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Bank Teller Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Bank tellers have a lot in common with mafia bosses. A2 Electronics Coursework! They have good people skills, and most recent, they can handle enormous amounts of money without batting an eye. But unlike mafia bosses, bank tellers need to be 100% honest and reliable to get the coursework, job. Ftp Resume! Since mafia bosses don’t need resumes, we’ll assume you’re here because you want a bank teller resume that will land you a position in a bank. A2 Electronics! Teller jobs offer great benefits, like family-friendly hours, retirement plans, and wages well above the hourly minimum. There’s one problem though. You’ll have less than 6 seconds to most recent convince your local bank’s HR manager that you have all the skills needed. Coursework! How can you prove yourself worthy of a bank’s trust in under 10 seconds, you ask? We’ll show you exactly how. With this guide, you will learn: A bank teller resume example that gets attention.

How to write a bank teller resume. The best format for a bank teller resume. The best way to write skills and keywords on a resume for written bank teller. Here's a sample resume for a bank teller made using our resume builder. A2 Electronics! Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Resume Most Recent! Plus, you'll get tips and coursework, right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What’s the essay architect, Best Format for a2 electronics a Bank Teller Resume? You’re trustworthy, so all you need to do is support write so in the intro of coursework, your resume, right? In fact, there’s no quicker way to appear suspicious than to shower yourself with praise without providing any proof.

To show hiring managers that you’re reliable, you need to prove that other people have relied on you in ftp resume support the past. A2 Electronics Coursework! That means your best choice when it comes to resumes for bank tellers is to go reverse-chronological. How? Easy-peasy. List your experience, whether in banking or other areas, from newest to oldest.

By doing so, you will let your potential new boss know that hiring you is a safe bet. Most banks will expect reverse-chronological format. These resumes also have the advantage of being readable by paper Applicant Tracking Systems. But if this format doesn’t fit your profile, you can explore other types of a2 electronics coursework, resumes before you make your decision. Pro Tip: Bank tellers need to be lightning-quick while assisting customers. Ftp Resume! Be sure to include any experience where speedy service is key, like fast-food restaurants, even if it’s not related to banking. The overall format of coursework, a resume for manets thesis bank tellers should be neat and clean no one likes a long, cramped resume.

If you’re unsure what that looks like, go back to our bank teller resume sample and observe the a2 electronics coursework, visual layout. Do you want to get a professional or entry-level bank teller resume that will bring you ten times more job offers? Follow the manets thesis, easy formula presented in this guide: How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) . Contact Information Is Not as Basic as it Seems. A2 Electronics! Close your eyes and think about the last time you went to ib english b the bank. What was the a2 electronics, bank teller like? Chances are, he or she looked professional and competent. Now get this: there is a way to present your contact information that will make you come across as professional and competent, and essay architect, there is a way that will do just the coursework, opposite. Which one is which? Here is a great example of a bank teller resume contact section: 54 Smythe Street, Springfield, VA 22150.

The name stands out The address is complete and follows a standard format The email address is [email protected] Essay Architect! Are you doing it right? If your contact details look anything like the example below, then the answer is no. A2 Electronics Coursework! Ja$on K. Springfield 54 Smythe. Avoid nicknames Format your address and phone number properly Create an official email address if you don’t have one already. Manets Thesis! Here’s a thing you need to know about social media accounts: since banks often conduct background checks on potential employees, it’s quite likely that your social media presence will be closely examined. A2 Electronics! By including your social media handles, you show that you have nothing to hide.

But first, make sure that your posts and comments are well-written 72% of recruiters will disqualify candidates if they find typos on their social media profiles! Pro Tip: Your [email protected] is already taken, and you don’t fancy being martindavies78349? Feel free to throw in essay your middle initial in there. A2 Electronics Coursework! Scientific studies have proven that people with a middle initial are perceived as more intelligent. Adding a LinkedIn handle to your bank teller resume will give your resume an extra boost, especially if your abilities are endorsed by ftp resume support former colleagues and employers.

Bank Teller Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Remember how long hiring managers look at each resume? That’s right, a few seconds only. That means that once they read the contact information, they will give one single look at the summary of a bank teller resume and coursework, decide on which pile it belongs. Support! You literally have one shot at making a good impression. To get the most bang for your resume buck, write a resume summary that will tell managers all they need to know in a2 electronics as little time as possible. Think about it: even if they make they make snap judgments, bank managers are looking for a candidate who checks several requirement boxes.

So why not include a statement that will answer all their questions at once? While writing this section of your resume, keep in mind the usual tasks performed at in my opinion thesis a bank. What is a2 electronics a bank teller’s job description ? Customer service representatives in banks assist clients with deposits and manets thesis, withdrawals, log transactions, and sell additional bank services. Imagine you’re a hiring manager looking to find an employee who will perform these tasks. What are you looking for while scanning an objective on a bank teller resume? A bank manager will look for a2 electronics three things: A record of successful customer service Proven math abilities, especially with money Attention to detail. And that’s exactly what your summary should contain. Bank teller resume summary example. Experienced customer service representative interested in joining a bank. Flawless record with handling cash flow.

Looking to apply my outstanding math skills and precision in resume most recent a professional and challenging environment. With a section that can be read in less than 3 seconds, you have already positioned yourself as a strong candidate. Is there a wrong way to a2 electronics write a bank teller resume summary? Yes, there definitely is. Looking for a challenging job that will make the most of my wide range of most, abilities. Pro Tip: Remember that even though you may be writing “I’m looking for” or “I would like to”, a resume summary is not about a2 electronics, what you want. Manets Thesis! Don’t go into your personal motivations for wanting a bank teller job (flexible hours, good salary, etc.) and a2 electronics, stick to a statement that showcases your skill. HR staff will look at your resume with questions in mind. Most! And this gives them zero answers. How to Write a Resume Objective for a Bank Teller Position. Coursework! If you just graduated or you’re looking to ftp resume support change careers, you may want to consider writing a bank teller resume objective instead of a summary.

Again, the trick is to look at a2 electronics coursework the job description of a bank teller and essay architect, match it to coursework your resume objective. Maybe you have no bank teller experience, but you can have a resume objective that shows you’re passionate about the most, responsibilities of a bank teller. Reliable and coursework, detail-oriented employee looking to apply my record keeping and accounting skills in a banking environment. My people skills and accuracy will allow me to make a significant contribution to any team. If you’re wondering how to sum up your experience in a way that will boost your chances of getting a bank teller job, check out most, How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See . For more tips on how to write a bank teller resume objective with no experience, read +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) . How to Describe Your Bank Teller Experience. Banks will ALWAYS give your resume a second look. But how to make the most of that second read? You have to keep them interested. Here’s where your experience section comes in. You already know that you should be listing your experience from newest to oldest, but the way you describe your previous employment is a2 electronics what will keep an employer reading.

The best way to keep a potential boss engaged is to use descriptions that contain a Problem (P) , an Action (A) and a Result (R) . Support! By using the PAR structure , you show that your presence made a positive impact on coursework your work environment. Manets Thesis! Saying you rock is easy, but with this formula, you’ll be proving it. For example, at a2 electronics coursework your last job, you increased ice cream sales by most recent 22% because you decided to always offer ice cream to customers whenever the weather rose above 80 F. Pro Tip: No matter where you’re working, be sure to always keep some data quantifying your positive impact. It will make your life much easier the next time you’re on a job hunt. Start by stating or implying what was the issue with the initial situation. Then describe your initiative, and finish up by adding the outcome. If you’re writing a bank teller resume with no experience, you can apply the same advice to volunteering or academic situations.

How to describe experience on a resume for bank tellers. To raise customer satisfaction levels (P) , I created a customer satisfaction survey (A) that allowed our bank to double its levels of satisfied customers. (R) See how your impact stands out? If you were hiring, wouldn’t you choose someone who makes a difference, rather than someone who just does what they’re told? Greeted customers according to a2 electronics coursework company script. This goes for professional bank teller resumes too.

Make sure you let banks know that once you’re on board, their clients will get a better experience than before. To raise customer satisfaction levels (P) , I created a customer satisfaction survey (A) that allowed our bank to assignment ib english double its levels of satisfied customers. (R) Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. Just because banks don’t have specific education requirements doesn’t mean they don’t care about it. Most banks will favor candidates with a high school diploma. A good resume for bank tellers should feature an education section with the name of your school, its location, and the year of your graduation. Here is the right format for the education section on a perfect bank teller resume. Alexander Hamilton High School, Springfield, VA.

If you have a college degree, include your major/minor. If your GPA was above 3.0, you may want to include it. Here’s how: 2017 BA in Psychology. University of Virginia, VA. Pro Tip: Education matters, but most banks will care more about a2 electronics, your experience than your education. Put your experience first, then education. If you did not finish high school, or have some college education but no degree, you can still get a bank teller position.

Find out how to format incomplete education by manets thesis reading How to a2 electronics coursework Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] . Ib English B! How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Bank Teller. At this point, you should have figured out what most banks are looking for in bank teller candidates. Look at bank teller job postings in your areas. Most often, banks won’t tell you straight up what skills they’re looking for. A2 Electronics! They’re most likely to provide a list of responsibilities, like processing transactions and support, resolving customer problems.

What the a2 electronics coursework, banks really mean is that they’re looking for someone with the manets thesis, skills to perform these actions. And good luck to you if these skills are nowhere to be found on a2 electronics your resume. What are good skills for a bank teller resume, you ask? Let me give you a head start. As a rule, to resume perform the main responsibilities of a bank customer service representative, a candidate has to possess a unique mix of hard and coursework, soft skills: Friendliness and recent, courtesy Patience with customers Salesmanship Attention to detail. Basic accounting Money handling Cash drawer maintenance Record keeping. There is coursework a high likeliness that your local bank is looking for some combination of the skills above. List all the relevant stuff and lose the rest. Here is what is ib english relevant on a professional resume for bank tellers: Ability to work with money transactions with a high degree of accuracy Demonstrated accounting skills Able to solve customer issues efficiently and courteously. Timely Experienced copywriter Mastery of Adobe Creative Suite. Coursework! Every job posting is unique and that your resume should be adapted to each application.

Some financial institutions will require you to sell their services, while some others will need you to collaborate with their call center or their security services. The key to success here is to provide the manets thesis, full range of skills necessary to coursework carry out the listed responsibilities. Assignment! Pro Tip: Banks often use specialized software to keep track of their operations. A2 Electronics! Include your skills with industry-specific software to show that you are able to essay master similar systems. If you’re still wondering what are the best bullet points for coursework a bank teller resume, be sure to check out this article: +30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on written a Resume (Proven Tips) . How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Bank Teller Resume. A2 Electronics! You listed all the right experience, you listed all the written ib english, right skills and you formatted your contact information just the right way. Done deal, right?

Sorry to disappoint you, but not yet. Coursework! You’re one in a pile of manets thesis, a hundred applicants, and there’s a good chance someone else in there also did everything right so far. So what does it take to get noticed? You need to a2 electronics coursework have that little extra something that will make your resume stand out. Something that will make a hiring manager remember you when they’re driving back home and say, “Yeah, I think we should hire that guy with a blog about algebra.” Or “Maybe I’ll call the girl who got an award for customer service when she was working at recent Best Buy.” This is a2 electronics your time to show off. Resume Most Recent! Won loads of a2 electronics coursework, awards and prizes? Create an award section. Essay Architect! Have interesting hobbies that fit your bank’s style? Create a hobby section.

Went on internships and study visits? That too can be a section. How to list your hobbies on a resume for bank tellers. World news and a2 electronics, global economic trends. Support! Fintech and app development. While extra sections can often give a good bank teller resume a bit of zing, remember to keep things formal. Your political or religious affiliation or your social activism is best kept private at that point of the recruitment process.

Pro Tip: Hobbies can be a subtle way to show off your skills as well. Basketball says team player, whereas chess says detail-oriented. This is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes adding a spark of individuality to resumes for bank tellers. Read +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests to Put on a Resume to coursework get 5 great tips on how to stand out. Assignment B! Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. You’re tired. You’ve been slaving over your perfect bank teller resume for the last 5 hours. You fixed every typo and changed the font 5 times.

Your finger slides towards the a2 electronics coursework, send button You have to write a cover letter. Really, you do. Surveys show that up to essay architect 45% of recruiters will reject an application without a cover letter . A2 Electronics Coursework! Some recruiters might think they’re unimportant, but if almost half of resume recent, them think they matter, do you really want to coursework take that risk? Pro Tip: To make your cover letter look extra polished, keep the formatting and visual layout identical to the one you used in your resume. Cover letters offer additional possibilities. This is the assignment ib english b, perfect time to spell out why you want to a2 electronics work at that particular bank or to describe an especially impactful contribution you made at your last job. Clearly state why you’re applying, and why you would be the written b, best candidate for the job. There are simple but foolproof tricks to coursework make your cover letter stand out.

To find out opinion thesis, more, read How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] . Composing a great bank teller resume is tricky business, but this is how you become a bank teller. A2 Electronics Coursework! There is room for creativity, but on the whole, your resume should follow these golden rules. You only get one first impression. Your resume should say “hire me” at first glance. Include key skills in most recent your resume summary, and make sure you’re not committing any formatting faux-pas. It’s all about the skills. Recruiters will be looking for a very specific set of banking skills. List them in the skills section, prove them in the experience section, and emphasize them with additional sections. (And for coursework the love of all that is holy, if you say you’re detail-oriented, fix all your typos before you press send.) Make the details work for you. Little things can reinforce your statement.

A friendly cover letter will emphasize your people skills. In My Thesis! A neat format will show your eye for a2 electronics coursework detail. Unusual but impressive hobbies will lend credibility to your skills. Ready to most recent apply? If you have any other questions, just write them down in the comments section and a2 electronics, we’ll answer! Got the job you wanted?

Let us know as well, we’ll pop open the champagne! As a freelance cultural manager, Lea Berriault often receives and essay architect, sends resumes, so she likes to stay on top of trends in the hiring industry. She hosts podcasts as a side gig, and she considers the day incomplete without reading and cooking.

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one three one essay The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Guideposts of Limited Government. WILLIAM J. WATKINS, JR.* In 1885 Woodrow Wilson noted that criticism of the Constitution had ceased upon its adoption and an undiscriminating and almost blind worship of its principles had developed (Wilson 1885, 4). A survey of American political discourse after the Constitution's ratification reveals that its provisions were often quoted in such a manner as a minister would quote the a2 electronics coursework Gospel.

Considering that the history of Anglo-American liberty is, in many respects, a history of ftp resume support great charters and the events leading to their adoption, American reverence for a2 electronics the Constitution is not surprising (see Brooks 1993). Of course, the Constitution is not the only document in the pantheon. For most Americans the Declaration of Independence is also a sacred document, and some scholars place it above the Constitution (Jaffa 1994, 22-23). However, conspicuously absent from the list of essay universally revered charters are Thomas Jefferson's and a2 electronics coursework James Madison's Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. For their lucid reasoning and written assignment b peerless prose, they merit inclusion as much as the Constitution itself. Unfortunately, the Resolves of 1798, as they are also known, have been given short shrift as the nation has become more consolidated. Though the centralizers can twist the language of the Constitution to confer plenary powers on coursework the national government, the language of the Resolves cannot be so manipulated. So Americans are kept in the dark about the principles of '98, lest they be tempted to reclaim the assignment ib english decentralized republic of the Constitution's framers. Hoary and a2 electronics forgotten by most, the Resolves mark the path to limited government.

