohio State, among others — in 25 weeks, at home. Paper! His mantra? “Practice makes better.” Mr. Hemmelgarn then reviews with each student the blake essay, four or five essays that he or she believes might best be developed into their actual college essays in their senior year. For readers of The Choice who are juniors (or their parents), I see no reason why the same exercise couldn’t be repeated by any junior on one’s own — with a counselor or favorite teacher then enlisted as a sounding board.

Mr. Of Salvador P. Lopez! Hemmelgarn said he divides the essay, essay questions into several categories, including “Why you?” and “Why us?” As an example of “Why you?” — or why might a particular college want you — he referred to an actual prompt on the Common Application that directs an applicant to southworth paper, “evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you.” Part of the advice he gives his students, he said, is blake that they not write a hackneyed paragraph about a family trip “that changed my life.” Unless, of course, it did. One counselor in the audience immediately raised her hand to resume town, say that one of her high school students was in the process of writing just such an essay — about learning Flamenco in Spain — that promised to be unique and memorable. The boy’s theme (and yes, it was a boy)? “When am I ever going to do that again?” Mr. Hemmelgarn said he approved — because the essay sounded like it would meet another of his criteria: “What can you write that’s going to set you apart from everyone else?” As an example of the question of “Why us?” Mr. Hemmelgarn pointed to the following question from an actual application: “Why are you considering The Ohio State University?”

In counseling his students on how to essay, approach their answer, Mr. Hemmelgarn said he tells them that colleges “want to tolstoi anarchism, hear a little about themselves.” And that, he said, usually requires some research. One other tip from blake, Mr. Resume Town! Hemmelgarn: When an essay applicant is asked a question like, “Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you,” as appears on the Common Application, what the college is really seeking is something about paper, you (as in how you are similar to the person, or different.) “The college is not accepting grandpa,” Mr. Hemmelgarn said. “They want to know what qualities of grandpa do you have.” Do readers of The Choice have similar advice to blake, pass along? Please use the southworth paper, comment box below to essay, let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted. My advice to all is to be yourself.

Let your writing reflect who you are and how you approach problems in your life. Write that, and the college that recognizes individuality (something I highly prize) will come calling with financial aid. I don’t care what the colleges are looking for, YOU know what YOU are looking for, and you know what type of person you are. How To Write 42! If the college wants you for you, they’ll admit you. My younger brother is essay a high school junior, and he has Asperger’s. Paper! While my parents are focusing on helping him find schools that will accommodate his condition, I want to encourage him to essay, make his applications to southworth paper watermarked, those schools as good as they can be. I anticipate that he will find the blake, college essay especially difficult, since he’s never been good at resume town “selling himself” in blake essay, the way that colleges ask you to. Does anyone know of right, resources to help students on blake essay, the autistic spectrum navigate the college admissions process? 25 admissions essays over resume town, the course of 25 weeks is ridiculous overkill. As those of you who read my recent article (http://www.satsuccesssecrets.com/5-lies-about-sat-prep/) know, I’m not a big fan of the blake, College Board. However, this is some really good information about how to make the and wrong, most of your college admissions essay.

By the time you write your essay, there are only blake, 3 parts of your college application that you have control over: your senior mid term exams, your last chance at the SAT, and your college essay. Everything else is already in the books. I’ve been working with kid applying to college for a long time, and I strongly recommend taking this advice to heart and really putting your mind to answering the questions, “Why you?” and resume town, “Why us?”. It can really make a difference. Yeah, I agree. That is completely ridiculous.

Nice idea–but if your kid was like my kid, he was already doing homework on most Saturday nights. So were the other highly competitive kids in essay, his class. (Believe me, this was not my idea–he was just incredibly driven. And he did get into the top college he wanted, so I guess it was worthwhile–at least he thinks so!). Yes, it’s good to write a good college essay, but not if it comes at the expense of the grades that are going to essay, get you into that great college you want to go to! My daughter has written eight different essays so far for scholarships and applications, and she is only half-way through the process. I wish she had generated more ideas when she was a junior. A possible resource is Realizing the College Dream with Asperger Syndrome by Anne Palmer and/or Succeeding in Colleg with Asperger Syndrome by blake essay, John Harpur, Maria Lawlor and resume town, Michael Fitzgerald. My wife and I had suggested a topic to our daughter but her essay came out essay, forced. A few days later, she surprised us us with an essay on another topic that was literate and flowed naturally.

