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Bad Weather Essays and Research Papers. supplies, but other communities further downstream towards Sydney will anxiously wait for about the rivers that run through them to essay history reach their flood peaks. . Sydney escaped the worst of the bad weather but huge waves were recorded across many of the city's beaches and essay a baseball swells of up to eight metres out to sea. The wet weather follows a summer of unprecedented heat across large parts of Australia. Just over a week ago emergency services were issuing fire warnings and battling many blazes across huge areas. Australia , Brisbane , Flood 761 Words | 3 Pages. Squall! Building Vocabulary The weather Good weather be bathed in/bask in/be blessed with/enjoy (Bask-enjoy sitting or lying in the . heat or light of a baseball game sth, esp in the sun) bright/ brilliant/glorious sunshine the sun shines/warms sth/beats down (on sth) the sunshine breaks/streams through sth fluffy/wispy clouds drift across the hinduism paper, sky a gentle/light/stiff/cool/warm/sea breeze blows in/comes in off the sea the a baseball game, snow crunches beneath/under sb's feet/boots Bad weather Thick/dark/storm clouds. Children's literature , Lightning , Reading 1622 Words | 6 Pages.

?Case summary – Enron Corporation’s Weather Derivatives Steve Haik, Dan Sleker and Bas van Bellegem – March 2003 Background In October Mary . Essay! Watts, CFO of Pacific Northwest Electric (PNW) reviewed the about, forward plan for PNW’s 200-2001 season. PNW’s has been experiencing nearly no EPS growth since 1995 due to deregulation and warmer-than-average winter climate. The stock price had suffered accordingly, but there maybe a way to hedge the weather risk via a new “ weather derivative” being proposed by Enron’s. Climate , Contract , Derivative 841 Words | 3 Pages. Types of Weather 1) Sunny 2) Cloudy 3) Rainy 4) Windy Seasons Seasons are caused as the squall, earth revolves around the essay about a baseball game, sun. Seasons stay the hinduism research, same . for a long time. Maybe 3-4 months. Summer, Monsoon and Winter are seasons . Apart from the essay, seasons.. .The wind .The closeness to the sea and .The clouds also affect the weather . •The Summer season is from February to nsf sociology May. .The weather is hot and a baseball dry. .This type of research weather is about a baseball, called a sunny weather . .We cool ourselves by eating ice-creams, having cold. Bioinformatics Research Papers! Climate , Cloud , Precipitation 454 Words | 19 Pages. Essay A Baseball! ? WEATHER WORKING DAYS Print By Per Zerman, Assistant Vice President, Skuld Copenhagen Published 03 November 2010 Legal news The term . And Effects Of Poverty! ” weather working days” often forms part of the definition of laytime . Although the meaning should, at first glance, be straightforward, it continues to be a source for dispute: The intention is that where weather conditions make it impossible to load or discharge, then that day (or period of a day) should not count as laytime.

This carries with it a fairly broad. Arbitration , Cargo , Contract 1224 Words | 10 Pages. Unforgiving Weather (Great Gatsby Essay) Unforgiving Weather In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s, The Great Gatsby, life moves fast and about there’s no time for people to research science care about essay about game, each other’s . problems. Now, this is not simply because people have become selfish. Instead, it’s the fact that pretentiousness has consumed the nsf sociology dissertation, moral compass of East and about a baseball game West Eggers alike. Fitzgerald shows this ugly truth by using various symbols like cars and papers science colors to represent different things. One motif or symbol that is evident throughout this novel is weather --which helps. Emotion , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Rain 963 Words | 3 Pages. Significance of the «Weather» Concept for the British vs the Russians. There is one thing in the world, which people are ready to discuss with everyone, everywhere and any time.

It is the weather . In my composition . I am going to speculate about the significance of the weather concept and compare it in Great Britain and in Russia. British people obsessed with the weather . It is a baseball game, a part and old men a parcel of their life. I suppose that the strongest reason for it is the about game, weather’s uncertainty. Squall! «Life at the edge of an ocean and essay about the edge of a continent means you can never. British Empire , British people , Climate 946 Words | 3 Pages. ?A good boss vs. a bad boss Comparing things is something we do every day in our lives and especially when we have to make a decision. History! For . example, we might think of similarities or differences when we are buying something or even the way we are treated in a new job vs. an old one. We may need to essay game evaluate two sides of an issue or projects at bioinformatics research science, our workplace. A good boss communicates effectively, shows great team work and solve problems. A bad boss simply does care how he / she talks to their employees.

Bad , Communication , Employment 1117 Words | 3 Pages. The Difference Between Good and Bad Mothers. Essay About Game! Watts 1 English 101 Section 52 Good and bad mothers Susan straight gives two different outlooks on motherhood a good mother and a . bad mother in Highwire moon you have many different views of good and bad mothers. Many women come from different backgrounds so many kids will be raised differently. Most women will raise their kids in ways that they were raised and some may say that their parenting is bad but that may be the way they raise their children in their culture. Many people have different. 2001 albums , Bad , Family 1271 Words | 3 Pages. Outsourcing Good, Bad , Ugly or All of the Above By Rana Weidman There seems to be no correct stance on squall essay, the case of whether or not Outsourcing . is good or bad for America.

It feels like no matter what we choose there will always be an essay about a baseball, opposition. Essay! I see many children overseas that are hungry. Offshoring jobs to their parents are the only chance they may have for a decent life. On the other hand we are losing jobs and creating an unstable economy. I have read many different sources and about a baseball game I am still.

Bad , Economics , Good and evil 855 Words | 3 Pages. Climate vs Weather Weather is the day-to-day state of the dissertation, atmosphere in a region, and its short-term (minutes to weeks) . variation whereas Climate is essay about a baseball game, defined as statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval. Essay And Effects! They are both used interchangeably sometimes but differ in their measure of time, and trends that affect them. Weather is the combination of essay about game temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind. In popular. Essay Soccer! Climate , Climate change , Meteorology 850 Words | 3 Pages. A good Boss Vs. A Bad Boss In today’s society there is a good boss and essay a baseball game a . bad boss in research paper, every field of work, both have different characteristics and personalities. The way their employees are treated has a huge impact on the employee’s job performance. This is a problem that must be brought out essay about a baseball game, before the research paper, world in order to get it under control.

A good boss and a bad boss both share different characteristics that impact. 2008 singles , Bad , Employment 1348 Words | 4 Pages. Historical Weather Patterns of about a baseball game Michigan. Professor's Name Here Date Here Historical Weather Patterns of essay Michigan Evaluating changes in synoptic patterns is essay about game, tantamount to . understanding regional climate change. To date, the synoptic evaluations that have been done regarding climate change output from bioinformatics research science General Circulation Models have been restricted mainly to about examining changes in storm tracks across large areas. The north generally experiences colder weather compared to the south, but Michigan weather is unpredictable and switches rapidly, especially.

Air pollution , Change , Climate 750 Words | 3 Pages. ?OBSERVING THE WEATHER Lab. Finally, you get to research use those weather stations you bought for class! Be sure to mount your . weather station somewhere that it can collect rain and catch the wind. About! INSTRUCTIONS Make individual observations with your weather gauge for 7 straight days, or at white, least 7 days out of the next 10-day period (but 7 days in a row make it easier to spot a front passing through). Make one set of observations each day at about a baseball game, your own location. If at all possible, the observations should.

Atmospheric pressure , Dimension , Meteorology 1384 Words | 3 Pages. Station), and even broadcast weather conditions using APRS. Weather , of course, is especially near and dear to white essay the hearts of many . hams, since many of us are active as weather spotters during storm season. It occurred to me that being able to automatically beacon weather conditions at my QTH would be especially cool. But alas, I had no weather station, and about I couldn’t see myself spending several hundred bucks to buy one. Of Poverty! But hey, I could design and build a weather station, again using a PIC microcontroller.

EPROM , Microchip Technology , Microcontroller 2341 Words | 7 Pages. Good Bosses VS Bad Bosses Jamie Jeffers COM 155 March 3, 2013 Amber E. Essay! Smith . Most people who work in this world will have a supervisor or boss to report to. Do you know what the characteristics of each kind of boss are? Although they bear some minor similarities, noteworthy differences between a good boss and a bad boss include communication style, work ethics, and job duties. I have had both types. At-will employment , Bad , Boss 1150 Words | 3 Pages. How weather effect your mood? Weather can have more than a little impact on your mood. Researchers in Germany branched out . beyond just sunny and cloudy and looked at essay, temperature, wind, sunlight, rain and snow, air pressure, and how long the about game, days were. The study was led by Jaap Denissen of white squall essay Humboldt University in Berlin. Essay Game! The study had 1,233 participants, all living in Germany at the time.

Most of the participants were women, the average age was 28, with ages spanning from nsf sociology dissertation 13 to about game 68 years old. Study. Hinduism Research! Circadian rhythm , Mood disorder , Rain 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Bad Grades Could Mean You Are a Good Student. Bad Test Scores Could actually be the essay game, Sign of a Good Student This past summer I participated in a program known as CSTEP at Fordham . University, the bioinformatics papers, school I previously planned on attending. The five-week summer program included a Math class, Chemistry class, and a Social Problems class. Math is about, my worst subject; I loathe it with every fiber of my being. Of course we were given exams as a way to nsf sociology dissertation measure our understanding, and about a baseball game because I knew that Math was a weak area for me I studied day and. Bad , Debut albums , Failure 1270 Words | 3 Pages.

Implications of Bad Decision-Making Habits. employees work and welcomed her that she would hesitate to work there anymore. Her vision of the company and the way they work was yet still broad. Like all . decisions made, there are always consequences (both good and bad ) no matter what decisions are made. However, some decisions have more bad consequences than good, and that’s Martha Rinaldi from essay Iowa City earned a MBA in May 2008 from a business school in Chicago. After her first year of MBA program, she had the opportunity to do an internship at the. Bad , Decision making , Deep diving 993 Words | 3 Pages. is cool breeze running through your hair. About A Baseball! It is and effects of poverty, hot on one side and by the time you are in a baseball, the water, the weather just makes you feel good.

You . can smell the research papers, saltwater and the fresh air. The climate at the beach makes you feel so calm and essay a baseball takes you away from all the worries of your busy life. If the weather is perfect at the breach, then only you could enjoy your beach vacation. The weather is perfect, you are with your family and friends, the science, next thing you will do are some fun activities with. Beach , Beach volleyball , English-language films 876 Words | 3 Pages. Anglo-Saxons; ) the Celts; ) the Dutch.

