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Best American Essays 2008 Google …

Interesting essay on Marine Parks. Thought this was an interesting read - from Ray Hilborn - one of the worlds eminent fishery scientists - I remember his book on fisheries biology was the bible when I was at Uni. Date Joined: 09/03/08. Chicken Little brigade won't like that. Date Joined: 25/06/09. Australian Seafood Consumers Mislead by prophets document. Noone emailed me about this, but as its a Hillborn paper, I had it as a pdf, but have noowhere to essays hang it. Lets see if cut and paste work. AUSTRALIAN SEAFOOD CONSUMERS MISLED BY PROPHETS OF. Professor of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, University of questions, Washington.

DR BOB KEARNEY (AM) Emeritus Professor in Fisheries Management, University of Canberra. Embargoed: 1pm Wednesday, 29 February 2012. There is much gloom and doom in Australia and around the best american essays 2008 books, world about the sustainability of a2 biology essay, fisheries. Perhaps the american 2008, best known example and that most commonly used by those who wish to demonise fishing is the prediction that all commercial fish stocks could be collapsed by aping essay, 2048 (Worm et al. 2006).

A similar message has been portrayed by claims that all the large fish of the best essays 2008, ocean were seriously depleted by essay about in public, 2003 (Myers and Worm) and that we are fishing down aquatic food chains to the extent that soon all that will be left will be jelly fish (Pauly et al. 1988). Each of these pessimistic views of the world has been shown to be wrong. Best American Essays 2008 Google? The “all fish gone by 2048” was exposed by a subsequent paper that even included the same senior author (Worm et al. A Mockingbird Compassion? 2009) showing that trends in 2008 books fish abundance indicated stability not decline and synoptic essay that many countries were sustainably managing their resources. The claim of the american essays 2008 google books, demise of high seas tuna stocks reported in Myers and Worm (2003) was shown to be wrong by almost a dozen follow up papers tracking the abundance of tuna stocks around the world, which with the exception of bluefin tuna are in, or above, the range of abundance that supports maximum sustainable yield. (Juan-Jorda et al.

2011). All of the key aspects of places, “fishing down food chains” have been shown to be wrong; large fish are not all more valuable than small fish, we do not begin catching large fish and move down the best american essays, food chain, and the mean trophic level of the world catch is a2 biology synoptic, rising, not falling (Branch et al. 2010, Sethi et a. 2010). Australia was recently subjected to the extreme unscientific pessimism about the state of the world’s fisheries by Sylvia Earle, including her support for best american books the discredited prediction of the elimination of all fishing by aping western culture essay, 2050. To support this, and other ridiculous assertions, such as the world needs to stop eating all tuna, she claimed in December 2011, “On land we are maintaining the wildlife by the mid-century we will see extinction of fish and seafood”. The facts are remarkably different: According to the List of Threatened Species under the EPBC Act (20/2/2012), Australia already has 27 species of terrestrial mammals, 23 birds and four frogs extinct but not a single extinction of best 2008, a species of marine fish. Australians should question how they came to be given such grossly biased prophecies about the impacts of fishing on our oceans! The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that the percentage of the synoptic essay, world’s fish stocks that are at or above target abundance levels is more than twice that of those below target (FAO 2010). Most importantly the distribution of areas where stocks are overexploited is not uniform and many countries have few fisheries management problems (Figure 1). Figure 1. Global distribution of fisheries management sustainability. (Figure 3G from Mora et al.) There have been some very serious problems with overfishing around the world, and best american some of paper on identity, them are continuing.

But the global picture provides three fundamental messages; the problems are not universal, they are not uniformly distributed and the overly pessimistic view is simply not relevant to Australia. In fact Australians have excellent reasons to have faith in their fisheries management and to consume Australian seafood with confidence and best american essays google books enthusiasm. Australian fisheries are sustainably managed. Australia has a great record for improving the management of its marine fisheries. Figure 2 shows the proportion of stocks not subject to overfishing (where the level of fishing is below or within the target range to produce sustainable fisheries, in red), and not in an overfished condition (the abundance of fish is above or within the desired target range, in blue). The great majority of fished stocks are in very good shape and, even more importantly for long-term sustainability, the situation continues to improve. Figure 2. Proportion of Australian stocks not overfished and not subject to western essay overfishing. Data from table 1.3 of Commonwealth Fisheries Status report (Woodhams et al., 2011). Figure 2 also demonstrates that Australia did not always have its current enviable record in american essays 2008 google books fisheries management. In fact up to about the end of the 1990s the fraction of assessed stocks that were classified as overfished was of concern. An Argumentative Banning? The number of best 2008 books, overfished stocks was increasing and overfishing of even depleted stocks was continuing.

Prominent examples that helped catalyse the need for reform included orange roughy, eastern gemfish, southern bluefin tuna and several species of abalone and lobster. As recently as in 2004, 40% of Australia’s fish stocks were fished too hard resulting in overfishing. Marketing Master Thesis Examples? Figure 2 demonstrates that Australia addressed the generic overfishing problem forcefully, particularly in the period 2004-2006, and as a result the best essays, percentage of concluding for research, stocks that are recovering continues to increase. By 2006, overfishing had been eliminated in all but 10% of the stocks, and american essays 2008 google books as a result the number of on identity theft, stocks assessed to best american essays books be no longer in a mockingbird essay an overfished state increased to 85% by 2010; an extremely impressive performance for any form of natural resource management. In fact the best, rapid recovery of the status of Australia’s exploited fish stocks highlights the fundamental effectiveness of commitment to traditional fisheries management (in this case catch and effort controls) compared to attempts to recover terrestrial systems that have been impacted by urban development, mining or agriculture. 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%2004200520062007200820092010not overfishednot overfishing. Some problems with definitions. There are two commonly used reference points in the regulation of fisheries in the interests of sustainability. First is when the biomass of stocks is so low that the long-term sustainable yield has been reduced this is a mockingbird compassion, called “overfished.” The second is american google books, when the fishing pressure is aping western culture essay, so high that the long-term sustainable yield will be reduced if fishing continues at this level, this is called “overfishing. As undesirable as overfishing is it should not be over-dramatised; stocks that are overfished or subject to even moderate overfishing are still usually biologically sustainable with no immediate threat to the survival of the species (there has never been a species of fished confirmed to have been fished to extinction, and certainly not in american 2008 books Australia). In fact fishing levels that technically constitute “overfishing” can be deliberately employed on underexploited stocks for controlled periods with the intended result of reducing a stock to target levels where surplus production and long-term sustainable yields are estimated to be maximized.

Stocks can sometimes remain at lower than desired abundance (technically ‘overfished’) for generations, and still recover under improved fisheries management, as demonstrated by Figure 2. During their period of low abundance reduced catches can often still be sustainable; the yield from the fishery is simply less than it could have been. It is culture, noteworthy that the classifications of fished stocks used in Australia’s official Government assessments of the best 2008 books, status of fisheries (Woodhams et al,. 2011) confirm Australia’s pre-disposition to not having stocks overfished. The three categories used in official assessments are “not overfished”, “overfished and/or subject to overfishing” and “uncertain”. ‘Under-fished’ or ‘under-utilised’ are not prominent categories in Australia’s assessments and underutilized stocks are merely given the ‘green light’ of a2 biology synoptic essay, “not overfished”. This complete concentration on the regulatory side of american books, fisheries management, at the expense of drawing attention to new fishery development opportunities, is surprising for a2 biology essay questions a country with such a huge EEZ but a dependence on google imports for to kill the bulk of essays 2008 books, its seafood (discussed below). A2 Biology Questions? It reflects the failure by best essays, fisheries and marine environmental managers to adjust policies to concluding paragraphs recognize the successes of traditional fisheries management in Australia and develop new fisheries, not further restrict existing ones. Relevant international comparisons.

In contrast to best american essays Australia’s impressive record in fisheries management roughly half of European stocks are still overfished and subject to term paper overfishing. European countries have the problem of sharing stocks of best 2008 google books, fish that span national boundaries, thus making sustainable management dependent on western essay international cooperation. As the world is aware, international cooperation between a large number of players can be extremely elusive; this is the more so with fishery resources that are shared and mobile. In the absence of binding and enforced agreements for shared stocks the ‘tragedy of the american essays 2008, commons’ (Hardin 1968) is marketing thesis, difficult to avoid, even for the world’s most developed democracies. Best American Essays 2008 Google? Australia, as an island, has individual control of most of a mockingbird essay, its fisheries resources and very few stocks for best american essays 2008 books which international cooperation is imperative. Australia does not have exclusive control of highly migratory tuna species and for one of these, southern bluefin.

tuna (SBT), the difficulties of ensuring sustainable harvests are apparent. Current biomass estimates for SBT are between 3% and 8% of un-fished levels, approximately one sixth of the level that would classify the species as overfished in Australia and trigger mandatory recovery action. Interestingly, the most recent assessment of SBT suggests that even this species is currently recovering, albeit at a much slower rate than is desired. Many developing countries do not have the master thesis, governance systems nor the political imperative to manage all fisheries in the interests of essays 2008 google, long-term sustainability. This is particularly the case for those developing countries where there is paper, intense pressure on fish stocks from local communities for short-term subsistence. In such situations strict effort and catch controls to achieve maximum long-term sustainable harvests of heavily fished species would restrict and redistribute total short-term yields. This would in turn, seriously stress many coastal inhabitants who rely on fish for their day-to-day existence. Failure to successfully implement targeted fisheries management techniques that are successful in Australia is common in such countries. As a result the reported successes in such countries of less specific and less efficient forms of management, such as closures of areas to all forms of fishing, should not be considered relevant to Australia.

A number of best american essays google, countries, including the United States, have, like Australia, in recent years made great efforts to eliminated overfishing. As a result the master thesis examples, USA has many fisheries recovering. However, it still has more than twice Australia’s percentage of fish stocks not yet assessed to have recovered. The key reason why Australia and the US have been able to correct unsustainable fishing is that both countries have relatively strong governance and a political and legal commitment to american essays 2008 books long-term sustainability. Action is underpinned by a legal framework that requires an end to overfishing and/or other identified negative effects of fishing.

Where overfishing has occurred recovery plans are mandated in the legislation of essay, most states and/or nationally. In Australia most fisheries must be considered sustainable in accordance with three separate pieces of legislation; a state fisheries act, a state environmental act and the Commonwealth Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act (Commonwealth of essays books, Australia1999) which applies to all Commonwealth fisheries and any state fishery from which product is exported. Australia has a governance process for the sustainable management of to kill compassion essay, its fisheries that in the little more than the decade in which it has been enforced has been clearly demonstrated (Figure 2) to essays be appropriate and effective. It is difficult to term paper understand why the best american, Australian public is a2 biology synoptic essay questions, not rejoicing in the success of its fisheries management and why Australians believe they need to implement additional, alternative restrictions on fishing, such as more fishing closures in MPAs! Australian seafood supply and demand. While Australia has a very impressive record for controlling fisheries it has limited fisheries production; it remains a net importer of more than 70% of the seafood it consumes. Human population and per capita consumption of seafood have both been continuously increasing suggesting that by 2020 Australia would require as estimated 610 000 tonnes of seafood imports (Kearney et al., 2003). The most recent nutrition survey by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) projects that on average Australians should eat 40% more seafood than they currently do (NHMRC 2011). To meet this projection without increasing its domestic fisheries production (a prospect for which there is no explicit policy and little likelihood under current management strategies which are focused on further restriction of fishing) Australia will need to american essays books import approximately 850 000 tonnes of seafood per year by 2020. Fifty two percent by about banning in public, value and more by volume, of american essays google, Australia’s imports of seafood come from Thailand (26%), China (14%) and Vietnam (12%) (ABARES, 2011), all countries that have much less impressive records for sustainable fisheries management than Australia.

In a 2009 estimation of adherence to the UN Code of aping western essay, Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, Australia ranked fourth out of the 53 countries surveyed, Thailand 42nd, China 22nd and Vietnam 45th (Pitcher et al., 2009). Thus by best essays google, continuing to import the bulk of its seafood Australia is effectively exporting responsibility for the sustainable management of the a2 biology synoptic essay, world’s fish stocks to countries with a far inferior record for sustainability (Kearney and Farebrother, 2012). Most of the world’s sustainably managed fish stocks are not eco-labeled. Few other food products are so certified. So why should Australians want individual fisheries certified when they are already assessed to be well managed and essays google sustainable under numerous pieces of state and Commonwealth legislation? The most prominent of fish certification schemes, that of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is designed for large industrial fisheries. Concluding Paragraphs For Research? Its original objective was to draw attention to the sustainability problems with fisheries that were supplying the European and North American markets, and there were many problems with these fisheries (see Figure 1). It continues to achieve this objective rather effectively and best 2008 books is perceived to bestow a competitive advantage in the market places where the sustainability of competing products is questioned.

However, the process of certification and periodic review of each individual fishery and/or species is not necessary in a country like Australia that has collectively well managed, sustainable fisheries. Furthermore, a scheme such as MSC is inherently expensive with the costs being prohibitive for most small-scale fisheries, such as dominate the master thesis, supply of fresh fish to Australian consumers. Australia has virtually no high volume, industrial-scale fisheries with most of the american essays 2008 books, locally-caught fish sold in compassion Australia coming from small regional fisheries that produce limited quantities of a relatively large number of species. The costs of certifying the huge number of species and/or individual Australian fisheries under a scheme such as MSC would be grossly disproportionate to the value of the product. Furthermore, as each Australian major fish stock is assessed under state and/or Commonwealth fisheries legislation and usually under additional environmental legislation each fishery is best american essays, already technically certified to western meet the world’s highest standards of sustainable fisheries management.

Duplication of best american essays google books, this certification process would not only concluding paragraphs paper threaten the best american essays 2008 books, economic viability of many small fisheries but would also likely seriously disadvantage the cost-effectiveness of the whole fisheries monitoring and assessment process. It would of course, necessarily result in a significant increase in price of seafood to Australian consumers and even to exports from Australia. Under many certification schemes, such as MSC, certification can be obtained even if the species or fishery under consideration is overfished, provided the management system in essay questions place is best 2008, anticipated to lead to stock rebuilding that can be confirmed by assessment. Under current Australian government assessments such species could be certified as ‘sustainable’ under an independent scheme, such as MSC, but would continue to be listed as ‘overfished’ by Australian governments until the recovery had actually been confirmed. Current Australian government assessment principles are therefore more conservative and demanding of assessed sustainability than MSC, even if the assessment process may be less detailed. Marketing Thesis? Throughout Australia overfished species are identified as such and a recovery program is american essays google, usually mandatory for any species or fishery that is concluding for research paper, assessed to best american essays books be significantly overfished. Furthermore, as Australia has extremely few, unsustainable fisheries the cost-effectiveness of providing the public with an unambiguous message on seafood sustainability would clearly be best served by identifying the few problem fisheries that do exist, rather than certifying and re-certifying those that have already been assessed by transparent government processes to be sustainable. A process of listing only those for which there is an banning in public places assessed problem would not only provide assurance to Australian consumers that local seafood can be consumed with confidence but it would also draw attention to those few fisheries that remain a problem, thereby catalyzing corrective management.

It would also remove the confusion created in public opinion by the inconsistencies in the many unregulated ‘seafood guides’ to best essays 2008 google which the marketing master thesis, public is exposed (discussed below). It is relevant to the Australian situation to note that several countries and even states that have high standard fisheries management, for best essays example Alaska, are moving to government certification based on the FAO guidelines for sustainable fisheries of the collective sustainability of fish and fisheries. Marketing Master? Such a scheme would appear to have great benefit for Australian seafood consumers. Why does Australia so understate the 2008 google books, sustainability of to kill compassion essay, its fisheries? Numerous NGOs active in Australia need the public to believe fisheries to be in poor shape to facilitate their fundraising.

Good news is an anathema to those whose business is based on public support for best american books addressing real or perceived problems. Term Paper Theft? There are 16 or more different organisations in Australia that produce ‘guides’ of various forms that are intended to influence public opinion on the environmental responsibility of consuming different seafood species. American Essays Google Books? There are no standards or government regulation of the efficacy of these guides or their impact on the seafood industry they are designed to influence. There are no minimum qualifications or standards of concluding for research, experience required of the people who do the assessments of individual seafood species on which these guides are based. At the global scale, NGOs are split between those that are opposed in principle to many forms of fishing, such as Greenpeace, and those looking for solutions to best essays books the bigger strategic issues. Patrick Moore, a co-founder of Greenpeace became disenchanted with the direction that particular NGO was taking. He recently stated, “The truth is Greenpeace and I had divergent evolutions. I became a sensible environmentalist; Greenpeace became increasingly senseless as it adopted an agenda that is anti-science, anti-business, and downright anti-human”. His more general comments on so called ‘environmental activism’ included, “To a considerable extent the environmental movement was hijacked by political and social activists who learned to use green language to cloak agendas that had more to concluding paragraphs do with anti-capitalism and anti-globalization than with science or ecology.”(Moore, 2010)

Equally relevant to Australia but particularly pertinent to the debate over restricting fishing in predetermined areas, are the comments of Peter Kareiva, the chief scientist for essays google The Nature Conservancy, a major international NGO based in essay the USA. He has specifically criticized the MPA movement for several serious distortions. In summary, he argues for a new conservation ethic that depends on maintaining biodiversity in the places humans use, rather than relying on best american essays 2008 google books ‘protected’ areas as the primary conservation tool. Term Paper On Identity? “For this (a new conservation ethic) to happen, conservationists will have to jettison their idealized notions of nature, parks, and wilderness ideas that have never been supported by good conservation science and best essays 2008 forge a more optimistic, human-friendly vision”. “But ecologists and conservationists have grossly overstated the fragility of nature, frequently arguing that once an paper on identity ecosystem is altered, it is gone forever. Some ecologists suggest that if a single species is lost, a whole ecosystem will be in danger of american essays, collapse, and that if too much biodiversity is lost, spaceship Earth will start to come apart.” “Protecting biodiversity for term paper theft its own sake has not worked. Protecting nature that is dynamic and best american 2008 google books resilient, that is in our midst rather than far away, and that sustains human communities these are the ways forward now. Otherwise, conservation will fail, clinging to its old myths.” (Kareiva et al., 2011) The fundamental myth that Kareiva criticizes is that conservation equates to protected areas; he argues that the key to maintaining biodiversity is good management of western, utilized areas. It is most significant to the current debate that Kareiva philosophy has been developed based on terrestrial systems that are far less naturally dynamic and resilient than marine ones, and in american essays 2008 books particular Australian marine systems where fishing is tightly managed and not a single species has been lost to aping essay fishing Noting Australia’s preoccupation, in spite of its relatively excellent management of fishing, with declaring more and bigger MPAs that are in effect little more than fishing closures, Kareiva’s comments are of particular relevance to Australia. Australian NGOs remain predominantly locked into the past, including their outdated philosophies to which Kareiva refers. The press contains a relentless barrage of anti-fishing rhetoric that is not based on sound science. Spectacular examples abound, including, “bottom trawling, the equivalent of using a nuclear bomb to catch rabbits” (Craig Bohm, Australian Marine Conservation Society, cited in Webster, S. Sydney Morning Herald 28/8/08), or We now fish smaller species like anchovies and best american essays sardines, right to in public places the bottom.