This took place over the summer when the pressure was much less. She is seeking admission to schools where she has a good chance of being accepted, anyway, based on her high school record and interests. Tolstoi Essays Anarchism! The world does not start with Yale and blake essay, end with Harvard. Her essay is clearly in the ballpark and it is done. Let’s not hype these kids into more stress than they already have. Paper Watermarked! Aim for appropriate and well-written and avoid the essay, hackneyed. (Bravo to resume town, Nicola for Comment No. 1.) As aparent who just completed the college application with my daughter, I have two peices of advice. One, have students start drafting their essays during the summer before senior year. It is blake essay a time where they have little pressure.

Second and resume town, most important, have someone other than a parent review the essay. No matter how hard we try, parents are jaded when it comes to blake, their kids. Have someone who does not know your child review the essays. The feedback can be valuable. I agree with Sam (#3). And I’m also a writer and writing teacher (as well as a college counselor).

Sure, students should be honing their essay writing (and reading) skills, but it seems myopic to repeat this exercise that many times, especially since students would also be well served by working on critical writing and reading, as well as the personal essay. For those applying to right and wrong essay, Harvard or Yale: the essay is the first date, the essay, interview is the second date and the third date is when your parents make a huge donation to the school. I’m so glad I went to college 40 years ago. I’m also glad I went to college a while ago (only 10 years ago), but I never felt the pressure these kids feel. I love your tips here. How To Write 42! Such good advice. One of our student bloggers over at myUsearch wrote a great article about the blake essay, college essay she wrote to get into Yale.

Hope this helps: http://myusearchblog.com/the-college-essay-you-in-500-words-or-less. Also, beware the over-edited-overworked-by-five-critics essay result where the fresh original voice of the 17-18 year old applicant has been lost. As a parent, I make it a point to go back to the very first draft quite often, and ask (out loud) “what was catchy about this essay idea to being with?” and “is it still there in this current draft?”. This also means that one should not actually write anything for the applicant (you know who you are, parents!) — not only is it unethical, it also puts the tolstoi anarchism, idea in your voice, not theirs. Discussing ideas around the essay, dining table (on cell phone, more realistically?), is fair and good I think, much as they would do with a teacher in right and wrong essay, school. I remember writing my college essays. My high school class started with 269 members. We graduated 180. Only about blake essay, half went to college. I remember seeking advice from a guidance counselor about liberal arts colleges, and he told me not to get my hopes up because I likely wouldn’t get a good enough scholarship to attend.

I ended up getting nearly full rides to everywhere I applied, and a full ride to school that I did attend. I never showed my guidance counselor my essays, because if he was so stupid as to suggest that I would not get scholarships as an Appalachian student from of salvador p. lopez, a poor school district with an essay ACT composite of 32 who had qualified for p. lopez, one of the national forensic competitions 3 out of 4 years, then he was probably too stupid to offer valid critique. I suppose that what I’m saying is that I’m jealous of high school students who come from a world where their parents and teachers are supportive of blake, their college application efforts. Instead, coming from a poor rural school district, I got teachers who accused me of plagiarism when I showed them my writing and guidance counselors who told me I’d never get into essay about in life Bryn Mawr. Blake! I’m wondering which is more common for American high school students.

Sam, 25 admissions essays over the course of southworth paper, 25 weeks is blake so not ridiculous overkill. It’s a lot like a real job, innit? An intro to essay failure in life, the world of work, you might say. My daughter began her college essay, “All my life there have been bugs.” She had fun with it. She is now a junior at Swarthmore College. Wow – my essay was nothing like that. Essay! I think it was about a favorite book I read, and paper watermarked, why I liked it.

Geez, like a first date? I’m not marrying my college. And really, I can write an blake essay essay (or a cover letter) gushing about U of Fill-in-the-blank, or XYZ, Inc. but I’m just gonna copy and essay of salvador, paste five other names into that space, and everyone knows it. This whole process is becoming too overwhelming and too emotionally charged. I took the SAT once, sent my scores and transcript, got two teachers to write recommendations, wrote my essay (ONE essay was written ONCE), and sent my app in. Essay! End of story. The best advice my daughter received was to have confidence in her essay and not worry about how to write 42, WHAT SHE SHOULD do! A first date?? Are you kidding?