3. Who said: «The world is a stage and people are merely actors»? ) R. Stevenson; ) B. Essay About! Show; ) O. Wild; ) . W. Shakespeare. Nsf Sociology! 19. Read the weather forecast and decide in what season this weather is expected to be: The South East will see the best of today’s weather . It will be warm, no winds, and sunshine nearly all day, with temperatures around ten or fifteen, so quite warm for the time of the year. 4. There are eight public holidays in Great. 1966 , 1967 , 1978 715 Words | 4 Pages. Hot Weather Risks As the summers are approaching and the tempratures have started to rise,so it will have its effects on our bodies.In order . to perform our duties safely and efficiently we need to understand this change in weather and essay game acknowledge the effects and risks associated with it. Because if we are mindful of the and effects, fact that our bodies need to adapt with this change only then we shall be able to do requisite measures to counter it. About! I will not be discussing the risks associated to ground/air. Fatigue , Heat , Hyperthermia 883 Words | 4 Pages.

Prof. Proscia Dispatch Weather In the aviaiton industry weather is essay on causes and effects of poverty, one of the most important subjects. When the . weather changes, there are changes in the conditions of a flight as well. Since weather changes so often, every flight is different. Changes in weather can happen during flights as well as between them. Both dispatchers and pilots have to be ready to deal with various changes in weather conditions and have a plan. Having a good understanding of about a baseball game weather is very important for a dispatcher. Atmospheric pressure , Aviation terminology , Climate 1757 Words | 5 Pages. Paper! Weather Happy or Sad It has long been believed that weather has influence over a baseball game people's mood and behavior. In this experiment, . the emotional disposition (characteristic outlook) of essay on causes of poverty many test subjects will be evaluated on rainy and sunny days to find out if weather can really impact the essay about a baseball, way people feel.

Purpose, Problem Hypothesis, Abstract Materials Procedure Observations Results Conclusion The Purpose: This experiment will evaluate if weather can affect the way people feel. * Weather. Emotion , Feeling , Female 854 Words | 4 Pages. WORKSHEET Interpreting the Weather Map OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this lab, the student should be able to: ? Identify . pressure systems on weather maps ? Develop wind directions/circulation from a pressure pattern on a weather map ? Identify frontal systems on weather maps ? Correlate precipitation and clouds phenomena to hinduism paper pressure patterns and fronts. INTRODUCTION: The History behind Weather Maps Creating a daily weather map was not possible until the. Atmospheric pressure , Climate , Cloud 668 Words | 3 Pages. Weather Symbolism in a Farewell to Arms. the ways in which soldiers fill their time when they are not fighting. Yet Hemingway's realistic approach to his subject does not rule out the use of many . time-honored literary devices. For instance, weather is to this day a fundamental component of the war experience.

Hemingway depicts weather realistically in A Farewell to Arms, but he uses it for symbolic purposes as well. Rain, often equated with life and growth, stands for about a baseball game death in this novel, and snow symbolizes hope: an entirely original. Squall Essay! A Farewell to Arms , Agnes von Kurowsky , American literature 1069 Words | 3 Pages. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WOMEN Introduction Definition of basic terms What is Weather ? The term weather describes the . state of the air at a particular place and time – whether it is essay about, warm or cold, wet or dry, and how cloudy or windy it is, for example. It affects many of the history, things that we do, from the clothes we wear and essay about the food we eat, to where we live and hinduism research paper how we travel. As a result, the weather is of great interest to people everywhere, from meteorologists, the scientists who study it in.

Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 2261 Words | 7 Pages. Our Mood Oualidslim Gharbi Community College of Aurora Extreme Temperatures Affect Our Mood The weather controls every aspect of essay a baseball our daily . lives. It influences our choices and decisions on grumpier old men, what to about a baseball wear, what to eat, and what kind of activities we should do. Ancient civilizations feared and respected the power of the weather . They created and worshiped different weather gods. During extreme weather conditions such as during dry seasons and floods, they used human sacrifices to appeal to the god. Atmospheric pressure , Celsius , Climate 1728 Words | 6 Pages. The First Instance of essay and effects Weather Symbolism in Jane Eyre. in essay about a baseball game, her own home, in which she is treated as an unwelcomed guest, and the author begins to illustrate and convey the feelings of entrapment and constraint to . the reader in this passage, often done with symbolic representation of emotion through the weather and nature in hinduism research paper, gothic novels such as this. She combines this symbolism with desolate diction and a baseball structure that mimics Jane’s daily life to communicate the feeling of imprisonment and hinduism paper constraint experienced at Gateshead. When one lives life. Charlotte Bronte , Emotion , Feeling 1602 Words | 4 Pages. severe weather , although priority will be given to human needs, the welfare of animals is also important. Officials (Local Authorities . and about Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency) will monitor the grumpier old men essay, situation closely in about game, liaison with the RSPCA, NFU, and other organisations who play a role in assisting farmers and pet owners to protect the welfare of their animals.

This page provides general advice on a variety of essay soccer severe weather situations: severe cold weather , floods and essay hot weather Latest. Desalination , Extreme weather , Flood 2010 Words | 6 Pages. desert locations it may rain only on causes, once in several years! There are 5 days called Khamsin between March and April, when sandstorms can occur sporadically, . blowing in different places according to the wind direction. Winter (between October and May) weather is colder than most people anticipate, and cold winds blow over the desert at sunrise and sunset. Even when it is warm outside, it can be surprisingly cold inside the game, massive stone Temples. In winter, showers can fall everywhere, so bring a few items. Desert , Egypt , Humidity 2073 Words | 6 Pages. ?First Draft Weather has a way of hinduism research paper making people feel a certain way, by essay about a baseball game affecting their mood.

Bright and sunny weather tends . to essay and effects make people happier, while dull and dreary weather brings about less appealing emotions, such as grumpiness, sadness, or fear. Tornado weather , especially in tornado alley, is a source of emotion. For many people living in essay game, tornado alley, tornado season offers a mix of fear and excitement. Essay And Effects Of Poverty! However, for essay about a baseball most, when the tornado is actually present, fear tends to take over. Cloud , Rain , Severe weather 974 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the weather On this page What you will study Entry Regulations If you have a disability Study materials Teaching and assessment . Future availability Students also studied How to nsf sociology dissertation register Student reviews Distance learning This course provides an essay a baseball game, introduction to weather patterns and essay events around the world, explaining the main drivers that determine the weather on a seasonal and daily basis. Essay About Game! You’ll explore how the professional weather forecasts for your area have been made and how reliable.

Atmospheric pressure , Climate , Extreme weather 1620 Words | 6 Pages. Helium Weather Balloons A weather balloon is a scientific instrument used by meteorologists to research paper measure the essay about, activity of the . Hinduism Research! world's weather . Weather balloons are sent into the air every day, all over a baseball game the world; they are sent up at the same time, and they are used to measure a variety of atmospheric pressures, temperatures, and wind rates. The data collected by weather balloons is saved and transmitted by the radiosonde. Essay Of Poverty! Sensors in the radiosonde record data and use a radio transmitter to send. Atmospheric pressure , Balloon , Hot air balloon 803 Words | 3 Pages.

Anthropogenic Activities Have Modified Weather and Climate. change is the alteration of weather and climate attributes orvariables and essay game it is a result of an interplay of research factors Climate ranging . from natural phenomenon to human factors [Zhakata and Makarau 1995] .Major components of the climate system include ,temperature , precipitation,humidity, pressure and essay about game others . According to bioinformatics research papers Waugh [2000] climate refers to the longterm atmospheric behaviour while weather refers to essay a baseball game the state of the atmosphere at a local level and on a short term. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate 1612 Words | 5 Pages. Primo Levi's Survival in nsf sociology dissertation, Auschwitz: Weather and Seasonal Change. 2012 Primo Levi’s Survival in Auschwitz Weather and Seasonal Change I. Introduction In Primo Levi’s Survival in Auschwitz, there is a clear . A Baseball! consensus that the weather and seasonal change played a significant role in the lives of the Auschwitz camp prisoners. The climate affected every aspect of being but more specifically the prisoner’s work ethic and welfare. The prisoners endured dreadful living conditions that were either amplified with cold weather or minimized by warmth. Papers Science! II. Living Conditions.

Auschwitz concentration camp , Climate , Primo Levi 1285 Words | 4 Pages. Third World and Hyper Globalization. ?The Good, Bad , And Ugly Side Of Globalization For most of the game, period since World War II, globalization posted steady increases. But today, we . find ourselves in research, an age of ambiguity. Some exult about “hyper globalization,” 1. With one source predicting that global flows could triple by 2025. 2. Essay About A Baseball! But others worry that the “age of globalization” that defined the grumpier, last few decades may have ended and essay a baseball game started going into reverse. Bioinformatics! This ambiguity adds to the importance of measuring globalization. About! GLOBALIZATION. Bad , Debt , Good and soccer evil 867 Words | 4 Pages. Essay About A Baseball Game! Good vs.

Evil “The novel invokes oppositions of good/evil, virgin/whore, self/other, but moves beyond them, avoiding the false choices they imply and . dictate,” (McDowell 79). Sula is essay, portrayed as bad /evil, and a liar/betrayer to the people around her. She has been gone from the bottoms for ten years and then returns unknowingly. Nel, Sula’s bestfriend, is thought to essay be good and caring towards Sula always trying to be a good friend to her. Every time something goes wrong in the Bottoms, it is. Andreas Wilson , Bad , Core issues in ethics 1349 Words | 3 Pages. THANK YOU, TEACHER The weather is wet outside and the sky is gloomy, almost describing the feelings of many around me. As I sit here . through this memorial, a thousand and one thoughts run through my mind.

This is the of poverty, final time I will see the lady who saved my life. I can’t help but to a baseball go back to bioinformatics research papers the years when I first met her. I was a Form 1 student who excelled in my UPSR examinations and got myself enrolled into an elite school. I was a happy child who loved life because life. Bad , Family , Father 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Lesson Type: Vocabulary and Grammar Subject: What is the weather like today? Lesson objective: Students identifying and describing the . weather Assumptions: Ss know basic vocabulary: weather , temperature, degrees, cold, warm, snow, storm, etc. STRATEGY 1 - PRESENTATION Interaction Patterns: TS, ST Timing: 20 min Purpose of Procedure: To interest students, to learn the vocabulary Materials needed: Pictures with different weathers , stickies with adjectives: cloudy, cold, foggy, freezing. Berlin , Cloud , Fog 561 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Weather on Our Mood Often we hear people talking about how weather affects their activities and eventually their . moods.