We are at the last-chance cafe when it comes to fisheries. (Darren Kindleysides, Australian Marine Conservation Society, cited in Munro 2009). As a result of the relentless anti-fishing campaign public perception remains anchored by the gloom and doom myths that are a central plank of NGO fund raising. The failure of american essays, Australian government agencies, particularly those responsible for policy on food security and fisheries management, and for research paper the seafood industry, to effectively counter the best essays 2008 google, negative publicity on essay smoking in public the state of Australia’s fisheries remains baffling. Best American 2008 Books? This is particularly so in the light of Australia’s need for a great deal more fish. Australia’s fisheries are amongst the most conservatively managed in the world. Most of the world is aware of this, but Australia actively refuses to accept the credit! Fisheries assessments that are commonly distorted. Most of the ‘guides’ to concluding paragraphs which fish Australians should and should not eat list many species for 2008 books which assessments are given that are highly questionable, at best.

Most have orange roughy at, or very near, the top of the ‘do not eat’ list. Greenpeace makes a particular example of a2 biology synoptic, yellowfin tuna; the best books, Greenpeace Australia website still advises Australians to to kill a mockingbird compassion stop selling yellow fin tuna because it is “at risk”. Orange roughy was fished excessively in a very limited number of areas around southern Australia prior to the mid-1990s. Since then management has been extremely restrictive. The species is the subject of best american 2008, a very rigorous recovery plan.

Only a fraction (less than one sixth) of the known area of distribution of western essay, orange roughy in essays Australia has ever been trawled and in. addition to aping essay all the unfished areas 90-95% of the small fraction that was fished in Australia is now closed to best essays 2008 google all orange roughy fishing. The current annual allowable catch in Australia is an argumentative essay about banning places, less than 1% of best essays books, what it was in the period that overfishing occurred. There are more than 100 million orange roughy in the fished areas alone of Australia and New Zealand. Current levels of targeted catch and the limited remaining by-catch of orange roughy pose no known threat to the long-term survival of the fisheries or the species (Kearney and Goodsell, 2010). In fact the management of Australia’s orange roughy fishery provides a spectacular example of rigorous management, apparently excessively restrictive, that has completely removed a perceived threat from fishing. Australians should be being told about the obvious sustainability of what little orange roughy is marketed in questions Australia and encouraged to eat it with extreme confidence.

Yellowfin tuna are significantly under-fished in Australian waters and unlike some stocks of orange roughy they have always been so. Figure 4 shows the abundance in Region 5 (Australia) of the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) yellowfin tuna stock, relative to best 2008 google books what it would be in the absence of fishing. Even the on identity theft, small decrease in biomass that has been estimated is american 2008, likely to be at least partly attributable to exploitation of the species outside the Australian EEZ, not by Australian fishing. Yellowfin tuna stocks in Australia are extremely lightly exploited and are capable of supporting sustainable yields at least several times higher than current levels of exploitation. The species is spread over huge areas, is very fast growing and has extreme reproductive capacity, females spawning approximately a million eggs up to four times a week, year-round in concluding paragraphs for research paper tropical waters. It is absurd, in fact morally wrong, to advise Australians not to eat the very small quantities of yellowfin tuna that are landed in this country on the basis that the species is ‘at risk’. 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%1950196019701980199020002010Stock biomass/biomass without fishing. Figure 3. Status of best essays google books, Yellowfin tuna in Australian Zone plotted as a ratio of what the stock is marketing, now compared to what it would be in the absence of best american, fishing. Redrawn from concluding paragraphs paper, Figure 57 of yellowfin tuna stock assessment of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. Best American Essays 2008 Books? WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA- WP-03. Fisheries have low environmental impact compared to alternatives.

Capture fisheries have lower environmental impact than other sources of animal protein. An Argumentative Essay Banning Smoking In Public? They have lower greenhouse gas output, and use no fresh-water, fertilizers, pesticides or antibiotics (Table 1). Rather than closing areas to fishing because of their environmental consequences, countries with good fisheries management, such as Australia should be utilizing fisheries fully. Table 1. Amount of water, fertilizer, pesticides, antibiotics and greenhouse gas emissions needed to produce one portion containing 40g of protein, for beef, chicken, pork, dairy and capture fisheries. Water Fertilizer Pesticides Antibiotics Greenhouse gases (L) (g) (mg) (mg) (kg) Beef 2200 50 494 21 16.7 Chicken 1331 18 163 55 2.5 Pork 1331 46 422 53 3.8 Dairy 1178 34 299 50 2.7 Capture fisheries Low 0 0 0 0.3-2.0. The MSC has what is often considered the “gold standard” in fisheries certification. To meet this standard a fishery must demonstrate that it does not alter the structure and best essays 2008 function of the ecosystem that is fished.

This is a high and paragraphs for research paper exacting standard that no form of agriculture could meet. Yet environmental NGOs and some retailers are putting fish on “red lists” while at the same time promoting livestock and other agriculture products that have far greater costs to biodiversity and other aspects of the environment. Yes fishing does have environmental impacts; all human activities do, even breathing in oxygen and best american essays 2008 books breathing out carbon dioxide, a ‘greenhouse’ gas. The questions that need to be addressed. are, whether the activity justifies the paper theft, impact, is further regulation necessary, or is there a more environmentally friendly way of providing the same service? The most obvious impact of fishing is that the abundance of some target species is lower in fished areas; there are usually fewer larger and older fish of exploited species in exploited areas, even if only temporarily. But unlike in the countries with inadequate fisheries management, (discussed above) where there are well managed fisheries the densities and sizes of best essays 2008 google, fished species are maintained at levels that are conservative and a2 biology optimize the yields that can be taken; this is best american books, exactly what assessment of good fisheries management confirms. The maintenance of on identity, densities of best american essays google, species at levels that result in optimum productivity has also been suggested to provide an intermediate level of disturbance that is beneficial not only for some individual species but for overall biodiversity (Connell, 1978, Krohne, 2001). Some forms of fishing have greater and more obvious impacts than others, for a2 biology synoptic questions example fish-trawling over hard bottoms or dredging in american essays 2008 books areas of aping essay, significant benthic communities can be expected to have more obvious impact than line-fishing for pelagic species. But even the most destructive forms of fishing (with the possible exception of dynamiting and poisoning of 2008 google, coral reefs, if they are allowed to be called ‘fishing’ and they are outlawed in Australia and most developed countries) have less impact than the common and accepted terrestrial activities of urban development and most forms of agriculture. Fishing does not deliberately transform landscapes as does urban development, nor does it clear-fell native vegetation and a2 biology synoptic add extra nutrients and american essays google pesticides to help cultivate introduced species to the exclusion of the recovery of native flora and fauna, as do most forms of agriculture.

What negative impacts fishing does have are relatively easily managed and even when mistakes are made they are normally reversible within relatively short time, as the recovery of to kill compassion, Australia’s overfished stocks (Figure 2) demonstrates. Australia’s management of fisheries problems that have been identified is certainly ‘responsive’ and often even excessive; the restriction of the orange roughy fishery as discussed above is testimony to the occurrence of overly-restrictive management. Trawling is one form of fishing that has been particularly demonized globally and in Australia. As acknowledged above, some forms of trawling, in particular over structured bottoms with vulnerable benthic communities, can be seriously problematic. They need careful management, but they are responsive to restriction, such as Australia has demonstrated with its trawl fishery for orange roughy. Many forms of trawling, however have limited environmental impact. Trawling on soft bottoms, particularly in high energy areas where the effects of currents or wave action dominate, may have little, if any, short-term impacts and no detectable, long-term negative consequences. In Australia this has been best demonstrated by the failure to detect any impact on essays 2008 google books bottom biota of prawn trawling in the Clarence River (Underwood, 2007). A similarly unanticipated result was found in the Great Barrier Reef by marketing master, Pitcher et al. (2009a). They found. the difference in biomass between trawled and un-trawled areas was only 3%, with many taxa showing no difference and the most affected taxa showing only a 20% difference in abundance.

Each trawl fishery should be considered on individual merit and assessments that confirm that area closures are a reasonable response to environmental concerns. Areas should not be closed simply on an assumption that trawling is a problem. Australia’s most prominent fish-trawl fishery, the South East Trawl Fishery (SETF), has had approximately 80% of the previously available area closed to trawling (Simon Boag personal communication 24/1/2012). Of the remaining 20% that is technically open to american 2008 google trawling only 53% was estimated to be trawlable (Williams, A 2006 p109). As a result of these closures the total allowable catches of several target species that are managed under quota are now uncaught because there are no grounds in which to target them. Examples include some deepwater sharks and master examples smooth oreo dories.

Rebuilding the world’s overfished stocks. Of all the world’s fish stocks that have been overfished northern hemisphere cod is the one most commonly referenced. Recent assessments have exposed the google books, lie in paragraphs earlier gloom and doom predictions. Even WWF states that “North Sea cod, once on the brink as a result of american essays 2008 books, decades of culture, over-fishing, has now recovered to an extent that the public should start eating it again with enthusiasm” (cited in Hickman, 2010) Another of the world’s biggest cod fisheries, in the Baltic sea, has staged a remarkable recovery in recent years following an almost classical case of overexploitation in the 1980s and a reluctance to american 2008 google books take the necessary action until about 2004/5 (Figure 4). Figure 4. Questions? Trend in american 2008 google abundance of Baltic Sea cod. Data from ICES assessment data base. An even more spectacular recover has been reported for the largest cod stock in the world, the Barents Sea (Arcto-Scandanavian) cod which is now more abundant than any time since WW II (Figure 5)

Figure 5. Trend in abundance of Barents Sea cod. Synoptic Essay Questions? Data from ICES data base. Threats to marine biodiversity. There is no doubt the world’s oceans are under increasing pressure from some anthropogenic impacts. The major accepted threats are pollution, including ocean acidification, inappropriate development, destructive fishing practices and overfishing and best 2008 google introduced and paper theft trans-located organisms. In Australia episodic pollution events continue to devastate rivers, estuaries and numerous coastal areas, particularly near-shore areas and those with obviously vulnerable biota, notably coral reefs. More insidious and longer-lasting impacts of american, pollution continue to directly diminish stocks of many marine organisms and increase the vulnerability of even more to disease or other invasive vectors. Areas in proximity to higher human population densities, intensive agriculture and/or mining are most obviously impacted. While there is little doubt Australians are increasingly aware of the marketing master examples, problems that coastal development may cause, infrastructure development and less than perfect regulation of routine developments, such as marinas, are still a significant issue. The ‘reclaiming’ of best 2008 google books, very large swathes of sea grass beds and fish nursery areas in Botany Bay, one of Australia’s most productive and culturally significant estuaries, for paper on identity airport runways and more recently a container terminal, is one obvious example.

Destructive fishing practices and best essays google continuing overfishing are no longer significant problems in thesis examples Australia. Fishing practices are very tightly regulated and where overfishing is detected recovery planning is usually mandatory. As mentioned above the essays, Australian track record in an argumentative essay reducing overfishing is far from best essays 2008, universal, and an argumentative essay about in public places many countries continue to overfish. Introduced organisms (species and pathogens), are major and growing problem in Australia. By 2008, 429 exotic species had already been detected (Hewitt and Campbell, 2010) and introduced pathogens, such as the herpes virus that devastated pilchard populations throughout southern Australian waters and several serious oyster diseases are well documented.

Fouling on ships’ hulls and ballast water have been identified as the most common vectors for introductions and with accelerating increases in best essays shipping, particularly in association with the mineral export boom, the term paper on identity, problems can only be expected to worsen. Australia’s fisheries are amongst the best managed in the world and american essays they are without doubt sustainable. Fishing, as managed in Australia, has not been shown to irreversibly threaten the survival of species. To the contrary, it can be demonstrated to be an extremely environmentally friendly source of an essential food, particularly in comparison with other forms of paragraphs for research, animal protein production. Australians should embrace the success of its fisheries management and consume Australian seafood with extreme confidence. However, the perception of the majority of Australians of the sustainability of Australian seafood is not aligned with reality. Public perception has been distorted, primarily by numerous NGOs and others who benefit from projecting apprehension in best american 2008 books seafood consumers.

These NGOs are out of aping culture essay, touch with recent global developments and in denial of fisheries management outcomes in Australia. Their distortion of reality has been based on misrepresentation of books, overseas examples of compassion, inadequate fisheries management to american essays google falsely claim gloom and doom for Australia’s fisheries and their impacts. The resulting anti-fishing rhetoric has falsely demonized fishing and led to ill-directed calls for more restrictions, particularly in essay areas that are closed to fishing and then called ‘protected’. Australian have been told by best american 2008 google books, health professionals and authorities to eat more seafood, yet the country has a serious and growing shortage of locally produced product and no obvious policies for food security or increasing domestic supply of fish. Australians should demand food security policies that embrace the excellent outcomes of ongoing fisheries management and support the development of more similarly well-managed fisheries in those parts of Australia’s EEZ that remain underutilized. ABARES 2011.

Australian fisheries statistics 2010. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. Boag, S. 2012. Personal Communication January 24, 2012. Branch, T. A., Watson, R., Fulton, E. A., Jennings, S., McGilliard, C. R., Pablico, G. T., Ricard, D. Tracey, S. R. 2010. The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries. Nature, 468, 431 - 435. Commonwealth of Australia 1999. Paper On Identity? Environment Protection and best essays google Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Connell, J. Master Thesis Examples? H. Best American 2008 Google Books? 1978. Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs. Science, 199, 1302-10. Dept. SEWPaC. 2009. EPBC Act List of Threatened Fauna [Online]. Canberra: Department of western essay, Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.

Available: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicthreatenedlist.pl [Accessed February 20 2012]. FAO 2010. Best 2008 Google Books? The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. About Banning Smoking? Science, 162, 1243-1248. Hewitt, C. Campbell, M. 2010. The relative contribution of vectors to the introduction and translocation of invasive marine species: keeping marine pests out of Australian waters.

Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Hickman, M. 2010. Living proof that conservation works: Scientists say the fish threatened with extinction is back on the menu again [Online]. The Independent. Available: http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/living-proof-that-conservation-works-1973928.html [Accessed February 10 2012]. Juan-Jorda, M. J., Mosqueira, I., Cooper, A. B., Freire, J. Dulvy, N. K. American 2008? 2011. Global population trajectories of tunas and their relatives. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 108, 20650 - 20655. Kareiva, P., Lalasz, R. Marvier, M. 2011. Conservation in term on identity theft the Anthropocene: beyond solitude and best google fragility.

In: Schellenberger, M. Nordhaus, T. An Argumentative About Banning? (eds.) Love Your Monsters: postenvironmentalism and the anthropocene. Oakland: Breakthrough Institute. Kearney, R. Farebrother, G. American Essays 2008 Google? 2012. Expand Australia’s sustainable fisheries. Nature, 482, 162.

Kearney, R., Foran, B., Poldy, F. Lowe, D. 2003. A2 Biology Synoptic Essay Questions? Modelling Australia's Fisheries to 2050: Policy and Management Implications. Best 2008 Books? Deakin ACT: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Kearney, R.E. and Goodsell, P.J. 2010. Guide to the management and sustainability of seafood supply - Orange Roughy.

FRDC Final Report 2009/071. Fisheries Research and Development Coporation, Canberra. Krohne, D. Paper On Identity Theft? T. 2001. General Ecology, 2nd ed. Pacific Grove CA., Brooks/Cole. Moore, P. Best 2008? A. Aping Western Essay? 2010. Confessions of a Greenpeace Dropout: the making of a sensible environmentalist. Vancouver, Beatty Street Publishing Inc.

Mora, C., Myers, R. A., Coll, M., Libralato, S., Pitcher, T. J., Sumaila, R. American 2008 Google? U., Zeller, D., Watson, R., Gaston, K. J. Worm, B. 2009. Management Effectiveness of the World's Marine Fisheries. PLoS Biol, 7, 1 - 11. Munro, P, 2009. Term Paper On Identity? Sunday Age, 23/8/2009. Myers, R. A. Worm, B. 2003. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature, 423, 280 - 3. NHMRC 2011.

Australian Dietary Guidelines Incorporating the Australian Guide to best american google Healthy Eating: Providing the scientific evidence for healthier Australian diets (DRAFT FOR PUBLIC CONSULTATION). Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council. Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. Torres, F. 1998. Fishing Down Marine Food Webs. Science, 279, 860 - 863. Pitcher, C. R., Burridge, C. Y., Wassenberg, T. J., Hill, B. J. Poiner, I. Western Essay? R. Best Essays 2008 Google? 2009a. A large scale BACI experiment to test the effects of prawn trawling on seabed biota in a closed area of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia.

Fisheries Research, 99, 168 - 183. Pitcher, T., Kalikoski, D., Pramod, G. Short, K. Aping Essay? 2009b. Not honouring the code. Nature, 457, 658 - 659. Sethi, S. American Essays Google? A., Branch, T. A. Watson, R. Marketing? 2010. Global fishery development patterns are driven by profit but not trophic level. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 107, 12163 - 12167.

Underwood, A. J. 2007. Best 2008 Google? Assessment and management of potential impacts of prawn trawling on estuarine assemblages. Final Report, Project 2000/176. Canberra: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. WCPFC 2011. Stock Assessment of Yellowfin Tuna in the Western and term Central Pacific Ocean.

Scientific Committee Seventh Regular Session (WCPFC-SC7-2011/SA-WP-03). Pohnpei: Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. Webster, S. 2008. Sydney Morning Herald, 28/8/2008. Williams, A. 2006 Integrating fishing industry knowledge of fishing grounds with scientific data on seabed habitats for informed spatial management and ESD evaluation in american 2008 books the SESSF. FRDC 2000/153, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.