Though much has changed since Jefferson and Madison penned the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the nature of power remains the ftp resume same #151; power can be checked only by power. The Resolves point to the states as the a2 electronics natural depository of the power to check the national government. Madison came to assignment ib english b, that realization long before he wrote the Virginia resolution. In Federalist 51 , he described the horizonal and vertical checks and balances established by the Constitution and plainly stated that the state and national governments will controul each other; at the same time each will be controulled by a2 electronics, itself (Madison, Hamilton, and Jay [1788] 1982, 264). If the American people are once again to customized essay, gain control of the national government, it will be through the states. A2 Electronics Coursework. No new theories are needed; the intellectual giants of the founding era have done the work for us. Threat of manets thesis French Invasion. As the year 1798 began, the prospect of war with France loomed. A2 Electronics Coursework. How the written assignment ib english special relationship between France and the United States had deteriorated after the American Revolution is a complicated story. Hostilities between the two former allies were probably likely insofar as the French had supported the American Revolution not because of beliefs in self-determination or republicanism but because of Louis XVI's desire to punish Great Britain for the defeat of France in the Seven Years' War. A2 Electronics Coursework. Many Americans were thankful for most recent French aid in coursework, the Revolution, but others realized early on recent that although France had helped the United States to break from George III, the French would never acquiesce in its becoming a great nation (Ketcham 1963, 204-5).

With the coming of the French Revolution, which most Americans saw as an extension of their own, American enthusiasm for France grew. Hindsight now shows that the two revolutions had little in common, the American Revolution being an orderly lawyer's revolution whereas the coursework French version was, to paraphrase Simon Schama, the incarnation of violence (1989, xv). Nonetheless, in the 1790s loyal Americans were divided into pro-French and pro-British camps, with the former led by Jefferson and Madison and the latter by ftp resume, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton and the Federalists, great admirers of Great Britain and its constitution, had a vested interest in peace with Britain. The entire Hamiltonian financial system depended on tariff revenue derived from imports of a2 electronics British goods. If commerce between the United States and the mother country suffered disruption, American credit would crumble. Manets Thesis. The Republicans, on the other hand, detested Hamilton's policies, especially the debt assumption and the Bank of the United States. Recognizing that the Federalist fiscal program sought to bind men of wealth and status to the central government in an effort to weaken state influence, the Republicans automatically suspected the Anglo-men and Britain itself. Moreover, the coursework farmers and planters of the South, who were predominantly Republican, owed enormous sums of money to British creditors, and hence they naturally favored the French (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 90). Key to the rupture with France was President George Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 and the Neutrality Act of 1794. Because the United States was bound by written b, treaty to a2 electronics, defend the French West Indies and prohibited from aiding the most enemies of France, Washington's actions raised the ire of the French as they warred with Great Britain.

Though neutrality was the practical course for a young, weak nation, such treatment of coursework France shocked Madison and other Republicans who, unlike the Federalists, sympathized with the cause of revolutionary France and thesis believed that the United States should fulfill its obligations (Brant 1950, 374-75). While Washington and his cabinet debated neutrality, the embodiment of the French Revolution arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. Charles Edmund Genet, the new minister of the French Republic, was welcomed by enthusiastic crowds and local dignitaries. Long before presenting his credentials in Philadelphia, Genet began to outfit privateers and schemed to incite rebellion in Florida, New Orleans, and Canada. As Genet learned that the Americans' definition of a2 electronics neutrality and their interpretations of the existing treaties with France differed markedly from his own, his conduct grew more outrageous. Just as the mob ruled in essay architect, France, so Genet thought the mob ruled in America.

Taking that logic to an extreme, Genet threatened to go over the head of President Washington and appeal directly to the American people. Coursework. Republicans and Federalists quickly realized that Genet was intractable, and Washington's cabinet voted unanimously to demand his recall. Genet's conduct was an embarrassment to French sympathizers in America, and, as Harry Ammon writes, it exposed, as no other previous episode, the extent and fury of the disagreement between the two groups which had been seeking to control national policy since the bitter controversy generated by most recent, the Hamiltonian fiscal program (1973, 32). Furthermore, the ratification in 1795 of Jay's Treaty, which attempted to settle sundry differences between Great Britain and the United States, [1] struck the French as yet another betrayal. Specifically, the Directory was outraged by the provisions requiring the United States to order French privateers out of a2 electronics American ports and permitting the British to capture ships bound for France bearing needed supplies. Madison, in a letter of 12 February 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, called the infamous treaty an insidious instrument (Madison 1991, 78).

Consequently, the French minister was withdrawn from Philadelphia, and in Paris the manets thesis French government refused to a2 electronics coursework, receive the new American minister, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The Directory, in violation of the commercial treaty of 1778, declared that it would no longer adhere to ftp resume support, the principle that free ships carried free goods and would consider all neutral vessels carrying British goods as fair game. In addition, any Americans captured while serving on enemy ships would be dealt with as pirates. Thus, the French began to arbitrarily seize American shipping on the high seas. Within a year after the ratification of a2 electronics coursework Jay's Treaty, France had captured or destroyed more than three hundred American vessels. Ftp Resume Support. Clearly the French actions constituted acts of war, and an unofficial naval war was soon raging between the two nations. The situation took a turn for a2 electronics the worse when President Adams sent John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to Paris to negotiate a peaceful settlement. [2] The emissaries were denied access to the Directory and insulted by French agents supposedly acting on behalf of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand. [3] Talleyrand's agents, known in the dispatches simply as X, Y, and Z, [4] demanded a bribe, a loan to France, and paper an apology for a2 electronics coursework anti-French statements made by President Adams as prerequisites for negotiations. Thesis. Though bribes were common in a2 electronics coursework, France, permitting high officials to in my thesis, live in a2 electronics coursework, luxury, [5] Americans considered their honor insulted when accounts of the XYZ affair were published at home. Millions for paper defense, not one cent for tribute, was the coursework national cry. The United States certainly did not need a war with France. If such a war broke out, the United States would face the French alone.

In 1798 Great Britain, America's potential ally, was itself in resume most, grave danger. Many believed a French invasion of the British Isles to coursework, be imminent. With Great Britain under French control, the United States would have had no choice but to capitulate to all French demands or risk invasion itself. In this setting the Federalists, who controlled the government at the time, regarded themselves as locked in a life-and-death struggle against France. They considered opposition to their policies to be the result of faction and dangerous to the survival of the essay architect republic.

The Adams administration viewed the Republicans, the chief political opponents of the Federalists, as rabidly pro-French in their political tendencies. President Adams believed that the French Jacobinal faction would link up with French armies if an invasion were to occur. As the war frenzy grew, President Adams occasionally appeared in public in military uniform with a sword at his side. Fearing that supporters of Jefferson were little better than the a2 electronics mobs of France, Adams ordered a cache of weapons delivered to his home for protection. Manets Thesis. Alexander Hamilton happily fanned the flames of coursework war as he urged that an army of ftp resume support twenty thousand men be raised immediately. Fearing he had underestimated the danger, Hamilton later raised the figure to coursework, fifty thousand. George Washington, in retirement at Mount Vernon, let the administration know he would be willing to take charge of the army in this time of national crisis. Washington did assume command, but he was only a titular commander. Ftp Resume Support. Hamilton held the real power. Of all the a2 electronics Federalists, Hamilton greeted war with the b most excitement. Not only did he long to meet the forces of regicide on the field of battle, but he saw the crisis as an opportunity to quell resistance to national power in the southern states.

When Virginia began to upgrade its neglected defenses, primarily in response to a2 electronics, increased Indian attacks on its western border, Hamilton took that action as a sign that Virginia was preparing the question the authority of the Union. Fortunately, cooler heads restrained Hamilton from marching on the Old Dominion. Hamilton also hoped to use his army to take Louisiana and Florida for the United States. Written Assignment. Ever ambitious, he entertained dreams of pushing into South America as well. Rather than quiet the Federalists' nerves, the Republicans joyfully aggravated the a2 electronics coursework situation. Opinion Thesis. Republicans often addressed each other in the French fashion as citizen and a2 electronics coursework celebrated French military victories with grand feasts. [6] Jefferson made it known that he would welcome a French victory over Great Britain. Because of his support of the French Revolution despite his knowledge of the terror, Jefferson had earlier lost the confidence of George Washington and was no longer trusted by his old friend John Adams. [7] Rather than see the French Revolution fail, Jefferson was prepared to see half of the earth desolated; were there but an Adam and an Eve left in every country, and left free, it would be better than as it now is (Jefferson 1853, 502). [8] Because of the manets thesis real threats posed by France in the war at a2 electronics sea and the perceived threats of an unabashedly pro-French opposition, the Federalists believed they had to act to save the nation. They began with a military buildup that was opposed every step of the way by Republicans.

The Federalist Congress also imposed a stamp duty, a direct tax on houses and slaves, a land tax, and an increase in the customs duties. The government resorted to borrowing, taking a $5 million loan at ftp resume support 8 percent interest that made the Federalists look like wastrels. The Republicans opposed these measures because they feared standing armies, fiscal irresponsibility, and loose play with the Constitution. A2 Electronics Coursework. Moreover, they believed that the war preparations would strengthen the commercial North and weaken the agrarian South. Though Jefferson loathed the Federalists' taxes, he also found hope in them.

He realized that only strong medicine would cure the people of war fever, and in customized essay paper, a 26 November 1798 letter to Madison, he expressed his belief that with the a2 electronics levying of taxes the Doctor is now on in my opinion his way to cure [war hysteria], in the guise of a tax gatherer (Jefferson 1854a, 274). Jacobin fever afflicted most prominent Federalists, and they began to formulate legislation to deal with the coursework perceived danger. The leaders in Congress already had an excellent model to follow. In 1794, in response to the French Revolution, William Pitt had pushed through Parliament the Law against Treasonable Practices and opinion thesis the Law against Seditious Meetings. Pitt silenced calls for reform, broke up democratic societies, and sent several newspaper editors to coursework, Botany Bay. As in Great Britain, the measures taken in the United States against the dangers posed by ftp resume support, revolutionary France served the dual purposes of defending the country and conveniently silencing political opponents. The first act passed in the United States because of the French threat, the Naturalization Act of 18 June 1798, was aimed at European immigrants. [9] It increased the a2 electronics coursework period that immigrants had to wait before they could be naturalized from five years to fourteen years. Primarily aimed at wild Irishmen and the thirty thousand Frenchmen who resided in the United States, the act was intended to reduce the ranks of the written Jeffersonian Republicans, who had a large constituency of recent immigrants. Federalist Harrison Otis, however, attempted to go much farther. He proposed a constitutional amendment to exclude all foreign-born who were not citizens at the time from all offices in the government of the coursework United States.

The amendment was a purely political attack on Republican Albert Gallatin, who had been born in Switzerland. Gallatin had aided the Whiskey Rebels and was the Republican floor leader in the House of Representatives. Essay Architect. Fortunately for Gallatin, who later became Jefferson's frugal Treasury secretary, Otis's amendment received little support. The Alien Friends Act of 25 June 1798 gave the president the a2 electronics coursework power to deport any alien he thought dangerous to the tranquillity or safety of the United States, without a trial or a reason given for the suspicion. Only upon receiving notice to leave the country was the alien allowed to present evidence of his blamelessness and to apply for a license to remain. In letter of 20 May 1798, Madison described the Alien Friends Act as a monster that must for ever disgrace its parents (Madison 1991, 133-34). Of all the acts passed during that tumultuous time, only the Alien Enemies Act of 6 July 1798 was a true war measure. The act gave the customized essay paper president the power in case of war or threatened invasion to remove all resident aliens of the common enemy. As the a2 electronics coursework Alien Acts were under discussion by the House and Senate in Philadelphia, Jefferson in a letter of 3 May 1798 to Madison noted that many Frenchmen residing in the City of Brotherly Love had chartered a ship to sail with as many as she can carry (Jefferson 1854a, 239).

Foreigners recognized the perils of remaining as the Federalists prepared for war. The Sedition Act of 14 July 1798 brought up the written assignment b rear in the parade of a2 electronics coursework horribles. The act, which reads like an Orwellian proclamation from an omnipotent government, provided for the punishment of those who published or uttered false or scandalous statements and information about the government of the United States, Congress, or the president. Stirring up sedition could be punished by a fine of not more than $2,000 and imprisonment not exceeding two years. Though the truth could be used as a defense, no one using that defense was ever acquitted. Two months before the Sedition Act became law, Jefferson sagaciously wrote in a letter of 26 April 1798 to Madison that the act's true aim was the in my suppression of the Whig presses (1854a, 237). The Sedition Act was blatantly political inasmuch as the Federalists already had a rather loyal press. Federalist newspapers also received advantageous treatment from the local deputy postmasters, who often sent out loyal publications without charge while suppressing Republican newspapers.

During that period, the correspondence between Jefferson and Madison contains sundry complaints of missing newspapers and mail tampering. A2 Electronics Coursework. [10] Clearly, no press measure was needed; the recent Federalists already dominated the press. A2 Electronics. In view of that dominance, the Sedition Act seemed to recent, many to be a final move to silence all opposition and secure permanent Federalist rule. Republican Newspapers Persecuted. Though the Federalists enjoyed a largely loyal press, a small but vociferous opposition press infuriated those in power. Of all the Republican newspapers, the Philadelphia Aurora was the one most hated by the Federalists. The Aurora was published by Benjamin Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Bache, who was a master of political invective and unrelenting in his attacks. Bache incurred Federalist wrath by publishing a conciliatory letter from Talleyrand to President Adams before Adams had passed it on to the Congress. Because Bache obtained a copy of the a2 electronics letter so quickly, he was automatically presumed to be a French agent. Although his arrest took place two weeks before the passage of the Sedition Act, the assignment Federalists still sought to punish him. The federal government intended to prosecute him for libel under the common law, but Justice Samuel Chase provided an coursework obstacle: only in my opinion thesis, a few months earlier he had held that in the absence of coursework a statute the federal government could not prosecute, because there was no federal common law.

Under fire, Bache declared that he preferred death to flight, which raised doubts about his innocence. Unfortunately for the Federalists, Bache got his wish: he died of yellow fever before they could renew their attack on him. Though death delivered Bache from the Federalists, other Republican newspapers found no solace. The Federalists brought suits against the most influential Republican papers, including the Boston Independent Chronicle , the New York Argus , the Richmond Examiner , and the Baltimore American . As if harassment by essay paper, the authorities were not enough, many newspapermen were attacked by Federalist mobs wearing black cockades and had their shops burglarized and ransacked. Officials such as Secretary of a2 electronics State Timothy Pickering actively encouraged such outlawry. Pickering spent several hours each day searching the pages of Republican newspapers for seditious material. Earlier in his career he had been sympathetic to the French Revolution, but with the passage of the in my Sedition Act he atoned for his youthful indiscretion. In his quest for indictments, Pickering branded as seditious everything from flying the French tricolor to a2 electronics coursework, erecting a May or liberty pole. The Trial of Thomas Cooper. To understand the vehemence with which the Federalists attacked the opposition, one need only examine the accounts of the show trials conducted under the Sedition Act. Rather than exemplifying justice under a republican form of government, the trials featured sycophantic judges and prosecutors who vigorously punished citizens holding heterodox views.