We do not need to be meteorologist nor psychologist to realize that there is a link between weather and mood. With prevalent studies and valuable research, many seem to think that the link is merely the fact that weather gives people insight into a baseball game the views about essay, life and how to understand them. Researchers found that the two types of important variables to determine. Cloud , Extreme weather , Meteorology 967 Words | 3 Pages. Essay About A Baseball Game! Severe Weather in Texas Research Notes * Sudden fronts can drop the temperatures as much as 20 degrees in an hour (During severe . weather ) * January 9th 2012- That years first confirmed tornado with hail the hinduism research paper, size of ping pong balls (Houston and Galveston) * April 6, 2012- More than a dozen tornadoes ripped through north Texas, there were as many as 19 in essay a baseball game, progress at a time, the strongest one reaching an EF4. -Forney EF3, wind speeds up to 150 mph “ It was like a bomb hit”-Patti Gilroy. Severe weather , Storm , Thunderstorm 651 Words | 3 Pages. Essay History! Summer Severe Weather Geoff Coulson Warning Preparedness Meteorologist Environment Canada Sept 11 2009 ICLR Friday Forum 1 Contents . • • • • Ontario Storm Prediction Centre Forecasting Technology Watch/Warning Program A closer look at August 20th tornado outbreak 2 Ontario Storm Prediction Centre Toronto 3 Radar data… 4 Weather Technology 5 Satellite Data… 6 Computer Models… 7 Forecast Area of Responsibility 8 Scale of a Summer Storm 9 . Meteorology , Severe weather , Storm 644 Words | 6 Pages.

I believe that a good movie such as The Shawshank Redemption (which is my all-time favorite movie) should not only entertain and able to essay game relate to old men essay all . audiences. Premium Space Weather over in studies as of yet, or so I thought. Heliophysics which is the science of space weather . NASA, (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration), was put. Premium My Favorite Dogs Credibility: I have two dogs, a Chihuahua and essay a baseball game a Boston Terrier. III. Preview. Alton Brown , Climate , Climate change 525 Words | 3 Pages. with five mph winds. Papers! You are flipping through channels just hoping for one of them to say something different because this bitter chilly . weather is never a good start for a day.

It always seems to about a baseball game cause trouble, attacking the five senses in the most rough, dreadful, unsatisfying ways and makes me feel like an Eskimo living in Alaska or Greenland. With this weather you best believe many people are going to be late for essay soccer history work, school or any place they need to be. Waking up in the morning is the hard. Debut albums , Ice , Meteorology 518 Words | 2 Pages. How to about write?

Contents • • • • Explore various Structures Writing Process Keys to paper good writing Delivering Bad News Explore Various . Structures Structures: Company Introduction • HOOK • Content – WIIFM/USP – Clients – Testimonials • Summary Structures: Proposal 1. 2. 3. Essay About! 4. 5. 6. Nsf Sociology! 7. 8. 9. Situation Appraisal Objectives Measures of success Value to XYZ Timing Methodology Options Joint Accountabilities Terms Conditions Acceptance Structures: Articles 1. A Baseball Game! 2. Hinduism! 3. 4. About Game! Executive. Bad , Good , Goods 901 Words | 4 Pages. Essay! Geo-Engineering: Controlling the Climate and Weather. ? Geo-Engineering: Controlling the Climate and essay Weather Recall the pleasure derived from the last time you took a walk through a park on essay, . a day when the weather was perfect. The sunshine was bright, the temperature was perfect, and perhaps there was a slight breeze that left you the ultimate feeling of refreshment as it caressed your face. Or perhaps you can remember the a baseball game, last time you enjoyed the sounds and smells of a light April shower that left the trees and grass looking so green and the. Chemtrail conspiracy theory , Climate , Cloud seeding 1511 Words | 4 Pages. poor life in the country.

One evening we were ( ) some relatives and soccer history the weather was very bad . It rained so hard that the roads . were ( ) with water. Essay A Baseball! On our way home that evening, my Dad ( ) me on nsf sociology dissertation, his back. My Mom ( )my elder brother’s hand, and held an about, umbrella for Dad and me. Dad gave his ( ) to my elder brother. As you can ( ), many country roads are difficult to walk on. This road was especially bad after the of poverty, rain. However, we ( )together through the mud. Bad , Family , Father 697 Words | 3 Pages. effect, combines with the heat imbalance founded on essay a baseball game, Earth to create distinct global wind systems that transport colder air to warmer areas and warmer air to white essay . colder areas. The end result is the balancing of heat energy on Earth. Jet Streams: Earth’s weather is strongly influenced by essay a baseball game atmospheric conditioned and events that occur at the boundaries between wind zones.

On either side of these imaginary boundaries, both surface and essay soccer upper-level air differs greatly in temperature and pressure. Remember that. About! Air mass , Atmospheric dynamics , Coriolis effect 1289 Words | 4 Pages. Character Analysis on Greasy Lake. Hinduism Research! Character Analysis of the Round Characters in “Greasy Lake” T. About A Baseball! Coraghessan Boyle’s “Greasy Lake” deals with three young and naive teenagers who think they . are invincible and hardcore characters. I know we call all relate to this feeling of being bad when we were teenagers. Staying out late, driving down the highways with our radios blaring, thinking to ourselves this is what life is all about. Because of the descriptions of squall clothing ,music references, and other small comments the narrator gives. Bad , English-language films , Fiction 952 Words | 3 Pages. either its bad , good .This all comes together to one word reputation. Essay A Baseball! It’s very important to hinduism research paper know the aspect of the crowd’s races and nations. . Reputation is labeled critic usual opinion popular opninon which means the view quality . Society is essay game, revolving around reputation all the grumpier, time in essay a baseball game, Books ,History writings TMZ a paparazzi cast , news ,numbers . The Definintion products sports importance is in reputation The significance of reputation is and effects of poverty, so fragile that it can be so good or bad . Reputation. Aerosmith , Bad , Billy Ray Cyrus 1947 Words | 6 Pages.

Reaction on President Noynoy's 3rd Sona. help people who badly need health benefits from the government. Adding sin tax to cigarettes and liquor can help, but I think they should also try adding it . to bottled drinks and junk foods. About A Baseball! Consuming bottled drinks and essay history junk foods is essay, not bad , but the plastic is bad for the environment, and some people just don’t care whether they throw their garbage properly or not. He also promised to build sufficient infrastructure before the end of his term in nsf sociology, 2016. This includes construction and improvement. Bad , Bill Clinton , Economic growth 763 Words | 3 Pages. who their children become friends with, this gives total freedom to the children to do whatever they like and wherever they like. Essay A Baseball Game! The negative impact is research science, that . students will misuse the about, freedom given by their parents and may be influenced to carry out bad things that have been taught by their peers. Moreover, the nsf sociology dissertation, second reason is that they have no interest in their studies. A Baseball! This causes them to skip school.

They rather prefer going to cyber cafes than learn in school. In addition, there have. Bad , Education , Form of the Good 1059 Words | 4 Pages. Grumpier Old Men Essay! sentence. 0.5 points) a tennis racket b. Describe the a baseball, form utility of this good. Is the form utility good or bad ? Can you think of ways to . improve it? (2-5 sentences. 1.0 points) the form of and effects utility is a baseball, excellent.

The only way I can think of improving is to increase the grip so that it wont slip out soccer, o peoples hand easily c. Describe the place utility of this good. Is the place utility good or bad ? Can you think of about a baseball game ways to nsf sociology dissertation improve it? (2-5 sentences. 1.0 points) the place utility is also excellent. Bad , Form of the Good , Lemon 1033 Words | 4 Pages. and they get so annoyed. However some sportsmen are enthusiastic about their sports and are good sportsmen, but a small bunch let them down by doing stupid . things for example, fixed bets, swearing and racial comments. I feel that the reason for about a baseball bad sportsmanship increasing is that people are being paid far too much in my opinion.

This makes people too big for their boots and dissertation increases the amount of boasting and also because there so full of them self they feel that it is ok to get arrested, make. American football , Animal Collective , Bad 1474 Words | 5 Pages. a “hotshot” or a “good for nothing” and he hates the fact that is who he is and what he is known as. He dislikes his life and doesn’t know why he does the . things he does but it seems like he is almost forced to hang out essay, with the wrong crowd and do bad things because no one gives him the chance to do better. This is the reason that Jack is a self-hating rebel, because he hates the hinduism research, way he is and wants to game be better but he can’t be controlled to be something he isn’t. No matter where Jack goes to white squall school. 2005 singles , A Good Thing , Acts of the Apostles 1020 Words | 3 Pages.

Weather Forecasting In researching this project I was amazed to find the many books on essay a baseball game, this topic. After going through much information and . reading an enormous amount of writing on nsf sociology dissertation, weather forecasting I can only come to one conclusion that when all is considered the best forecasters can only game, give an educated guess of hinduism paper what is in store for weather . Through the essay, many means at their disposal, such as satellites, ships at the ocean, infrared, radio, and radar transmissions even with all of these techniques. Forecasting , Future , Meteorology 983 Words | 3 Pages. are willing to pay full price for products or services. Moreover,p eople are going to tell their friends about the experience. If a business gives 100s of . people a good or bad customer experience, these same people will then tell their 100s of friends and essay very quickly you have created a viral word of mouth that could be good or bad depending. It advertises your business. A Groupon promotion can be a way to announce the about, existence of your business to consumers who are unfamiliar with your products. Bad , Business , Commerce 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Essay And Effects! ?PROVERBS 1. A bad workman always blames his tools - It is not the tools we use which make us good, but rather how we employ them 2. Absence . makes the heart grow fonder - When someone or something is faraway, you realise how much you love (or miss) them or it 3. Essay A Baseball! A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush - It is preferable to have a small but certain advantage than a mere potential of a greater one 4. A cat may look at a king - A purported inferior has certain abilities, even in the presence of. A rolling stone gathers no moss , Bad , Better Than Ezra 983 Words | 2 Pages. Weather Fronts: Understanding the Movement of Air Lesson Plan on types of weather fronts with various conceptual demonstrations . By: Craig O’Connell and Jack Hord A. State Standards Addressed a. Paper! Standard 6.1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of technological design and scientific inquiry, including process skills, mathematical thinking, controlled investigative design and game analysis, and problem solving. i. Indicator 6-1.1: Use appropriate tools and dissertation instruments.

Air mass , Hot air balloon , Meteorology 1197 Words | 4 Pages.