Woodhams, J., Stobutzki, I., Vieira, S., Curtotti, R. Begg, G. A. (eds.) 2011. Concluding Paragraphs For Research Paper? Fishery status reports 2010: status of fish stocks and fisheries managed by the Australian Government, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. Worm, B., Barbier, E. B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J. Essays Books? E., Folke, C., Halpern, B. S., Jackson, J. B. C., Lotze, H. K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S. R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K. About Banning In Public? A., Stachowicz, J. J. Watson, R. American Essays 2008 Books? 2006. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on to kill a mockingbird compassion essay Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science, 314, 787 - 790. Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J. K., Branch, T. A., Collie, J. S., Costello, C., Fogarty, M. J., Fulton, E. A., Hutchings, J. American Essays Google Books? A., Jennings, S., Jensen, O. P., Lotze, H. K., Mace, P. M., McClanahan, T. R., Minto, C., Palumbi, S. R., Parma, A. M., Ricard, D., Rosenberg, A. A., Watson, R. Zeller, D. 2009. Rebuilding Global Fisheries. Science, 325, 578 - 584.

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The Ethics of Lying: One Humanist’s View. EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the best american 2008 second of western culture, a three-part series on the morality of lying. Our first post came yesterday from Deacon Jim Russell . Google Books. Today, we hear from atheist blogger James Croft . Culture Essay. And tomorrow we'll hear from Patheos Catholic blogger Leah Libresco . The UK's Guardian newspaper once relayed a well-known Broadway legend regarding a theatrical version of best american 2008 books, Anne Frank's diary: When the play was revived in to kill New York some years back its lead actress, Pia Zadora, was frankly not adequate in the title role. So poor was she that one exasperated theatregoer, when the Nazi troops finally invaded the Frank family's hiding place, allegedly cried out: She's in the attic! This legenda favorite of my father, who joyfully retells it after almost every terrible theatrical performance we seeneatly highlights the difficulty of devising a simple rule to american essays google govern the ethics of lying. It seems intuitively clear that the audience memberhowever we might sympathize with their plightwere they in on identity theft the position to actually reveal Anne Frank's location to the Nazi troops, would have done a clear moral wrong by condemning someone to death, even though they told the truth . In such a situationwhen telling the truth to those who mean another harm would lead to terrible harm being causedit seems obviously wicked to say that lying (in the commonly-used sense of purposefully not telling the truth) would be morally wrong. The ethics of lying are complex, and the view of St. Augustine as glossed by Deacon Jimthat all spoken falsehood with intention to deceive is essays 2008 google, immoralseems immediately inadequate. Deacon Jim, intriguingly using Star Trek , a Humanist 'scripture', as his starting point, raises similar complexities in aping essay his piece. He points out that, For two thousand years, the Catholic Church has left this question somewhat unsettled: whether or not all falsehoods spoken with the intention to deceive are immoral acts of lying.

Humanists are quite happy with unsettled questions of american 2008 google, this sort. The Humanist approach to paper on identity theft morals and ethics does not seek to american 2008 books offer a set of settled rules for conduct which will guide a person easily through every quandary. Recognizing the complexity of our moral lives, and the infinite potential situations which might be faced by any given person, or by a society, Humanists prefer to construct robust moral and ethical principles to guide action, and are quite unsurprised when these principles collide in interesting and challenging ways. There are principled reasons to avoid ethical dictums which the concluding paragraphs paper idea of settling ethical questions brings to my mind: consider, for instance, the extraordinary harm which has been caused by the Catholic insistence that artificial forms contraception not be used. As our technology, our conceptions of american, human sexuality, and our knowledge regarding how diseases can be spread through sex have all advanced, this teaching should certainly be revised, but its status as a settled ethical issue prevents progress and causes significant suffering. Seeking to settle the question of for research, lyingby determining some fixed rubric by which we would decide whether, for instance, (to use Deacon Jim's example) all falsehoods spoken with intention to best american google books deceive are immoral acts of a2 biology synoptic, “lying,” or notwould, in a similar way, be to deny the inherent complexity of human relationships and to close down opportunities for future growth in our moral and ethical understanding.

The position of judgment Catholics are placed in by the unsettled nature of Catholic teaching regarding lying is google books, a good positionit's the position we should be in regarding all judgments which affect others (I will leave aside the highly dubious claim that The Church completely recognizes and a2 biology synoptic questions respects the american 2008 rights of marketing master, conscience of its Catholic members). Having said this, what might be broad moral and ethical principles which should guide human conduct in best american essays books this area? I think Deacon Jim gives us a way to aping essay approach this question when he raises what he calls the 'societal' or 'common-good' aspect of truth-telling: The stability of google, human society really depends on questions the good will that ought to 2008 books exist among individuals, and that common good can only be realized by to kill essay truthfulness. While I certainly agree that many other societal goods depend on good will between members of a community, there is good reason to best american essays 2008 google books doubt that common good can only be realized by truthfulness. Indeed, the apocryphal anecdote with which I began speaks against this view: the audience member imagining themselves to theft be revealing Anne Frank's location, though speaking truthfully, is not promoting the common good or improving good will between members of the society. Essays 2008 Google Books. Rather, their truth-telling breaks down the fabric of social trust required for communities to operate to the good of their members. How so? Because good will is a more expansive and to kill a mockingbird essay complex concept than truthfulness. And sometimesperhaps oftenwe demonstrate our good will toward others by not telling the truth . This is perhaps why the Eighth Commandment charges people not to bear false witness, rather than simply never to lie: it is the harm caused to another by lying which is the american google object of primary condemnation, and on identity theft often we will demonstrate more good will toward our neighbor by being equivocal (rather than ruthless) with the truth. Ultimately, to best american 2008 live happily in society among others, we do not want to banning live with ruthless truth-tellers who always tell the full truth regardless of essays 2008 google books, any contextual factors.

Rather, we want to live beside people who have our good in to kill mind, and who act to maximize our goodeven though this may lead them to american essays be equivocal with the truth at times. Humanists accept the many ethical complexities such a position places us in, and recognize that all ethical reasoningjust like the an argumentative places Catholic position on lyingis ultimately a work in progress. Felix Adler's ethical maxim should be the guiding principle, not some ossified rule regarding truth-telling: “Act so as to elicit the best in others, and best thereby in thyself.” James Croft is a candidate for an Ed.D in Human Development and marketing master thesis Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE). He works alongside Greg Epstein as Research and Education Fellow at essays the Humanist Community at term Harvard, trying to create a true Humanist fellowship in Cambridge, Massachusetts. James is an experienced actor and 2008 google books singer, having performed in many locations around the world. A committed Humanist and a Humanist Celebrant, he's also an a mockingbird, Assistant Editor at The New Humanism and a Contributing Scholar for State of Formation. His blog at american essays books Patheos is titled Temple of the Future . Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and respectful dialogue. While it's OK to master thesis disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted.

Before commenting please read the Commenting Rules and american essays google Tips . If you're having trouble commenting, read the Commenting Instructions . Only thing I would criticize in this would be that I would say humanist principles do guide us through all complex situations, but they don't always provide clear paths. In other words, the principles are not abandoned in difficult circumstances. In contrast, one would expect followers of the just and true God to be able to do better. That the infallible church would not need to take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. That it does not is by no means proof the god is fake, but it is another missed opportunity for the God to prove himself. That the infallible church would not need to to kill compassion take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. This is a quibble, since I agree there is something remarkable about a basic question remaining open in american essays google books the Catholic Church for 2000 years. It seems to me pointless and paper wrongheaded to try to cram all moral precepts into the Ten Commandments. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor did not prohibit all lying when it was promulgated, and it doesn't today. You're right.

But Christian belief usually places lying as so incredibly bad that God could never ever do it, he couldn't even want to. This is unlike killing in which God often does it and best google helps others in. There seems to be something about lying that they need it to be completely banned but recognize this is also immoral to not lie in all circumstances. In my opinion, in essay questions the story of Adam and best american essays 2008 google Eve, God does not tell Adam the truth about term paper theft, eating from the american google books Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. The serpent tells the truth, and western culture essay after Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit, God confirms what the serpent said word for word. I agree and the equivocation from apologists on death is ridiculous. There is a Reasonable Doubts episode where they try to show where God has lied or condones lying. 2008. The response from theists is illuminating. You're gonna have to explain this one. You're gonna have to explain this one. It is plain as day right there in Genesis 3.

But the term paper on identity serpent said to the woman: You certainly will not die! No, God knows well that the moment you eat of best google books, it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods who know what is paper on identity theft, good and what is bad. Adam and Eve don't die. Best 2008 Google. And God echoes the serpent's very words, saying, See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is good and what is bad! To assume that what God meant was that Adam and Eve would die someday if they ate from the tree is necessarily to assume that Adam and an argumentative about smoking in public places Eve were either created immortal or were going to be allowed to eat from the Tree of Life.

But that is nowhere in the text. The Christian interpretation is that the best american essays 2008 books sin of to kill, Adam and Eve brought death into the world, but that is essays books, certainly not in Genesis. Any person who reads Genesis 3 will have to interpret it. I have to reject any interpretation which attributes a lie to essay about smoking places God and best essays truth telling to a2 biology essay the serpent. ..necessarily to american google assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal. If they were in a2 biology essay fact initially created immortal, but died someday and brought death into the world because they ate from the tree, in your mind what are some of the challenges this would pose, i.e. how would it show God to american 2008 google books have lied? I think it is interesting to concluding paragraphs for research paper contrast the issue of lying as an best google, open question in Catholicism with the issue of contraception, which many would consider to be settled and final (although I personally don't think Humanae Vitae comes close to theft being infallible by the criteria set by the Church for infallible pronouncements).

The absolutist position on contraception seems to me to be very similar to the absolutist position on lying. The position on contraception is that sex is for essays google reproduction and anything that gets in aping western culture essay the way of its reproductive purpose renders it immoral. The absolutist position on lying is that speech is for communicating the truth, and anything that gets in essays books the way of its purpose of communicating truth renders it immoral. These absolutist positions strike me as being illustrations of the principle, Man was made for the law, not the law for man. I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for a2 biology questions reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. you cannot take one without distorting the other. This is why the best essays church is against both in vitro fertilization and contraception. One tries to achieve reproduction without uniting the husband and wife in the sexual act, and the other tries to remove the gift of giving oneself to the other fully and be open to participating in God's creation in order to pleasure oneself. There is a difference in that matter, and to kill a mockingbird compassion that is the church gives us solutions to the problem of contraception. Abstinence is seen as impossible in today's culture, which is not true. I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well.

I agree that is what the essays Church teaches, which is why I said sex is for reproduction, not sex is only for reproduction. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of sex was not recognized, and someone as influential as St. Augustine said. It is one thing to essay lie together with the best essays 2008 books sole will of generating: this has no fault. It is another to seek the pleasure of flesh in lying, although within the limits of marriage, this has venial fault. To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin.

This is not, of course, the position of the marketing thesis Church today. Nevertheless, it seems to american me that all the concluding paragraphs paper rules about sex in Catholicism are about sex within marriage being procreative. I am not aware of any encyclical or major Church document that is to the unitive nature of sex what Humanae Vitae is to the procreative nature. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of 2008, sex was not recognized. To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin. David, your interpretation of St. Augustine doesn't quite prove what you claim about the Church not recognizing unitive purposes way back when. His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. In other words, yes, it is still a sin to objectify anyone - even a spouse.

St. Augustine seems to be making distinctions of culpability. His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in smoking places sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. There is best american essays 2008 google, nothing in the quote I reproduced to indicate that Augustine was talking of one partner seeking pleasure by using the other. You are forcing an interpretation on the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. A Mockingbird. I am not sure why you find that necessary.

Augustine is a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in best essays harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in marketing master sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. . in Augustine's opinion. But this has never been the official teaching of the Catholic Church. In an effort to essays google accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of theft, every major theologian, even her more gifted ones. You seem to be objecting to what I said, but what you are saying is precisely the point I made! I said:

Augustine is american essays 2008 google, a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. Banning Smoking Places. In defending the 2008 google position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely. unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the master thesis sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin.

As I understand it, Catholic married couples today are mostly free to sexually reproduce (a biological process which is best american essays google, prefaced by sexual intercourse). We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. The point is that the natural purpose of sexual intercourse is to kill compassion essay, sexual reproduction - a purpose which is american essays 2008 google books, not to be severed from the act that achieves it. You are forcing an banning smoking places, interpretation on 2008 google the quote to try to concluding make it consistent with contemporary thought. Best 2008 Google. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is a towering figure in aping culture essay Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in best essays books harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. No more than you are forcing an interpretation on the quote to make it inconsistent with contemporary thought.

I found it necessary in order to show that your quote doesn't necessarily prove what you claim. I do agree about the harmony thing. Term Paper. So yes, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything some towering figure said. If you recall, you tried to best american essays 2008 books use Augustine's quote to show that the Church in Augustine's time did not recognize unitive purposes of sexual intercourse. If we agree that not everything needs to be harmonized (and then you suggest that this statement by Augustine fits that condition), one cannot claim that the Church did not recognize unitive purposes in Augustine's time, only marketing master, that Augustine did not: for Augustine is not the Church! In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to best 2008 google harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. An Argumentative Essay About Banning In Public. Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on this matter? We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved.

Sexual intercourse is only sometimes —and maybe only rarely —pleasurable? Really? So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at odds with the 2008 Church's past recognition on the pleasure vs generation issue? St.

Augustine died in 430 A.D. I think it probably wouldn't even make sense to synoptic essay questions claim that the Church in the 5th century had an official position on the relationship between the unitive and procreative purposes of sex. I think it is fair to say (and universally acknowledged) that St. Augustine's views on essays google sex were very influential, and that Augustine believed that sex for pleasure, even for married couples, was sinful (but not seriously so—that is, not a mortal sin). It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on term paper theft such teachings.

Pius XII in best american essays 2008 google books Casti Connubii officially recognized a unitive purpose for marital sex, and he regarded it as secondary to procreation. Catholic thought developed further between then and to kill compassion now, to the point where the procreative and unitive purposes are both essential. So, in brief, I would say no, St. Augustine wasn't at odds with the early Church on the matter of sexuality. He was in on the ground floor in shaping the Church's view on best american essays google books sexuality. But his idea that in marriage, sex for master pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against Catholic teaching.

Sexual intercourse is only sometimes—and maybe onlyrarely—pleasurable? Really? I do not recall using the term, only, but even if we substitute sometimes with often the implication is still achieved: that sexual intercourse need not be pleasurable to achieve sexual reproduction. I'm sorry if I wasn't clear. Best Google. Perhaps it would be more clear if instead of pleasure I would say sexual gratification? I suppose some pleasure (happy to be pregnant) could be derived in the consequences of sexual intercourse that was not sexually gratifying. I'm trying not to equivocate so bear with me. It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings. I appreciate you sharing your historical knowledge. I now understand that by paper sharing what St.

Augustine thought on unitive purposes you support your claim that the Church didn't always officially teach what She teaches now. (Presumably we agree that by no means in this case would this be contradictory given organic development of doctrine.) But his idea that in marriage, sex for american essays pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against Catholic teaching. This speaks to my original point that his quote doesn't necessarily prove your claim: your parenthetical, but open to procreation is not in the original quote by St. Augustine. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. This isn't to deny your interpretation that it could be opposed to.

20th century teaching, only an argumentative about, that it could go both ways without affecting the development of the current teaching as you stated it. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the american essays 2008 harmonization isn't completely necessary. I think what you are saying is that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the concluding paragraphs paper way he sounds, and that his views are fully consistent with the view that developed in american google books the 20th century that the procreative and unitive purposes of sex are co-equal. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization, although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and marriage. The Church has never claimed the paragraphs infallibility of the saints, and I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. Essays 2008. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the to kill past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. I think what you are saying is that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds. David, the issue between us is that you are convinced you are interpreting him correctly and best american 2008 google books then accuse me of interpreting him as though it's some huge stretch to paper on identity theft interpret him in harmony with current Church teaching.

The fact that St. Augustine said sole will regarding generation makes me believe he wanted to carry that context when he contrasted sexual intercourse for pleasure. The way it sounds to me is obviously not the way it sounds to you; the difference is that you think you interpret him correctly, and best essays 2008 books I think either of culture essay, our interpretations are reasonable. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization. I didn't know we were talking about the attempts of others. . although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is american essays 2008 google, necessary to aping western culture essay try to demonstrate someone from the best american 2008 books fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and concluding paragraphs paper marriage.

Although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is best american books, necessary to demonstrate that someone from the fifth century had a 5th century view of sex and marriage. Would you like to an argumentative about banning in public places keep playing that game or do you want to actually add to the discussion? Please refrain from assuming that you know what my intentions are. The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints. and I think such exercises in trying to best essays 2008 google books make long-dead saints in a2 biology questions the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. Ok, but weren't we simply talking about one view of best essays books, one saint? Besides, I already agreed that it wasn't necessary to harmonize a particular view, just showing that your interpretation isn't the only possible explanation. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes.

It is quite another thing to marketing thesis claim no important Catholic of the past every held a view that is best american essays google books, now no longer accepted. Are you attributing these claims to me? I deny that I have made or hold to such claims. Are you attributing these claims to for research me? No, I am not attributing any particular claims to you. Essays Books. But there is among some Catholics a tendency to want to aping essay homogenize the complete history of the Church and argue that there have never been changes of any significance from the time of the apostles to the present.

For example, although sacramental theology took well over a thousand years to develop into the form we recognize today, I have been in discussions in essays google books which people have insisted that Augustine thought of marriage as a sacrament the way we think of aping culture, it today. That is best essays google, simply not true. Concluding. The concept of sacrament was very different Augustine's time (5th century) than it was in Aquinas's (13th century). It is just mistaken to read the sacramental theology of the 21st or the 13th century back into Augustine's writings of the 5th century. I don't think it makes much sense to continue this without going much more deeply into essays 2008 google books Augustine's thoughts on sex and marriage than plucking a few quotes here and there. I do not pretend to be an expert on the life and thought of Aquinas, but it is my opinion that if we could send, say, Benedict XVI back to the 5th century in a time machine to discuss marriage and sexuality, there would be some rather fundamental disagreements between them. Compassion Essay. As you say, it should be no surprise that even one of the greatest minds in american essays 2008 the Church who lived in paper theft the 5th century would have a 5th century understanding of essays 2008 books, marriage and sex. Befitting of a positive note on which we end this discussion: St. Augustine, pray for us.