If the names of the cast of characters were changed, one could easily believe the trials had occurred under a third-world potentate. Thomas Cooper, who later became the president of the resume most recent South Carolina College, was a multitalented English lawyer and radical who had moved to the United States in 1794. Cooper was arrested on 9 April 1800 for a2 electronics a handbill written five months earlier, and his trial attracted national attention. Manets Thesis. The secretaries of war, state, and the navy all attended the trial. Congressman Robert Goodloe Harper was also there to observe the application of section 2 of the Sedition Act, which he had drafted.

Timothy Pickering went so far as to sit on the bench with the two judges, Justice Samuel Chase and District Judge Richard Peters. Attorney General William Rawle, prosecutor of the Whiskey Rebels and the tax rebel John Fries, handled the case for a2 electronics coursework the government. Cooper was indicted for being a person of wicked and turbulent disposition, designing and intending to defame the President . Resume Recent. and to bring him into contempt and disrepute, and a2 electronics excite against him the hatred of the good people of the United States (Cooper 1800, 7). Cooper's questioned writings included sundry complaints against the government. Those stressed by Rawle were the assertions that the country had been saddled with the expense of a permanent navy and a standing army; that the government had foolishly borrowed money at 8 percent in time of peace; that Adams's statements about the French might justly have provoked war; and that Adams had interfered with the proceedings of a court of law. Cooper described the last point as a stretch of authority which the Monarch of Great Britain would have shrunk from (1800, 7). Cooper pleaded not guilty and used the truth as a defense.

As he mounted his defense it was clear he was not speaking merely to the court. Most. Cooper's defense was even more an indictment of Adams and a2 electronics a message to resume recent, the people to support the Jeffersonians in the election that was only months away. Cooper questioned how the people could rationally use their franchise if perfect freedom of a2 electronics coursework discussion of public characters be not allowed (1800, 19). He said he knew the king of written ib english England could do no wrong, but I did not know till now that the President of the United States had the coursework same attribute (1800, 20). At remarks such as these, vexation surely showed on the faces of the Federalists in the courtroom. Written Ib English B. However, compared with his actions at some of his other trials, Justice Chase showed great patience before launching into a2 electronics coursework his diatribe of jury instruction. In his charge to the jury, Justice Chase took on the air of customized essay paper a prosecutor rather than a judge. A2 Electronics Coursework. He even pointed out to the jury several things that Attorney General Rawle had left out of the prosecution's case. Chase then declared that Cooper's conduct shewed that he intended to dare and defy the ftp resume government, and to provoke them, and his subsequent conduct [defense presented at trial] satisfies in my mind, that such was his disposition (Cooper 1800, 46).

Chase regarded Cooper's publication as the boldest attempt he had seen to poison the minds of the people. A2 Electronics. And if the jury was not satisfied that Cooper had proved his innocence regarding all points of the indictment, they must find him guilty. So charged, the jury could reasonably have feared that a verdict of not guilty would earn them arrest for sedition. Chase #151; never impartial #151; got the verdict he desired; Cooper was fined $400 and imprisoned for most recent six months. I do not want to a2 electronics, oppress, Chase said as he sentenced Cooper, but I will restrain, as far as I can, all such licentious attacks on the government of the country (Cooper 1800, 46). One wonders what sort of statements by written ib english, the political opposition could avoid being characterized as licentious attacks on the government. A2 Electronics Coursework. Clearly, under the Federalists' Sedition Act, all less-than-favorable discussion of government policies was prohibited. The Opposition Takes Action. As the environment in Philadelphia became more intolerant, Jefferson left for Monticello to orchestrate a response with his fellow Republicans.

As he entered Virginia, Jefferson was welcomed as a hero. Most Recent. At Fredericksburg an artillery company announced his arrival, and the next day a great feast was held in his honor. Virginia and the South as a whole took a different view of Jefferson and the policies of the Adams administration. For example, the Sedition Act garnered only two votes in the House of a2 electronics coursework Representatives from representatives from south of the Potomac. [11] Rather than the chief Jacobin in the United States, Jefferson was seen as the virtuous and patriotic vice president (Malone 1962, 380). In crafting a response, Jefferson never lost sight of the true purposes of the ftp resume support hated acts.

In a letter of 11 October 1798 to Stephen Thompson Mason, Jefferson correctly described the acts as merely an a2 electronics coursework experiment on manets thesis the American mind, to see how far it will bear an avowed violation of the a2 electronics Constitution (1854a, 258). Thus, the resolutions were not simply protests against despotic legislation but protests against an interpretation of the Constitution that was bound to lead to consolidation. Furthermore, the Alien and essay architect Sedition Acts directly assaulted all three facets of Jefferson's constitutional thought: Whig, federalist, and coursework republican. According to manets thesis, David Mayer (1994). These three essential aspects of his thought may be summarized simply. Jefferson viewed constitutions primarily as devices by which government power would be limited and checked, to prevent its abuse through encroachment on individual rights (the Whig aspect of a2 electronics coursework his thought). Manets Thesis. His preferred system for doing this was one in which governmental power was divided into coursework distinct spheres (the federal aspect), each of ftp resume support which was in coursework, turn subdivided into distinct branches (legislative, executive, and manets thesis judicial) equally accountable to the rightful majority will of the coursework people (the republican aspect). The interrelationships #151; and, at times tensions #151; between these three essential aspects of recent Jefferson's constitutional thought explain his response to a2 electronics coursework, the particular constitutional issues and problems of his time, (xi) In the response to the acts, the three elements of Jefferson's thought were in harmony. [12] The acts assaulted the individual's right to criticize the conduct of government officials, ignored the basic principles of federalism as the national government assumed more power, and evinced the ib english b High Federalists' contempt for a2 electronics coursework the people, who in the Federalists' view had no business meddling in the affairs of government. The Alien and Sedition Acts, however, violated especially the federal aspect of Jefferson's thought.

As the United States came of age, Jefferson saw the dangers of consolidation as perhaps the greatest peril of all. In his letter of 26 December 1825 to William B. Giles, Jefferson expressed his conviction that it is resume most but too evident, that the three ruling branches of [the national government] are in combination to a2 electronics coursework, strip their colleagues, the State authorities, of all powers reserved by them, and to exercise themselves all functions foreign and domestic (1854b, 426-27). Resume Most Recent. Jefferson firmly believed that to prevent consolidation, power should be kept as close to the people as possible. [13] Though some states might abuse power, Jefferson reasoned that not all would fall under the coursework spell of tyranny. But with a consolidated and abusive national government, all would suffer the same tyranny; there would be no islands of peace. As Dumas Malone points out, Jefferson never supported states' rights for their own sake, but to safeguard the freedom of individuals, which would undoubtedly suffer in a consolidated nation (1962, 396). Hence, in drafting the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson identified the states as the proper entities of resistance. Of course, Jefferson did not invent the idea of the states as bulwarks against encroachments by the national government. Of all people, Alexander Hamilton eloquently expressed the idea in Federalist 28 . Assignment B. According to Hamilton, it was an axiom of the American system of government that the state governments will in all possible contingencies afford complete security against a2 electronics invasions of the public liberty by the national authority.

He continued by postulating that should the national government pose a danger, the states could at once adopt a regular plan of opposition, in which they can combine all the resources of the community. They can readily communicate with each other in ftp resume support, the different states; and unite their common forces for a2 electronics coursework the protection of their common liberty (Madison [1788] 1982, 137). In a little-known episode just before the Sedition Act crisis, Jefferson, responding to the actions of the grand jury of the federal circuit court in Richmond, followed Hamilton's wisdom of most recent Federalist 28 and laid much of the foundation on the which the Kentucky resolution would be built. [14] In the spring of 1797 the grand jury formally accused Samuel Jordan Cabell, who was the a2 electronics coursework congressional representative from Jefferson's district, of seditious libel. Most Recent. Cabell had sent a circular letter to his constituents denouncing the Adams administration and hence was accused of endeavoring, at a time of real public danger, to disseminate unfounded calumnies against the happy government of the United States, and a2 electronics thereby to in my, separate the people therefrom; and to increase or produce a foreign influence, ruinous to the peace, happiness, and a2 electronics independence of these United States (Jefferson 1943, 315). Jefferson drafted an anonymous petition to the Virginia House of thesis Delegates, in which he called for the punishment of the coursework offending jurors. In the petition, Jefferson viewed the federal grand jury's actions as violating the natural right of free correspondence, interfering with the affairs of Congress, and putting the legislative department under the b feet of the Judiciary (1943, 315).

Though James Monroe suggested to Jefferson that his protest should be sent to Congress rather than to the state legislature, Jefferson rapidly dismissed such an idea. In rejecting Monroe's advice in a letter of 7 September 1797, Jefferson explained that the national government was claiming powers not delegated by the Constitution and coursework thus seiz[ing] all doubtful ground. We must join in in my thesis, the scramble, or get nothing. Coursework. Moreover, Jefferson understood that the federal character of the in my opinion thesis Union was at stake. He continued in his letter to Monroe by coursework, observing that it is of immense consequence that the States retain as complete authority as possible over their own citizens, rather than bowing to a foreign jurisdiction (1854a, 200).

Clearly, one year before he penned the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson understood the very real threat of consolidation and believed that the in my opinion thesis proper place to rally Republican forces was at the state level. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Working in complete secrecy, Jefferson drafted the Kentucky resolution of 1798 between 21 July and 26 October 1798. [15] His original plan was for a2 electronics W. C. Nicholas to essay architect, introduce the Resolves in North Carolina, but because of political setbacks there, Nicholas instead gave the Resolves to John Breckinridge for introduction in Kentucky. As an independent-minded frontier state, Kentucky was the perfect forum for Jefferson's resolution. Across the state, without much prompting, citizens gathered to a2 electronics coursework, protest the Alien and Sedition Acts. In Lexington, five thousand people #151; a crowd three times the town's population #151; assembled. Ib English. [16] On 7 November 1798, Governor James Gerrard announced the need for a protest against all unconstitutional laws of Congress (Koch and Ammon 1948, 156.) A committee led by John Breckinridge was appointed, and the Kentucky resolution was quickly introduced. On 10 November 1798 the Resolves, with modifications, passed the house with only three dissenting votes; three days later the Senate concurred. The Resolves began with the Tenth Amendment, which Jefferson described in 1791 as the foundation of the Constitution (1943, 342). The states were not united on the principles of unlimited submission to their General Government; they had delegated only certain definite powers (Virginia Commission 1964, 143). Thus, whensoever the coursework General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force (143).

The resolution explicitly disclaimed that the national government was the judge of its own powers. Allowing it to judge its own powers would be akin to permitting an agent, rather than the principal, to determine the breadth of the agent's authority. The law of agency at essay architect its most basic level recognizes that an agent can act as such only subject to the consent and control of the principal to whom the agent owes a fiduciary duty (see Restatement [Second] of Agency, sec. 1). Just as A, B, and C, the a2 electronics partners in a business firm, decide what authority to give their agent Z, so the parties to b, the Constitution decide the powers of the national government. A2 Electronics Coursework. In light of such logic, Jefferson proclaimed in the resolution that each party [to the ftp resume support federal compact] has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the a2 electronics coursework mode and measures of redress (Virginia Commission 1964, 144). Recent. For Jefferson, the people acting through their states #151; the authentic organs of government #151; were the final arbiters of constitutional interpretation. Jefferson feared that giving the federal government the exclusive power to interpret the Constitution through the Supreme Court would lead to arbitrary government.

As John Taylor later wrote in his Construction Construed and a2 electronics coursework Constitutions Vindicated , a jurisdiction, limited by its own will, is an unlimited jurisdiction ([1820] 1970, 131). With the states stripped of the power to construe the Constitution, the manets thesis enforcement of constitutional limitations on coursework the central government would be chimerical. Thus, it is in my not surprising that none of the convictions under the Sedition Act were appealed to the Federalist-dominated Supreme Court. A2 Electronics Coursework. The Republicans did not want to give the Court an opportunity to set a dangerous precedent. The resolution continued by spelling out why the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.

With respect to the Sedition Act, the ib english second resolve reasoned that the a2 electronics coursework states delegated to Congress the power to ftp resume support, punish but a few specific crimes, such as treason, counterfeiting, and piracy. Thus, in light of the a2 electronics Tenth Amendment's unmistakable declaration that what is not given is reserved, the Sedition Act failed constitutional examination. The third resolve examined the Sedition Act in light of the First Amendment. Jefferson argued that because the First Amendment operated as a restraint only on resume recent the national government, the states retain to themselves the a2 electronics coursework right of recent judging how far the licentiousness of speech . may be abridged (Virginia Commission 1964, 14). Though today it seems obvious that the Sedition Act was a violation of the First Amendment, in 1798 that understanding was not universal, and Jefferson's argument was in the libertarian vanguard. As Leonard Levy has pointed out, the Framers were nurtured on the crabbed historicism of Coke and the narrow conservatism of Blackstone and thus probably did not intend to abolish the common law of seditious libel when adopting the First Amendment (1985, xv, 220-81). Original intent aside, Jefferson's First Amendment arguments were instrumental in forming the libertarian view of freedom of a2 electronics coursework speech.

The fourth, fifth, and sixth resolves dealt with the Alien Friends Act. Jefferson asserted that alien friends were under the jurisdiction of the laws of the state in which they resided. He pointed out that under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the manets thesis Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit until 1808 (Article 1, sec. 9). That reading of the Constitution's slave-import clause demonstrates Jefferson's inclination to read broadly the clauses limiting power. Conversely, Jefferson read the power-granting clauses narrowly. [17] Moreover, the act denied the aliens due process of a2 electronics coursework law insofar as the president was judge, jury, and executioner. By investing the president with judicial power, the Alien Friends Act violated Article 3 of the support Constitution. To Jefferson such a transgression of the separation of powers was but a sign of things to come. A2 Electronics Coursework. In the 1790s many Americans feared their republican experiment would end in a monarchy like the one from which they had seceded.

The seventh, eighth, and ninth resolves protested the construction of the necessary and proper clause that would give the general government unlimited power, and manets thesis called upon coursework, the governor of Kentucky to transmit the thesis Resolves to the legislatures of the several states. The ninth resolve expressed apprehension that continued usurpation by the national government could only a2 electronics coursework, drive these states into in my opinion revolution and blood, and will furnish new calumnies against Republican Governments, and new pretexts for those who wish it to be believed, that man cannot be governed but by a rod of iron (Virginia Commission 1964, 149-50). The iron-rod statement exemplified Jefferson's view, as expressed in his letter of 21 June 1823 to coursework, Justice William Johnson, that man is rational and need be restrained only by moderate powers exercised by officials chosen by their fellow citizens (1854b, 291). The Jeffersonian view of man was anathema to the Hamiltonians who, like Burke, believed that man is an intemperate creature whose passions forge his own fetters (Burke [1791] 1992, 69). To the Federalists, the Sedition Act exemplified a necessary restraint on man's unruly passions. The Kentucky resolution continued with the ib english b axiom that free government is founded in jealousy and not in coursework, confidence, because confidence is every where the parent of essay architect despotism (Virginia Commission 1964, 150). Therefore, when dealing in questions of power then let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from a2 electronics coursework, mischief by the chains of the Constitution (150). The resolution ended with a call to other states to express their opinions of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Manets Thesis. Though the coursework resolution expressed confidence that the resume co-States . will concur in declaring these acts void and coursework of no force, and customized paper will each unite with this Commonwealth in a2 electronics coursework, requesting their repeal at the next session of Congress, the response, to be discussed later, was not what the Republicans expected (151). The Resolves just described were those passed by the Kentucky legislature.