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40 Useful Words and essay, Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and soccer, the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the essay about a baseball game right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Research Papers Science. Developing the language skills to a baseball game, build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the essay words and phrases you need to essay about game, write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and hinduism, there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at language for about a baseball, general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an research science, explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in about a baseball game a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.

Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on old men essay the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and about a baseball game, can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of research papers science wording a problem may help the a baseball reader achieve a better understanding of grumpier old men essay its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. Essay. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. Dissertation. That is to essay a baseball, say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to soccer history, “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”

Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the essay game mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an white squall essay, argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of essay a baseball a sentence to paper, add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of essay a baseball game a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in essay soccer history support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the essay about only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”

Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to and effects of poverty, Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to essay game, what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to essay history, react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to essay about game, remember is on causes and effects of poverty, that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”

Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to essay about a baseball game, X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an nsf sociology, extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only a baseball, did Edmund Hillary have the honour of bioinformatics research science being the first to essay game, reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the research science statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. Essay. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to old men, mention/to say nothing of.

Usage : “Not to about game, mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to paper, millions of about game people, not to mention its impact on essay soccer history the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for essay, demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. Papers. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and about a baseball game, interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of hinduism paper evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to essay, suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of research papers what happened that day.”

Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the a baseball other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and white squall essay, contrasting pieces of game evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is squall essay, based on insufficient evidence. Essay Game. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Of Poverty. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”

Usage : This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to about a baseball game, this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations.

Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in essay the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the essay about results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to research papers science, consider a point in the knowledge of essay a baseball something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to research paper, draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the about game same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to essay soccer, obtain it.”

Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for essay about game, its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the paper workings of the essay a baseball game human mind.”

Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the soccer expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an essay a baseball game, illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to essay on causes, demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the game same period.”

Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the hinduism first of a baseball game these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from research paper Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the essay about a baseball game arguments on essay soccer both sides and a baseball, reached the most likely conclusion. Old Men. Here are some words and phrases to about a baseball, help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an research, essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to essay game, signify what you believe to essay on causes, be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay.

Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to essay game, remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by papers, financial gain – seems to me to essay about a baseball game, be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of white squall these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below!

221 Responses to a baseball, “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at on causes and effects 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for junior as well as to essay about, senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at nsf sociology 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at about 3:54 pm, felix said:

September 17, 2017 at hinduism 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at about game 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It’s really useful! November 26, 2016 at white squall essay 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said: This the real RedKeyMon? May 26, 2017 at 2:28 pm, inosh said: September 07, 2016 at 12:04 am, winter the savage said: yeh these words are lit. October 15, 2016 at 6:19 pm, Freya said:

Thanks!! I have to right an essay on essay a baseball game the battle of hastings and I really need to widen my vocab! It really helped December 12, 2016 at bioinformatics 1:13 pm, rose said: great thanks,now i know how to use big words in an argumentative essay. April 18, 2017 at essay about game 4:55 pm, nikie said: very very useful! May 26, 2017 at old men 9:13 am, Anthony said:

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Thanks so much, this is really going to help my essay. I’m already a good writer, all I needed was a good source of words, and grumpier old men essay, this was it. I will recommend this website to my friends and I definitely will be checking what other information you guys have. Thanks! May 06, 2015 at 3:08 pm, Danny said: Thank you for your help. Essay About Game. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at research paper 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said:

Thank you, for your excellent choice of essay about words oxford is very hard on you as it is one of the essay and effects top schools so I appreciate these words. May 16, 2015 at 5:31 am, Aleena said: These words are quite knowledgeable to me because when I was writing an essay my phrases are so absurd to put it another way these words make my essay beautiful. Thank you for providing such words. May 19, 2015 at 4:50 pm, juules said: ostensibly appears? tautologies seem to be a thing in the english language. May 25, 2015 at 8:56 am, gimhan savinda said: This was great, thanks a lot for these meaningful words. Essay. Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner.

Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about of poverty, black’s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. For example, ‘As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to remember is about a baseball, that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly – they are not a series of points that are additive. Soccer. They are causally related, i.e. About Game. one is old men essay, a consequence of the other. I believe this is essay game, better, both logically and stylistically: ‘Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the essay and effects importance of improving the relationship between humankind and nature.’ You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said:

March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for a baseball game, 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, “In order to” can simply to be “To.” June 02, 2015 at essay 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. June 05, 2015 at about 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I’m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I’m sure i can score an A now #128512;

June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above. June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said:

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September 02, 2015 at 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper. September 10, 2015 at 3:31 am, Sarah said: what a great help in teaching children in writing essay…… September 16, 2015 at 8:04 am, josphat lowoi said: Good work..I greatly appreciate. September 21, 2015 at 2:45 pm, David said: September 23, 2015 at 1:04 am, haripriya said: Thanks a lot! It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at and effects of poverty 4:47 pm, Joanna said:

This is helpful! Thanks for about, sharing! October 06, 2015 at on causes and effects of poverty 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for about, example, “Jacob states that teachers need to nsf sociology dissertation, consider the about learning abilities of all students” or “Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of essay ESL learners”. Essay About Game. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, “so-and-so states that…” October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful.

Furthermore, I don’t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at dissertation 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at essay 3:29 pm, Missy said:

Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of essay soccer interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of essay a baseball cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of papers course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of about a baseball game language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of history note, and essay about a baseball game, what makes it tedious and monotonous?

The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at squall essay 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful.

im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an essay about game, advantageous impact..in my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for nsf sociology, the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for game, this helpful article.

One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in nsf sociology dissertation a series of a baseball two items? November 21, 2015 at essay 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at essay about a baseball game 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for hinduism paper, other posts. November 29, 2015 at about game 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to hinduism research paper, agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. “To put it another way” and game, “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and essay, should be avoided in essay about a baseball game original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of grumpier old men “In conclusion” to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to essay, avoid it, and hinduism research paper, I am not the only one who feels this way.

To quote the essay a baseball Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations. But. readers can see, by hinduism research paper, the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an about game, essay is about to end. Essay. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.”

If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and about game, above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. Nsf Sociology Dissertation. said: * Assuming, of course, that my “comment above” is actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense… December 07, 2015 at essay 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the grumpier old men record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. I will use these words in content of my site in order to a baseball game, get best rankings.

December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them. December 10, 2015 at of poverty 1:51 pm, cp8 said: This is essay about game, easily the essay go-to site when I write essays. Thank you! August 05, 2017 at 10:48 pm, abdo raheem said: January 04, 2016 at 2:41 pm, panthe veroski said: Thank you, it’s so useful! January 19, 2016 at 8:33 pm, BOB said: really good, I loved it! Would really help in essay game my test. January 19, 2016 at 8:34 pm, daddyshrekked said:

Fantastic, wouldn’t do that well without it. January 28, 2016 at 12:52 pm, yahya said: it is very helpful idea because i have exam thxn. January 31, 2016 at 3:24 am, Alex Joseph said: THANK YOU so much!! January 31, 2016 at 4:08 am, Jass said: Yes, it really works in my essay writing. Thanks, and essay on causes, the best thing is I am finding some more useful vocab words from about a baseball game other’s replies.:) November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: Oke i kno now veri muchh. February 04, 2016 at 3:54 pm, James said: Wow, this is really something valuable to me!

I will have to jolt down all this and use them in old men essay my academic writing tmr. February 05, 2016 at 6:26 am, hanna said: AMAZING. VERY USEFUL. THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 10, 2016 at about 9:37 am, Shruthi said: Not useful…I want idioms and phrases please. February 12, 2016 at 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is worth bearing in soccer history mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at a disadvantage.

You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is vital to acquiring fluency in any language – you might enjoy our article on some of the about a baseball more bizarre idioms in the English language! Best of squall luck in your studies, February 17, 2016 at 2:58 pm, reyan said: Thanks it came in essay about a baseball handy. February 20, 2016 at 5:20 pm, Unknown said: I think this might help me to papers, improve my essays. Thanks to whoever gave such great words#128522; February 28, 2016 at about game 6:04 pm, Divya said:

In all probability I find this this things very helpful which would surely enhance my essay. February 29, 2016 at 1:28 am, Tanya Roy said: this phases helped me in 10th board icsc examination….. thanks a lot #128512; February 29, 2016 at old men 2:39 am, shubham said: I think this might help me to improve my essays. Thanks to essay about a baseball, whoever gave such great words#128522;

March 03, 2016 at 7:30 pm, Abhishek Mandge said: Its really useful for old men, me. March 07, 2016 at 11:33 am, ashrin said: March 14, 2016 at 2:03 pm, Lekesh said: Thanks a lot….Helped me very much !! Really thanks for making this!! April 13, 2016 at a baseball 3:20 pm, Jiya Goyal said: thanks a lot…,helped me very much!! April 21, 2016 at 3:30 am, Juanaye goodall said: This words are really going to help me in my graded essay tomorrow. April 23, 2016 at 1:29 pm, lyricist chaani said: it was really very usefull for essay soccer, me . so i am alluding to other students to use above lines. April 29, 2016 at essay about game 1:12 pm, Vape Naysh V/ said: tanks m8 ( ?° ?? ?°)

May 01, 2016 at 12:07 pm, Asuna Yuuki said: Very useful for nsf sociology dissertation, essay writing. Thanks a lot. May 04, 2016 at 3:58 am, SJAll said: Quentin Crisp, upon being asked to give advice to aspiring writers replied: “Never read. About. This is research paper, very important. if you read books in order to essay about game, improve your writing style, you will find yourself trying to write literature, instead of nsf sociology saying what you really mean. It’s very important not to get caught up trying to write better American prose. About Game. Don’t do any such thing. Just try to white squall essay, think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the words except the ones that say what I mean. And then your writing will be fine.

You have the most wonderful writers in America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there’s no floweriness, no literary effect, in essay about a baseball the work of Damon Runyon, he is essay, as neat as he can possibly be. One of his stories begins ‘Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime.’ March 23, 2017 at 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser’s book “On Writing Well.” He emphasizes clarity in writing, and no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at 1:43 pm, angielski said:

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39 steps essay by George Perry. A Baseball Game? . . . in the dedication of The Thirty-Nine Steps to Tommy Nelson, Buchan said that his aim was to write 'romance where the incidents defy the probabilities, and march just inside the borders of the possible. ' 'That's a pretty good formula for the thriller of old men any kind,' said Raymond Chandler when he read the passage.Janet Adam Smith. John Buchan: A Biography (Little, Brown, and Co. , 1965) 1 Let's start with a real pedant's quibble: Is it The Thirty-Nine Steps or The 39 Steps? Wouldn't it be cleaner/clearer if Buchan's novel was referred to essay game, as The Thirty-Nine Steps and Hitchcock's film was The 39 Steps? Unfortunately, critics and reviewers use both the number and the number spelled out bioinformatics research papers when referring to Hitchcock's film. Foolish consistency, someone said, is the hobgoblin of little minds. But, I ask you, how does the game, title appear on the film? Isn't The 39 Steps the movie? 2 When The 39 Steps opened in New York City in September of 1935, Andre Sennwald reviewed it for bioinformatics papers, The New York Times. He wrote: If you can imagine Anatole France writing a detective story, you will have some notion of the artistry that Mr. Hitchcock brings to the screen version of John Buchan's novel.Why Anatole France, of all people, I wonder? Why not try to imagine John Keats writing a detective story?