I cannot help but bring up Jacob and Esau. Aping. Jacob clearly lies to Isaac in best american essays order for personal gain. An Argumentative Essay About Banning Smoking In Public. This deception is rewarded and american Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. To Kill A Mockingbird Compassion. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? I am still only up to Exodus, but this story was one that was incredibly confounding. Was lying for personal gain okay then?

Both you and St. Best American 2008. Augustine have had to struggle with the Jacob/Esau story. Marketing Master Thesis. Indeed, in Augustine's case I don't think he ever adequately addressed it--rather, he had already made up his mind about never being able to lie and then could only conclude that some greater and prophetic truth was served by the deception of Jacob, basically. American Google. I don't think Augustine ever fully resolved this example. Jacob as supplanter and marketing thesis examples a deceiver and one full of guile and cunning certainly remained a running theme in the nation of Israel--but the circumstances were such that his deception was seen as justifiable since the birthright was technically owed to best essays 2008 books him. To Kill. Even in John's Gospel, in best google the first chapter, Jesus says, with ironic humor, of Nathanael, Behold an Israelite in essay banning smoking whom there is no guile . I just think we need to try and look at this objectively. Lot's wife gets turned into salt for looking at God's work. This is immediate punishment for best violating what seems to me to be an arbitrary command and brutal punishment. On the other had Jacob intentionally lies and deceives his father violating at least 2 commandments and acting utterly contrary to essay god's morality. There is no punishment for this, no chastising, no earthly justice at american essays google books least.

Instead, Jacob goes along and lives a long prosperous life leading God's chosen people. What is the difference? Jacob while immoral, did not disobey any direct command of god. Lot's wife, did disobey a command. It would seem here that God is much more concerned that his commands be obeyed than his followers act morally. This heightened value of obedience of authority is exactly what people believed in paper on identity theft the Iron Age, and this is reflected all over the OT. I think it is best american essays books, all fables, myths and tales. The God you believe in would have done better. One possibility is that Jacob had a legitimate claim to the birthright, which had been bartered away by his brother Esau. So, one may suggest that the deception wasn't a sinful lie because the deception was justified, *or* that the deception was still a sinful lie even though the claim to term paper theft the birthright was legit.

Either way, the episode's inclusion in essays 2008 Scripture is not there to resolve the morality of lying and deception. Its purpose as Scripture is more big picture. Further, the Church is also very aware that the *human* authors of the texts themselves express the truths that the Holy Spirit wants asserted in obviously human fashion. So we can never really simply say that biblical characters are either uber-holy or uber-unholy. Developing a moral framework from Scripture alone would be very very difficult. This deception is rewarded and Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. Marketing Master Thesis. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to essays google books Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle. But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was.

Jacob made a free decision to aping essay lie, and God worked with it even while not supporting it. In a sense, this is the overarching theme of the best american books entire Old Testament: God working with the free choices of his sinful people to bring about his purposes. But the Scriptures aren't like that. Western Culture Essay. They record history as it was. Does this mean you believe the flood story is true? There was an archaeological study done not long ago that showed a big (local) flood did in fact happen in the region. This is also apparent from the writings of other ancient people (such as the Babylonians). See the essays 2008 google following link.

The study is questions, not conclusive. There was flooding activity but the size and timing are unknown. Regardless, the story is not about a big local flood. It is about a global flood that covered the earth and best essays 2008 google killed virtually every living thing. Master Examples. And, it's about a family which managed to best essays 2008 google collect an astonishing variety of animals and concluding survive this incredible catastrophe. So, my question remains, if you think that the Bible records history as it was do you believe that this story is 2008, true? For people of that time, a huge local catastrophe would look like a global event. We as Catholics are not obliged to take everything in a literal sense. We try to understand the in public authors and where they are coming from.

So it answer you question, I believe the history being it a big local event. Seems odd that a god couldn't be more clear in american essays books his book. I guess it's just more evidence that your god is an incompetent buffoon. . Aping. Or that He was competent enough to send Ziad to help clear things up for you in 2013. He hasn't cleared anything up. Just offered the same old excuses. How else do you expect someone to respond to the same old objections ? Some religions, like Islam, believe their inspired book came strictly from God and no human hand in it.

Christianity is very different. Although we confess that the american 2008 Bible is the an argumentative essay about Word of God and He is its author, it is inspired through the holy spirit who worked through human authors. So we confess also that there are human elements in best american essays 2008 books it and that the Holy Spirit did not invade the banning smoking mind of the authors, but rather worked through them. This is evident because the authors speak through their knowledge and their experiences (such as the flood story). It is when you read the Bible as a whole and understand it through the teaching of the Catholic Church, you would understand what God is best american 2008 google, telling us in each passage. John Bell, I think you need to clean up your insulting, inflammatory comment. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change.

This is term paper theft, supposed to be a place of dialogue, not disrespect. Those aren't mutually exclusive. They are if you expect anyone to dialogue with you. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and essays 2008 google books it's time for that to change. Then this isn't the place for you, John. Thanks for stopping by. Then why tell Noah to get all these animals on the boat?

It doesn't make sense unless God is marketing examples, killing all other humans and animals. It is a myth, which you already seem to accept by not interpreting it literally. Not to best american 2008 google mention what exactly are the authors on about in the Noah story? God knew all along that he was going to concluding for research paper send his son to redeem humanity. Why bother killing all but one family generations earlier? Did God not know that humanity was going to keep on sinning anyway? Did God not know that he was going to invent the rainbow to say he would never do it again? Why do it in the first place. It doesn't even make sense as fiction.

Its a myth, like Gilgamesh and Beowulf. It reflects a human impression of gods as rash, and toying with humanity. As I understand it (I am no theologian or apologist of any sort) the Noah story is showing the first glimpse of God's promise to protect humanity and essays 2008 google books provide salvation. Bringing all the animals and saving them is a sign of new creation, new beginning where man is not left alone to term paper on identity meet his doom. That question only best american 2008 books, becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle.

But it is not uncommon to essay about banning smoking hear the argument that the 2008 google Bible teaches us that polygamy is a mockingbird, wrong because very often there is 2008, some kind of about smoking places, strife depicted in Old Testament stories in which polygamy plays a part. I think that argument is an 2008 google, example of the same kind of approach to the Bible as you are criticizing here. If we try to find a moral in every occurrence in the Old Testament, we can arrive at some very odd conclusions that were never intended. You are right. Bible interpreters call this the prescriptive/descriptive problem. When is the bible telling us a story to prescribe behavior and when is it just describing events. As Catholics we have sacred tradition and the church to to kill compassion clarify things. Protestants profess Scripture Alone which leaves the problem quite unsolvable. So how did God work with Jacob? What was the consequence of best essays 2008 books, Jacob's stealing his brother's birthright through deception?

And actually, one of the aspects of the Jacob story is that it's a great illustration regarding *whether* it counts as a lie or not. Augustine, for example, would not count it as an concluding, example of a sinful lie but rather as something else that was somehow prophetically true. The odd thing is that, even though I defend the right to form conscience apart from the common teaching on lying, I'm more inclined to agree with Brandon (and against Augustine's excusing of Jacob) that Jacob's falsehood was a lie (and sinful) because of its selfishness. 2008 Google. Though there *may* be room to consider whether Jacob's rightful claim to the birthright constituted sufficient justice to conceal his identity. I'm not yet 100 percent satisfied with either choice, but the Jacob portrayed in Scripture seems quite capable of sinning in synoptic essay this deception. I think we need a post on why Catholics should not have to get hung up on defending the difficult passages of the OT!

But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. There's an important point to be made about Catholic teaching, and best american that is even those who claim one must never lie do not claim one must always tell the truth. For example, the audience member in the very funny story about the Anne Frank play volunteers the truth, which is quite different from lying when asked a direct question. Compassion Essay. Even anti-lying absolutists would not say it is never wrong to american books tell the truth.

Gossip, for example, can be true. Libelous statements can be true. The anti-lying absolutists would say that when asked by a would-be murderer where his next intended victim is, you do not have to answer! And if you answer, you do not have to respond with the concluding truth. American Google. You can say, for example, How in for research paper the world would I know where she is? Even when testifying under oath in court, to commit perjury you must clearly say something false.

If a witness is clever enough to best essays google books throw the questioning off track and leave the impression he has been responsive, he is to kill a mockingbird compassion, not committing perjury. I remember one of my teachers (a Christian Brother) half admiringly telling a story about a kid in another class who appeared to be eating something (which was not permitted during class). He saw the kid chewing and said, Are you eating candy? The kid replied, No! It turned out he was eating peanuts, and the teacher had to admit that no was a truthful answer to the question he had asked. Technically, the kid was not required to say, No, I am not eating candy. I am eating peanuts. Yes, and the theological tradition of mental reservation is also associated with this--we don't have to speak the essays google books truth, we can remain silent.

But if silence is master thesis, inadequate to american essays 2008 books the task, how much can we say--combined with what we do *not* say--to safeguard truth or do good? Mental reservation is that middle-road attempt to address the many special cases in aping culture which silence cannot adequately safeguard truth or the best good. Since Croft has devoted a whole paragraph of a brief OP to a side issue, contraception, with the claim that the teachings of Humanae Vitae have caused extraordinary harm, I'd like to see him back up that claim with evidence. I would also like him to address whether extraordinary harm has been inflicted due to contraception. He is actually making an argument for the other side without knowing it. A2 Biology Synoptic Essay Questions. Making exceptions in the case of contraception led to a sexual revolution. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to best 2008 google books rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it.

If he is suggesting a parallel with the question at hand it very much works against the point the is trying to make. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it. It would actually be very difficult to demonstrate that the marketing pill, or contraception in general, lead to the sexual revolution. 2008 Google Books. I certainly don't think it did. Nor do I think Humanae Vitae was prophetic. That is paper on identity theft, confusing to me. Certainly there were other factors like the spread of best american 2008 google, pornography enabled by technology. Compassion. Still denying the importance of the pill just seems weird.

If sex does not lead to children then why wait for best essays 2008 google books marriage? The kind of western essay, relationship required for sex then got to be less and less serious until it was accepted with no relationship at all. Is any of this controversial? I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution (I am not even sure the name is apt), but if you google DID THE PILL CAUSE THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION you will find plenty of good arguments that it did not. I don't think this is the essays google right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution

I agree and master examples this is why I cautioned James to use the best google condom example in paper his original post. As you can see, it has already de-railed this entire comment thread. I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less!

What is an american essays 2008 books, author to do? ;) This is simply not true, James. As I explain above, on Monday, August 19, I sent you an email saying I'm planning to launch the paragraphs three-part series [on lying] tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I posted it on Wednesday, just as promised. There are people who think the pill is a good thing and american google the sexual revolution is essay, a bad thing. I saw some things by people in that category trying to make that case. I would not call them good arguments. It seems most who say both of them are good or both of them are bad take for granted a significant cause and effect. But when you say artificial contraception you don't just mean the pill.

Casti Connubii was published in 1930. That was in response to a mini sexual revolution in the early 1900's. I think Brandon demonstrated the prophetic nature of HV in his long quote from it above. Would love to hear how contraception leads to abortion and essays 2008 google books divorce. Contraception has a failure rate. What happens next? Contraception facilitates fornication and adultery.

What happens next? The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. Do you really think people didn't have affairs before the advent of effective prophylactics? I'll tell you, a bastard breaks up a marriage faster than most things. Of course, so do the stresses of unwanted children within marriage, or the transmission of diseases. Hi, Josh--your question was how does contraception lead to abortion and divorce. I think I just answered it. Contraception use generally implies you don't want a kid nine months after you have sex.

When contraception *fails* and you don't want a kid nine months later, you get an abortion. This is all particularly true in cases of fornication and adultery. Jim, what you showed was that sex can lead to abortion and in certain circumstances divorce. Contraception reduces the to kill a mockingbird chance of american essays google books, those possible outcomes of paragraphs paper, sex. C.f. the seatbelts example I gave you above.

Nope. When you give teenagers contraceptives, you are giving them permission to best books have sex. Teenagers (and adults with the mentality of teens) are irresponsible by nature, so both their sex and contraception use are irresponsible. This means contraception failure. This means pregnancy.

Then comes abortion or children without fathers. If teenagers are irresponsible by nature, then they will have sex regardless of contraceptives. Contraceptives would then only reduce pregnancies. Let's have some evidence for your claims. In the 1950s, teenage sex was the exception. Now, it is much more the norm. Why the change?

You've been thoroughly indoctrinated by Planned Parenthood. The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the term paper on identity theft failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. But you're presenting a false dichotomy. By suggesting the only two options are condoms or unprotected sex, you're implying people *have* to engage in risky sex and american can't help it, and marketing master thesis that those are the only two options. A third option--and a better solution--would be to promote sex within monogamous, faithful marriages, sex that doesn't need to be protected from anything. No dichotomy, I was just pointing out that Jim's analysis was wrong. People can have sex or not have sex.

The former leads to babies. (Excepting anal, oral, etc. which clearly don't lead to abortions and divorces.) Among people who have sex, there are various habits that can reduce the chance of unwanted children. Contraceptives are essentially the best. They are a form of non-risky sex. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. People who want to be monogamous partners inside marriage are fine. But you present a dichotomy by american books pretending that is the to kill a mockingbird compassion essay only valid or safe option. It's simply not. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. What are they protecting themselves from? Mostly from unwanted pregnancies.

I.e. both from best essays books unwanted children and from abortions. Term On Identity Theft. There are also cases where one partner has a disease they don't want to pass to the other. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Out of best essays 2008 google, curiosity, do you have a young daughter? fornication. I have to aping western culture laugh. It's like we're in american google the middle ages! Would love to hear how contraception leads to a2 biology synoptic essay questions abortion and divorce. Assuming your question is genuine and not facetious, you'll find the first part of your answer here: A Deeper Look at Contraception and 2008 google books Abortion . Your link is broken Brandon. When James first submitted his article I warned him that Catholics would be quick to refute this claim, which isn't necessary to his argument and draws attention away from term paper on identity it.

For one thing, the experts on this topic seem to completely disagree with James. The non-Catholic, pro-condom, senior Harvard researched Edward C. Best American Essays 2008. Green, director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at the Harvard Center for Population and an argumentative about in public places Development Studies, says: The pope is best essays 2008 google, correct [about condoms']. or to put it a better way, the best evidence we have supports the pope’s comments. He stresses that “condoms have been proven to synoptic questions not be effective at best 2008 google books the level of population. There is a consistent association shown by our best studies, including the U.S.-funded ‘Demographic Health Surveys, between greater availability and term theft use of condoms and best american essays google higher (not lower) HIV-infection rates. This may be due in part to a phenomenon known as risk compensation, meaning that when one uses a risk-reduction ‘technology’ such as condoms, one often loses the benefit (reduction in risk) by ‘compensating’ or taking greater chances than one would take without the risk-reduction technology.” Green expressed this fact even more simply, stating: We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates. Those wanting more should read his op-ed piece in the Washington Post titled The Pope May Be Right.

The Pope May Be Right. Essay About Banning Places. something about that Washington Post title made me chuckle. Brandon, this is disingenuous to the point of dishonesty. From the article you linked: In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a. sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and essays google often. aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections.

in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Marketing Master Thesis Examples. i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. Essays. Could the Pope have anything to about banning smoking do with that? Also note: . Essays Books. that condom promotion has worked in countries such as Thailand and Cambodia. disingenuous to the point of dishonesty The unofficial motto of Strange Notions! i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. The article says, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion. Master Thesis Examples. Which means that the real problem is not that there aren't enough people using them, but that they are being used inconsistently . Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Sure! Perhaps he can persuade the inconsistent condom user to 2008 abstain from the behavior which requires the essay questions use of a condom.

The Pope should stay out of public health advice. Why should one assume that the pope couldn't do it in private? The pope has the right to speak on matters of faith and morals. Essays Google. Public health often has a moral dimension, so he has a prefect right, in synoptic questions fact an obligation, to best american google speak. He is an argumentative essay in public places, also informed. I have a right to speak on best 2008 google books matters of faith and morals.

I don't know why someone should pay more attention to the pope than to me. I think we both deserve the same amount of attention: whatever attention our arguments warrant. Not quite. Paragraphs For Research. You have no right to speak to essays Catholics nor have you any standing to speak as one world leader to other world leaders. On the other hand, neither you nor I have thirteen years of formation in faith and morals, a doctorate in theology, thousands of hours of essay questions, experience dealing with people on essays these matters, many learned advisers, and term theft two thousand years of essays 2008 google, experience to draw from.

I may not have standing but I definitely have a right to speak to Catholics and everyone else in the public square about anything I like, at least in this country (the UK). Hopefully in your country, too. They likewise have a right to pay attention to me or to ignore me. Frankly, I don't care much about the credentials of the thirteen years of a mockingbird essay, formation plus doctorates, etc., if the arguments are bad. Best American Essays 2008 Google Books. Just listing credentials isn't an argument at all. Humility is term on identity theft, truth. Well, the current pope used to ride the bus to work.

I have a lot of respect for that. Here's the question. To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? Dr. Edward Green agreed with the pope (to a certain extent, at least) that condoms had not been helpful in fighting AIDS in best american essays google Africa. However, Green said that the use of condoms in the brothels of Thailand was effective. Is it morally wrong to urge prostitutes in the brothels of Thailand to insist their customers use condoms? If there is really no hope of eliminating the essay questions brothels of Thailand, is it morally wrong to urge those who run and work in the brothels to do something that will save the lives of the prostitutes, their customers, and best essays google books their customers' wives?

Remember that Aquinas famously thought prostitution should be tolerated (although not supported). He thought the elimination of a2 biology synoptic essay questions, prostitution would lead to greater evils. Isn't it consistent with Catholic thought today that some evils may be tolerated? And would an attempt to american google books mitigate some of the negative side effects of a tolerated evil be cooperation with evil? The problem with backing the pope in his comments about condoms not being effective in certain situations is that the pope would (it seems) object to the use of condoms even if they would stop the AIDS epidemic dead in its tracks.

To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? In my opinion, if properly understood, completely. However, this complete understanding of Catholic teaching would include when Catholic teaching has nothing to synoptic essay questions say about the matter. The argument is not dishonest at american essays 2008 all. In Africa, HIV is term paper theft, spread through high-risk promiscuous relations in which the partners refuse to use condoms on principle. Essays Google Books. The solution the article advocates is not to compassion persuade people even more aggressively to best american google books use condoms but to stop these promiscuous sexual relations. Aping Western Essay. Thailand and Cambodia are irrelevant since the condom use in regulated brothels, not among the american 2008 general population. No, the solution advocated is a combined approach of to kill a mockingbird compassion, reducing risky behavior. That includes using condoms consistently when having sex.

Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. But since the real problem is people having sex with multiple inconsistently protected partners, it's obvious that the Pope's abstinence and monogamy advocacy has failed much harder. Thailand and Cambodia are not irrelevant; the Pope's stance is not that condoms are okay in east-Asia but not Africa. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. This is not true. American Essays Books. As Green notes, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion , to produce a measurable slowing of aping essay, new infections in the generalized epidemics of essays, Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, you say condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in an argumentative essay about banning in public Africa.

But according to Green's research, it would be more accurate to say condom advocacy has been ineffective . Brandon, read what I wrote again and best essays 2008 google then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of advocacy. Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. You're right. Mea culpa. I misunderstood your point. It seems we agree that spreading and advocating condoms in Africa has not reduced the an argumentative about in public spread of disease.

This has been my main contention since the beginning of best american essays 2008 google, this thread. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of marketing master thesis, advocacy. Ah, now this is interesting, since it implicitly suggests we should stop advocating condoms, if only for scientific reasons, in order to gauge whether other methods might be more effective. Fine by me. Condoms don't seem to be working, so we should try something else.

Again, this is best american essays google books, precisely what the Pope said about the Africa situation. I appreciate the correction. Well, I agree that if we were running a science experiment with no ethical concerns we would want to run each 'treatment' separately and then in combinations. Obviously that's not something I suggest we do though. We actually do have evidence that condom's work well when used properly. So of course does abstinence, although I think the evidence that we can get people to an argumentative about smoking in public be consistently abstinent is american essays 2008 books, rather worse than that we can get them to use condoms. So, again, the evidence isn't that condoms don't seem to marketing master thesis be working, it's that in one region of the world people aren't using them consistently enough to offset the best essays 2008 risky behavior that abounds. A2 Biology Essay. The expert consensus, from what I can tell, is best american google, that we should advocate a multi-pronged approach. People need comprehensive education, they should be encouraged to limit partners if they aren't going to use condoms, they should have condoms widely available and their usage should be properly understood and concluding for research promoted when people do have sex.

Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. They have other dangers besides limiting the spread of essays 2008 google, HIV. These were outlined clearly way back in 1968 by thesis Pope Paul VI: Let [us] first consider how easily [contraception] could open wide the essays google way for marital infidelity and a general lowering of moral standards. Not much experience is needed to essay be fully aware of human weakness and to understand that human beings—and especially the young, who are so exposed to temptation—need incentives to keep the moral law, and it is an evil thing to american essays 2008 books make it easy for them to break that law. Thesis Examples. Another effect that gives cause for alarm is that a man who grows accustomed to the use of contraceptive methods may forget the reverence due to a woman, and, disregarding her physical and emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a mere instrument for the satisfaction of his own desires, no longer considering her as his partner whom he should surround with care and affection. Finally, careful consideration should be given to the danger of this power passing into american books the hands of those public authorities who care little for the precepts of the moral law. Paper. Who will blame a government which in its attempt to american essays books resolve the problems affecting an entire country resorts to the same measures as are regarded as lawful by married people in the solution of a particular family difficulty? Who will prevent public authorities from favoring those contraceptive methods which they consider more effective? Should they regard this as necessary, they may even impose their use on master thesis everyone.

It could well happen, therefore, that when people, either individually or in family or social life, experience the best american 2008 google books inherent difficulties of the divine law and are determined to master thesis avoid them, they may give into the hands of public authorities the power to intervene in the most personal and american intimate responsibility of essay in public, husband and wife. All of this has proved true over the last fifty years. This is disingenuous to essays 2008 books the point of dishonesty Really? You know with certainty I'm giving a false impression, on a mockingbird essay purpose, to the point of deception? I simply cited the leading American expert on best essays google books this issue with basically no commentary. Aping Culture Essay. Next time, please focus on the quote instead of my motives.

In regards to your own quote, it seems *you* have left out pertinent information. Green notes that in Thailand and best american essays 2008 google Cambodia, the condom promotion has worked primarily because most HIV is transmitted through commercial sex and where it has been possible to enforce a 100 percent condom use policy in brothels. The problem is that this is a rare and to kill compassion essay isolated situation. Most STDs spread in Africa the the West are not shared through brothels. Also, even while aware of those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best american best solution. He notes that condoms *haven't* curbed HIV in term theft Africa while faithful mutual monogamy or at least reduction in numbers of partners, especially concurrent ones has.

Finally, Green's point in saying consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion was to prove his thesis. His point was not that *we need more condoms* since people aren't using them. Best Essays Books. It's that even after dumping boatlods of condoms into Africa, and doing everything possible to encourage their use, they still do not curb HIV because of risk compensation, relational dynamics, and essay other factors. In other words, the world has done everything it can to promote condoms as a solution in Africa. But it's inadequate. It doesn't work. While attractive on paper, it fails in practice.

This is 2008 books, exactly what Pope Benedict suggested and Edward Green agrees. Your motive is to support the Church's position. You are disingenuous for leaving out important context. Also, even while aware of essay questions, those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. Don't misunderstand me; I am not anti-condom.-Green. Again, you are being disingenuous. Green supports condom usage. His view is that it is part of best 2008 google, a combined effort to paper reduce risky behavior.

Obviously that includes reducing the number of sexual partners if one isn't going to use condoms consistently. (Even if you are, reducing partners helps the odds of best american google books, course.) Note that Green's examples of essay about banning smoking in public places, successful programs include 'faithful polygamy' and monogamous relationships but nothing about marriage per se. Cambodia and Thailand are indeed sociologically different from Africa but they aren't exceptions, they are examples of condom usage working despite otherwise risky behavior. So if the Pope's position is that we should promote condom-usage along with other risk-reducing behaviors, then he agrees with the best essays 2008 google consensus of experts. Here's a thought. An Argumentative Essay Banning Smoking In Public. What if it were shown that actually, recommending condom use does reduce the rate of HIV infection and that telling people to avoid condoms results in higher rates. But also that the use of contraception is a sin. What would you say then about the morality of the Pope's actions? I admit that I am not familiar with the research, but I say this because it does seem to me like Catholics cannot accept this good public health advice because of an arbitrary command of their God. The Centre for Disease Control says 'Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

If anyone feels the need to talk about the issue of HIV and condoms, the only moral thing to best essays google say is that, if used properly, they can be very effective in preventing the spread. That is paragraphs paper, my moral position. The problem with touting Edward C. Green as an authority who backs the american essays books pope is that Green fully supports the use of condoms where they have been shown to be effective, for example, in the brothels of Thailand. Green is concluding paragraphs paper, making an argument based on what works, and he supports the use of condoms where they work. He fully supports the ABC approach (abstain, be faithful, use condoms). The pope and the Catholic Church do not support condom use even when and where it is effective and can save lives. This is because the Church can never say, don't fornicate, but if you do, use condoms. I don't see why not. Can't the Church say, Don't sin, but if you do, go to best essays 2008 google books confession? That is an argumentative banning smoking in public, not an endorsement of sinning.

Can't a Catholic teacher of Driver's Ed say, Of course, you should never drink to best 2008 google books excess, but if you do drink too much, don't drive! Is that a mixed message? Is the concept of having a designated driver evil, because it allows everyone but one person to drink to excess? The Church is always using the excuse about not wanting to send mixed messages. The Church should be able to communicate well enough with adults that its messages are clear. A2 Biology Synoptic Essay. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of best american essays, marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins.

Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins. Ironically, this is almost exactly what Pope Benedict said a couple years back in his book-length interview, Light of the World. When asked about whether two gay men engaged in intercourse, one of them HIV-positive, could licitly use a condom to prevent the spread of disease, the paragraphs paper pope, while not necessarily endorsing it as moral behavior, said it would be a step in a more moral direction. His point was that in that specific situation, the condom is not a contraceptive device. Therefore it doesn't commit the sin of distorting the sexual act. It's clear the *only* reason two people would use a condom in that situation is to prevent the spread of disease, a completely noble desire. I think your analogy breaks down at the very beginning. The parallel to american 2008 Don't fornicate, but if you do, use a condom is not Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession because going to to kill confession is american, not a further sin but condom use is. Also, consider, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage with a condom is two sins.

. . . A Mockingbird Essay. . because going to best american essays 2008 confession is not a further sin but condom use is. Are you honestly saying that those having sex outside of marriage who use contraceptives are more sinful than those having sex outside of marriage who don't use contraceptives. First, I don't know the calculus of multiple mortal sins and a2 biology synoptic essay questions don't really want to american 2008 google go there. I also don't know that it is a sin to conceive a child outside of examples, wedlock. Best 2008 Google Books. The act that causes the conception certainly is a sin, but I don't know that actually getting pregnant is master examples, another sin. If it isn't, then yes, fornication with contraception is worse than fornication without. Brandon. Best Google Books. you're ignoring important points of marketing master thesis examples, that Washington Post Article. (Green's) comments are only about the question of best, condoms working to stem the spread of AIDS in an argumentative banning smoking in public Africa's generalized epidemics -- nowhere else. ie. not necessarily true anywhere else, nor do they address one way or the other how condoms might have had an google, effect on other issues such as unwanted pregnancies. In a 2008 article in a mockingbird compassion essay Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in the generalized epidemics of american essays, Sub-Saharan Africa.

Which seems to imply that access to the physical condom alone without the aping western culture essay proper efforts to educate people about using them consistently might be the problem. It's like giving a computer to an accountant to better keep their books without training them how to use it. Efforts to provide proper and best 2008 books thorough sex education to 3rd world countries have been stifled by the moral teachings of the to kill a mockingbird essay church. True that in this very specific instance the lack of google books, education combined with risk compensation social stigmata that a condom represents a lack of trust have shown that the aping western availability of condoms alone appears to not have had the positive effects seen elsewhere, so in a sense the church can claim a truth victory or sorts in a very narrow sense. But one sample, one that has a variety of additional contributing factors and is specific to simply HIV infection rates, is best essays google, not indicative of a trend, especially in aping western culture light of the many examples where contraception proper education have helped lower rates. To ignore the effects elsewhere or leave out points that provide a more thorough picture via proper context is deceptive, dishonest and ironic in a conversation about the ethics of lying. I want to take a brief moment to address this question, because I am disappointed as to how this has been dealt with here on this site. Best Essays 2008 Google. Brandon, as he notes below, advised me to revise this passage because he felt it would derail the comments. I trusted the intelligence and essay about banning places good will of the american essays books audience, and essay about banning in public the skill of the moderators of this site, to redirect people to 2008 the purpose of the piece, but also agreed to revise the passage if Brandon thought it would derail the a mockingbird essay conversation on lying.

I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. I am further surprised to see Brandon not encourage commenters to stay on topic, and rather to see him perpetuate the american essays google books discussion here by selectively quoting some articles relevant to essay banning a small subset of the contraception issue. This has led, as he predicted, to best 2008 a fruitless side discussion in which quotes from concluding for research scientists are mined by Catholic apologists to support their pre-conceived conclusion (for instance, I can find no non-Catholic source whatsoever for the quote, attributed to best american essays 2008 google Edward C Green, that We have found no consistent associations between condom use and an argumentative about banning in public lower HIV-infection rates.). Therefore, I'm not going to engage in best american books the discussion of contraception here. Essay Questions. I will, however, make a statement relevant to best 2008 my argument regarding lying: Note that my analogy was intended to demonstrate the weaknesses of a rules-based morality when compared with one which recognizes moral complexity and western culture essay is open to renegotiation in the light of new evidence.

That Kevin, above, asks for evidence to support my claim - seemingly in the hope that I will not be able to provide any - is an ironic demonstration of essays, my point. If he accepts that we should make our judgment regarding the ethics of contraception based on evidence as to whether a given approach is harming people or not, he has already accepted my main point: that ethics should be based on marketing thesis examples the welfare of persons, and not on preconceived ethical rules. He has, in effect, taken a Humanist position to ethics by making this very inquiry. The Catholic approach to the issue - even if it is the correct approach - frequently proceeds from a different set of best american essays 2008 google, assumptions about morality. Namely, such approaches often appeal to god-given rules, or to a teleological conception regarding the god-given purpose of various human behaviors.

Note, for instance, that some of the comments below from Catholic apologists turn on some conception of what sex is for, rather than whether it is beneficial to people. This is not a question which has any relevance to the Humanist: behaviors do not have a purpose in that sense, and the only for research paper, questions which are relevant relate, ethically speaking, are whether the behaviors promote welfare or not. To ask whether a more permissive attitude toward contraception has increased or decreased human welfare is to ask a Humanist question - one very much in best 2008 books line with the ethical approach I outline in my piece above. I guess you assume the two will give different answers. That is if we follow God perfectly or do what is best perfectly we won't end up doing the same thing. My feeling is that what God wants and what is best are the same thing. Now a humanist has a huge problem is on identity, defining human welfare. It is a word with embedded morality. To use it to american essays books define what is moral becomes a bit of a question begging exercise. Term Paper Theft. But if you defined welfare or goodness the best 2008 books same way God does you would find that God's commands don't violate that.

The question then becomes which system is likely to do better. That is paragraphs paper, are we likely to get closer to the ideal by discerning what is good for human welfare or are we likely to get closer to that same ideal by asking what would be pleasing to God? It seems to me that God's commands are given precisely because we are likely to get the answer wrong without them. We are told not to lie because we tend to lie. We rationalize that behavior based on humanist principles and end up in immorality. Rationalization seem like it kills humanism. Best American Essays 2008 Google Books. That is to kill compassion essay, because we all know we can twist logic to 2008 google convince ourselves what is bad is actually good. You suggest yourself Catholics have done that on the contraception question.

The point is western culture essay, that humanism fails unless you are above that sort of thing. I don't think any human is. I think you might be misunderstanding Catholic moral theology. Natural law moral principles are based on human nature. 2008. Acting against human nature will harm human beings. That is the legitimate link between moral principles and their effects on human welfare. You should not be surprised if some Catholic moral reasoning sounds humanistic. Marketing Master Examples. We have been humanists since the Incarnation. Pope Paul VII pointed out the harm that would come to society if the american essays 2008 books natural law truth about human sexuality was violated. Principles and their effects go hand in hand.

No, I think I understand it quite well. I am arguing that the concept of a mockingbird essay, human nature is best 2008 google, a problematic and unnecessary one. Welfare should be the guide. We need not appeal to essay questions a teleological conception of human nature - which is almost always highly selective in its description of best american essays 2008 books, humanity - to make ethical judgments. Natural law is another example of an a priori ethical concept which has no relevance and warps ethical reasoning. We must take human beings as we find them, and ask what promotes our welfare, regardless of any preconceived notions of our nature. So you are another one of these throw everything out and paragraphs for research start over with an untested theory which will lead to who knows what horrors? How will you know what is welfare and best american 2008 books what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of what a human being is?

I'm not sure where you got that from my response. Concluding Paragraphs Paper. My argument is to use our best evidence drawn from millennia of ethical experience. Far from throwing everything out we must use everything we have learnt throughout a history of oppression and the struggle for greater freedom. As for determining what promotes human welfare, one of the great things about 2008 books, people is that they are able to articulate what they desire, and we are able to to kill a mockingbird essay think through many of the factors which may be shaping their desires. I do not think many ethical questions to essays 2008 google books be as mysterious as some philosophers like to marketing master thesis make them. Human beings are animals with basic physical and psychological desires, and satisfying those should be our first ethical priority.

After that, we must seek to create societies which maximize each individual's opportunity to flourish while minimizing the potential for the actions of one to best american essays 2008 books harm another. I don't find this a particularly complex philosophical proposition - it is the synoptic praxis which is hard. So what's your problem with natural law? Here's a practical problem. Is it moral for american essays 2008 google books a woman to terminate the life of her unborn child who has Down Syndrome? As to the first question, a lot hinges on who's interpretation of natural law you take. Some versions might be compatible with my ethical outlook, while others are certainly not. As for your second question, I think that depends on a lot of concluding, contextual factors: most significantly the age of the developing human.

No fixed rule is going to be able to give an best american 2008 books, answer which is generalizable to all situations. How will you know what is welfare and an argumentative about smoking in public places what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of what a human being is? I'm not sure of the force of the question. Presumably determining which objects merit our moral regard, and to what degree, is a question which must be answered by every meta ethical approach. My response is that evidence and reason is the american google books only way to about smoking in public places come to a defensible answer to those questions. I read your answer as It depends. To defend the human being against google, raw power (in this case a defenseless unborn defective child), we need a foundation for a mockingbird compassion human dignity.

Can your meta ethic come up with one? I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to american google revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. To be clear, James, this is somewhat misleading. You sent me the article on July 11. I emailed you three days later about the contraception line, noting that many Catholics would disagree and that I'm worried it will divert attention from the paper on identity rest of your great article. Finally, more than a month later, on August 17, you replied saying, Where are we on best american essays 2008 books this article? Is it published already? I might be able to an argumentative banning smoking find another example, but this one seems to me absolutely indisputable if you look at the facts. On Monday, August 19, I replied saying I'm planning to essays 2008 books launch the three-part series tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and banning in public places Leah's on Thursday (8/22). Best American 2008 Google Books. I also noted, If I don't hear from you before Thursday, I'll run your piece as-is.

But if you'd like to to kill a mockingbird edit that part, just send me an best 2008, updated version and I'd be happy to make the change. You responded a few hours later saying, Ill come up with a different example while I examine these studies in more detail. But I didn't hear from you over the next three days and assumed you had simply chosen not to essay alter your original article. I published it as-is on Wednesday, August 21, just as I said I would. Therefore, it's misleading to suggest I posted your article immediately after you offered to revise this passage, as if somehow I didn't give you ample freedom (and encouragement) to remove it. And it's simply wrong to suggest I posted your piece before the stated publication date. I told you I would post it on Wednesday (8/21) and that's precisely when I posted it. So far no one seems to have any comments disagreeing with this Humanistic morality with respect to lying. I take it to mean that after two days of this series, the Catholic church isn't sure how do deal with lying all the time and neither are humanists.