Several changes had been made to the original draft written by essay architect, Jefferson and introduced by Breckinridge. One change was the coursework omission of the essay architect term nullification. With Hamilton and others hoping for an opportunity to march on the so-called agents of Jacobinism, the use of Jefferson's strong term might have given the hawks the opportunity they sought. In 1798 the Union was far closer to civil war than to a French invasion, and talk of nullification might have provided the spark to start a national conflagration. [18] As passed, the a2 electronics Kentucky resolution also omitted Jefferson's call for a committee of conference and correspondence to foster communication among the states, which Hamilton had suggested in Federalist 28 . As in the Cabell affair, Jefferson saw no reason to inform the Congress, inasmuch as Congress was not a party to in my thesis, the compact.

The Kentucky legislature apparently preferred to work within the generally accepted constitutional framework and therefore shunned the creation of a committee of correspondence. The most significant omission was Jefferson's request that each of the co-states, as a party to the compact, take measures of its own for a2 electronics providing that neither these acts, nor any others of the manets thesis General Government not plainly and a2 electronics intentionally authorized by the Constitution, shall be exercised within their respective territories (Jefferson 1943, 134). Such actions would have differed greatly from merely appealing to Congress for customized repeal of the acts; Jefferson expected the states to take active measures to thwart the execution of the Alien and Sedition Acts. And when he learned of the coursework negative responses from the other states, he contemplated secession. Rather than relinquish liberties to a consolidated national government, Jefferson was prepared for recent Virginians and Kentuckians to sever ourselves from that union we so much value, rather than give up the rights of self-government which we have reserved, in which alone we see liberty, safety happiness (quoted in Koch and Ammon 1948, 166). Madison, who frequently served as a moderating influence on a2 electronics Jefferson, talked him out of moving toward secession, but the fact remains that the resume resolution as penned by Jefferson was meant to be more than a protest; Jefferson envisioned the states defying the unconstitutional acts of the national government (Banning 1995, 393).

On 17 November 1798, Jefferson sent Madison a copy of his draft of the a2 electronics coursework Kentucky resolution. Most Recent. Jefferson wrote that. we should distinctly affirm all the important principles they contain, so as to hold to that ground in future, and leave the matter in such a train as that we may not be committed absolutely to push the matter to extremities, and yet may be free to coursework, push as far as events will render prudent. (Jefferson 1854a, 258) That statement is noteworthy for several reasons. First, he was obviously pressing Madison to resume most recent, see that a similar resolution be passed in Virginia. Second, and more important, Jefferson outlined his original strategy for the Kentucky Resolves in just a few words. He did not want to be forced into a2 electronics a general confrontation with the national government over nullification, but intended to retain the assignment ib english option to a2 electronics coursework, push as far as events permitted. In light of the language in Jefferson's original draft, had a number of states supported the ftp resume support resolution, it seems plausible that Jefferson might have begun drafting an ordinance of a2 electronics coursework nullification for Kentucky. Madison's Virginia resolution, which was introduced in the Virginia Assembly by John Taylor, was much shorter and more moderate than Jefferson's fervent Kentucky resolution. After expressing Virginia's warm attachment to written assignment ib english, the Union, the resolution appealed to the Tenth Amendment and declared that the powers of the federal government are limited by a2 electronics, the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact and.

that in the case of customized a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of a2 electronics coursework other powers, not granted by the said compact, the States . have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them. (Virginia Commission 1964, 152) Madison did not consider interposition a proper response to every disagreement with the central government. Opinion. Only when the central government's exercise of power was deliberate, palpable and dangerous should the states interpose to protect the liberties of the a2 electronics people. It is difficult to imagine the more practical Madison employing the Jeffersonian rhetoric of the Kentucky resolution. Written B. Though Jefferson most assuredly intended the Resolves to be more than protests, Madison's intention is more difficult to judge. From his statements made in coursework, the 1830s (discussed below), it appears that Madison merely intended to elucidate constitutional principles, with emphasis on the Tenth Amendment, and thereby to encourage repeal of the acts. Essay Architect. Considering that until the ratification of the a2 electronics Seventeenth Amendment in 1913 the state legislatures appointed senators and thus the customized essay states as such had representation in the national government, a state protest was more likely in those days to have an a2 electronics coursework effect than it would be today.

A state legislature could instruct its senators to seek repeal of legislation, and if the resume recent senators failed to do so, the state legislature could remove them when their terms expired. The Response of the States. The state responses to the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions disappointed the Republicans. For example, Delaware considered the Resolves an coursework unjustifiable interference with the General Government. Rhode Island declared the Alien and Sedition Acts to be constitutional insofar as they promoted the general welfare of the United States. Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire asserted that the Supreme Court was the most ultimate authority for deciding the constitutionality of acts of Congress. Massachusetts proclaimed that liberty of the press was not interfered with, because true freedom of the press forbade only prior restraints. To their chagrin, Madison and Jefferson received not one favorable answer from the seven states that responded. The legislatures of the Republican-dominated southern states did not answer at all. According to Jefferson scholar Dumas Malone, the a2 electronics replies from the North and lack of responses from the South were not accurate gauges of public opinion.

In any event, Kentucky reaffirmed its resolution, and Madison delivered his report of 1800, which considered the responses of the states at length and remains one of the clearest expositions of the Constitution. The tense situation wrought by the acts and by the French naval war was relieved as President Adams sought peace with France. Adams realized that the nation did not need war. Customized Essay. Federal spending was double what it had been during Washington's last term, and revolts against high taxation, such as Fries's Rebellion, convinced the a2 electronics coursework president that peace was the only course to pursue. Adams's actions split his party and led to the decline of the Federalists. Pickering, the administration's chief Jacobin-hunter, was dismissed in the early summer of 1800 for attempting to thwart the president's plans for peace. Hamilton, denied a war, felt betrayed and wrote The Public Conduct and Character of customized essay John Adams, Esq., President of the United States . Had that pamphlet, which ruthlessly attacked President Adams, come from the pen of a Republican, it would no doubt have landed the author in prison for a2 electronics coursework sedition. That Hamilton could get away with such an attack confirms the partisan character of the Sedition Act. The election of 1800 was bitterly contested #151; the Federalists alleged that a vote for Jefferson was a vote against God #151; but the general outrage at the Federalists' partisanship and their extraconstitutional actions led to the electoral victory of the Republicans and to the triumph of their beliefs in most recent, a strict construction of the Constitution, states' rights, and freedom from taxes and debt. In February 1801, after thirty-six votes in the House of Representatives, Jefferson was elected president.

The hated Sedition Act, having lent its authority to twenty-five arrests and fourteen indictments, expired at coursework midnight just before he took office. Jefferson ordered the termination of in my pending prosecutions, and he pardoned persons convicted under the act. The Influence of the Resolutions. Though the doctrines of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions are most often thought of as the a2 electronics coursework staple of southern states' rights advocates, many states of both the North and the South have at written assignment some time either expressly approved the a2 electronics principles of the resolutions or acted in their spirit. What follows are but four examples.

In 1803 in the Olmstead case, the governor of Pennsylvania ordered the state's militia to defend two ladies against service of process by any officer of any Court of the manets thesis United States. That stance was not abandoned until the chief justice of the state court held that it was not clear the United States courts did not have jurisdiction (Kilpatrick 1957, 101-18). In 1809 Massachusetts was in an uproar regarding the Embargo Act and its enforcement. The commonwealth legislature passed the following resolution: That the said act of Congress . [is] . in the opinion of this Legislature in many respects, unjust, oppressive and unconstitutional, and a2 electronics coursework not legally binding on the citizens of this State (Kilpatrick 1957, 125-31). In 1820, when Ohio was fighting against the unconstitutional Bank of the United States, it recognized and approved the doctrines asserted by the Legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky, in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, and January 1800 #151; and do consider that their principles have been recognized and adopted by a majority of the American people (Kilpatrick 1957, 144-58). South Carolina embraced the doctrines of the Resolves more firmly than any other state. The impetus for the state's espousal of nullification was the enactment of protective tariffs. Manets Thesis. As an agricultural state that sold its crops on the world market, South Carolina essentially bartered with Europe, exchanging agricultural commodities for manufactured goods. Because of the tariff, South Carolina paid much more for a2 electronics coursework those goods and also feared a trade war in which Europe would retaliate against in my the American tariffs by placing duties on southern exports. South Carolina's legislature rightly complained that the North discarded the teaching of the classical economists regarding free trade whenever a factory was planned. Had the offending tariffs been imposed to pay the coursework national debt, South Carolina would not have protested.

But because the avowed purpose of the tariff was the perpetuation of the American system of industrial protection, South Carolinians took themselves to have been wronged. Protection and redistribution of wealth for internal improvements were unconstitutional in their eyes. At the manets thesis center of the movement for nullification was the same Thomas Cooper who had earned the wrath of the Federalists in the 1790s for his opposition to the Adams administration. Coursework. Cooper served as president of the South Carolina College during the 1820s. Manets Thesis. As the schoolmaster of states' rights (to borrow a phrase from Dumas Malone), Cooper taught South Carolina about the dangers of consolidation. In 1827, as the tariff controversy grew, Cooper publicly questioned the benefit of the Union at a time when such talk raised eyebrows even in the Palmetto state. Coursework. In a fervid speech, he described the South as the perennial loser and the North as the gainer in an unequal alliance. Viewing the question as a choice between separation and suppression, Cooper prophetically averred that South Carolina would in essay architect, the near future be compelled to calculate the a2 electronics value of our union. According to Malone, the idea that the South should withdraw from an unprofitable Union received its first extensive advertising as a result of that speech (1961, 309-10). Ftp Resume Support. [19]

Amid the controversy over the protective tariff, South Carolina called a special convention in November 1832 and actually passed an coursework ordinance of nullification in essay architect, response to the 1828 Tariff of Abominations and the Tariff of 1832. Notably, South Carolina took its action in a convention of the people acting in a2 electronics, their sovereign capacity, just as it had when it entered the federal Union. The nullification was not an act of the legislature. [20] Margaret Coit succinctly sums up South Carolina's action: Nullification did not suspend a law for the nation, but only within the state that protested. Resume Recent. It was not an end in coursework, itself, but a method of appeal. It gave opportunity for three-quarters of the most recent states in convention to determine whether or not to confer the questioned power upon a2 electronics coursework, the Union by paper, constitutional amendment.

The nullifying state would then have to obey #151; or secede (1991, 188). The greatest champion of what many called the South Carolina doctrine was John C. Calhoun. Clyde Wilson, the editor of Calhoun's papers, writes that Calhoun began his career as, and always considered himself to a2 electronics coursework, be, a Jeffersonian Republican (1992, xix). The principles of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were his guiding light as his state faced a belligerent President Andrew Jackson. Writing to Boiling Hall on 13 February 1832, Calhoun remarked that we are certainly more United against the Tariff, than we ever have been; and, I think, better disposed to enhance the old Republican doctrines of [17]98, which can save the Constitution (Calhoun 1978, 553). Ftp Resume. Jefferson himself agreed with Calhoun on the tariff and even prepared Virginia's own protests of 1825.

As Robert Y. Hayne remarked in a speech to the Senate in 1830, the South Carolina doctrine was not an innovation but the a2 electronics good old Republican doctrine of '98 (Hayne 1830, 28). To many patriotic South Carolinians it was the last and best chance to preserve the Union. In his South Carolina Exposition, Calhoun wrote that the state had a sacred duty to interpose #151; a duty to herself #151; to the Union #151; to present, and future generations #151; and to the cause of liberty over the world, to arrest the support progress of a usurpation which, if not arrested, must, in its consequences, corrupt public morals and a2 electronics destroy the liberty of the country (Calhoun [1828] 1992, 361). Customized Paper. For Calhoun the question revolved not around the a2 electronics dollars and cents of the tariff, though South Carolina felt that sting as much as any state, but around the future of liberty in the republic. Andrew Jackson, on the other hand, despised the support idea of nullification and was willing to go to war over coursework it. Rumors abounded in Washington that he had ordered the arrest of Calhoun and other South Carolina representatives.

Jackson then surrounded South Carolina with federal troops in an effort to maintain the supremacy of the Union at all costs. Fortunately, a compromise was crafted at the last minute in the Senate #151; by Henry Clay, the father of the American System #151; that gradually lowered import duties. South Carolina accepted it and repealed the ordinance of nullification. [21] Not until South Carolina seceded after the election of Abraham Lincoln was a state to go farther in accordance with the resume most recent principles of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. Of course, it is debatable whether the South Carolina doctrine constituted faithful adherence to the principles of the resolutions. The old Jeffersonian Republican John Randolph supported the Carolina doctrine, grandiloquently stating that if because of senescence he could not participate in coursework, the possible armed conflict, he would at least be borne, like Muley Moluc, in a litter to the field of ftp resume battle and die in a2 electronics coursework, your ranks (quoted in Houston [1896] 1967, 120-21). But apart from the approbation of the assignment ib english b eccentric old Virginian, South Carolina received universal condemnation. Virginia reaffirmed the principle of 1798 but made clear that Madison's Virginia resolution did not countenance South Carolina's actions. In his waning years, Madison also denied any relationship between the principles of 1798 and the Carolina doctrine. In a letter of a2 electronics coursework 29 August 1834 to Edward Coles, Madison characterized the Carolina doctrine as an anarchical principle that has the manets thesis effect of putting powder under the Constitution Union, and a match in the hand of every party, to blow them up at pleasure (Madison 1910, 540-41).

In April 1830, Madison responded directly to coursework, Hayne, who had sent him a copy of speeches espousing nullification. The father of the Constitution rebuked his young understudy and asserted that the Virginia resolution contemplated only measures known to the Constitution (1910, 388). According to Madison, if a state considered a law unconstitutional, it could appeal to the Supreme Court, urge impeachment of offending officials, or in the last resort seek to amend the Constitution. Only in extreme cases of oppression did Madison recognize that a state would be absolve[d] . from the Constitutional Compact to which it is a party (1910, 383). Clearly, the Resolves, as used in 1798, did not sanction the most actions of South Carolina. Virginia and Kentucky did not attempt to interfere with federal officials or with the a2 electronics coursework operation of the hated acts. Studies of the contemporary grassroots protests also indicate that the people did not countenance secession or nullification as they demanded redress (Smith 1970). As James Jackson Kilpatrick has pointed out, the customized refusal to consider more drastic means might have reflected the impending expiration of the Sedition Act in 1801 rather than a lack of innovative thinking (1957, 85-86).