Or, Franz Liszt?And suppose I cannot imagine Anatole France writing a detective story? What then? 3 Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps is the most romantic of all his movies. But what do we mean by about game romantic? Romantic, I think, means that when a handsome man and a beautiful woman are handcuffed together for a number of hours, neither of them has to go to the bathroom. That is one definition of old men romantic. 4 Dragnet, of course, is anti-romantic. Just the facts, Ma'am. Just the facts.Going to the bathroom is a definite fact of game real life but, as Alfred Hitchcock told Truffaut, To insist that a story teller stick to dissertation, the facts is just as ridiculous as to essay about game, demand of a representation painter that he show objects accurately. 5 My young son Matthew says, Hitchcock likes trains, doesn't he?

The 39 Steps. The Lady Vanishes. Strangers On A Train. North By Northwest. The circus train episode in grumpier old men essay Sabotage. The list no doubt can be extended.Mysteries on trains are romantic because trains give freedom of movement within the movement. To be inside an automobile or airplane is to be trapped. Mysteries that take place upon the Los Angeles Freeway are most likely not Romantic. 6 A madman's thesis: Trains represent romanticism. Airplanes, classicism. Automobiles belong to realism.

Bus travel is naturalism. Large ships are also romantic, as is the sea itself. The sky is classical. The earth is realism and naturalism. Am I going out of my mind? 7 Films almost always show objects accurately.

Handcuffs, for example. What Hitchcock said about essay about, The 39 Steps (and quoted by history Donald Spoto) was: What interests me is the drama of essay game being handcuffed. We might note, in light of Hitchcock's assertion that the sentence, As the nsf sociology dissertation, handcuffs clinked on his wrists I said my last word to him, occurs on the final page of Buchan's novel. (p. 126 of a baseball Penguin Books. It is essay, a short novel). Essay? 8 Why must critics labor so mightily to give Hitchcock's works moresubstance than the and effects of poverty, films can bear?

For example, when Rohmer and essay a baseball, Chabrol discuss the final scene of The 39 Steps, they write: Here, in fact, Hitchcock shows us the mechanism of confession and how it works. Burdened with a bothersome and tormenting knowledge (it is absurd and meaningless: an research incomprehensible physics formula) Mr. Memory, after having recited it as though he were vomiting it up, dies saying, I'm glad that's off my mind. In itself, of course, this underlying theme is not enough to give value to The Thirty-Nine Steps, but it adds a precious stone to the construction of the Hitchcockian Universe, outlined in his very first film. Essay About A Baseball Game? 9 A number of old men points in game the above quotation are open to dispute.

First, Mr. Soccer History? Memory is not making a confession. He is essay a baseball game, telling the formula to a person to whom he has been assured it is all right to tell it to. The need to confess may well play important roles in later Hitchcock films (I Confess, e.g.), but not in this one. Memory's regurgitation is by no means a confession. Confession comes from the soul, not from the mind only. Confession is not regurgitation. It is a confrontation, a relationship, a discovery of one's self in essay on causes and effects of poverty relation to a moral vision of the universe and beyond. Unstuffing one's head is not confession.The need to confess is game, not one of the underlying themes in The 39 Steps. 10 Hitchcock sees Mr.

Memory's final moments, not as confession, but as a man doing his duty: The whole idea is that man is doomed by his sense of duty. Mr. Memory knows what the thirty-nine steps are, and when he is asked the question, he is compelled to essay soccer history, give the answers. Essay Game? The schoolteacher in The Birds does for the same reason. (Truffaut/Hitchcock) 11 But doing one's duty to whom? To one's self. Confession is doing one's duty to God. Nsf Sociology? Dancers need to dance. Birds need to fly--(didn' t Cole Porter or someone write lyrics to that idea?). A man who makes his living by memorizing facts needs to display his skill. 12 The formula memorized by Mr. About A Baseball Game? Memory is essay on causes of poverty, a meaningless to us (and probably to the world of physics too) but not in the context of the drama.

We have to believe that Richard Hannay believes it is important, that our hero has kept important information from reaching England' s enemies or why the rushing about in the first place? The fact that we, the audience, feel the formula is essay, only hokum adds comedic irony to the final scene--but that irony is outside the film itself. Nsf Sociology Dissertation? Dramatic irony always stands outside the work of art itself. 13 Just as we know right from the about a baseball game, beginning that the Robert Donat/Madeleine Carroll characters are destined to fall in love. Nsf Sociology Dissertation? What we know outside the drama--i.e. that the hero, no matter how many times his life is threatened, will not be killed, and that the villains will be brought to justice--makes it possible to relax and enjoy what we discover inside the drama. A Baseball Game? That is why real life is very rarely a drama. We are, except when we are creating philosophy, inside all of the time. 14 Any Hitchcock fan who sits through The 39 Steps can see at once a prefiguring of key images, scenes and ideas that Hitchcock will return to in his later work. The notion of a group of spies carrying some important secrets out of the country is reworked to great advantage in North By Northwest. Richard Hannay trapped in a public political hall foreshadows Cary Grant in the art gallery.

Why does The 39 Steps remind me so much of squall essay North By Northwest? 15 Do the corset salesmen anticipate the super-brassiere illustrator in Vertigo? Hitchcock and underwear. The basis for about, a new Ph.D. study. Janet Leigh in her slip and bioinformatics science, bra in Psycho. The rape scene in Frenzy. Etc.

16 The first rule of adapting a novel to the screen: Compress. Compress some more. About A Baseball Game? Compress the time. Compress the characterizations. Compress everything. In James Buchan's novel, Richard Hannay's strange houseguest remains in Hanney's flat for a few days. In the bioinformatics papers science, film the houseguest (changed from male to female) remains only a few hours.Novelists can take their time; dramatists can only take their audience' s time. Time is always of the essence. 17 Further notes on film adaptation.

Although it is obvious to point out just how greatly Hitchcock's movie differs from a baseball game (and improves upon) John Buchan's novel, I find it intriguing to note how the screenplay writers (Charles Bennett, Alma Reveille [though why she received screen credit is anybody's guess] and Ian Hay) may have been inspired by phrases, sentences and images in the novel: 18 Julia, Julia. Where is Julia? (He mentioned the name of a woman- -Julia Czechenyi--as having something to do with the dangle.) In the film, does she become Annabella, the squall essay, woman who dies in the flat? 19 There is essay a baseball game, no Mr. Memory in the novel, but in the book, the following exchange takes place:The one thing that puzzles me, said the General, is what good his visit here would do that spy fellow? He could not carry away several pages of figures and strange names in his head.That is not difficult, the Frenchman replied. A good spy is trained to have a photographic memory.One can imagine the screenplay writers reading and rereading that line, and then the wheels begin to turn.

20 Then there is Richard Hannay's completely naive and research papers, innocent walk right into the enemy's house:As he spoke his eyelids seemed to tremble and to fall a little over his keen grey eyes. In a flash the phrase of about a baseball Scudder's came back to me, when he had described the man he most dreaded in the world. He said that he 'could hood his eyes like a hawk.' Then I saw that I had walked straight into the enemy's headquarters. (p.73) 21 Changing hooded eyes (Can't we, when we wink, all hood our eyes like a hawk I wonder? Wink. Hoodwink.) to a missing finger is marvelous. That's another difference between a born novelist and a born filmmaker. To show the hooded eyelids, the filmmaker would have to on causes of poverty, cut to closeup. Too cumbersome. And note how Hitch introduces the touch of macabre humor into the scene. Are you sure it is not this hand?

22 Gene D. Phillips, in his book on Alfred Hitchcock (Twayne Publishers, 1984), says that Jordan literally shows his hand by essay a baseball holding it up, so Hannay can see that it is missing one fingertip, which is also a symbolic tip-off that the power-mad Jordan is maimed psychologically as well as physically.Are all persons with missing fingertips maimed psychologically? Why must critics work so hard? 23 Hannay whistling Mr. Essay History? Memory's theme and not being able to essay game, recall where he has heard it. Papers? In the novel: I swung along that road whistling. Essay About Game? But whistling what? Here the adapter's imagination takes off. 24 There's two chaps below looking for you. In the movie, two spies come to essay soccer, the inn to search for Hannay and Pamela. 25 Back to Andre Sennwald. In his review, he noted (accurately I believe) Hitchcock's whiplike revelations: Perhaps the identifying hallmark of his method is its apparent absence of accent in the climaxes, which are upon essay about a baseball game the spectator like a slap in the face before he has set himself for the blow.

In such episodes as the murder of the woman in Hannay' s apartment, the icy ferocity of the man with the missing finger when he casually shoots Hannay, or the brilliantly managed sequences on the train, the action progresses through seeming indifference to whip- like revelations. 26 In his interview with Truffault, Hitchcock himself openly declared: What I like in The Thirty-Nine Steps are the swift transitions. Research Papers Science? Of course, any film editor can create swift transitions. Just look at television commercials. What makes the essay a baseball, swift transitions so pertinent and powerful in essay The 39 Steps are that they are the accents. 27 Another note on the adaptation. The Bible in the pocket. Mr. Turnbull himself opened to me--sober and something more than sober. He was primly dressed in about a baseball game an ancient but well-tended suit of black; he had been shaved not later than the night before; he wore a linen collar; and in his left hand he carried a pocket Bible.

28 Hitchcock, of course, was a persistent and sometimes mean practical joker. Robert Donat recalled his first meeting with Madeleine Carroll on the set of The 39 Steps: On our first morning at the studio, immediately after being introduced, we were shackled in a pair of handcuffs, each having one hand imprisoned, and hinduism research paper, commenced to act a scene. About A Baseball Game? Such a start was not exactly helpful in establishing relations, we thought, and these feelings were not lessened when, at the conclusion of the scene 'Hitch' lost the key of the handcuffs! For nearly an hour Madeleine and I shared this enforced companionship, while the hunt for white, the key of the handcuff was sustained. There was nothing else to about a baseball, do, so we talked of our mutual friends, of our ambitions, and of film matters generally.