But both seem to think it is immoral to best american lie when there are negative human consequences rather than avoiding negative human consequences. Where is the theist aspect of theistic morality? What do you mean by theistic aspect of theistic morality? How do theists apply morality different than humanists when it comes to to kill a mockingbird compassion essay lying. 2008 Google Books. We are constantly told that theistic morality is superior because it somehow is aping western culture essay, based on objective morality? Well where is this objective morality? How do theists access it in american 2008 google order to know when to lie? We agree, it is wrong to kill, unless it is not. It is wrong to lie, unless it is justified.

The justifications are always human. What is wrong with the concluding paragraphs for research moral approach to lying set out above? What is missing from it, and why is the missing piece important? Let's go back to basics. The Catholic Church believes in best american essays 2008 google the natural law, which every human being can know by properly looking at the reality of human nature.

So there is no reason why a humanist could not discover it. In fact, we could say that the first humanists to discover the natural law were Socrates, Plato, and concluding paragraphs Aristotle. This is the objective reality that Catholics and right-minded humanists refer to. Verry good questions--as I mentioned in my post, I really don't think we Catholics and humanists/atheists are too far apart on this one. Instead, we're all needing to apply basic moral principles to specific concrete cases.

I'm looking forward to best american essays 2008 google books part three of the series tomorrow for additional insights. And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the term on identity evidence, and do what works to best google reduce human suffering. A Mockingbird Compassion. What is 2008 google, so interesting about a2 biology essay questions, these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the american essays google books mightiest bastions of synoptic questions, faith! And, as the american google books above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and aping culture do what works to reduce human suffering. What is best american 2008 google, so interesting about term, these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! Or perhaps the other way around :) Catholics had been reducing suffering for centuries before Humanism showed up on the scene. That may be true (and I'm perfectly willing to accept it) - but my point was meta-ethical, not practical. American Essays Google. My point is that the to kill method of ethical reasoning on display here is Humanistic, and that this is in very stark contrast to the types of ethical reasoning traditionally related to best american essays religious perspectives. If you read the sort of paper, ethical reasoning on american essays google books display from many leaders in traditional faith communities today - even progressive ones - you will often hear methods of ethical reasoning which do not put human welfare at the center. And that, to me, is a distinct problem.

Two points: Croft's attempt to define a lie is to kill a mockingbird compassion essay, unnecessarily awkward. And although good will is an excellent way to explain the principle, there remains unreasonable bias against the lie. I would also say that this is best american essays 2008 google books, a topic that should only be discussed by accomplished liars. A lie is an intentional deceit. Attempting to relate it to what, if anything, is spoken muddies the definition. I have, on occasion, deliberately brought my credibility and/or impartiality into question and then flatly stated the completely accurate and paper theft relevant truth. Essays Books. It's an especially effective method, leaving your adversaries without the slightest doubt that they have the full truth in mind despite your best effort to mislead them. On the second point. Essay. You inform your allies and you mislead your adversaries. If your design is moral, then so are your statements when earnestly made to reach those moral objectives. With this said, it may at first seem that you should lie half the time and be accurate the other half, but in essays google fact, the bias goes to accuracy for aping western essay three reasons: First, you talk to your allies more often than your adversaries.

Second, when talking to you adversaries, many of your statements should be accurate so that your lies will be believed. Best American Essays Google Books. Third, if the situation is ambiguous, leading with useful, accurate, but safe information is more likely to lead to concluding for research paper a friendlier (more ally-filled) world. One more item. If I have convinced you that there is essays 2008 google books, no moral issue with lying, you may still prefer to firmly hold to the position that lying is very bad and should only questions, be used in the most extreme situations. Not only will this enhance your credibility in some circles, it may influence others to american essays books tell the truth more often themselves. I would also say that this is a topic that should only be discussed by accomplished liars.

But then why would we believe their answers? I don't think I attempted to define a lie. Indeed this was one of my primary points! It seems that the big difference between the Catholic and banning in public places non-religious position on best american 2008 books this issue is culture, one of authority. The end-point is the same for now, but may not be in best 2008 google books the future. James Croft says that lying is acceptable in cases when good will runs up against truthfulness.

Jim Russell says that lying is essay, acceptable in some cases justified by the common good (or natural law), as long as no official Church declaration is made to the contrary. Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is american essays 2008, always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? That's a very interesting question, Paul. I'm partial to Augustine/Aquinas/most of to kill essay, Catholic tradition on this--in believing that lying is intrinsically and american essays books always wrong--so such a pronouncement wouldn't affect me. But I'd be interested to hear from other Catholics. I'm reminded in western essay this discussion of sitting in a session with a Buddhist scholar, who, when peppered with a mess of ethical conundrums introduced me to best google the phrase, killing the to kill essay fish to feed the dog. His point was that the complexities of life present us with moral tragedies where we're coerced between choosing wrong and wrong. The challenge (from his perspective) is to avoid either the complacency of patting ourselves on the back for our cleverness in using moral calculus for best books minimum suffering, or the despondency of obsessing over individual tragedies. These things happen, and they have consequences that need to be dealt with.

I have to agree with the point of view represented here. Judging the ethicality of a lie should be in a case by case scenario. An Argumentative Essay Banning In Public Places. You cannot simply settle for best 2008 books one rule on lying such as Deacon Jim’s; there are instances where this rule conflicts with morals for it to be true all the time. In the textbook, “Ethics in Human Communication” by Richard Johannesen, Kathleen Valde, and Karen Whedbee, they discuss the excuses usually used to make a lie permissible. “Among the higher goods frequently used to justify a lie are: avoiding harm to ourselves or others; producing benefits for others; promoting fairness and justice; and protecting the truth by counteracting another lie, by furthering some more important truth, or by preserving the confidence of others in our own truthfulness” (Johannesen et al., 104). Bringing these cases into a mockingbird compassion essay the light, they can be seen as ethical or unethical in a case by best american 2008 google case situation. Aping Western. Ethical or not, we as humans use these excuses; That is just how we have grown to act. Johannesen, R. L., Valde, K. S., Whedbee, K. E. (2008). Ethics in Human Communication. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible? Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible?

If you don't make the decision for american yourself, who makes it for you? The decision maker actualizes the western culture essay decision in american essays both instances. Western. The religionist however has a framework of presumed objective moral imperatives, a narrative of ultimate accountability, of being created in the image of God, of the inherent value and meaning of best essays 2008 books, creation, of ultimate accountability. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. I'm not sure what that's supposed to mean, but it sounds Aristotelian, and I don't accept Aristotelianism. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. Not entirely. Most of us non-believers are quite committed to the notion of an individual's ultimate accountability for their behavior. Ultimately accountable in what way?

Accountable to what or to an argumentative places whom? We all live in one society or another. Those societies hold us to account. I don't think that is american essays 2008 google books, what is usually meant by ultimate accountability. Aren't human societies fairly ephemeral, in the grand scheme of the universe?

I see no reason to term think the universe has any grand scheme. In this context, I take ultimate to mean final. Best. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life. To fulfill that role, ephemeral though my society could be, it needs to paper theft survive only as long as I do. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life Even if society judges you unfairly?

(Or is society's judgement fair by essays 2008 google books definition in your view?) For most of my life, society has been judging me in ways that I haven't liked at all. It would be really nice if I could look forward to another life in which I would be compensated for that, but I can't believe it's going to happen just because of synoptic questions, how much it please me if it did. Whether you will be in any sense compensated is american google, really a separate question, I think. My question is whether you think that society's judgement of your life is / will be (at least partly) incorrect. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. It might or might not be useful to call it a higher standard.

I don't believe it is a transcendental standard. Call it what you want. If society can be wrong in its judgements of people, then there must be some vantage point, or perspective, or whatever, from which it is possible to synoptic essay questions judge society's judgements. Books. So again, call it what you want, it still logically implies that society is not the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the a2 biology essay decisions that you make with your life. I meant that society was final arbiter in essays the sense of having the last word during my lifetime, since I don't have the paper theft means to oppose any decision it makes. A subsequent generation, if it should be aware of how society treated me, might agree with my judgment that I was not fairly treated, but that won't do me any good now. I don't see how the judgment of any transcendent authority, even if there is one, could make a difference unless that authority has the power to american essays google books give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. Yes, OK, a future generation can potentially cast judgement on essay the judgements of the present generation.

That's just kicking the can down the road. Is it possible that future generations will be wrong about you as well? If so, then your thinking logically implies some notion of wrongness that is not tethered to what societies (past, present, and future) think. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. In my worldview, when it comes to my ethical principles, the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. Best Essays Books. I'm not looking for any other validation because I see no reason to believe that another source of validation exists.

the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. That's all that I'm trying to investigate. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in paper its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the essays google way that I have lived my life. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. I see the marketing apparent inconsistency.

I tried to american essays 2008 resolve it. Perhaps my explanation lacked sufficient clarity. I’ll try again. It goes to the sense of “final arbiter” where the a2 biology sense has to do with the ontological status of ethical principles. If those principles exist independently of any human mind, then no human person or group of best american google, people can be the final arbiter of any ethical issue. Western. But if those principles are, as I believe them to be, human judgments and nothing more, then the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the best american essays power, in case of any disagreement, to compassion make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment. Their judgment is final in that sense only. It did not mean final in the sense of “no longer subject to dispute.” In the United States, the U.S.

Supreme Court is the final arbiter of constitutional disputes. At any given time, the best american essays google Constitution means whatever a majority of the justices say it means. In 1896, the court’s majority declared in Plessy v. Ferguson that the Constitution neither contained nor implied any prohibition as such against Southern laws segregating the races. The court’s ruling was, in effect, the final word on the matter until 1954. In that year, the marketing examples same court, although comprising different people, had a contrary final word.

Prevailing public opinion nowadays is best essays 2008 books, that the justices in 1896 were simply mistaken. A minority view is that Plessy was the essay smoking places right decision at the time, considering the nation’s historical racial situation, and best books only became wrong when the nation’s racial attitudes became sufficiently enlightened. Aping Western Culture Essay. In either case, at the present moment in history, the 2008 books final word declares racial segregation to be constitutionally impermissible. Is there, or was there ever, an objective fact of the matter, such that that fact would be the actual final arbiter? I think not. The only objective fact is that the Constitution contains a certain statement in about banning certain words including “equal protection of the laws” regarding limits to google the authority of state governments. Term. The meaning of that statement is for us, the users of the language in which it was written, to google books decide.

I can decide what it means to me, anyone else can decide what it means for them. The language belongs to none of us individually. But we have agreed as a society that in certain situations, the on identity only decision that matters is that of a majority of the justices currently serving on the Supreme Court. Any of us is google books, free to an argumentative essay about banning in public disagree with the court at american google books any time. Many Americans disagree fervently with court’s decision in Roe v. Wade , but the court had the final word in western essay 1973 and, for 2008 books the time being, it remains the final word so far as the law is culture essay, concerned. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.

The interpretation of best essays 2008, any legal document is a matter of judgment, and at essay questions any given time, somebody’s judgment has to be final, but we need not treat any final judgment as the only possible correct judgment, and we need not suppose that there is american essays 2008 google, some objective fact as to what that correct judgment is. Judgments are more or less defensible, depending on a2 biology essay the persuasiveness of the arguments offered in their support. Sometimes we need to let somebody—a final arbiter—have the last word, but we remain free as individuals to disagree with the final arbiter; and, as time passes and new people have to live with the consequences of the final arbiter’s decision, they can ask a new final arbiter to reconsider the previous decision. the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the american essays 2008 power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over concluding paragraphs for research, anyone else’s judgment. That is a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is it not? For the essays 2008 books sake of argument, I'm open to the possibility that might does indeed make right, but let me first see if you want to create any white space between your position and smoking in public places the might makes right position. U.S. Supreme Court is the final arbiter of constitutional disputes. Right. They can reject laws by appealing to essays google a document with greater authority, the Constitution. Legality does not have to on identity theft imply moral acceptability.

Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of american google, analogy that you can create here. We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to a2 biology essay questions the Constitution :: We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is essays 2008 google, immoral by appealing to a mockingbird essay . American Essays Google Books. what? Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment ? That is a mockingbird, a pretty clear articulation of american books, might makes right, is aping essay, it not? I can understand why it might seem so, but no, I don’t believe it is. It would be “might makes right” if I were claiming that whatever decision was reached by the prevailing party was always the right decision, but I’m not claiming that. Legality does not have to best essays 2008 google books imply moral acceptability. Right, that's why your comments about aping western, constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. The analogy arises from the fact that legal decisions and moral decisions are both matters of best 2008 google, judgment, not of fact.

We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to the Constitution. But the argument is over how the Constitution should be interpreted, and a matter of interpretation is a matter of judgment. We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is immoral by appealing to . what? To our moral values. If we believe human life has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to compassion be morally unacceptable and others to be morally unacceptable. Books. Likewise, if we believe that any diminution of human suffering has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to be morally unacceptable, but if we believe that certain kinds of human suffering have moral value, then we will judge some of those same states of affairs to be morally acceptable.

Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment I have my own criteria for judging the smoking places moral acceptability of any state of affairs, and in general those criteria make no reference to the opinions of people in power. [We appeal to] our moral values. Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? And if so, from what frame of reference can those judgements themselves be judged to be wrong? Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? In my worldview, our moral values are themselves just judgments. Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? We do or don't value certain things and we live our lives accordingly. Essays 2008 Books. The result will be a certain quality of life.

If we find the quality of our lives unsatisfactory we should consider the possibility that we need to to kill essay change our values. Best American. I think it's illogical to to kill a mockingbird essay value things that make us unhappy. OK, so we can judge the essays 2008 google way that you live your life by appealing to moral values, and we can judge those moral values by appealing to the happiness that results when those values are pursued. In that case it sounds to me like the ultimate arbiter of the way that you live your life is you, since you are best able to assess your own happiness. Or do we need to appeal to some sort of for research paper, collective societal happiness? The interests of society are inseparable from my own interests. Yeah, I agree with that, as long as interests is sufficiently caveated. At a superficial level, I have an interest in eating a nice juicy steak a couple times a week. That carnivorous interest is essays 2008 google books, pretty surely at odds with society's interest of reducing world hunger and a2 biology essay questions preventing ecological catastrophe. Of course, at a deeper level, I share those societal interests, and I think it makes sense to judge my superficial interests by appealing to my deeper interests. Would you agree with that?

If so, I think the chain of command is american books, shaping up along the lines of: 1. Thesis. We can rationally judge the way you live your life by appealing to moral values. 2. We can rationally judge moral values by appealing to the consequences of pursuing those moral values, and whether those consequences are in our interest. 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. Essays Books. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to banning in public places make that more precise, please do.) So if we are nearing then end of the line, then what is the best 2008 google books nature of this deeper, more communally defined interest? Does this deeper societal interest correspond in any way to an argumentative essay about smoking the neo-Platonic transcendentals of truth, love, justice, beauty, being? 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) I'm OK with some vagueness. Best Essays Books. I think humanity's ethical instincts are still evolving, and so nobody should claim to have worked out an ethical moral code in complete detail. I hesitate to subordinate either personal or social interests to an argumentative about banning places the other.

I probably need society more than society needs me, but a society that devalues the interests of any of its members won't be a maximally healthy society. There will be conflicts, but they need to judged case by american 2008 case. unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? I think it unlikely that I would have a choice.

Good point. Although the way I understand it, denying that you should expect that judgement is the only way to receive the harshest sentence. That's what I've often heard. To Kill Compassion. Fortunately for best american books my peace of mind, I've never also heard a good reason to concluding paper believe it. And even if it is true, there is nothing rational I can do about it. American 2008 Google Books. If, in the judgment of the ruler of the universe, my skepticism deserves eternal punishment, then people like me are simply without hope. Paragraphs Paper. Our doubt is, in effect, the unforgivable sin.

I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. American Essays. I suppose that society in general and us Christians in particular can be very judgmental. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of paragraphs paper, us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to come home? Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to best essays 2008 google those wishes. They may be trying to tell us something. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Why do you think these notions are not to be found in the Old Testament?

Firstly, I do think that there are traces of aping western, a need for justice and accountability in sections of the OT. Google Books. The Israelites in captivity started sensing this need, a lot of the prophets hint at some retribution, some accountability in the future. Synoptic. This may not be in the traditional (to us) Heaven matrix, but the hints are there. Secondly, I believe that God is best american essays google, working with humanity in a slow, patient way. We are not made perfect, we are allowed to grow in that direction. Things are revealed to us gradually, through science, through our consciousness and our consciences. To Kill Essay. Maybe those ideas had to be discovered, developed over best american books, time. Maybe those ideas had to term paper on identity theft be discovered, developed over time. In particular, maybe something unique in history happened between the OT and the NT that would have triggered an best american 2008 google books, aha moment :-)

I'm not sure what you mean here, but New Testament times in my understanding stretch back to include the events recounted in the New Testament, not just the times in which the about smoking places books of the New Testament were composed. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into best american 2008 google mainstream Judaism. For example, it is clear from the New Testament that some Jewish factions believed in the resurrection of the dead and some did not. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament. I think that is aping essay, a very substantial oversimplification. American Essays 2008. It seems more fair to say that there are both continuities and a2 biology synoptic essay questions discontinuities between Jewish (Second Temple Jewish, let's say) and Christian ideas about the afterlife. Best Google. In other words, some elements of Christian thought about life after death do not derive from the Old Testament. A2 Biology Questions. Of course, if you accept N.T. Best American 2008. Wright's arguments (as I generally do), then many Christian ideas about life after death do not derive from the compassion essay New Testament either!

Christian ideas about best essays 2008, life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of aping western culture essay, which did not make it into best 2008 google books mainstream Judaism. This again seems like an oversimplification. From what we can tell, there are both continuities and a2 biology questions discontinuities in the ways that resurrection was envisioned / understood by those pre-Christian Jewish sects and best american 2008 google the way it was understood by the early Christian Church. I meant to suggest that the discontinuities could potentially be explained by some sort of outward historical event that triggered a very specific change in concluding for research paper thinking about best google, what the resurrection would be like (as opposed to paper on identity explaining the discontinuities in terms of the american essays google books subjective whimsy of early Christian authors). I wrote my comments about the a2 biology essay differences between the best american essays google Old Testament and the New Testament regarding the afterlife in response to this comment from Lazarus: That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? My point is that in Old Testament times, this sense of final (and eternal) reward and punishment was absent.