In the same vein, one must question whether the inaction comported with the coursework spirit of the Resolves or whether, when confronted by the objurgations of the written ib english b Northern states, Virginia and coursework Kentucky abandoned any thoughts of further action, declining to push harder because of the staunch opposition. In his draft of the Kentucky resolution, Jefferson seems to have envisioned disobedience when he wrote that the essay architect co-states should enact measures to prevent the execution of the Alien and Sedition Acts within their respective territories. Moreover, though Madison persuaded him otherwise, Jefferson questioned the value of the Union in a2 electronics, 1799 insofar as he expressed a preference for written assignment b secession over the relinquishment of the rights of self-government. The states that responded to the Resolves also interpreted them more broadly than did the aged Madison. Why would several of a2 electronics coursework those states have responded that the customized essay paper Supreme Court was the final arbiter of constitutional questions if the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were viewed as mere complaints? Had the southern states responded favorably to the Resolves and had Adams's popularity been greater (thus diminishing the chance of a revolution at the ballot box), the Revolution of 1800 might not have been bloodless. Implications for the Present.

Whether one approves of the Carolina doctrine or not, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions highlight a grave flaw in the Constitution of 1787: it does not explicitly provide an umpire to settle disputes between the states and the central government. If the Supreme Court is the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, as the coursework Court unanimously proclaimed in manets thesis, Cooper v. Aaron (358 U.S. 1 [1958]), then the caprice of the national government and not the Constitution is the supreme law of the a2 electronics coursework land. Clearly, if the national government is the judge of its own powers, it will construe them broadly and dispose of any hopes for paper limited government. A2 Electronics Coursework. [22] Jefferson inferred that in the absence of an umpire, the parties to customized essay paper, the compact are the ultimate arbiters of the Constitution. Although his reasoning is coursework sound even without a written provision in the Constitution, an essay paper amendment to the Constitution is needed to end the controversy once and for all. (See the appendix for a proposed amendment.) Unfortunately, Congress is not likely to propose an amendment that would divest the national government of the luxury of determining the breadth of its own powers. That unsurmountable barrier brings us to yet another problem with the Constitution: it contains no provision for the states to propose amendments except by a convention that could treat the Constitution as a blank slate. A2 Electronics Coursework. Currently, amendments may be proposed in two ways: two-thirds of both houses of Congress may propose amendments to the states, or two-thirds of the states may petition Congress for a constitutional convention. Under either method, no amendment is ratified unless three-fourths of the state legislatures or conventions approve it. Ftp Resume. As William Quirk and Robert Wilcox (1998) have explained, Article 5 of the Constitution as originally drafted by Madison eschewed the dangers of a constitutional convention and forced Congress to submit amendments on the application of two thirds of the Legislatures of the several States (18). As the Philadelphia convention prepared to coursework, adjourn, Gouverneur Morris suggested the never-used and dangerous convention method that we now have.

Though Madison noted that the convention method might cause difficulties, he did not put up much of a fight, and written assignment ib english thus the national government became the de facto agent of constitutional change. Under a Madisonian amendment process, the a2 electronics states #151; as the parties to the compact #151; could confer among themselves and offer amendments to the Constitution to curb the national government. Such an ib english b amendment procedure would obviate the need for more radical measures, because the states would have a voice in revising the Constitution in order to defend the exercise of the reserved powers and the liberties of the people. Article 5 should be amended to correspond with Madison's original draft. But what are the states to do when a constitutional provision is in place and the national government ignores it? For example, what if a modern version of the Sedition Act were passed by Congress and signed by the president? The First Amendment is already perfectly clear that Congress shall make no law . abridging freedom of speech.

This example demonstrates the a2 electronics coursework weakness of support any amendment process when the national government remains the judge of its own powers. The parties to the compact cannot reverse the victories of consolidation until the states claim a role in defining what powers are delegated and what powers are reserved. The amendment specified in the appendix would shift the power of interpretation while acknowledging the sectional differences that existed in Jefferson's time and that persist as the a2 electronics nation approaches the new millennium (see Cawthon 1997). Before any such amendment is added to the Constitution, however, the spirit of 1776 must be rekindled in the people. Essay Architect. Congress will never propose amendments that surrender the discretion of the a2 electronics national government to interpret the opinion Constitution or that give the a2 electronics coursework states a role in suggesting amendments unless a great popular demand arises. A revival of the ib english b spirit that animated the Revolution of coursework 1800 is needed again today. During the crisis of the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson wrote in letter of 12 March 1799 to Thomas Lomax: The spirit of 1776 is essay architect not dead. It has only been slumbering.

The body of the American people is substantially republican. But their virtuous feelings have been played on by some fact with more fiction; they have been the dupes of artful maneuvers, and made for a moment to be willing instruments in forging chains for themselves. (1854a, 300) Like the early Americans who supported the unconstitutional acts of the Federalists, modern Americans have been dupes in forging their own chains. [23] Americans support programs concocted by the national government, such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, which render the recipients dependent on the national government. Entitlements are now so pervasive that they account for more than half of the national budget (Seib 1996, A16). Hilaire Belloc's predictions about the servile state have come true. [24] The fundamental question is whether the spirit of 1776 can be revived.

The leaders of both major political parties today agree that the present entitlements should be saved; their disagreements concern merely how to save them. In the coursework twentieth century a progression of New Deals, Fair Deals, Great Societies, wars, and social upheavals has created the current Leviathan. Essay Architect. Hollow victories such as the so-called Reagan revolution have left only debt and growing social programs in coursework, their wake. For true change to take place, Americans must once again conceive of their history as a struggle to create and maintain real freedom. Part of that reconceptualization would entail making a place for the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions in the pantheon of American charters. In My Thesis. The resolutions articulate the fundamental principles of our government in an eloquent yet logical manner; in their import, they rank second only to the Constitution. For Americans who would recreate a limited federal government of a2 electronics enumerated powers #151; the government created by the Founders #151; the resolutions can serve as an enduring inspiration. * William J. Watkins, Jr. is a student at the University of South Carolina School of Law and a member of the ib english staff of the South Carolina Law Review . 1. At issue were (1) British troops still on American soil in the Northwest, despite the 1783 Treaty of Paris; (2) restrictions on American commerce more onerous than those borne by the colonies before the Revolution; and (3) the British Order in Council of 6 November 1793, which led to widespread depredations on American commerce and to the confiscation of anything coming to or going from the French West Indies.

For accounts of the Jay Treaty and events leading to the Jay mission, see Bemis 1923 and Combs 1970. 2. Evincing a spirit of reconciliation, Adams originally wanted Madison to join the others, but the a2 electronics cabinet threatened to resign if Madison were chosen (Sharp 1993, 164-65). 3. Pro-French factions in the United States were not convinced that X, Y, and essay architect Z were indeed acting on behalf of the French government or officials. Jefferson in his letter of a2 electronics 29 January 1799 described the event as cooked up with the swindlers . made to appear as the French Government (1854a, 274). 4. There was a W (Nicholas Hubbard), but he made only a brief appearance and therefore is often left out of accounts of the incident. The identities of X, Y, and Z were Jean Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy, and Lucien Hauteval (Stinchcombe 1980, 115). 5. Assignment Ib English. Historians estimate that in two years, Talleyrand received bribes totaling 14 million francs for such actions as expediting treaties and guaranteeing immunity for neutrals (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 568). 6. The Democratic-Republican societies, which sprang up in a2 electronics, the wake of the French Revolution, especially worried the Federalists.

Washington attributed the Whiskey Rebellion to them. Members of the societies fervently believed that if the monarchs of Europe could combine to overturn the French Revolution, they could do the same to the American Revolution. Several societies helped to written assignment ib english b, arm French privateers, and most of them encouraged American statesmen to emulate the virtues of the governing bodies of France (see Foner 1976). 7. The decisive event in precipitating the rupture was the American publication of Thomas Paine's Rights of Man . Jefferson, sending the book to the printer, enclosed a note expressing pleasure that something was at length to be publicly said against the political heresies which had of late sprung up among us. He intended the coursework note to remain private, but the essay architect printer published the coursework remarks as a preface to the book. Adams rightly took heresies to refer to his Discourses on Davila , in which he condemned the French Revolution (Peterson 1976, 57). 8. Though Jefferson continually expressed his wishes for the success of the manets thesis French Revolution, as in a2 electronics, the letter of 3 January 1793 to William Short (just quoted), Jefferson's only live exposure to that revolution occurred during its least violent and most moderate phase. Assignment Ib English B. With an ocean separating him from the events, Jefferson (and many other Republicans) formed an idealized picture of the French Revolution that did not correspond to coursework, reality. Conor Cruise O'Brien's observation is appropriate: The only safe way of in my maintaining American enthusiasm for the French Revolution was to keep the French Revolution at a distance, seen through a warm haze. Any whiff of the real thing was fatal (1996, 178).

9. For the full text of the acts, see Smith 1956, 435-42. 10. See, for example, Madison's letter of 8 February 1799 to Jefferson (Madison 1991, 29) and Jefferson's letter of 5 April 1798 to Madison (Jefferson 1854a, 231). 11. Sectional voting patterns developed long before the Sedition Act controversy, with New England showing the greatest cohesion (Bell 1973, 17-31).

12. The best evidence of Jefferson's political principles during the Sedition Act crisis can be found in his letter of 26 January 1799 to Elbridge Gerry, in which he professes his belief in the Constitution as ratified by coursework, the states, the necessity of preserving state powers, the in my evil of a2 electronics debt and standing armies, the benefits of free trade, the avoidance of entangling alliances, freedom of religion, and the success of the French Revolution (Jefferson 1854a, 266-74). 13. B. For Jefferson, resistance to coursework, consolidation did not stop at the state level. In a letter of 12 June 1816 to Samuel Kerchival, Jefferson wrote: We should thus marshall our government into, 1, the general federal republic for ftp resume all concerns foreign and federal; 2, that of the a2 electronics State, for what relates to our own citizens exclusively; 3, the county republics, for the duties and concerns of the county; and 4, the ward republics, for customized the small, and yet numerous and interesting concerns of the neighborhood (1854b, 13). 14. For excellent accounts of the Cabell affair and its influence on Jefferson, see Mayer (1994, 199-203) and Koch (1950, 182-84). 15. Coursework. As Adrienne Koch and Harry Ammon have observed, secrecy was necessary because of the political situation. Had Adams learned that Jefferson was the author of the Kentucky Resolves, Adams might have had Jefferson arrested and tried for sedition (1948, 149-50). 16.

For a thorough discussion of the protests of the Kentucky yeomanry, see Smith 1970, 221. 17. I am indebted to written assignment ib english, David Mayer for this observation. See Mayer 1994, chap. A2 Electronics. 7. 18.

The term nullification was used in the Kentucky resolution of 1799, but by that time tensions had been relieved somewhat. 19. Of course, the idea that a state might leave the Union if the Union did not secure the safety and happiness of its people dates to the ratification of the Constitution. Paper. For example, in its ratification message, Virginia declared that the powers granted under the Constitution being derived from the coursework People of the resume most United States may be resumed by them whensoever the same shall be perverted to their injury or oppression (Virginia Commission 1964, 71). Likewise, New York averred that the powers of Government may be reassumed by the People, whensoever it shall become necessary to their Happiness (76). 20. As early as 1798, Madison appreciated the a2 electronics coursework distinction between the legislature and a convention. In a letter of 29 December 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, Madison postulated that because the states ratified the Constitution by conventions, a convention was the proper assembly for in my opinion thesis judging infractions of the compact (Madison 1991, 191). 21. When South Carolina repealed the ordinance of nullification regarding the tariff, it passed another to void the Force Bill, which had been enacted to give the national government power to collect tariff revenue by force if necessary. With the a2 electronics compromise, however, the point became moot.

For discussions of the in my opinion thesis nullification controversy, see Bancroft 1966 and Houston [1896] 1967. 22. Coursework. A prime example is the commerce clause. The Court has interpreted that clause as giving the national government the power to pass comprehensive civil rights laws ( Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States , 379 U.S. 241 [1964]) and criminal statutes ( Perez v. United, States , 402 U.S. 146 [1971]). Though the case ( United States v. Lopez , 115 Sup. Ct. 1624 [1995]) in which the Court struck down the Gun-Free School Zones Act as having no substantial relation to interstate commerce offers some hope of narrowing the scope of the commerce clause, commentators have noted that the Court's most expansive precedents would be upheld under the test established in Lopez (see Hagen 1996, 1388 n. 209). 23. Occasionally the people of the states do protest and prevail.

See Printz v. Ftp Resume. United States (117 Sup. Ct. 2365 [1997]), in a2 electronics coursework, which the Supreme Court struck down an interim provision of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act requiring local law enforcement officials to conduct background checks. According to Justice Scalia, who wrote for recent the Court, residual state sovereignty was also implicit . in the Constitution's conferral upon a2 electronics, Congress of not all governmental powers, but only discrete, enumerated ones . which implication was rendered express by the Tenth Amendment (2376-77). Just after Printz was decided, South Carolina protested the Driver's Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) in the federal courts and won a permanent injunction ( Condon v. Reno , 972 F. Supp. Essay Architect. 977 [1997]). The DPPA requires that a State department of motor vehicles . shall not knowingly disclose or otherwise make available to any person or entity personal information about any individual obtained by the department in connection with a motor vehicle record.

South Carolina, already having a statute regulating access to motor vehicle records, took umbrage at the federal intrusion and coursework sought a remedy in the federal district court. Relying on the Tenth Amendment, Judge Dennis Shedd found that the DPPA exceeds the power of the national government. The case is currently on appeal to the Fourth Circuit. 24. According to Belloc ([1913] 1977), The future of industrial society . left to resume, its own discretion, is a future in which subsistence and security shall be guaranteed for the proletariat, but shall be guaranteed at the expense of the old political freedom and by the establishment of that proletariat in a status really, though not nominally, servile (198).

The following is an coursework example of an amendment that would embody Jefferson and Madison's principles in the Resolves of 1798 as well as John C. Calhoun's contribution to constitutional theory. Section 1 . The Constitutional Commission shall settle questions presented by the several States concerning the constitutionality of measures or actions taken by the government of the United States. Section 2 . The Constitutional Commission shall be composed of one Commissioner from each State chosen every second year by the people of the several States from two candidates chosen by the State Legislature, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for the electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature; each Commissioner shall have one vote. Section 3 . No person except a natural born citizen shall be eligible to the office of Commissioner; nor shall any person be eligible to recent, that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States, and been nine years a resident of a2 electronics coursework that State for in my which he shall be chosen. No person shall be elected to the office of Commissioner more than four times. Section 4 . A2 Electronics Coursework. When vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall choose two candidates to present to the people to fill the vacancy. Section 5 . The Constitutional Commission shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Customized. The Constitutional Commission shall choose their Chairman and other officers.

The Commission shall be the judge of the election returns and qualifications of its own members, and three-fourths of coursework its members shall constitute a quorum to do business. The Commission may determine the essay architect rules of its proceedings. The Commission shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same. Section 6 . The Commissioners shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. No Commissioner shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States. Section 7 . Whenever the Chairman of the Constitutional Commission shall receive petitions from a2 electronics, one-fifth of the legislatures of the several States requesting a ruling on the constitutionality of a specific measure or action of the government of the United States, the Commission shall convene. The act or measure of the national government shall be void and of no force if three-fourths of the Commissioners present vote against its constitutionality, or if three-fourths of the Commissioners from one section of the United States shall vote against the constitutionality of the act or measure. Section 8 . The three sections of the assignment United States are defined as follows. The Western Section shall be composed of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

The Southern Section shall be composed of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and a2 electronics coursework West Virginia. The Northern Section shall be composed of Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Whenever new States are admitted to the Union, the essay architect Commission shall make the coursework necessary modifications to the sectional compositions. Section 9 . The Constitutional Commission shall not sit as a Convention as prescribed in Article 5 of the ib english Constitution of the United States. Ammon, Harry. A2 Electronics. 1973.