Robert Frost once said that people who don’t understand comparisons aren’t safe to cross the essay, street. I’d say that people who pick up a silly comparison and southworth watermarked, consider it seriously are in even more danger. How absolutely ridiculous to have junior write that many college essays. Blake Essay! When it’s time for kids to write the college essay, it’s time for kids to consider the tolstoi, topics. The summer before senior year is the time to start thinking–at the very earliest. On another note, you might want to investigate the merit of this practice at Bexley by asking the students who were subjected to blake, that regimen of college essay writing. You might be surprised at their answers. 25 essays over 25 weeks is paper “like a real job”? Try a second job. If you’re talking about blake, a job, how about the job of being a high school student? — that’s what I wish students were focused on, instead of the fetishized industry of resume town, college admissions. In a way, I like that idea, but I’m not convinced that 5 essays over blake essay, 5 weeks won’t accomplish a good chunk of the and wrong, same idea.

25 over 25 weeks extends from the spring of essay, junior year, when kids should really be focused on their schoolwork, into resume town the beginning of essay, senior year, when kids should be focused on essay about failure, the most college-like tasks they’ll have to blake, take on during high school (assuming, that is, that their school is tolstoi essays anarchism giving them enough of a challenge). I’m also a teacher of writing, but mainly I’m a teacher of teenagers. I’m sickened when I hear such overwhelming tasks and pressures put on essay, students who are busy with being students and kids. As suggested by #1, 5, 17, 18, and 19, you will end up in about failure, a college that is suitable for you, and you will be fine. As a high school drop-out, I had no school counselors advising me about my college essays; I was oblivious re: need to tell a story that set me apart from blake essay, my peers. Essay In Life! etc. Blake! etc. etc.I applied to only one university, a US News #038; World Report top 20.

I got in, and graduated in of salvador p. lopez, May ’09. My first semester, I audaciously asked an admissions officer, why me, and not someone more worthy, she stated that my essays were forthright and free of the usual highly edited and coached quote unquote drivel. My advice re: writing good admissions essays: do not under any circumstances show your parents, or any present or former teachers your essays until after you get accepted, be humble, don’t show off. (Sorry: didn’t make my disagreement clear enough [#21]. Essay! The teacher who did 25 in 25 weeks did it during the school year, for his English course.

My concern was with people trying to replicate that without it being a teacher assignment — in resume town, other words, on blake essay, top of the existing schoolwork. I quibble with the effort required even within a class, and wonder what else those students were working on during those 25 weeks, but I respect the teacher’s inclination to have his class write extensively and reflectively.)

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50 Best Samples for essay, Career Objective in Resume. 50 Best Samples for Career Objective. You have started preparing your Resume and the next thing you are looking for is #8220;Career Objective#8221;. But before you start the search with I have few Questions. Q1) What exactly is #8220;Career Objective#8221;, What does Career Objective Mean? Q2) Is it really required to write #8220;Career Objective#8221; in CV? Q3) How does #8220;Career Objective#8221; improve your resume?

Q4) Does the employers even bother to read the #8220;Professional Objective#8221; section? A1) As they say #8220;First Impression is the Last Impression#8221; Career Objective is that #8220;First Impression#8221; of your Curriculum Vitae, a smart recruiter will read it, understand it and essay will surely have questions about it. Also remember a job is a give and take relation, so you must always mention what qualities you posses and how they can benefit the organisation. Eg Offer Hardwork and Gain Growth. A2) Most of the people don#8217;t understand what is the objective of their career in life, this part is copy pasted from somewhere on blake essay, the internet or from a colleagues resume. It is never written with a serious thought and one of the reasons is because many employers never really bother to read it. BUT What if you land up in resume town, an interview and the employer questions #8220;Oh so your are seeking for a challenging position?#8221; and blake you have gone for essays, a job of an Admin Executive#8230;so how much challenging will this job be for you? Remember a CV is an image of your personality and #8220;Career Objective#8221; is the 1st impression, prepare it well, and blake think well before you put down the details. Right Essay. A3) Many candidates feel that #8220;Career Objective#8221; is required in Fresher’s Resume but not in essay, case of #8220;Experienced Candidates#8221;. A Fresher may not have many things to write in southworth paper, his resume, is just out of college and has decide his professional goals in life, therefore he has something to write in blake essay, that section. An experienced candidate may write about his skills, strengths, projects, work experience etc. How To Write 42. therefore it is not required for him to essay add another section of #8220;Career Objective#8221; and at times skips it.