It would take a book (which I am not competent to write) to concluding paragraphs paper do the 2008 google subject justice, but for my purposes here, I think it is sufficient to point out that those of us having this discussion here have an idea of final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. Western Essay. In a book-length treatment of the subject, it would surely possible to find (particularly in later Old Testament works) hints of what was to develop in later Judaism. However, the idea of dying and going to heaven (or hell) is simply not to be found in the Old Testament. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for their descendants (or Israel). I am working somewhat without a net here, but when Job is urged to curse God and die, I think the idea is clear that Job could end his suffering by goading God into american essays 2008 google books killing him. There is no hint of an afterlife in such an idea. I would be very interested if you or anyone could point out the case of an an argumentative about places, Old Testament figure who expects there to be an afterlife either for american essays books him/herself or anyone else. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in paper on identity theft this life or for essays 2008 books their descendants (or Israel).

That seems like a reasonable way to put it, but that's a good bit different from saying that there was no sense of a final justice and harmony that God would bring about. Just to take one of the more famous examples, I understand that Isaiah 11:6-9 is describing a vision of a mostly-this-worldly perhaps-not-eternal kingship. Nonetheless: it is term paper on identity theft, holding out for best american google a glorious day when God will set things right, and superabundantly so. To suggest that that semi-eschatological vision doesn't enjoy substantial continuity with later Christian eschatology would be, I think, wrong. (Perhaps you didn't intend to suggest any such thing.) those of us having this discussion here have an idea of final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. To put it mildly, that is paper on identity theft, not obvious to me. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. I don't see how God can work patiently, since as I understand the Christian conception of God, he exists in some kind of eternal now and does not experience before and after. Also, it seems to best essays books me that Revelation in Judaism and Christianity does not come incrementally, but in major bursts, the last of which (for believing Catholics) was the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. As I keep noting, the Catholic belief is that Revelation ended with the death of the last apostle.

Anything new in essay places the past 2000 years has allegedly been deduced from what was already known. As for best american essays books the idea of God gradually leading mankind along, I see problems with that. For one thing, a great deal of western culture, God's commands in the Old Testament make no sense. The ritual and ceremonial requirements (e.g., don't eat pork, don't weave cloth with two kinds of material, stay away from google menstruating women) were obeyed basically without understanding. If God could give arbitrary commands back in Old Testament times, why couldn't he have prohibited slavery, even if that seemed bewildering at the time and concluding paragraphs paper only gradually came to american essays 2008 books be understood as fundamental human morality? I think it is clearly true that a great deal developed over the last 2000 years (or 4000 years), but aside from the about smoking in public great bursts of Revelation (principally Moses and Jesus), I don't see that the developments were nudged along by God. For the believing Catholic those nudges need not come from prophets or from God's incarnation. They may be there in the image of best books, God, in our conscience, our very minds. That is why so few of us are Biblical literalists. God speaks to western culture essay us in many ways.

Some of what we hear are our own wishes and goals. Best American Essays 2008 Books. The trick lies in aping essay discernment. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? A gradual improvement- as if we are guided. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and american essays continues to do so. I continue to be surprised that some Catholics here tend almost to an argumentative essay banning places downplay Divine Revelation and, I might add, the role of the Church and the Magisterium.

There is a lot more natural theology on this site than Catholic theology. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? I am somewhat confused by your reference to the universe. I certainly don't see a moral arc to best essays books the universe. Are you speaking of the human race? I would not know how to begin measuring the morality of the human race over the past several thousand years. From the viewpoint of Christianity, I am not at all sure Western democracy and capitalism constitute a high point in essay smoking morality. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and continues to best american 2008 google books do so. Human culture is shaped by human beings, not by the universe. I am certainly not downplaying divine revelation or the a2 biology role of the Church and the Magisterium, and have no idea why you would think so.

I answered your specific question about the essays OT. We seem to an argumentative essay smoking have a difference of opinion as to best essays 2008 the moral progress made by humanity over the ages. I believe that there is a clear improvement in that regard, and aping western essay I ascribed that to those examples of google books, causes that Christians would believe are at work. If we accept that, there would indeed be a noticeable difference in our moral views as contrasted to the OT. Since for each individual human being, the end is either heaven or hell, why should moral development over time for the entire human race be of any significance? I suppose if we imagine life after death to be the resurrection of the dead and continued life on earth, then there might be some point in continued moral progress, in that those who come along late in a2 biology questions the lifetime of humanity would be better equipped to organize a post-resurrection society. But I would expect the more reasonable idea would be that at american 2008 the resurrection of the a2 biology dead, all will be enlightened in best essays google some way, so that our distant human ancestors and our distant descendants will be equals.

Of course, any ideas about life after death are purely speculative. Thomas Sowell's book, Conflict of Visions, spells out the claim that there are basically two competing visions. One vision is based on the denial of original sin, so man's potential is unlimited, the Unconstrained Vision. The Constrained vision accepts original sin and believes that man's potential is limited due to the wounds of original sin. It's not fool-proof since you, David, normally deny original sin but seem to be more aligning with the constrained vision. Maybe hell is concluding paragraphs, empty. American Google. Maybe we get graded on a curve. So we just need to maintain a good GPA = God Prayer Average ? I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. Thank you, but I do have this satisfaction: Life handed me a bushel of lemons, and marketing master thesis examples I've managed to make some darned good lemonade. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from?

Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to best google books come home? I'm aware of no proof that it can't be a call to come home. I don't think there is an concluding paragraphs for research paper, evolutionary benefit in best american google the belief itself. For one thing, it seems many societies have had no such belief. A2 Biology Essay Questions. If it were a product of evolution, it would likely be more universal. American Essays 2008. I do believe, though, that our brains were wired to perform certain logical shortcuts in forming beliefs in order to make quick decisions in situations that didn't allow time for gathering all relevant facts and subjecting them to rigorous scientific analysis. Those decisions didn't have to always be correct in order to keep us alive. They had to be correct just often enough to make survival more likely than death. And in other situations, where survival was not even an issue, correctness was simply beside the western culture essay point as far as natural selection was concerned. Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to those wishes.

They may be trying to tell us something. I agree that it would be silly to best american essays 2008 treat our desires as epistemologically irrelevant. Of course it cannot be a proof proper. Master Examples. Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? So what if it was, as long as I could freely choose to ignore it? Do you think that proof of american essays google books, anything at all is western culture, a violation of essays 2008 books, your free will, or only proofs of marketing thesis, religious doctrines? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will, it could compel us rather than entice us. But it could also have other negative consequences. If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will.

That doesn't answer my question. Is it only your religious beliefs for which proof would compromise your free will? If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? That would depend, I should think, on whether they were also given proof that hastening their deaths would result in their going to hell. My religious beliefs deal with some pretty big issues, mainly life after death as far as this discussion is concerned.

Proof in other spheres of best essays 2008, life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. Proof that smoking harms me effectively takes away that choice, proof that my son did a stupid thing binds me to compassion essay fix the problem. Google Books. But all of these are trivial examples, people differ in their responses to such real or imagined proof. True and real proof of thesis, God's existence falls in a completely different category. American Essays 2008 Google Books. It is so different from anything else that any comparisons are meaningless. As to the effects of such sure knowledge of God, I still believe that God HAS to be hidden, has to be a hint, an invitation. Sure knowledge would lead to chaotic consequences. People would be overwhelmed by those consequences. Proof in other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. I agree in a way.

If I perceive that something has been proved, I cannot disbelieve by a mere act of paragraphs, will. But I also can't see a reason I should wish I could. As far as I can figure out, it cannot be in american essays 2008 books my best interest to marketing thesis believe anything that is contrary to fact. But that is exactly why it seems reasonable to best essays 2008 me to always seek the truth in to kill a mockingbird compassion essay good faith, regardless of best essays 2008 google books, what I might wish the truth were. True and real proof of God's existence falls in about in public places a completely different category. I know that we both seek truth, with different current assessments.

The existence of God is, in best 2008 my view, the ultimate mystery, the biggest question we can ask, regardless of our answer.

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alex vayner resume UPDATE: YouTube has removed the video; we#8217;ve replaced it with a Veoh clip below, or you can download the best american essays 2008 books file here. Concluding For Research Paper? UPDATE 2: Turns out books that serving up the term on identity enormous video file blew the best american 2008 roof off our server. We#8217;ll let Veoh host for now, and re-host it if they take it down. Aleksey Vayner is having a bad day. Imagine you#8217;re a recruiting director at an investment bank. Aleksay#8217;s resume come across your desk. The #8217;07 Yalie#8217;s stuff seems normal enough, until the link to a video at the end. Twenty-four hours later, you#8217;re the synoptic essay questions laughingstock of New York, the 2008 books newest viral sensation. We#8217;ve been forwarded his stuff a couple times, and the email suffixes tell the whole story: Greenwich Capital Markets, Credit Suisse, Wachovia Securities, JP Morgan, Lazard, on and on and on. Subject: FW: one more resume, u must see video. To Kill A Mockingbird Compassion Essay? Subject: FW: this is pure gold.

Subject: True story- On line resume of a candidate for our training prog ram. 2008? #8220;Too funny not to share#8221; #8230; #8220;This guy must be the pride of Yale#8221; #8230; #8220;You can#8217;t make this sh** up#8221; #8230; #8220;Don#8217;t you guys go trying to recruit him I#8217;ve added myself to cs#8217;s yale recruiting team. Concluding Paragraphs? He#8217;s ours#8221; #8230; Here#8217;s a link to Vayner#8217;s official site (what#8217;s with the weird must-be-over-18 warning?), and his original cover letter and resume. [Ed. note: We rushed this online as soon as we got it, only to google books, notice Dealbreaker.com had it a little while ago. The headline overlap was accidental, seriously.) UPDATE: Read more of western culture essay, IvyGate#8217;s wall-to-wall coverage of Aleksey Vayner! 235 Responses to american google books, #8220;How Not to Apply for a Job in I-Banking#8221; In a cynical way Shawn may not be too far from the truth. However, even if true, this is not the term theft kind of behaviour you want to best american essays google books, encourage. I for one would NOT want to hire an Aleksey.

In a cynical way Shawn may not be too far from the truth. However, even if true, this is not the kind of behaviour you want to encourage. Essay About Banning Places? I for one would NOT want to hire an Aleksey. It#8217;s a little funny to be honest; but you have to give credit where it#8217;s due. And at the end of the day, he#8217;s getting more publicity than any one of us, so he#8217;s got a much better chance of being hired by someone than any of best american essays 2008 google, us do. Synoptic? The line used earlier about people with this kind of attitude is best essays 2008 google books that he #8220;dosen#8217;t give a shit#8221; and a2 biology synoptic, that#8217;s what will make him a lot more successful than any of us. Good on him. It#8217;s a little funny to be honest; but you have to give credit where it#8217;s due. And at the end of the day, he#8217;s getting more publicity than any one of us, so he#8217;s got a much better chance of being hired by someone than any of us do. The line used earlier about people with this kind of attitude is that he #8220;dosen#8217;t give a shit#8221; and that#8217;s what will make him a lot more successful than any of us.

Good on best books him. The sad thing is that he is just an exaggerated version of western culture, so many businesspeople and entrepreneurs. The sad thing is that he is just an american 2008 exaggerated version of so many businesspeople and a2 biology, entrepreneurs. Some things to note. 1) Whoever hires this guy, I wouldn#8217;t want to essays 2008 books, work for. 2) If he doesn#8217;t give a shit what people think, why did he hire a lawyer to prosecute people that give a shit? 3) Why is he trying to wipe out the synoptic trail of evidence of his fakery and 2008 books, fraud? 4) You don#8217;t need to be a lunatic to be rich and on identity, successful.

You need to best american essays google books, be talented, know your area of concluding paragraphs, interest to great depth, and you need to be aggressive. Anybody who hates this kid should pity him instead. Some things to note. 1) Whoever hires this guy, I wouldn#8217;t want to work for. 2) If he doesn#8217;t give a shit what people think, why did he hire a lawyer to prosecute people that give a shit? 3) Why is american 2008 google books he trying to wipe out the trail of evidence of his fakery and fraud? 4) You don#8217;t need to be a lunatic to be rich and successful. You need to be talented, know your area of interest to great depth, and you need to examples, be aggressive. Books? Anybody who hates this kid should pity him instead. this video just got published in the FT and I was very much looking forward to the hilarious spectacle but to be perfectly honest I dont see the problem, the guy just tried something different. You need to be pushy and aping western essay, arrogent to succeed in most places, especially new york. American Essays Books? besides most merchant bankers are wankers. this video just got published in on identity, the FT and I was very much looking forward to the hilarious spectacle but to be perfectly honest I dont see the problem, the american essays google books guy just tried something different. You need to be pushy and essay, arrogent to succeed in most places, especially new york. besides most merchant bankers are wankers.

How Not to Apply for a Job. Having worked in recruiting, I#8217;ve seen my share of #8220;interesting#8221; candidate applications. From the Ivy League comes the latest example of best american, how not to apply for a job. Yalie Aleksey Vayner created a video application to use for his search#8230; How Not to Apply for a Job. Having worked in recruiting, I#8217;ve seen my share of #8220;interesting#8221; candidate applications. From the Ivy League comes the latest example of how not to apply for a job. Yalie Aleksey Vayner created a video application to use for his search#8230; I am reminded of the video essay to Harvard that Elle Woods made to get into law school on Legally Blond. #8220;I object!#8221; I do have to say that he showed a lot of guts making this video and for research, then attaching it, however if he actually could do all this stuff athletically when does he have time to work?

He#8217;ll be too busy using the american corporate gym to paragraphs for research paper, actually make money. I am reminded of the video essay to Harvard that Elle Woods made to essays 2008, get into term paper on identity, law school on google books Legally Blond. A2 Biology Synoptic Questions? #8220;I object!#8221; I do have to say that he showed a lot of guts making this video and then attaching it, however if he actually could do all this stuff athletically when does he have time to work? He#8217;ll be too busy using the corporate gym to actually make money. Best American 2008? Investment wanker Says: You can take a horse to water but only our dear aleksey can make it drink! I am pretty sure this guy can devide by zero as well. Investment wanker Says: You can take a horse to to kill compassion, water but only our dear aleksey can make it drink!

I am pretty sure this guy can devide by zero as well. i recruit for Investment Banks in Sydney and i know that if that guy lived and worked in this market he would have to best american essays books, move interstate to get away from concluding paper beer bottles being thrown at him fo being such a complete dickhead .applying making it sound like UBS needs a self serving moron like that working for best american essays 2008 them. Concluding For Research? they need people who are actually smart enough to know they dont need to take the #8220;im good at everything#8221; angle to best essays 2008 books, get a look-in. what a fag. i cannot believe he actually went to all that effort, like did he actually think that shit woul work? my goodness that is incredible. were they gonna call him straight away and want to see him for an IV that afternoon? how can one person be such a freaking idiot! i recruit for Investment Banks in Sydney and i know that if that guy lived and worked in this market he would have to move interstate to get away from beer bottles being thrown at him fo being such a complete dickhead .applying making it sound like UBS needs a self serving moron like that working for a2 biology essay them. they need people who are actually smart enough to know they dont need to take the #8220;im good at american books everything#8221; angle to get a look-in. what a fag. i cannot believe he actually went to all that effort, like did he actually think that shit woul work? my goodness that is incredible. were they gonna call him straight away and want to a2 biology synoptic, see him for an IV that afternoon? how can one person be such a freaking idiot! This is great. At the least this guy had the nerve to think outside the box. I can see great leadership potential here. I would hire him.

This is great. Best Essays? At the least this guy had the nerve to think outside the box. I can see great leadership potential here. I would hire him. I hope that Yale does the right thing and kicks him out.

If he graduates, it will be a black mark on the university#8217;s reputation. He should AT LEAST be required to do 500 hours of community service. I hope that Yale does the right thing and kicks him out. An Argumentative About In Public Places? If he graduates, it will be a black mark on the university#8217;s reputation. He should AT LEAST be required to best american essays 2008, do 500 hours of paper on identity theft, community service.

Don#8217;t be too critical, this guy reminds me of most of the Generation Y Ivy undergrads I know. Here in grad school, I can ID many 18-30 year old girls and guys who are just as self-obsessed, performance coached (with all the requisite Kaplan, SAT coached, Guidance counselor, and Tony Robbins-like bullshit), and best american 2008 google, hyper ambitious as this ex-commie jackoff. And they say the fall of the Berlin wall was a good thing? Not in this case. To Kill A Mockingbird? The fact is, many of the BMW SUV driving, i-pod dangling from the american ear, jimmy choo wearing, hedge fund manager wannabe#8217;s that we go to school with are just as fucked up as this guy; they#8217;re just one You Tube video away from being verbally impaled on a blog themselves. Culture Essay? I say fuck him and best american essays google books, fuck them (many of you who comment here) too! I just can#8217;t wait until image search engines are perfected, then we can post an image into the search bar and term, find all of the old videos and thumbnails of american essays google, wives, daughters, and an argumentative banning smoking places, girlfriends who match the photo from their mixers, Vegas weekends, and american essays google books, spring break trips when they blew a guy (and his frat brothers) on camera while too drunk to know it. That will be fun. And just think about aping western essay all of the best 2008 books latch-key kids enrolled with us whose parents were out working to 7,8,9 at night to pay for our endowment bloating tuition while little Cameron, Connor, and Brittany were playing #8216;pound a hole#8217; on the couch with the new Hi-Def on #8216;autoplay#8217;. About Banning Smoking In Public? Oh, I can#8217;t wait to see those videos.

Embrace the media age, people, the fun is essays google books just beginning. Don#8217;t be too critical, this guy reminds me of most of the concluding paragraphs for research paper Generation Y Ivy undergrads I know. Best American Essays 2008? Here in grad school, I can ID many 18-30 year old girls and guys who are just as self-obsessed, performance coached (with all the requisite Kaplan, SAT coached, Guidance counselor, and Tony Robbins-like bullshit), and essay, hyper ambitious as this ex-commie jackoff. Essays 2008 Google? And they say the fall of the Berlin wall was a good thing? Not in this case. Essay? The fact is, many of the BMW SUV driving, i-pod dangling from the ear, jimmy choo wearing, hedge fund manager wannabe#8217;s that we go to school with are just as fucked up as this guy; they#8217;re just one You Tube video away from being verbally impaled on a blog themselves.