Gradually our reserve thawed as we exchanged experiences. When Hitch saw that we were getting along famously, he extracted the 'missing' key from essay soccer history his waistcoat pocket, released us, and said, with a satisfied grin, 'Now that you two know each other we can go ahead.'Quoted by Kenneth Barrow in Mr. Chips: The Life Of Robert Donat (Metheun,1985) 30 In his collection of about a baseball game Hollywood trivia, Michael Caine retells the above anecdote and then adds:. . . Essay History? Mr. Hitchcock showed what some people thought was an unhealthy interest in knowing how they'd cope with the call of nature. (Michael Caine's Moving Picture Show, St. A Baseball Game? Martin's Press, 1988.) 31 Men have been handcuffed together and, chained together, have made their escapes-- e.g., Stanley Kramer's The Defiant Ones. But a man and papers, a woman handcuffed together is always more dramatic, for no matter what dangers the a baseball, couple face together, there is that other danger, the sexual danger, that each must face alone. Will they or won't they?

Why not?Hence the second rule of film adaptation: Where two men are involved, change one of the men to bioinformatics research, a woman, and voila! the film immediately becomes richer and more complex. Essay About Game? More romantic. To me, My Girl Friday is, in every way, superior to The Front Page. Hinduism Research Paper? Where the about, play revolved around two men, the essay of poverty, film revolves around a man and essay about a baseball game, a woman. The man/woman drama, with its promise of romance, love, sex, continuance of the human race, etc. is nsf sociology, difficult to beat. Essay About A Baseball Game? 32 William Rothman's essay on The 39 Steps in his book--Hitchcock: The Murderous Gaze (Harvard University Press, 1982)--in perhaps the longest essay on the movie yet published (and sometimes the most silly)- -recounts the first meeting of Pamela and Richard Hannay in a railroad compartment.

Running from the authorities, Hannay rushes in, embraces her, and tries to win her to his side. Rothman writes:When (Pamela) relaxes her hold on her reading glasses, must we not imagine that she is transported by an erotic fantasy, that is from a fantasy of making love that Hannay awakens her when he enters his pleas? Then does she avenge herself on this man for daring to research papers science, desire her or for denying desire for her? For awakening her desire or for refusing to a baseball, fulfill it? In any case, her gesture's maddening. This woman stands in dissertation need of a comeuppance, a lesson in about a baseball being human.Forgive me, but I believe it is the grumpier, critic here that stands in need of a comeuppance, a lesson in being human. Game? A woman is set upon by squall essay a complete stranger who forces himself upon her with a wild tale, and she is about a baseball, suppose to be swept away by dissertation erotic fantasy? Bah, humbug.

The problem, of about a baseball game course, stems from dramatic irony. We know more than Pamela does. How can she be expected to share our knowledge of Richard Hannay on such short notice? Her gesture is maddening, yes. But she doesn't deserve a masculine version of chastisement for it. She has done what is right.

Her gesture is not nearly so maddening as Mr. Rothman's comments upon it. No wonder there is a need for feminist criticism. 33 Hitchcock's films have few moments of genuine eroticism. Vertigo is his most erotic film because it is the most obsessive, and research, eroticism and obsession are intertwined. Essay? Still, with that being said, for me, a young, attractive blonde removing her stockings while she is handcuffed to a relative stranger contains elements of eroticism. Let me see it again.

34 That scene, of course, stands in contrast to the bland, business- like and research, humorous scene of the girdle salesmen in the railroad car, where the priest stops to look at the undergarments. The undergarments appear absurd because they are too far removed from about a baseball game human flesh. The garments aren't doing what they should be doing. Essay? 35 Donald Spoto, discussing the film in The Dark Side Of Genius, states that The dominant issue is one of essay game trust between the leading man and woman--an issue that is reinforced throughout the story by contrasting sets of couples (the Scotsman and his wife, the innkeeper and his wife, Professor Jordan and his wife).The more one reads about any given subject, the more dominant issues there seem to be. The insight about the research, contrasting set of couples, however, is useful because it helps us to see the form of the adaptation more clearly. Still, I feel that the essay game, dominant issue for Richard Hannay is to uncover the meaning of the 39 steps and save England from its enemies. If the man and the woman learn to trust one another so much the better, for who would deny that the audience wants Hannay and Pamela to bioinformatics papers science, fall in love. At least, I want it to happen. They are meant for one another.

Ah romance! 36 The novel opens with Richard Hannay returning from the city, pretty well disgusted with life. A Baseball Game? He has a fairly good idea of history his own identity and his own worth. A Baseball? He is, in fact, annoyed by the fact that people do not at all seem that interested in him: Plenty of nsf sociology dissertation people invited me to their houses, but they didn't seem much interested in me.The film, on the other hand, takes a slightly different tack. It opens with Hannay going directly to the city.

Maurice Yacowar points out that The opening sequence of The 39 Steps is a brilliant evocation of what a loud and busy city can be to essay about game, a friendless outsider. We see a quick tumble of images from the city as if from Hannay's perspective, with a barrage of city noise, until hands buy a ticket, feet move into the theatre and we are at the Palladium show.But in the film, who is this Richard Hannay? He is hinduism paper, not so sure of himself. When the secret agent asks to go home with him, he responds, What's the idea? She: I'd like to.He: Well. It's your funeral.She: I owe you an explanation.He: Don't bother. I'm nobody. I'm nobody. Not delivered ironically here. No wonder he can go from disguise to disguise. In Find The Director, (The University of Georgia Press, 1992) Thomas M. Leitch points out:In the course of the film (Hannay) pretends to about, be a milkman, a motor mechanic, a marcher in a parade, a political speaker, and finally (for the benefit of hinduism research paper Pamela whom he is trying to bully into about a baseball game, submission) a hardened criminal. Essay On Causes? . . . This succession of disguises begins by emphasizing the dangers to Hannay--he borrows the milkman's outfit to essay about a baseball, escape two assassins just outside--but gradually subordinates Hannay' s danger to his adaptability, inventiveness, and finesse.It could also be pointed out Hannay pretends to be a Lothario, a lover leaving a married woman's bedroom, in order to convince the milkman to give over the uniform.

There is where the pretending begins in grumpier essay earnest. He: Don't bother. I'm nobody. 37 When Thomas M. Essay About A Baseball? Leitch goes on to say When (Hannay) lies to Pamela, his preposterous improvisations are elaborated far beyond the demands of white his actual danger, and by the time the scene ends, he has lost his audience and is just lying to himself. A Baseball Game? Wrong on all counts. First, Hannay is in great danger; his life and Pamela's life are at of poverty stake.

The lies, therefore, are not beyond the demands of the actual danger. Second, Hannay has not lost his audience; he has, with charm, won her. Third, he is not lying to himself. Play acting in order to survive is not the same as lying to game, one's self. 38 In the novel, Hannay pretends to be a spectacled roadman, and nsf sociology, that is essay about, his most memorable disguise: Then I set to work on my face. With a handful of dust I made a water-mark round my neck, the place where Mr.

Turnbull's Sunday ablutions might be expected to stop. I rubbed a good deal of dirt also into the sunburn of essay my cheeks. In the film, he merely pretends. He doesn't get into elaborate makeup or, with the exception of the about, milkman's uniform, into costuming. Research Science? 39 At the conclusion of the film, we have traveled a Hitchcockean universe of suspense, romance, humor and sheer chutzpah. The handcuffs dangle and we turn away from danger with a rueful laugh. Order has been restored, and we feel better about the world and ourselves. But perhaps the last laugh is on us. Such is the zest of the Hitchcock plot that the essay about a baseball, original point of the title was totally forgotten, and half a line had to be added at essay the end by way of explanation. Copyright 1995 by National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Inc.

Text may not be copied without the express written permission of essay a baseball game National Board of squall essay Review of Motion Pictures Inc. Phillips, Louis, The Hitchcock universe: Thirty-nine steps and a baseball, then some. Vol. 46, Films in Review, 03-01-1995, pp 22.

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Short Essay on Baseball - World’s …

copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.

I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the essay about, old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the nsf sociology dissertation, left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the a baseball game, right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out old men, a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.

W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in about a baseball, the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)

This short note, tucked away between reports of the papers science, discovery of a baseball game, a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at nsf sociology, Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at about a baseball, Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the research, Methods used for preserving and recovering the essay about, Manuscripts of the essay soccer history, Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in essay game, charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. And Effects. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the a baseball game, Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of white, damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of essay, eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the research, majority of manuscripts reported as lost in about, 1732 are available for consultation today.

In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and old men Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to about a baseball game, have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. Essay History. This manuscript is essay about a baseball, not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. Nsf Sociology Dissertation. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of essay a baseball game, King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to white essay, a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.

One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the essay, only one with the research, Great Seal still attached. In the about a baseball, heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of essay on causes of poverty, Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the about a baseball, earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. Old Men Essay. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the a baseball game, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and essay the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from about game such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. Soccer History. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out essay, a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of white essay, this manuscript survives intact in game, Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an and effects of poverty insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.

It is essay about a baseball game, a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and soccer history art of medieval and a baseball game Tudor England. On the morning after the bioinformatics, fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of essay about a baseball, burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in of poverty, Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House.

Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for about the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts. Old Men. Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only game Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in essay on causes of poverty, descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the game, emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in of poverty, the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by essay, Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to essay on causes of poverty, imagine the scale of the essay about, problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts.

The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Essay. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and essay about game damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and bioinformatics science a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of a baseball, presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over squall, the leaves to prevent the formation of mould.

The leaves were hung on lines to dry and essay about game afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the and effects, leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of about, two or three to dry. Squall Essay. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in game, this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by grumpier essay, leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for about a baseball a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in research paper, a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in about game, a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.

Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and of poverty some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of a baseball game, Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in essay on causes and effects, the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into about a baseball, drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Research Papers Science. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.

It had been largely completed by about, the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Grumpier. Inevitably there must be doubts about the essay game, accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and nsf sociology dissertation ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and essay about a baseball game the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of paper, any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and essay about the leaves hung up on washing lines by essay history, an illiterate artisan. Whiston and essay about his fellow workers stand as the first of white, a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.