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The Servile State . Coursework. Reprint. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Classics. Bemis, Samuel Flagg. 1923. Manets Thesis. Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy . New York: Macmillan. Brant, Irving. 1950.

James Madison: Father of the coursework Constitution, 1787-1800 . New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Brooks, David L., ed. 1993. Ftp Resume. From Magna Carta to the Constitution: Documents in the Struggle for a2 electronics coursework Liberty . San Francisco: Fox and Wilkes. Burke, Edmund. [1791] 1992. A Letter to a Member of the manets thesis National Assembly. In Further Reflections on the Revolution in France , edited by Daniel E. Ritchie. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund. Calhoun, John C. A2 Electronics Coursework. 1978. Ib English B. The Papers of John C. A2 Electronics. Calhoun, 1829-1832. Edited by Clyde N. Wilson.

Vol 11. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ---------. [ 1828] 1992. Rough Draft of What Is Called the South Carolina Exposition. In Union and Liberty: The Political Philosophy of John C. Calhoun , edited by Ross M. Lence. Essay. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund. Cawthon, William Larnar, Jr.

1997. The South as an Independent Nation. A2 Electronics. Southern Partisan (third quarter). Coit, Margaret, 1991. John C. Resume. Calhoun: American Portrait. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. Combs, Jerald A. 1970. The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the a2 electronics Founding Fathers . Berkeley: University of California Press. Cooper, Thomas. 1800.

An Account of the Trial of Thomas Cooper. Philadelphia: John Boiren. Elkins, Stanley, and Eric McKitrick. Resume Recent. 1993. The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Foner, Philip S., ed. 1976. The Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790 #151; 1800: A Documentary Sourcebook of Constitutions, Declarations, Addresses, Resolutions, and Toasts . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Hagen, Eric W. 1996.

United States v. Lopez : Artificial Respiration for the Tenth Amendment. Pepperdine Law Review 23 (May): 1363-93. Hayne, Robert Y. 1830. Speech of Mr. Hayne of South Carolina in the Senate of the coursework United States January 21, 1830 . Portland. Houston, David Franklin. [1896] 1967. A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina . Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell. Jaffa, Harry V. 1994. Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution: A Disputed Question . Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. Jefferson, Thomas.

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The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by H. A. Washington. Vol. 7. Written B. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1943. The Complete Jefferson . Edited by Saul K. Padover. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pierce. Ketcham, Ralph L. 1963. France and American Politics, 1763-1793. Political Science Quarterly 78 (June): 198-222.

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The Federalist Papers. A2 Electronics. Edited by ftp resume support, Gary Wills. Reprint. New York: Bantam Books. Malone, Dumas. 1961. The Public Life of a2 electronics coursework Thomas Cooper 1783-1839. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ---------.

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Ahimsa on Hinduism, Jainism and Zen Budhhism : a Synthesis. Nonviolence, simply known as Ahimsa, is the first and coursework, foremost ethical principle of Hinduism. It is gentleness and nonviolence, whether physical, mental or emotional. It is abstaining from causing hurt or harm to all beings. To the Hindu everything is sacred that life is a pilgrimage to liberation from rebirth, and no violence can be carried to the higher reaches of that ascent.

The whole was contained in assignment, the part, and the part in a2 electronics, the whole. Based on this cognition, they taught a philosophy of non-difference of most, self or the unity of all being and others, analyses that we are not separated from the world and its manifestation forms nor from the Divine which shines in all things and all peoples or simply we call it the oneness of all being. A2 Electronics Coursework! From this understanding of oneness arose the philosophical basis for the practice of not harming others and the commitment of all Hindus to support it. . Digambaras believe that a woman must be reborn as a man to a2 electronics attain liberation, whereas the Svetambaras believe that women are capable of the same spiritual accomplishments as man without having to be reborn. 3. Food for Omniscient: The Digambaras believe that once a person becomes omniscient, he no longer has the need for food, but the Svetambaras do not agree with that. 4. Tirthankara Mallinatha: The Svetambaras believe that the 19th Tirthankar was a female, but the Digambaras believe it to be a man. Although it is written assignment ib english unclear as to when exactly the split happened, some of the coursework reasons for the split were (a) a dispute over which teaching of Mahavira were the true ones (b) disagreements on how the essay architect teachings were to be interpreted (c) areas of different cultural conditions which led to a2 electronics coursework geographical differences (Religion and faith, N.D.). Changes When Jainism first came about, its’ principles and guidelines were very severe in nature, and those who adhered to them lived a very ascetic life. For some members of the Jain religion their belief in Ahisma leads them to become either monks or nuns, and follow the wandering ascetic lifestyle. “Most Jains today, however, are laity, living worldly lives but seeking to resume recent adhere to the principle of coursework, JAINISM 9 ahimsa in as many ways as possible.

The laity support the. Words: 2161 - Pages: 9. . In My! Hinduism Paper 1 Hinduism Paper William Anderson Hum 130/Philip Engelman Hinduism Paper 2 Hinduism is a2 electronics not a religion but a set of beliefs and traditions. Hinduism is the third oldest existing religion today. Originated in India, Hindu religions have more then a billion followers with the resume majority living in India. Hinduism derives from the ancient Vedic tradition as well as other beliefs created over a period of a2 electronics, 4,000 years. The practice of customized paper, Dharma, which is the Hindu religions ethics and duties, offers equality in theology, spiritual insights and myths. Samsara, Karma and Moksha are other beliefs. Samsara means the a2 electronics coursework continuing cycle of life, death and essay architect, rebirth, Karma meaning an action with a cause and effect, and Moksha meaning liberation from the cycle of Samsara. Buddhism and a2 electronics coursework, Sikhism religions focus on in my opinion thesis, self-improvement which helps attain a personal spiritual experience. Buddhism and Sikhism originated in India and share similarities but are very different religions. (Morales, (n.d).

Hinduism is lacking in a uniting belief system. However, Hinduism is still practiced today and could stay intact for many years. Fighting off attacks from other religions that have tried to coursework destroy Hinduism. Hinduism followers believe their souls are the true self of every person called the Ataman. The two lifelong goals of the Dharmas are the Grihastha. Words: 802 - Pages: 4. Recent! . Hinduism Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world, behind Christianity and Islam. Sanatana means ageless and coursework, believes in essay architect, the ways that have always existed. Hinduism has no single founder of the religion. Hinduism does not have a bible and does not require practicing one main idea.

Hinduism is considered more of coursework, a culture than a religion. And, unlike Islam or Christianity, it does not have a single belief system, a central religious organization, did not have a single Prophet/Messianic founder, or a single system of law/morality. Despite this, about 14% of the world’s population consider themselves Hindu, most located on or near the b Indian subcontinent. (Religious, n.d.). It is often quite difficult for a2 electronics coursework westerners to understand Hinduism, not just because of the number of sects that exist within its areas of predominance, but because it does not need the essay architect formulization and intellectual overlord that many western religions seem to require. This is why, according to some, Hinduism is seen as a philosophical belief system rather than a religion – but this is likely picking nits since it adheres to most of the formal definitions of a2 electronics, “religion.” Because there is no central text, it is sometimes difficult to construct an overview of the context of Hinduism. There is controversy, for instance, as to whether Hinduism is monotheistic or polytheistic – Hindus recognize only one supreme God (Brahman) and that all things constitute an overall unified. Opinion Thesis! Words: 744 - Pages: 3. . Hinduism 1 Hinduism Starla R. A2 Electronics! Heyward Religions of the manets thesis World HUM/130 April 29, 2012 Dr. VL Merlini Hinduism 2 When we think of Hinduism, we do not think of a religion. Coursework! Hinduism is a set of beliefs that revolve around traditions that have been around for a long time.

The Hindu belief is ftp resume support one of the oldest religions in the world. There are different sects of coursework, Hinduism. In addition to that, there are ancient scriptures called the Vedas that are admired by all who practice Hinduism. There are many cultural and essay architect, societal influences surrounding Hinduism. One big societal element is coursework that India is one of the last ancient worlds culture. The actual name is opinion thesis Sanatana Dharma or “Universal Truth or Way.” In the Hinduism belief, they have a concept that the ultimate reality called Brahman, (universal soul) and its identification with the individual soul. Each person or creature goes through a birthing that is a2 electronics determined by karma.

Karma is what happens if a person does something bad in their present life, it will come back to haunt them in their present or future life. I like to refer to it as the law of support, sowing and reaping. A2 Electronics Coursework! The post-Vedic deals with elaborate myths of popular gods. It is described as undergoing on eternally cycle of preservation, dissolution, and creation. This represents the trinity of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the essay architect destroyer as the supreme. In Hinduism, the beliefs that hundreds of deities control. Coursework! Words: 766 - Pages: 4. Comparison of Jainism and Hinduism. . (Shah). In Hinduism, three of the foundational spiritual beliefs are karma, all life is sacred, and reincarnation. In karma it states that every act we make, and even every thought and every desire we have, shapes our future experience (Oppenheimer). Ftp Resume Support! The second belief in Hinduism is that all life is sacred. Holy animals, such as cows, should not be harmed.

As life is created by God, all life is sacred. In reincarnation, Hindus believe that after death the soul leaves the body and enters a new one. Humans can become animals or some other life form for the opportunity to advance towards its ultimate goal of liberation (Fisher). A2 Electronics Coursework! Lastly, reincarnation in support, Hinduism has four stages. These stages are: stage of before marriage, the a2 electronics coursework stage after marriage, the stage during retirement, and the stage of renunciation of worldly affairs. Due to assignment b similarities, Jainism was considered Hinduism. Both religions believe in ahimsa, do no harm. The theory of a2 electronics coursework, karma is also the same regarding both religions.

They believe that karma is a path of works and essay paper, action. A different belief between them is a2 electronics that Hinduism was based on sacrifices, whereas Jainism upheld non-violence. Both of these religions do strive to reach “Moksha” or liberation from unending cycles of birth. Jainism talks about the virtue of non-possessions, where Hinduism speaks about the duties of the man in his life. In Hinduism a spiritual practice used is ftp resume support Yoga. It disciplines to clear the mind and support a state. Words: 932 - Pages: 4. . JAINISM:- Jainism traditionally known as Jaina dharma,[1] is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings and coursework, emphasises spiritual independence and equality between all forms of life. Practitioners believe that non-violence and self-control are the means by which they can obtain liberation. Currently, Jainism is divided into two major sects —Digambara and Svetambara. The word Jainism is derived from a Sanskrit verb Jin which means to conquer.

It refers to a battle with the passions and bodily pleasures that the jaina ascetics undertake. Those who win this battle are termed as Jina (conqueror). Ftp Resume! The term Jaina is therefore used to refer to laymen and ascetics of this tradition alike. Jainism is one of the oldest religions in the world.[2] Jains traditionally trace their history through a succession of twenty-four propagators of a2 electronics coursework, their faith known as tirthankara with Adinatha as the first tirthankara and Mahavira as the last of the assignment b current era. For long periods of time Jainism was the state religion of Indian kingdoms and widely adopted in the Indian subcontinent. The religion has been in decline since the a2 electronics coursework 8th century CE due to customized paper the growth, and oppression by the followers, of Hinduism and Islam.[3][4] LITERATURE:- The tradition talks about a body of a2 electronics coursework, scriptures preached by all the tirthankara of manets thesis, Jainism. These scriptures were contained in fourteen parts and were known as Purva. It was memorized and passed on through the ages, but became. Words: 968 - Pages: 4. . Hinduism is the world’s oldest living major religion and is comprised of around one billion followers, making it the world’s third largest religion behind Christianity and Muslim. It is practiced predominantly in coursework, the Indian sub-continent where it originated. What makes Hinduism so different from other major religions is that it has no single founder and is a mixture of religious, philosophical, and cultural ideas.

Hinduism can be considered more of assignment, a way of life than an actual religious belief system as we know it in the West. Hinduism is a complex and diverse religion. There is a huge variety of traditions ranging from small groups to coursework large religious movements consisting of millions of followers. Hinduism allows for an unrestricted freedom to ftp resume believe and worship whatever on desires and allows for separation of a distinct set of beliefs. Another factor that makes Hinduism different from other religions is a2 electronics coursework its concept of essay, god or gods. The concept of God completely depends on the individual, one may practice monotheism, polytheism, or even henotheistic. Some may believe that there are millions of gods while others are devoted to a single god but accept the fact that there are other gods.

Although there may be many gods, most Hindus believe there is one supreme creator and that is Brahman. Brahman is an entity believed to inhabit every portion of reality, dimension, and existence throughout the entire world and universe. There are numerous different sects in Hinduism and. Words: 765 - Pages: 4. Ahimsa on Hinduism, Jainism and Zen Budhhism : a Synthesis. . Among some of the world’s greatest religions there exists a wide variety of views, beliefs and doctrines that act in unique support of each system. And while there are many differences amongst these structures, there are often many similarities that can be found as well.

Thus, understanding differences and similarities of its principles is important. Principles of Hinduism, Jainism, and Zen Buddhism are adopted in a person’s life at different stages of personal development. A2 Electronics Coursework! It enlightens once life and gives some perspectives about the right and ethical way of living. Just like nonviolence- a teaching that started since the time of Christ, were all these teachings have in common. Nonviolence, simply known as Ahimsa, is the first and manets thesis, foremost ethical principle of Hinduism. It is gentleness and nonviolence, whether physical, mental or emotional.

It is abstaining from a2 electronics, causing hurt or harm to all beings. To the Hindu everything is sacred that life is a pilgrimage to liberation from resume most recent, rebirth, and no violence can be carried to the higher reaches of that ascent. Coursework! The whole was contained in the part, and written, the part in a2 electronics coursework, the whole. Based on this cognition, they taught a philosophy of non-difference of assignment ib english, self or the unity of all being and others, analyses that we are not separated from the world and its manifestation forms nor from the Divine which shines in all things and all peoples or simply we call it the oneness of all being. From this understanding of oneness arose the philosophical. Words: 335 - Pages: 2. . that those of the higher nature, who have worked so hard to get there, will avoid the lower nature and not allow themselves to be caught up in it again. A2 Electronics! Hindus believe in the progress of humanity, from an old age into in my opinion thesis a new age, from darkness into a consciousness of divine light. Nonviolence has long been central to the religious traditions of India—especially Hinduism, Buddhism and a2 electronics coursework, Jainism.

Religion in India has consistently upheld the sanctity of life, whether human, animal or, in the case of the Jains, elemental. There developed early in assignment, India an unparalleled concern for harmony among different life forms, and this led to a common ethos based on noninjuriousness and a minimal consumption of natural resources, in other words, to compassion and simplicity. If Homo sapiens is to survive his present predicament, he will have to rediscover these two primary ethical virtues. In order to understand the pervasive practice of nonviolence in Hinduism, one must investigate the meaning of life. Why is life sacred? For India’s ancient thinkers, life is seen as the very stuff of the Divine, an emanation of the Source and part of a cosmic continuum. The nature of this continuum varies in Hindu thought.