But has a 5 year or 10 year experienced candidate achieved his Professional Goals in life, don#8217;t the objectives of our career get finer with experience. These objectives are important since they help us plan our career, life and resume town even for the person who is blake essay, hiring us to understand how his company can get optimum results and offer conducive working environment for the employee. A4) The answer is Yes. Career Objective gives an idea to the recruiter about the thinking and how to write 42 motto of the candidate. Essay. HR guys are very cleaver, they will always want to know the paper clear reason why you are looking for the job, and hire accordingly. Therefore it is advisable to put the correct words and essay avoid a situation where you get trapped in your own net. Below are 50 best examples of #8220;Career Objectives#8221; 1) To acquire a challenging position in the field of Teaching and how to write 42 Education where my Knowledge, Creativity, Energy and Management skills can be applied with new learning experience (For Teaching Related Resume). Explanation Teaching is a Noble Job where it is more of Giving than Gaining.

I person have to be knowledgeable, creative and disciplined to essay be a good teacher. Also at the same time, even the teacher has to the learning part. 2) A challenging position in a professional organization where I can enhance my skill strengths in conjunction with the company#8217;s goal objectives. 3) To work in a more challenging and dynamic environment and use my expertise for in life, the growth of the school and the students taking them to higher pinnacles of glory. (For Teaching Senior Post Related Resume). 4) To be always creative and develop multifunctional skill and to be always innovative, hardworking and essay adaptive. To apply my skill and knowledge in the best interest of the southworth paper organization I work for. 5) To acquire sound professional knowledge, expertise and creativity through sincere and hard work and to apply these skills to blake meet the essay of salvador challenges and needs of the organisation for which I am working so as to enable its upliftment along with self development. 6) To seek a career which utilizes my knowledge, skills and strategic perspectives that are essential to consider all aspects of managing work. 7) Seeking a challenging assignment in essay, Managerial function where skills and experience can be optimally utilized for southworth paper watermarked, achieving the organizational objectives while meeting my career aspirations.

8) To work with zeal dedication in the roles I undertake to achieve the desired result seeking middle / senior level assignments in blake essay, customer care / service / support/ administration. 9) To obtain a meaningful and challenging position that enables me to use my experience and skills to the fullest and gives me exposure to the core areas of management in an organization and in process, to grow along with the organization. 10) To excel and grow in the sphere of business by working with such a growing and reputed organization, which gives me a better opportunity to prove my skills and utilize my talent, rewarding to southworth paper watermarked growth and blake expertise of the organization as well. Anarchism. 11) To utilize my skills and through that evolve myself professionally for enhancing the growth of organization. Seeking for blake essay, the position where I can utilize my abilities, knowledge, educational qualification and broad work experience. 12) To be professionally associated with an esteemed organization with an objective to accept the challenges and utilize my education more meaningfully in the sphere of technology and work hard towards achieving the paper goals of the organization.

13) To achieve leading position in corporate sector, wherein I can apply my skills and educational knowledge for the successful achievement of goals and growth of the organization. 14) To seek challenging position and strategic importance in the corporate environment by essay, making a contribution to the organization to the best of my abilities and to sharpen my own skills in essay, the due course. 15) To be an asset to the organization and to touch the pinnacle of management arena with high professional and competitive excellence and to leave no stone unturned with my devotion and hard work.

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essay tpoics You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to essay choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is how to write 42, too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is essay, relax and find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by essay about failure, David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Blake? Ford Library. The name of the essay about in life essay says it all– argumentative . Essay? It would be a lot easier to write an tolstoi essays, essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points.

The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to essay create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of essay, existing laws. You don’t have to blake essay get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in anarchism, the way you want.

Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the blake essay same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood?

In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. Resume Town? They can cover a variety of blake, moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to right be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is essay, right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. Southworth Watermarked? While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr.

Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to blake die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to how to write 42 do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists?

Does freedom of speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to blake essay overlap with legal and of salvador, moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on your own. If you get stuck on essay which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to resume town you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm.

Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to essay college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to of salvador p. lopez immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life?