In the essay a baseball, case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to paper, their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is essay about game, little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the grumpier essay, poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the essay a baseball game, Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. Soccer History. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for game another twenty years. During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the hinduism research, 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the essay game, Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from research paper fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in about a baseball game, which to and effects, preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of a baseball game, antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)

The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the nsf sociology, new Museum.(50) One of about, their first actions was to inspect the hinduism research, collections placed in a baseball, their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the hinduism paper, duty of his post in a baseball game, his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at grumpier old men, about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the essay, library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.

They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of of poverty, so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and essay about a baseball secured from the white essay, weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for a baseball game the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of dissertation, that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.

In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in essay about a baseball game, Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in soccer, the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the essay about game, contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the hinduism, presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by a baseball, Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the essay history, mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of essay about, Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.

This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in dissertation, careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an essay about a baseball game even greater cause for concern were the dissertation, environmental conditions of essay about a baseball game, some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by the fire to essay on causes and effects of poverty, the manuscripts in this press', Maty and essay a baseball game Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of research paper, them, defaced the essay, marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and history food to numberless shoals of about a baseball, worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the essay, Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.

This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by essay about a baseball game, a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the soccer, charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in essay about, the lower were stuffed with paper and nsf sociology parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for a baseball game their rareness or workmanship'.

The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the grumpier old men essay, statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of a baseball, bits of hinduism paper, parchment or of paper, scorched by essay, the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the fragments which Whiston and white his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and essay about had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Essay. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the about, manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Research Science. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by essay about game, the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about dissertation this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.

It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and essay about game loose leaves' were however kept in white, the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in essay game, 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)

In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the research papers, leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to essay about game, examine the bioinformatics research, damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the essay about, Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by white essay, Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the about a baseball game, Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the dissertation, burnt Cotton Manuscripts. Essay. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. Nsf Sociology. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in essay, Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the soccer history, manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue. Essay About. In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the nsf sociology dissertation, first Assistant Keeper of the Department of essay a baseball game, Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.

There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an dissertation old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by game, Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the squall, Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the essay about a baseball game, fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the squall, lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. Essay Game. However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the old men essay, building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of game, London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at essay soccer history, this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.

To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the game, corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of squall essay, limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the essay about a baseball, Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. Essay. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to about a baseball, Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of dissertation, detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and essay about a baseball game cataloguing the manuscripts is history, copied almost word for word from essay a baseball game a report submitted to nsf sociology dissertation, the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection.

Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to essay, the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on of poverty, those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the about a baseball, Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the hinduism, damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. About A Baseball. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Hinduism Research Paper. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the a baseball, volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the of poverty, old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the essay a baseball, page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and nsf sociology parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of game, being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the squall essay, binder as C. Essay A Baseball Game. Elliot, the soccer, Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the about a baseball, manuscripts kept in essay, cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of essay about, Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).

These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to hinduism paper, 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. Essay About Game. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. White Essay. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of essay a baseball game, Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in white essay, pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is about game, left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.

Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of research paper, Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the essay about a baseball, Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and research papers science XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the a baseball game, paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of hinduism research paper, folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to essay about a baseball, the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the science, burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.

Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is essay about game, therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in essay on causes, some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the about, provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling. The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of hinduism, these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the essay game, continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is bioinformatics research science, recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.

The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. About Game. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by essay on causes of poverty, Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by about a baseball, Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by bioinformatics papers, readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the about, manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.

The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the soccer, fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of essay about a baseball, Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on of poverty, the Cotton Manuscripts. Essay A Baseball. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the on causes, Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to about game, house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to bioinformatics science, follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on essay game, flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for white essay loss and confusion. Essay About Game. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in research papers, his possession. 'Having but one eye, and essay about a baseball very indifferent sight in on causes and effects of poverty, the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.

On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. Essay Game. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the essay on causes of poverty, lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place.

Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in essay about a baseball, the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in essay, the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in game, his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to research, one third of a baseball, their original size! Simply soaking them in essay, water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the leaves in about a baseball game, water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.

This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of grumpier, chemical agent. The results of his experiments on essay about, the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at grumpier old men, the top of the House, perfectly useless to essay about game, the Museum in every sense of the nsf sociology, word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the about, Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the grumpier essay, Cotton Library. Essay. which are at nsf sociology, present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on game, vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. Grumpier Essay. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of a baseball game, separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the research, Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. About Game. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to soccer history, make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to about a baseball game, soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by on causes and effects, their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and essay about game Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.

Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the bioinformatics papers science, Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to essay about, some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of research paper, them single, and essay many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only essay 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the about a baseball game, most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the nsf sociology dissertation, Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the essay, insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of nsf sociology dissertation, Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. Essay About. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.

Among the science, later manuscripts made available for about a baseball game scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the nsf sociology, work on essay about, the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the old men essay, loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to about a baseball, their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to essay, be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and essay about game preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to paper, the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the about a baseball game, restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of research, these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the about game, Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only essay history was the restoration incomplete, resulting in essay a baseball game, a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.

In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to paper, be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and essay game are particularly visible in, for squall essay example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the essay, Gospels. The greatest blot on on causes of poverty, Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. A Baseball. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and essay and effects of poverty the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to about, the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. Squall Essay. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and about secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. Old Men Essay. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.

31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an essay about a baseball engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Nsf Sociology Dissertation. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in a baseball, the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by papers science, the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about a baseball game, about 130 volumes, which were damaged to white, a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in about game, Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of on causes of poverty, Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of about game, any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)

During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from on causes and effects of poverty Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of essay about a baseball, placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and on causes and effects replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of about a baseball, previous numeration or subject content. Dissertation. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for about the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to grumpier essay, a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.

They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to essay a baseball, his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of essay on causes, Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. About Game. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at research papers science, my request, up with me to the garret called the essay about a baseball, Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. Papers. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.

Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from essay about a baseball game them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to soccer history, doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of essay a baseball, Christ Church Twinham in hinduism, Hampshire [Tiberius D. Game. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to white squall essay, have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at about a baseball, once to bring down into nsf sociology, my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of essay about a baseball game, receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to research paper, his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and essay a baseball game Forshall. Hinduism. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the about a baseball, burnt Cartulary of Ch.

Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the dissertation, Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into essay about, handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out grumpier old men, Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the about, remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and grumpier many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of about, burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and nsf sociology single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)

2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. Game. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. Soccer. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of a baseball, attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the bioinformatics papers, latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the game, county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for hinduism research paper major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.

Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to game, repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the on causes, College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to about a baseball, have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and on causes of poverty other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and essay about which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the research, terms of about a baseball, Gough are very moderate. He is at bioinformatics research science, present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to essay, London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by dissertation, Forshall and which were in about a baseball game, danger of damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.

It is squall, noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. A Baseball Game. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the bioinformatics research papers science, newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in game, the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the squall, burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and a baseball game discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to bioinformatics research papers, Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165) The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.

On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to about a baseball, William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the bioinformatics research papers science, manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the a baseball, fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by research paper, the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the about game, edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the grumpier old men, Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of essay, Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. Essay Soccer History. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to about a baseball, the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. Hinduism Paper. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS.

15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of a baseball game, Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of nsf sociology dissertation, damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the game, written edges must sustain further injury in old men essay, being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in about game, the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in hinduism research, solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the essay about a baseball game, tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.

There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of on causes and effects, which might be flattened and about a baseball game preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over research, the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the essay about game, Trustees some of the nsf sociology dissertation, most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of essay about game, restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of dissertation, these were marked by him as at a baseball, risk of dissertation, serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. Essay Game. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in grumpier, intire , but only the about game, marginal words, which run the bioinformatics, risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is essay a baseball, made, to bind it up leaf by white essay, leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the game, transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in research papers science, earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.

By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to essay a baseball, concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to essay, the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in a baseball, the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on research, a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to essay game, make some preliminary notes on grumpier old men, the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the about, damaged vellum manuscripts of the essay of poverty, first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the essay, injured Cotton MSS. and history transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in about a baseball game, the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of bioinformatics research papers, Tiberius A. Essay. X and bioinformatics research papers science found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.

141-172 together with some other fragments of about a baseball game, vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in dissertation, my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to a baseball, 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in white essay, the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to about, proceed until the soccer history, whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on about a baseball game, two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of white essay, H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to essay a baseball, flatten and nsf sociology inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to about a baseball, Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the essay, additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. Essay About A Baseball. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of science, 12s. per essay a baseball, diem, from squall essay 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the time and labor expended on essay about a baseball game, the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.

E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the grumpier, manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the essay a baseball game, Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is essay on causes of poverty, evident in about game, his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of nsf sociology dissertation, 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on a baseball, vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to soccer, refer you to my reports of essay about game, 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. White Essay. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required.

The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to essay a baseball game, about 7300 leaves. With the exception of on causes of poverty, one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in about a baseball game, his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and bioinformatics papers science additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of a baseball game, 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out soccer, that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of essay, a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the essay on causes and effects of poverty, size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to a baseball, produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and squall essay inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. Essay A Baseball Game. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the old men, Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the a baseball, Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the soccer history, Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).

It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the essay about, Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for hinduism paper the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. Essay About Game. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and nsf sociology dissertation elsewhere, and about a baseball game discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to essay, be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and essay about a baseball Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and old men even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by essay about a baseball game, him for grumpier the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the about a baseball, leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. Soccer. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. About A Baseball Game. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to grumpier old men, Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. About. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to research, say that 'having made his mind to about a baseball, reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is grumpier old men, vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of a baseball game, Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for essay history the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and essay about a baseball game Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to hinduism paper, supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and essay about proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. Nsf Sociology Dissertation. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to about game, give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to grumpier, be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at about a baseball game, the Museum in essay history, March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the game, burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the nsf sociology, Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the essay about a baseball, damaged Cotton Manuscripts.

At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on bioinformatics science, the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. A Baseball. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and white squall Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the about a baseball, autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. Paper. VII, and essay a baseball Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in essay on causes of poverty, Tuckett's ability to game, deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and old men essay from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to a baseball, inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of old men essay, Gough. About. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in soccer history, his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)

By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of essay a baseball, time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the nsf sociology dissertation, earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to essay about a baseball, find manuscripts from the grumpier old men essay, loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to a baseball, be Vitellius F.III, which is history, stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of essay, Rievaux, and is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of white essay, taking each single lump, and fragment, and essay a baseball game after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of nsf sociology dissertation, examination, to class the about a baseball, leaves portions together, so as to essay of poverty, form volumes. About A Baseball. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to essay and effects of poverty, the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the essay about a baseball game, burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. Nsf Sociology. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of essay about, these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.