Some hold that the individual evolves up through life forms, taking more and coursework, more advanced incarnations which culminate in human life. Others believe that according to one’s karma and samskaras, the process can even be reversed, that is, one can achieve a “lower” birth. Even those. Words: 4974 - Pages: 20. . and support a state of essay architect, serene, detached awareness. A2 Electronics! These practices are known as yoga, and in my thesis, they help the state of balance, purity wisdom and peacefulness of mind. Other ways of steadying and elevating the mind is to coursework focus on a visual form, such as a candle flame, the picture of a guru, the ftp resume OM symbol, or yantras. Brahmins specified verbal formulas, sacred chants, and sacred action to invoke the breath behind all of existence. During these rituals, priests would create and control elaborate fire sacrifices. Coursework! The every day like of Hindu is so saturated with spiritually meaningful aspects that spirituality is never far from one's mind.

Hinduism has sixteen rites performed in the ancient scriptures to purify and written b, sanctify the person in his or her journey through life. These rights include at the time of conception, the braiding of a pregnant mother's hair, birth, name-giving, start of solid foods, starting education, investing boys with a sacred thread, the a2 electronics coursework first time leaving the family house, starting studies of assignment ib english, Vedas, marriage, and a2 electronics coursework, death. The goal of the rituals is to consistently elevate the person higher than their basic animal nature. Practicing Hindu seek to place them at the feet of a spiritual teacher, or a guru. Guru's do not consider themselves teachers, but people are drawn to them because they have achieved spiritual status to which the seekers aspire. Guru's provide encouragement to those individuals seeking enlightenment. Essay Architect! Once a guru is found by a seeker. Words: 782 - Pages: 4. . To a Hindu, achieving moksha, or the release of the soul from the cycle of reincarnation, is a2 electronics perhaps their must ultimate goal. Once the in my opinion soul is released, it can finally be free to become one with Brahman. In order to help achieve this freedom, Hindus practice various spiritual disciplines, called yogas. Coursework! These yogas include Karma, the yoga of duty, Bhakti, the yoga of devotion, Jana, the yoga of wisdom, and Raja, the yoga of discipline of the body.

Raja yoga is perhaps the most famous, and the practice that most people think of when they hear ‘yoga’. Manets Thesis! Raja is considered the royal union, and is thought of as the highest path of yoga. The purpose of raja yoga is to achieve enlightenment by a2 electronics, getting rid of random oscillations of the mind. Through various physical and mental exercises, a Hindu hopes to achieve an inner quietness. Raja yoga often starts out with the recitation of the word “om”. Often called “the sound of the universe”, this word helps clear an in my opinion thesis individual’s mind and ease the oscillations. From there a Hindu can go on to practice Raja yoga.

There are eight limbs of Raja, according to the Swamis Sivananda and Vishnudevananda. The first limb, called yamas, is a group of restraints that a Hindu must partake in to achieve inner peace. These include: Ahimsa, or non-violence, Asteya, or abstaining from theft, Satyam, or not lying, Aparaigraha, or not coveting, and Brahmacharya, or moderation (including celibacy). The next arm, as described by the Swamis, contains. Words: 539 - Pages: 3.

Karma in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. . The Nature of Karma in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism People of all religions partake in traditional ceremonies, have special symbols to coursework represent what they worship, peruse different sacred writings and hold diverse theological beliefs. One tradition that is very common among Hindus, Buddhists and in my opinion, Jains, is the law of karma. The religious tradition is a2 electronics defined as the “universal causal law by which good or bad actions determine the future modes of an individual’s existence (Olivelle). This tradition has inimitable meaning in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, with slight differences. Hindus believe that people are reborn into another life after this one and that the law of in my opinion thesis, karma suggests that a person’s mental and physical actions are binding to the cycle of birth and death.

The idea of karma states that actions in one’s present life will determine the condition of the next life. When people begin their current life, karma accumulates because of their actions. And when they die, they will be reborn into another life, as either a human again or in another form, depending on the quality of the former life. The ultimate goal of Hindus is to attain liberation by a2 electronics, escaping what is known as samsara, through a process called moksha (Frisch). In Hinduism, “a man becomes pure through pure deeds, impure through impure deeds (Fisher 77). Like the Hindus, the Jain believe that one’s behaviors and motives entice karma. A person's karma from past lives determines the quality of present. Opinion! Words: 617 - Pages: 3. . Hinduism Kelsi Herron HUM 130: History of Religion August 20, 2012 Michael Svoboda Hinduism History Hinduism has no particular creator, faith, or prophet acknowledged by all Hindus as central to the religion and no particular holy book is unanimously praised as being the sole text, like how Christians view the coursework Bible. The word Hindu is derived from the term “Sindu,” the traditional name of the ftp resume Indus River. It was only after the 18th century when the term came to a2 electronics refer to paper the dominant religion of the Indian people. Hindus refer to themselves with position to their caste, community, religion and language.

Hindu history is marked by the configuration of vocally communicated precious texts that express all of the central concepts related to what we call Hinduism. Coursework! The first civilization existed around 3000-1750 BCE called Harrapan. This culture was followed by the “Age of Vedas.” While their origins are still not known, the essay architect Vedas can still be examined (Fisher). The Vedic Age gave way to philosophical review and debate in texts known as Aranyakas (forest treatises) and Upanishads (consisting of teaching from highly realized spiritual masters). These were composed around the 6th century BCE, a time of intellectual speculation. The oldest of the a2 electronics coursework Vedic scriptures and among the oldest of the world’s existing scriptures is the Rig Veda (Fisher).

The Upanishads are thought to have developed last, around 600 to 400 BCE (Fisher). The word Upanishad “embraces the essay architect idea of. Words: 833 - Pages: 4. . A2 Electronics! dies, the written assignment b soul is a2 electronics coursework carried on to another life, where everything in the past life has been resolved. Hindus believe there are unseen worlds in which beings exist, and every ritual and personal devotion is in order to create a communion with the many Gods. They believe that an enlightened master, also known as a satguru, is needed to become acquainted with the transcendent absolute. In order to achieve transcendent absoluteness, one must have good personal discipline, be a person the conducts themselves very well, be pure, analyze oneself, and surrender to God. Essay Architect! Hindus believe that every living thing is sacred and should be cared for with love.

This practice is known as ahimsa, which practices in non-violence through thought and actions. It is important to appreciate and value all life as if it is a2 electronics coursework your own. And, in order to recent be a practicing Hindu, you must treat yourself with the upmost respect. They also believe, very importantly that no one religion practices and teaches the only way to salvation in lieu of coursework, any other religion. All religions are generally an accepted following to the light that God provides. In the Hinduism belief, all religions are deserving of tolerance and understanding. In the Hinduism faith, it is not said that one dies, it is assignment said one is liberated. True liberation is to have one's soul be liberated from the cycle of births and deaths, or samsara.

There is no described particular way to reach this liberation. Most importantly, to achieve liberation. Words: 822 - Pages: 4. . | | |that bonding can control and individual. A2 Electronics Coursework! | | Part 2 Respond to the following questions in 150 to 200 words: 1. What do you think is the most important similarity and ib english, which is the most important difference? Use specifics to support your answer. The most important similarity I think is karma and reincarnation. The main principals where accepted by a2 electronics, Hinduism. Which meant by doing onto others and acting selfless, the two religions built under one main principal: to manets thesis accomplish the final goal of life on the highest actuality level.

The most important difference was the creation of the universe. Jains had bitterness of the idea that the universe was created by one creator. They accepted that the universe was created out of natural forces in motion. The Sikhs then believed that the universe was created by one god. The God was perfect individual in the monotheism religion.

2. Consider the a2 electronics following statement: Sallekhana (“holy death”) violates the Jain principle of ahimsa because it is an act of violence against oneself. Using examples from Ch. 5 of your text, what points might a follower of Jainism make to argue against this statement? Ahimsa continues describing by assignment ib english b, “Merriam-Webster” (2015) at the time that “Hindu and Buddhist doctrine of refraining from harming any living being”. Ahimsa is absolutely a lot more then this, this.

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construct resume job Exact circle division by five #151; how to draw the a2 electronics coursework, perfect five point star. What Natural (whole) numbers divide a circle exactly? Meet the perfect all-star families. Construct the real and the virtual shapes #151; and customized paper take them to 3D.

Give me a ring and I will make it sing G eometric construction of the pentagram, pentacle, pentagon, and the five pointed star #151; and spice it up here and there with three kinds of coursework ten pointed stars. H ow to sketch a five pointed star on a clock template, for kids [yes, pick a better shade of pink]. Tilt and rotate and double them. draw stars of pentagrams and pentagons using a compass and straightedge (two geometric methods) construct a pentacle directly inside your own circle or with your own sides length (point-to-point dimension).

What you pick #151; large or small #151; will be a rational and therefore an exact measure. tell the diff between a pentacle and a pentagram and why there are several pentacles. determine the inside and outside angles of a pentagram. find the golden proportions that are inherent in a penta. star and grow them, too.

make a five-point star indirectly via pentagon tiling #151; and vice versa. create fancy five pointed stars plus a ten pointed hyperstar from in my a half-square rectangle (in a new tab) get the only harmonious ten pointed star of a decagram by always skipping 6 points. design 5 point stars as art forms #151; inherit the energies if you stick to coursework, nature. combine the up and customized essay down pointing pentacles into a brand new hyperstar. On five circles. You'll be in the micro but this is huge. W hat does it mean if a pentagram is encircled once or twice #151; a star is on a single circle or in-between of coursework two concentric circles. built from interlocking rings.

S ymmetry in thesis, a five pointed star #151; there are several kinds of a2 electronics symmetry and .. .. A perfect three pointed star can be had on a circle or semicircle #151; and it's doubled for a regular six-point star or a hexagon already. You could divide a circle by 3 exactly but a general 3-way division applicable to universe building and traveling can also be had. Hexagon and hexagram stars are behind viruses. A perfect square is a four pointed star.

A n eight pointed star and a twelve pointed star share the same construction. B oth stars are perfect and both take you beyond counting as well. 16 and 24 pointed stars also share the same construction. Just as the eight and 12 pointed stars, they are in the 3:2 musical ratio and essay architect because the growth of stars in this ratio is coursework unbounded we have a separate page on that (in a new tab) H ow many perfect stars can you make with geometry?

With arithmetic? Number 36 is (abundantly) divisible by 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 #150; yet, you cannot make a perfect 36 pointed star. Geometry vs. Arithmetic is a very old topic, very unresolved, and very relevant; and. Numbers are not just symbols. In a circle they make 1 ) stars on paper and 2 ) atoms in space. A comment on a seven pointed star (heptagon). Hit a snag in a circle, but .. P entagon Pyramid . Fusion of numbers in three dimensions is good but it is not about customized essay paper averaging. T he four sided Great Pyramid construction is via the golden proportion and has its own page (in a new tab) A five pointed star just for a2 electronics, kids.

If you can tell time you can sketch this and other stars by hand. Oh, use the manets thesis, free template below at first. I'm the author of the illustration above but this one is freed from copyright. (With the Chrome browser you can drag-and-drop this illustration onto your desktop as the .gif file.) Have a look at some pics from the stone circle at Avebury in a2 electronics, Wiltshire, UK. Draw a star, any perfect star.

Can you see how you could lay out and manets thesis sketch several stars using but one construct from the clock's minutes? You probably haven't heard the word 'a construct,' but a template is usually just for tracing and copying. Can you join the points by skipping some? Odd and even number of points makes a big difference. Here are the from-the-ground-up geometric constructions of eight and 16 point stars of a2 electronics a compass rose. [ Now, can you imagine making ALL perfect polygons and stars in the above 60 pt construct? If each point were to glow differently for each star, would you get a cool and unique pattern I could lock on to half way across the customized essay paper, galaxy? Oh, you make it glow by having each point a semiconductor junction, similar to an LED.

For the junction you need an amorphous substrate and a crystaline piece of a rock. Because you want to power up the whole circle, your power source is a bit more than just a single lay line. Except, how would you stop the primitives on the planet from messing with the stones? Yeah, it is all sacred feminine kind of stuff. If that doesn't work, cover the whole thing with soil a call it an ancient sacred burial mound.] Historically, geometric drawing of a pentagram star was considered a secret. One can appreciate keeping the formula and directions secret because the construction of a five-point star is not obvious even if you worked in a2 electronics, geometry for some time. Yet, if you could draw the perfect star only through geometry, the secrecy takes on extra dimensions. To draw a (regular) pentagon, the segment must be exactly one fifth going around the circle. Stars are pretty and circles are everywhere, yet there is but slowly growing understanding of stars and ftp resume support circles. (This is not the case in China, for the Taoist movement and Taoist philosophy can be said to issue from a2 electronics a circle.) A circle gap exists not because we've lost our compass or a desire to admire crop circles, but it is because a circle is frowned upon by in my, the Catholic Church and because the reductionists of the 20th Century lost the link to the source of a 0D point. With it, we also lost great things that the dimension zero brings to a2 electronics, the table.

So there is support a book coming out late 2013 resurrecting a circle as well as the stars that are the a2 electronics coursework, dimension zero's first application. Resume Most Recent! Oh, 99% of all moving energy in the universe is in a2 electronics, spin and orbits. Not only that. If you want to build something that doesn't just fly away, you have to do it in a circle (you cannot build an atom or a planetary system as a static entity). Going through external edits, the working title of the book is ' Stars and Rings .' No whole number can divide a circle exactly arithmetically but some whole numbers can divide a circle exactly geometrically. This is the first differentiator between geometry and arithmetic.

When it comes to dividing a circle's circumference (or area) with a straightedge and compass, we always strive for the exact division. The perfection is not about some quirky obsessions of ancient Greeks and today's teachers, however. Essay Architect! If we finish our assignment in a finite number of steps and achieve an exact division, we would then claim executability and creation of such structures could be implemented in nature. Computer's arithmetic gives us precise #151; but not exact #151; answers when working with incommensurable (irrational and transcendental) numbers, but the geometric way can be exact and have much utility just because of that. We will apply the a2 electronics coursework, division of a circle in the atomic construction below. Yes, the essay paper, exact construction is a2 electronics about the (exact) conservation of ib english b energy. If the length of a2 electronics coursework a circle's straight segment (cord) is exact, then the segment's length is essay architect unambiguous and can be expressed as a finite number. A finite number is also a rational number. A2 Electronics! If the cord's length were an irrational number then such number's sub-unity portion (mantissa) is infinite and we could not agree on its exact length #151; but we could agree on the exact distance between the two end points because the two end points can be constructed exactly geometrically. Irrational numbers are executable (or expressible) geometrically but not arithmetically.

This is the second differentiator between geometry and ftp resume support arithmetic. You might skip on the diff between length and a2 electronics distance right now #151; later you may avail to the explanation and customized paper construction of the incommensurable numbers (irrationals and transcendentals). Instructions on geometric division of a circle into five equal and a2 electronics coursework exact parts #151; in written assignment ib english b, five steps: If you want to construct the penta. with a circle radius of your choice , point A is a2 electronics coursework one unit distance (one-half of the written assignment ib english b, radius) away from a2 electronics origin O . When you divide a circle into exact fifths along the periphery you now have the template and : Finish the pentagon by connecting every neighboring point and erase the circle. Written Ib English! Inscribe it counterclockwise if you want to be disharmonious (ratio 9:5), clockwise if harmonious (6:5). (Cw and a2 electronics ccw makes a big difference #151; think enhanced modulo math.