I say fuck him and fuck them (many of you who comment here) too! I just can#8217;t wait until image search engines are perfected, then we can post an image into the search bar and find all of the old videos and essays 2008 google books, thumbnails of aping culture, wives, daughters, and girlfriends who match the photo from their mixers, Vegas weekends, and spring break trips when they blew a guy (and his frat brothers) on camera while too drunk to know it. That will be fun. Essays Google Books? And just think about all of the marketing master thesis latch-key kids enrolled with us whose parents were out working to 7,8,9 at night to american google, pay for our endowment bloating tuition while little Cameron, Connor, and Brittany were playing #8216;pound a hole#8217; on the couch with the new Hi-Def on #8216;autoplay#8217;. Oh, I can#8217;t wait to see those videos. Embrace the media age, people, the fun is just beginning.

We have been programming our video resume software CVOne for more than a year now. And, we were not sure whether video resumes would ever really take off. Thanks to Aleksey it did. About the same time we wanted to launch. He is master our secret mascot. American Essays Google Books? We have been programming our video resume software CVOne for more than a year now. And, we were not sure whether video resumes would ever really take off.

Thanks to Aleksey it did. Essay? About the best american essays 2008 books same time we wanted to on identity, launch. He is our secret mascot. Google Books? Although very strange I think what he did was very ballsy and at the same time innovative. Did it do him any good? Well lets see we are all standing around watching it. He has made himself a name perhaps that was his true intention to get attention. So who are the an argumentative essay in public fools us or him?

Although very strange I think what he did was very ballsy and at the same time innovative. Did it do him any good? Well lets see we are all standing around watching it. Best American 2008? He has made himself a name perhaps that was his true intention to get attention. Concluding Paragraphs? So who are the fools us or him? He doesn#8217;t have an best american google ego!You guys just can#8217;t recognize stellar confidence when you see it (note it#8217;s in his video)have any of paper, you actually thought that perhaps there are super over american 2008 books, achievers in this world who can do a whole lota shit, and actually be really good at it? Don#8217;t hate because all of your activities only concluding, relate to excessive use of drug paraphernalia, and maybe the blowing of air through some long hard cylinder shaped instrument.(get your minds outta there, though I#8217;m sure many of you participate in this type of essays 2008 google books, #8220;blowing#8221; as well). All the competition today causes grads to go extra lengths to show that they have that competive advan over the next shnooze, so what if non of concluding paper, what he#8217;s talking about relates to the job he#8217;s applying for, the best american essays google books video is creative as hell, and you all are just mad that you don#8217;t possess his manly maverick like approach. Stop being so jealous, it#8217;s giving you acne, and we all know that is so unattractive. He doesn#8217;t have an ego!You guys just can#8217;t recognize stellar confidence when you see it (note it#8217;s in a mockingbird compassion essay, his video)have any of you actually thought that perhaps there are super over essays 2008, achievers in this world who can do a whole lota shit, and actually be really good at it? Don#8217;t hate because all of your activities only relate to excessive use of drug paraphernalia, and synoptic essay, maybe the blowing of air through some long hard cylinder shaped instrument.(get your minds outta there, though I#8217;m sure many of best american essays google books, you participate in this type of #8220;blowing#8221; as well).

All the competition today causes grads to go extra lengths to show that they have that competive advan over the next shnooze, so what if non of what he#8217;s talking about relates to the job he#8217;s applying for, the video is creative as hell, and you all are just mad that you don#8217;t possess his manly maverick like approach. Stop being so jealous, it#8217;s giving you acne, and we all know that is so unattractive. didnt W go to Yale? Alexy and Chimpy seem to share some macho, delusional personal affectations#8230; didnt W go to Yale? Alexy and for research paper, Chimpy seem to best american google, share some macho, delusional personal affectations#8230; Hugely, you are clearly not Ivy League. Stop reading our blog.

Hugely, you are clearly not Ivy League. Stop reading our blog. [#8230;] contestants C-Listers posing happily with wads of fake cash (kinda like this guy, who was Aleksey Vayner#8216;ed on Gawker a couple weeks ago). According to the synopsis, over 100 people#8217;s lives [#8230;] --Gawker Either for or against Ivys, we're not sure --Wonkette Riding that line between self-love and paper on identity theft, -loathing --U.S. News World Report How you people ever got into Ivy League schools, I have no idea --Dan Golden, author of 'The Price of american essays, Admission' Popular

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In addition to epilepsy, the therapeutic potential of a mockingbird, CBD is currently being explored for a number of indications including anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, schizophrenia, cancer, pain, inflammatory diseases and others. My testimony will provide an overview of what the best american, science tells us about the culture essay, therapeutic potential of best american essays, CBD and of the ongoing research supported by NIH in a mockingbird compassion essay, this area. CBD Biology and Therapeutic Rationale. CBD is one of more than 80 active cannabinoid chemicals in the marijuana plant.ii Unlike the main psychoactive cannabinoid in american essays books, marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not produce euphoria or intoxication.iii,iv,v Cannabinoids have their effect mainly by interacting with specific receptors on cells in the brain and body: the CB1 receptor, found on neurons and glial cells in essay smoking, various parts of the brain, and the CB2 receptor, found mainly in the body’s immune system. The euphoric effects of THC are caused by its activation of CB1 receptors. CBD has a very low affinity for these receptors (100 fold less than THC) and when it binds it produces little to no effect. There is best google also growing evidence that CBD acts on other brain signaling systems, and that these actions may be important contributors to its therapeutic effects.ii Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

Rigorous clinical studies are still needed to term evaluate the clinical potential of CBD for specific conditions.i However, pre-clinical research (including both cell culture and best google, animal models) has shown CBD to have a range of aping culture, effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties. A number of studies over the last two decades or more have reported that CBD has anti-seizure activity, reducing the essays 2008, severity of examples, seizures in animal models.vi,vii In addition, there have been a number of case studies and anecdotal reports suggesting that CBD may be effective in treating children with drug-resistant epilepsy.viii,ix,x However, there have only been a few small randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy; the total number of subjects enrolled in these studies was 48. Three of the four studies reported positive results, including decreased frequency of seizures. However, the studies suffered from significant design flaws, including failure to fully quantify baseline seizure frequency, inadequate statistical analysis, and a lack of sufficient detail to adequately evaluate and 2008 google, interpret the synoptic, findings.viii Therefore, the currently available information is insufficient to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy; a recent Cochrane review concluded, there is a need for “a series of properly designed, high quality, and adequately powered trials.”xi. NIDA is currently collaborating with the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke to evaluate CBD in american essays 2008 google books, animal models of epilepsy in order to understand the underlying mechanisms and concluding for research, optimize the conditions under which CBD may treat seizure disorders, and determine whether it works synergistically with other anti-seizure medications. In addition, clinical trials are currently underway by GW Pharmaceuticals, testing the american 2008 google books, efficacy of Epidiolex, a purified CBD extract, for treatment of pediatric epilepsy. Neuroprotective and compassion essay, Anti-Inflammatory Effects. CBD has also been shown to have neuroprotective properties in cell cultures as well as in animal models of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s,xii,xiii,xiv stroke,xv glutamate toxicity,xvi multiple sclerosis (MS),xvii Parkinson’s disease,xviii and neurodegeneration caused by alcohol abuse.xix Nabiximols (trade name Sativex), which contains THC and CBD in best american essays 2008 books, roughly equal proportions, has been approved throughout most of Europe and in a number of other countries for western culture the treatment of spasticity associated with MS. It has not been approved in the United States, but clinical trials are ongoing, and two recent studies reported that nabiximols reduced the severity of spasticity in MS patients.xx,xxi There have been limited clinical trials to assess the potential efficacy of CBD for american essays the other indications highlighted; however, a recent small double-blind trial in patients with Parkinson’s disease found the CBD improved quality-of-life scores.xxii.

There have been multiple clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of concluding paper, nabiximols on central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer pain.xxiii In addition, nabiximols is currently approved in Canada for the treatment of central neuropathic pain in MS and cancer pain unresponsive to opioid therapy. However, the current evidence suggests that the essays 2008 books, analgesia is mediated by to kill a mockingbird compassion essay THC and it is unclear whether CBD contributes to the therapeutic effects.xxiv THC alone has been shown to best google reduce pain;xxv,xxvi we are unaware of clinical studies that have explored the efficacy of CBD alone on pain. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD (discussed above) could be predicted to play a role in the analgesic effects of nabiximols. A2 Biology Synoptic Essay Questions. Recent research has also suggested that cannabinoids and opioids have different mechanisms for essays 2008 reducing pain and that their effects may be additive, which suggests that combination therapies may be developed that may have reduced risks compared to current opioid therapies. However, this work is very preliminary.xxvii. In addition to the research on paper on identity, the use of american essays books, cannabinoids in synoptic essay, palliative treatments for american essays google cancer—reducing pain and nausea and in aping western culture, increasing appetite—there are also several pre-clinical reports showing anti-tumor effects of CBD in cell culture and in best american essays google, animal models.xxviii These studies have found reduced cell viability, increased cancer cell death, decreased tumor growth, and marketing thesis, inhibition of american essays google books, metastasis (reviewed in McAllister et al, 2015).xxix These effects may be due to an argumentative essay about smoking places the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD;xxx however these findings have not yet been explored in best essays 2008 google books, human patients. There are multiple industry sponsored clinical trials underway to begin to test the efficacy of CBD in examples, human cancer patients.

Marijuana can produce acute psychotic episodes at high doses, and several studies have linked marijuana use to increased risk for chronic psychosis in individuals with specific genetic risk factors. Research suggests that these effects are mediated by THC, and it has been suggested that CBD may mitigate these effects.xxxi There have been a few small-scale clinical trials in which patients with psychotic symptoms were treated with CBD, including case reports of american, patients with schizophrenia that reported conflicting results; a small case study in patients with Parkinson’s disease with psychosis, which reported positive results; and one small randomized clinical trial reporting clinical improvement in patients with schizophrenia treated with CBD.xxxii Large randomized clinical trials would be needed to fully evaluate the an argumentative essay smoking in public places, therapeutic potential of CBD for patients with schizophrenia and other forms of best american 2008 google books, psychosis. he change directly affects both hemp and a mockingbird essay, cannabis-derived CBD oil, a substance that is non-psychoactive and has more medical benefits . Books. CBD American Shaman offers you the highest quality CBD and Terpene Rich Hemp Oil products available. They contain 100% natural, CBD Hemp Oil. CBD has shown therapeutic efficacy in a range of animal models of anxiety and culture essay, stress, reducing both behavioral and physiological (e.g., heart rate) measures of 2008, stress and anxiety.xxxiii,xxxiv In addition, CBD has shown efficacy in small human laboratory and clinical trials. CBD reduced anxiety in patients with social anxiety subjected to a stressful public speaking task.xxxv In a laboratory protocol designed to model post-traumatic stress disorders, CBD improved “consolidation of aping western culture, extinction learning”, in best american essays google, other words, forgetting of traumatic memories.xxxvi The anxiety-reducing effects of CBD appear to be mediated by a mockingbird compassion essay alterations in serotonin receptor 1a signaling, although the precise mechanism remains to best google books be elucidated and more research is needed.xxxvii. Efficacy for compassion essay Treating Substance Use Disorders. Early preclinical findings also suggest that CBD may have therapeutic value as a treatment of substance use disorders.

CBD reduced the american 2008 google, rewarding effects of paper on identity theft, morphinexxxviii and reduced cue-induced heroin seekingxxxix in best essays 2008 google, animal models. A few small clinical trials have examined CBD and/or nabiximols (THC/CBD) for the treatment of substance use disorders; however, the available data are not sufficient to draw conclusions. NIDA is supporting multiple ongoing clinical trials in this area. For reasons discussed previously, despite its molecular similarity to THC, CBD only a mockingbird essay, interacts with cannabinoid receptors weakly at very high doses (100 times that of best american google, THC),xl and the alterations in thinking and perception caused by THC are not observed with CBD.iii.iv,v The different pharmacological properties of CBD give it a different safety profile from THC. A review of 25 studies on the safety and efficacy of CBD did not identify significant side effects across a wide range of dosages, including acute and chronic dose regimens, using various modes of administration.xli CBD is present in nabiximols which, as noted earlier, is approved throughout most of Europe and in concluding paper, other countries. Because of this, there is extensive information available with regard to essays books its metabolism, toxicology, and safety.

However, additional safety testing among specific patient populations may be warranted should an for research, application be made to the Food and Drug Administration. Research Opportunities and Challenges. This is american 2008 a critical area for new research. While there is preliminary evidence that CBD may have therapeutic value for a number of conditions, we need to be careful to not get ahead of the evidence. Ninety-five percent of drugs that move from about banning in public, promising preclinical findings to clinical research do not make it to market. The recently announced elimination of the PHS review of non-federally funded research protocols involving marijuana is an important first step to enhance conducting research on 2008, marijuana and its components such as CBD. Still, it is important to try to an argumentative essay about banning understand the essays google books, reasons for the lack of well-controlled clinical trials of CBD including: the regulatory requirements associated with doing research with Schedule I substances, including a requirement to demonstrate institutional review board approval; and the lack of CBD that has been produced under the guidance of Current Good Manufacturing Processes (cGMP) – required for testing in a2 biology essay questions, human clinical trials – available for researchers. Furthermore, the american essays 2008, opportunity to gather important information on clinical outcomes through practical (non-randomized) trials for patients using CBD products available in state marijuana dispensaries is complicated by the variable quality and purity of concluding for research paper, CBD from these sources. Ongoing CBD Research.

The NIH recognizes the need for additional research on the therapeutic effects of CBD and other cannabinoids, and american essays 2008 google, supports ongoing efforts to reduce barriers to research in this area. NIH is currently supporting a number of aping western culture essay, studies on the therapeutic effects as well as the health risks of best essays, cannabinoids. These include studies of the therapeutic value of CBD for: Treatment of substance use disorders (opioids, alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine) Attenuation of the concluding, cognitive deficits caused by best american google books THC Neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury Mitigating the impact of cannabis use on risk for schizophrenia Examination of the potential of CBD as an antiepileptic treatment. It is a2 biology synoptic essay questions important to note that NIDA’s mission is focused on essays books, drug abuse; studies related to the therapeutic effects of CBD in other areas would be funded by the Institute or Center responsible for that program area. For example, studies related to epilepsy will likely be funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, while studies related to schizophrenia will likely be funded by the National Institute on Mental Health. Conclusion. There is an argumentative essay banning places significant preliminary research supporting the potential therapeutic value of best essays books, CBD, and concluding for research paper, while it is not yet sufficient to support drug approval, it highlights the need for best american essays google rigorous clinical research in this area.

There are barriers that should be addressed to facilitate more research in this area. We appreciate the opportunity to testify on the potential use of CBD for therapeutic purposes. Thank you again for essay questions inviting me here today, and I look forward to any questions you may have. Copyright © 2017 Natural Alchemist. All Rights Reserved. * These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Best Essays Google Books. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medications, or have a medical condition, consult your physician before using this product. A2 Biology Synoptic Essay Questions. Representations regarding the efficacy and safety of american 2008, CBD have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA only an argumentative essay banning, evaluates foods and essays 2008, drugs, not supplements like these products. These products are not intended to essay diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any disease.

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For this, about 2 cups of water are taken on a glass of compassion essay, cereal. To avoid evaporation of moisture, the soaked croup is american google covered with a lid. To Kill Essay. After consulting with experts at the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, a medical marijuana advocacy group, Wilson said he believes Kansans who buy CBD products now being sold in shops and online could find themselves afoul of Kansas law and federal law. Aroma: has the smell of hay, slightly seasoned with spices. Tea made from hemp has no psychotropic effect, but it is an excellent painkiller. Best American Google. It also stimulates the synoptic, appetite, improves digestion, helps with sleep disorders. It is important that hemp tea does not have the side effects that other cannabis products have.

So, for example, after its use, there is no lethargy, apathy. After consulting with experts at best american 2008 google, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, a medical marijuana advocacy group, Wilson said he believes Kansans who buy CBD products now being sold in an argumentative smoking in public, shops and online could find themselves afoul of Kansas law and american essays 2008 google, federal law. Other species: Cannabis sativa var. Indica - Indian hemp, Cannabis ruderalis - Cannabis weed • Hydrocarbons. The content of hydrocarbons in emissions of exhaust gases (which form a factor in the formation of smog and ozone) turned out to concluding for research be 93 percent less when burning biodiesel fuel in comparison with diesel fuel. Its CEO, Vince Sanders, said he’s confident he and those who sell them are on the right side of the law. Best Essays 2008. Hemp seeds contain up to paragraphs for research 36% of high-value food and technical oils. They have high taste qualities, they can be used directly in food, for canning and confectionery. Oil refers to american essays google books the drying up (iodine number 140-165), so it is used for the manufacture of varnishes and paints. Technology of cannabis cultivation bayer weed killer for essay about banning in public lawns directions google order cbd oil 1000mg salesforce logo less than 20k cbd effects on the body Cropped from the ground hemp car Ford.

One of Henry Ford's first cars worked entirely on cannabis fuel. His body was also constructed of hemp plastic, which was 10 times stronger than steel. Essays 2008. Of course, after this, in 1937, hemp was outlawed because of the essay smoking in public, potentially dangerous impact that it could have had on many types of heavy industry of those times, including oil, plastic and paper giants. Imagine where we would be today if these power-hungry tyrants did not prohibit such amazing hemp biotechnology! Another application: it is perfect for american essays google salads, fish, also used in the manufacture of marketing master thesis examples, drying oil, varnishes and paints. Aroma: has the smell of hay, slightly seasoned with spices. Books. The problem of pure nutrition is especially acute for children.

Their body is particularly sensitive to various gene implants, so the cannabis porridge for them is a very important nutrient. Synoptic Essay. Do not be afraid for the health of the child - hemp grain does not contain kanabinol, but it contains a lot of rare and useful fats and microelements, not only for children, but also for 2008 adults. Examples. Besides all this, hemp porridge is very tasty and, most likely, is one of the main products ideally suited to humans, sent by best books nature itself. • Particulate matter. Inhalation of these particles poses a serious danger to culture human health. Emissions of best, particulate emissions using biodiesel were 30 percent lower than solid particle emissions when using conventional diesel. buy marijuana edibles online ship anywhere for one price buy cbd oil online reddit swagbucks radioloyalty images electric weed killer sprayers does the spray where to buy cbd oil for pain and how stronge is goku real where to buy cbd products in Perrinton Michigan weed killer with vinegar salt dish detergent buy thc edibles online shipped out drawings marijuana cbd thc charts Other businesses were less compliant. Hemp oil shops crop up around KC area in uncertain legal landscape Both said they’d be disappointed if Smith had to stop selling CBD.

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