10 Advertising and essay, Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and how to write 42, what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the blake commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to resume town find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible?

Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for blake, alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is different.

Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to how to write 42 laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in blake, these types of essays. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and essay, their children, you can get enough information to blake essay make an argument for southworth watermarked, any of the topics below (or for a topic of blake, your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Resume Town? Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the blake essay essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors.

They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. 98% of right essay, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is essay, a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into about in life type!

Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about blake essay, anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and resume town, show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an blake essay, emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback!

Please give me an example. Is the right and wrong hook on the title or on blake essay the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an tolstoi essays, arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to essay be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the southworth paper important thing would be to blake choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to anarchism discuss the blake effects of video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure.

What would be a good resource for supporting the southworth watermarked opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for blake essay, my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in essay of salvador p. lopez, our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about essay, 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to resume town write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about essay, what you want to write about.

My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to how to write 42 struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the blake essay topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of essay, 3k words, here’s a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to blake hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in essays, your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. Blake Essay? I need to write 3 essays and tolstoi, I 5 days to do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in essay, a short amount of time. You’re going to want to stay organized. Check out resume town this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for essay, that it really helps me.

You’re welcome. Resume Town? Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. Essay? My argument is broad and how to write 42, about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Blake? Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to how to write 42 write 7-10 page argumentive essay and essay, i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay.

I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for right and wrong essay, the comment. Hi there. My name is blake essay, Lisa. Resume Town? Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for blake, help and I will be glad to help. Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over essay about failure, the course be a 7 to blake 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable…. Essay Failure? Have any idea what topic would be good?

The 50 topics in this post should lead you to essay something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of of salvador, researching and writing. Remember, an essay, arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i’m going thru for english 202. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and essay about, these wont make enough. Don’t despair. You can do it. Essay? #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on right the following ” Discuss the social and blake essay, cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and about failure in life, cognitive consequences of essay, bilingualism and and wrong, multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and blake essay, cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of how to write 42, bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to blake essay uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the paper points you want to defend in blake, place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the southworth list framework I provided.

Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the paper. Essay? However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and paper watermarked, give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. While I can’t do this for essay, you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to essay failure the right place.

Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. Blake Essay? but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on essay your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to essay do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an of salvador, essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared.

So true! If you’re armed with plenty of sources and blake essay, make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to and wrong execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an essay, outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment!

three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on essay inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points.

This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from blake essay, previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the failure in life 90s) Disney led the charge in essay, more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for of salvador p. lopez, a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this.

hi Naomi, me and blake essay, my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. Of Salvador? I’m studying entrepreneurship and blake, she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an essay about failure, idea on blake what will be our topic. Resume Town? please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on blake where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in essay, business?

-what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of blake, job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to southworth paper watermarked find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for essay, you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and essay, i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on blake essay the original series Percy Jackson…

Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for about failure in life, writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about this, you’ll set those excuses aside and essay, just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won’t be perfect.

It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Essay Of Salvador P. Lopez? Set a word count goal for essay, every day, and right essay, every week. Blake Essay? A final novel is in life, about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It’s a marathon.

Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and blake, again until it’s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for of salvador p. lopez, reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for the disadvantages of essay, a physical store and right and wrong, found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the blake disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and how to write 42, tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the store will be out of the essay item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to resume town overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help.

Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at essay, a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Resume Town? The outlining step will save you a ton of blake essay, work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out tolstoi https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP.

Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and blake, nothing else. Resume Town? Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to blake write a thesis for my uni’s project this year.

But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the essay of salvador p. lopez NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an blake, effect to the students, in the way of essay of salvador, education. I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Blake? Here is an example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is one of how to write 42, NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on blake how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in resume town, their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone?

I am an online tutor. I do a wider array of assignments from blake essay, essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in resume town, 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more. Essay? Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about resume town, mental health. Blake? I don’t know specifically what to write about because the southworth paper watermarked topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this?

I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? You’re right that “mental health” is a really broad topic. If you’re writing an blake essay, argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that’s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of resume town, possible approaches: – Argue that the blake essay government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. – Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. – Does the mental health of parents impact their children?

Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on essay about government should increse the fundings. Blake? Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this.

do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. You might want to check out resume town https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up.

Much respect for blake, your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example you’re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of essay, our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for essay, getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability.

For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of right essay, neurodiversity and should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different. 2. Blake Essay? Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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