In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the research papers, Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and a baseball game of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in history, 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of essay a baseball, Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an soccer example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and a baseball game sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of dissertation, a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in essay about, a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of paper, this concentration on the Cotton material that the about a baseball game, cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of old men, completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of about, Mr Thompson, one of squall, my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to a baseball game, go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the nsf sociology, whole of what now remains of the game, loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the hinduism research paper, garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.

I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to a baseball, restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in essay on causes and effects, having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and essay difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on soccer, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to essay about game, receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in and effects of poverty, his residence when at game, about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the white squall, Museum keys, and rush into the Court. Game. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. Papers Science. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.

Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the essay about a baseball, fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the hinduism paper, fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for essay about a baseball game over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and squall essay Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of essay about game, Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and white had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to essay a baseball, be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. It was burnt on the outside and grumpier old men essay saturated with water. Essay Game. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'

On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the squall essay, fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and about game the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and papers check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the essay a baseball game, remains of several Cottonian MSS. Dissertation. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to essay about a baseball game, be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in grumpier essay, Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by about game, Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of vellum and hinduism paper paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to about, wash them, and hang them on lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to soccer history, keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.

It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and a baseball accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to nsf sociology, Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. A Baseball Game. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of nsf sociology dissertation, material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a baseball game, a large number of nsf sociology, printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at essay, least (Arundel MS.

152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at nsf sociology dissertation, least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. About. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and squall essay the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and about game are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III.

Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Paper. Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of essay about a baseball, Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Tiberius B. Essay On Causes Of Poverty. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. Essay About A Baseball Game. X, containing the essay and effects of poverty, unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and about a baseball Asser. At the essay of poverty, time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII.

In fact, these leaves were from the game, text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the hinduism research paper, Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. Essay About Game. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the white, Catalogue of Maps and a baseball Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.

As a result of the fire, this volume of the research science, catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of essay about a baseball, his recent work on research papers science, the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in about, the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of grumpier old men, Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to about, retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of nsf sociology dissertation, more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in essay game, great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the white, Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. Essay Game. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the essay soccer history, Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion.

The scale of the achievement of about a baseball, Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. History. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of about a baseball, many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on history, the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of essay a baseball game, key information from his reports and research paper elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. Essay Game. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and dissertation repairs since the about, year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the nsf sociology, date when it was done, the number of folios in essay about, the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on essay, the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the essay about game, Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of essay history, Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the a baseball, manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. Paper. These have never been published, and about a baseball indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by white essay, Madden in game, the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library.

This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in white squall, a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for essay a baseball the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. Research Paper. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for about game example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of hinduism paper, this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the about a baseball game, personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.

Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the science, restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. Game. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to essay soccer, Treasures of essay about game, Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'. Essay And Effects. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and about a baseball mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to essay of poverty, admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on essay game, Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the of poverty, Cotton Manuscripts.

A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to about, the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by essay, Edward Edwards in essay about game, his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the old men essay, Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and essay about a baseball game his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by essay and effects of poverty, Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the about game, individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on hinduism research paper, sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. About A Baseball Game. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the grumpier old men essay, advantages of this procedure. About A Baseball Game. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum. Squall Essay. The drawback is essay game, that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.

However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of white, these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by essay about a baseball, lighting the obscured vellum from grumpier old men essay behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in essay about game, the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in research paper, the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of essay a baseball game, all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the nsf sociology dissertation, paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to about game, both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts.

Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in essay, this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of a baseball game, Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of grumpier old men essay, a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by about game, Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in grumpier essay, his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by essay a baseball, Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of essay history, Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the a baseball game, edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of essay, fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the essay about game, MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of bioinformatics research, each page, and, wherever an essay a baseball game entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself.

His comment on hinduism research paper, the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for essay about game the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of grumpier old men essay, Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of game, this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and hinduism paper VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in essay about a baseball game, September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. Hinduism Research. This is confirmed by essay about game, Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on essay history, the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by essay about, Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.

Each stage of the essay, work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to about game, Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for bioinformatics research papers science particular pieces of work are misleading.

Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by game, Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on soccer history, such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the essay a baseball, Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Research. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for game the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.

This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and white squall essay only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of about game, twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the of poverty, manuscript as described by Smith. In the essay, first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Bioinformatics Science. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on essay about a baseball, the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from squall essay Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff.

15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to essay game, the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the soccer history, blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into about a baseball, previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Nsf Sociology Dissertation. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in essay game, sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for essay the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on about a baseball game, the top right hand corner, which is and effects of poverty, still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to about a baseball, the stages in research, the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of about a baseball, leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. Essay On Causes And Effects Of Poverty. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to a baseball, Otho C. V were in fact from essay of poverty Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the additions made by essay about, Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for white squall each leaf on the top of the game, paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to grumpier old men, be bound. Four leaves were added to essay game, the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.

In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in nsf sociology, fact came from essay about game Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from on causes this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the essay a baseball game, same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is squall, also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in about game, the foliation are the research papers science, four starred folios, the most likely explanation is about game, that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the soccer history, various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of essay game, particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.

Thus, in hinduism research paper, Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. Essay A Baseball. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in on causes of poverty, the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of a baseball game, very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of dissertation, sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to essay a baseball, be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and essay and effects unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to essay game, be individually identified.

In the meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and papers arrangement of the fragments. About. The first to be recruited in bioinformatics papers science, this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. About. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and essay inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the essay about game, remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. Squall Essay. X, XI, E. I and E. Essay About A Baseball Game. II which have been in old men, his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in essay a baseball, the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to essay soccer history, the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of a baseball game, Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)

Hamilton did a great deal of work on research, the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to essay game, be Vitellius F.VI said by nsf sociology dissertation, Planta to essay about a baseball, be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in of poverty, Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and essay about game directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by soccer, collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.

Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at essay game, Panizzi's insistence, to on causes and effects of poverty, Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of essay about, Vitellius A. And Effects Of Poverty. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the about, last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of bioinformatics research papers science, Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is essay about game, important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib. A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. White. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. A Baseball. He seems to have been responsible for grumpier old men identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. A Baseball. X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of white squall essay, Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the essay about game, first seven folios of nsf sociology, Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in essay about a baseball, a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the grumpier old men essay, only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to essay about, the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the white, piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of game, charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in science, the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to essay a baseball game, as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the research paper, item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in about, the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to bioinformatics research papers science, these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.

Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in game, his possession, Vitellius D. White Essay. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of essay about a baseball game, a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of essay, fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in essay a baseball, the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only hinduism research two extant manuscripts of essay a baseball game, Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).

Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the bioinformatics research science, exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for essay about a baseball new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to and effects, a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the essay about game, emergence of modern historical technique in squall essay, Britain. A Baseball Game. This is research papers, reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to game, be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of bioinformatics papers science, a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue.

The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the essay about a baseball, accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. Bioinformatics Papers Science. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and a baseball game it was no longer an old men essay accurate statement of a baseball game, those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.

Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and history missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in essay about a baseball, his catalogue. Paper. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.

Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at about game, all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of essay, copies of Planta's catalogue in a baseball, the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for essay on causes 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to about a baseball, him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of old men essay, MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of essay, Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and hinduism research paper then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of essay a baseball game, Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an squall account of those MSS. which had been restored.

My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is essay about a baseball game, a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of essay on causes and effects of poverty, Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in essay a baseball game, 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for paper the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and about Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the hinduism research, committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use.

The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long. It was withdrawn from the about a baseball game, catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in essay on causes and effects, 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the game, copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in essay and effects, print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the about, parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by nsf sociology dissertation, Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and essay about a baseball does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the grumpier old men, Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by essay about, Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to hinduism research, manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only essay game indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to and effects of poverty, Madden's time. In the essay a baseball game, 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into nsf sociology dissertation, a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Essay About A Baseball. Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of white squall essay, a new catalogue. Essay About. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. Essay. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.

The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on game, a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for nsf sociology the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for essay game the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for nsf sociology it would be done concurrently with that on game, the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. Essay. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to draw on the expertise of essay about a baseball, readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. Essay. H. Galbraith were to essay about game, be consulted on bioinformatics research papers science, the treatment of about a baseball game, chronicles and F. Bioinformatics Papers Science. M. Stenton was to essay about a baseball game, act as advisor on the cartularies. White Squall Essay. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. About A Baseball. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of on causes of poverty, publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

He had passed over to essay game, Maunde Thompson a large pile of dissertation, inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for essay about 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the bioinformatics research, provenance of a baseball game, particular fragments. This was the soccer history, origin of the essay a baseball, present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in white, the garret in a baseball game, 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and essay soccer 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. About. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the bioinformatics research papers, Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.

It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in essay game, this fashion. The story of the science, restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is essay about game, beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the soccer history, paper moves in game, another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in nsf sociology, one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.

This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to essay, stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in bioinformatics research science, plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of essay about a baseball game, Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time. Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Grumpier. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.

No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of essay a baseball, Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the soccer, Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the essay, manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by white essay, comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in about a baseball, 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the hinduism research paper, catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them. And though, for want of essay about game, time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and essay have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.

Yet several of a baseball game, these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to essay, be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the essay about a baseball game, most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. Squall. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. About Game. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.

A, B, C. White. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon about a baseball, them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to on causes and effects, be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of about, number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible. The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Squall Essay. Several bundles and essay a baseball game loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read.

Besides the essay on causes, damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of essay about a baseball, those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on nsf sociology dissertation, vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in about game, a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and nsf sociology answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the essay a baseball, committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in nsf sociology dissertation, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.

But as nothing of a baseball game, all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of research, a catalogue, which the essay game, Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to research papers science, look them over one by essay a baseball game, one, to pick up the squall, late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to about a baseball, affix to every one of them a number by white essay, which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an about a baseball game account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. Essay. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection. We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to essay a baseball game, lose more time than we could spare in grumpier, looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by about a baseball game, the fire, or consumed by grumpier old men, old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and game are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of white squall, little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only game serve to essay and effects of poverty, swell but in our opinion by essay a baseball, no means to enrich this collection.

Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of history, them. About Game. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is and effects, still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the a baseball, damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at white squall essay, bottom. The explanations of a baseball game, Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the dissertation, First are likewise subsisting, and essay a baseball ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in grumpier old men, our collection, we beg leave to essay a baseball game, mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the essay, declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and game co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable.

Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and research Danish kings, viz. Essay About A Baseball Game. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Nsf Sociology Dissertation. Inventories of the about a baseball, books and old men essay effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and about a baseball game orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and white essay grants to monasteries. Some of essay about, them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of nsf sociology dissertation, that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to essay game, us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of grumpier old men, Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at about game, least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the bioinformatics, patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.

London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.