Ccw is in my opinion thesis acw for the Brits.) Make the pentacle by connecting every other (second) point. If you do it counter-clockwise, you will be doing it in the 8:5 ratio, which is harmonious, and a2 electronics you should not have a problem with that once you understand that the underlying pattern mechanics are clockwise #151; it's on the Venus page. Pentacle is the easiest and the simplest to do because it does not require erasing. Does it mean it is the most fundamental? Complete the pentagram from pentacle by written, erasing the circle. Make the five pointed star from pentagram by erasing the a2 electronics coursework, inside (smaller, upside down) pentagon. Also see pentagon tiling, further on. The unit distance u is the shortest distance used in construction of a particular star. All other parameters (radius/radii, cord) are then calculated in terms of u . Most Recent! This is new . Coursework! All formulas for stars should be computed from the unit distance and not from, say, a radius because there are star constructions that use several circles. Support! In our example, the equation for the length of the cord c in the above construction comes from two Pythagorean relations and a2 electronics coursework is quite involved:

In either case, you can now substitute any distance for u and get the measures of the rest of star's parameters. Resume Recent! There is a2 electronics coursework more to this. Geometrically, the written, square root of five, for example, can be of a2 electronics any length and this length issues from the unit distance used in ftp resume support, the construction of the a2 electronics, SQRT(5). When working the essay architect, pyramid you first have to find the unit distance before making sense of the rest of the a2 electronics, (micro and/or macro) proportions. Polygons and stars.

gon identifies the point connections that go straight from one point to the nearest next point on a single circle #151; poly gon in general. When you say regular polygon you are emphasizing that all segments span the same distance and all points are on one circle. Stars do not have to written assignment ib english, take a straight path from one point to a2 electronics, the next and do not all have to be on but one circle. The star's points could be connected by a curve or a kink line or the customized paper, connections just skip one or more points. As you go around the center from coursework one point to the next, you might keep turning in but one direction and then the star is essay architect said to a2 electronics, be convex. Regular polygons are always convex. Sometimes the points move inbound and out, particularly with multiple circles holding the points, and you keep turning left and right when moving from point to point. In such case the star is said to be concave. This is how things stood until our hyperstar, which has groups of three points lined up straight (and there are no turns).

The hyperstar is discussed in the right column. The hyperstar is not regular. All points of all regular stars and polygons are on a circle and are equally -- that is written ib english b evenly, and exactly spaced going around the circle. The best way of a2 electronics seeing it is that they have the exact fraction of a circle between them. However, only some stars are constructible exactly #151; see Perfect Families.

As to the actual angles between points #151; see below, for these angles could be irrational numbers. (For now, ask yourself if a protractor can give you any irrational angle.) Having said all that about polygons and stars, don't get hung up on technicalities. A star is such a pretty word (and polygon such an ugly one), that using a star for both is just fine. Some say 'twelve sided' when talking about a polygon and 'twelve pointed' when talking about written assignment a star. A2 Electronics Coursework! If there is a section of a circle with a start and a stop, such as when speaking of the Signs of the Zodiac, 'twelve sided' makes more sense. If you read other things about geometric stars, don't get derailed by mainstream math classification of stars. Customized Essay! Scientists do not take into account the cw or ccw star creation, likely because the mainstream does not know the applications difference between the two. (Harmony-disharmony enters here but there is more to it besides cw or ccw.) Also, math guys presently keep one point fixed and the other point advancing cw in a circle by a certain number of steps to make the next point of a star. But of coursework course, mainstream scientists are in the Dark Ages thinking there is a fixed reference point.

The Quantum Pythagoreans book gives all planets orbiting frequencies from which the stars are made and, gee, the Earth is orbiting while the manets thesis, cw or ccw point-to-point trace arises mathematically from that. Mainstream math guys' definition of a star is that you can see all parts of a star from its center. This is a great example of a definition of arm chair convenience because the a2 electronics, Venus-Earth interplay makes a cool curlicue between points of a five pointed pentacle star and this does not match the scientists' definition of ftp resume a star #151; so here is ours. Why should a circle division be made of equal (evenly distanced) segments? There is nothing wrong with unequal lengths if that's your fancy and there could be a really good reason with a heptagon (see below).

However, an coursework electron's wavelength is manets thesis proportional to the electron's energy and if several wavelengths of one electron were to fit (were to close) around the nucleus then they have to do so in whole multiples of the same distance. It's about the numbers (in a circle). There are many geometric ways of constructing pentagon or pentagram patterns and symbols. The construction presented here has the length of the side of the pentagon c the incommensurable (irrational) distance #151; that is, the a2 electronics, measure of the side's distance is composed of an infinite number of digits (that do not repeat individually or as a group). Other constructions make the side c a rational distance, which is better suited for the Great Pyramid's purposes. In the pyramid, one half of the customized essay, side of the base is (must be) a rational unit of a2 electronics measure, for ftp resume, such measure is executable and can become. (For transcendentals you may have to put a kink in that.) The connection between the five sided pentagon/pentagram and the four sided Great Pyramid is through the golden proportion , a subject that lets you understand how to draw and construct the Great Pyramid, and include the pinch on its side. Angles in a five p ointed star and how they relate to the golden proportion. Determination of pentagram's angles is easy #151; on the interior or the exterior. A2 Electronics Coursework! First, if (any) two angles have their arms intersecting at 90 degrees then the two angles are the same. The central (Egyptian) star below has 360/5=72 degrees between its arms. In My Thesis! Because the arms (rays, spikes) of this star are at right angles to other angles then such angles are also 72 degrees.

You will get to 108? angle inside the a2 electronics, pentagon with the ftp resume support, subtraction of the a2 electronics, 72? angle from 180? (from a straight line). You will note two special triangles on recent the pentagram when making design extensions to the sides (below). One has the interior angles of 72, 72, and a2 electronics 36 degrees while the second one's angles are 36, 36, and 108 degrees. Ib English! Both of a2 electronics coursework these triangles are golden because their sides are in the golden proportion. There are many other golden proportions on the pentagram but these two kinds of triangles are important in assignment ib english, the micro (atomic) domain, particularly as related to orbital jumps. In multiples of one tenth of a circle. All angles internal and external to the pentagram or the coursework, five pointed star are in multiples of in my opinion thesis 1/10 of a circle: from 36? on to 72?, 108?, 144?, 180? . 324?, 360?. A circle can be divided by 10 exactly and so all angles in and around a pentagram are exact and perfect. A pentagram, aka pentalpha, is a prominent symbol of the Pythagoreans. It is a2 electronics said the pentagram is good for one's health, and there could be something to manets thesis, it considering the golden proportions that are all over the star.

I think it is also likely the pentagram's prominence is a2 electronics coursework due to customized paper, having an abundance of the number 10 while adding a circular aspect to the many number 10 aspects of the Pythagorean Tetractys. The number 10 is also fundamental in designs of obelisks, including the Washington Monument. Self-test:-) If you think an obelisk is a phallic symbol then you've just begun. The angle of 144? seems obscure (it's on the outside of the star) but it's the only angle you'll need if you want to draw a pentagram with a computer program the likes of 'Turtle,' 'Scratch,' or 'Logo.' The program would run like this (in pseudocode): Move 100 pixels [forward] If these computer instructions do not mean much to you, you are doing well. First you want to create the geometric foundation #151; yes, in your mind, before resorting to a computer. The golden proportion consists of two numbers that at times relate through a ratio, in which case we speak of the golden ratio.

The two golden numbers consist of one irrational number a that is a2 electronics ( 1 + SQRT(5) ) and one rational number b that is 2 and, because these two numbers may relate to each other through multiplication or division or addition or subtraction or. they should not be reduced into a single number. Reduction into customized essay, a single number severely limits the application of the golden proportion and that is one reason scientists like to reduce it as the Phi [scientists have reductionist tendencies #150; perhaps not a disease but it could be a handicap]. Reduction into one number hides other relationships the two golden numbers might have. The golden spiral. Golden spiraling happens naturally in coursework, 2D or 3D as you observe the golden proportions and figure out customized essay how you could grow them. Fancy math will give you a smooth spiral but if you stick to the golden proportion you will be going in coursework, discrete steps. (You'll need to understand why staying with the golden steps is superior to smooth fancy math. It has nothing to do with efficient packing of seeds/objects, and you just might see the recent, quantum effects on the macro scale.) Once you start putting the golden proportions in the circular format, mathematically you'll be working the coursework, point/radial symmetry while entering a new area of endeavor. Also known in resume recent, general as tessellations, doing it in 5-fold rotational symmetry is favorite of Dürer, Kepler, Penrose.. .. All pieces that make up sets for the five-fold 2D tiling have their angles in multiples of 1/10 of a circle . The multiples of 1/10 of a circle construct the shapes of diamonds, pentagons, ships, kites, darts, or double-decagons. A fancy Ninja star design on left also has all of its angles in tenths of a circle.

The hyperstar goes even further using an exact division of a circle while providing constructs for orbital jumps. There is yet another (and last) golden triangle and that one does not appear on a pentagram. It has a right angle and its hypotenuse with the shortest side are also in the golden proportion. This triangle is a2 electronics one-half of the Great Pyramid going across the mid face and into the center of the base. You can see it below on our Golden Eye design. Pentagon Dimension Priority : Diameter Dim or Point-to-point Length Dim. There is a dual approach to thesis, a geometric pentagon star construction. A2 Electronics Coursework! You can either specify the diameter of a circle that will place all points, or the length of a pentagon's side that specifies the distance between points. Manets Thesis! In either case you start the construction with the a2 electronics, shortest unit length of 1 . On this page we show two constructions with Diameter dimension priority and in both examples the diameter ends up 4 units long (radius of 2).

This means you can construct a star with a circle diameter of customized essay paper your choice because there is the exact 1:4 relationship (scale) between the unit length you started with and a2 electronics coursework the diameter of the pentagon's circle. In the case of a point-to-point Length dimension priority, or side Length priority, you start the golden proportion construction with the unit length of 1 . When finished, the pentagon will scale to the side length of essay paper 2 . Pentagon construction with side Length priority has the exact side of a2 electronics coursework your choice and is on the golden proportion page. A circle has many positive connotations. What would be the idea of dividing it? Once you know what numbers can divide a circle, you can then build a circle. Not [yet] from real things such as wood or metal but from waves. Resume Most Recent! It turns out that the waves must have a particular wavelength count (a particular multiple of particular energies) before these waves are able to close in a circle -- and thus be symmetrical about a point. A2 Electronics! You need to know what numbers can divide a circle before you can construct the circle from waves. Paper! You might think this is something witches do, and a2 electronics coursework you would be right, but an electron is a wave that wraps around the nucleus, too. There is (always) a bit more to this.

When a circle's periphery is essay cut and a2 electronics coursework has a small gap, funny things happen as forces arise. Paper! One could call this a circle corruption and in a way it is. Yet the forces that arise are not corrupting, for they attempt to close the circle and .. (think free energy). The making of a circle is also about taking a step from 1D to 2D. There, you will find the friendly transcendental number Pi. To round it off, you may want to learn more about the squaring of a circle, for it is about the straight and curving geometries. We did not forget the ancient Egyptians and use the example of the five pointed star as one of the steps in working the a2 electronics, circle and the square.

The golden proportion and essay paper Pi get very close to each other. The five pointed star is made from the golden proportion and then the squaring of coursework a circle and the five pointed star are closely related. Not everybody likes geometry. In case you don't, you can blame your teacher or _______, but in the not-so-final analysis it is about you. Geometry is about movement and manets thesis placement in space, from an atom in your body to your ship as a whole.

Lots of a2 electronics coursework geometry is in a plane and you have a good argument if you say your head is not flat. So let me cut to the chase. In My Thesis! The intelligence is in 3D and your head is just fine for that provided you are able to intercept it. Lots of free energy is in coursework, 2D and it can be harnessed there once you figure out how to relate 3D to 2D. Oh, to relate 1D to resume most, 2D you'll get into the squaring of a2 electronics coursework a circle, which is customized essay paper something you want to do if you'd like to make atoms. A2 Electronics Coursework! (Light is in 1D and energy of an atomic electron cannot be in 1D #151; it would leave the manets thesis, atom.) The linear movement is in 1D while the atom and gravitation need 0D for coursework, spin. Your challenge, desire, need, or necessity is to in my opinion thesis, understand and work the Pythagorean tetra(ctys) of 0D through 3D because that is how the coursework, universe is in my opinion thesis built and you want to continue to be a nifty and smart participant in it. Symmetry in a five pointed star. Symmetry has appeal. It makes things look nice but it could be difficult to move beyond that. There are similarities with reflections in a mirror #151; or refractions through a focus of a lens. You might love crystals but it is tough to explain what symmetry brings to the table.

Aristotle could not apply numbers beyond counting and it was then easier for him to stick to a2 electronics coursework, generalities ('nature abhors a vacuum,' 'prime mover') and even poke fun at Pythagoreans. There are two kinds of symmetries : even and odd. The even symmetry duplicates things about the (usually vertical) axis while the manets thesis, odd symmetry duplicates things by half-circle rotation about a point at the origin, which is the a2 electronics coursework, center of the circle used to b, make the star. Symmetries issue from geometry (and geometry issues from numbers). The even (or axial) symmetry is unique to a2 electronics, energy and includes intelligence.

Esoterically it is the head of the Sphinx while the ftp resume, empty space between the Sphinx' front paws is the (virtual) line of the axis of the even symmetry. The odd (or point) symmetry is unique to charge and a2 electronics coursework matter. Written B! The even symmetry is inclusive while the a2 electronics, odd symmetry is assignment b exclusive. Self-test:-) If you think erecting a physical object between the coursework, Sphinx front paws is corruptive, you are doing well. A five pointed star, point up or down, has even symmetry but no odd symmetry. You could also have heard of b 'rotational' symmetry. A2 Electronics! When a five pointed star rotates one fifth of a circle, it overlaps exactly with the original star. You want to differentiate the rotational symmetry from the resume most, even and odd symmetries. Rotational symmetry is applicable in the rotationally-moving context and indeed there are plenty of situations for that.

I like to a2 electronics coursework, call the resume recent, even and odd symmetries the placement symmetries while the rotational symmetry is a2 electronics one of the movement symmetries. B! Placement is for building things (this includes the atom) while the movement is not only for physical movement but also for transformations. Mainstream physicists use the term 'symmetry breaking' when dealing with the ocurrence of a2 electronics different symmetries. They (the scientists) assume everything should be in support, 3D and a2 electronics coursework anything else is a form of deviation (breaking) from that. This is very stupid. The fundamental thing to look for is computability. If the system is computable, it will happen. Ftp Resume Support! The system will then exist in several and in any and all symmetries, as long as it is computable. But of a2 electronics coursework course, the computability conditions are spelled out and explained in the Quantum Pythagoreans book. This talk about symmetries becomes introductory once you begin to manets thesis, appreciate that the (law of the) conservation of energy is a2 electronics coursework based on the conservation of symmetries. The conservation of geometric symmetries is essay architect then a more fundamental law.

There is a bit on a2 electronics this in the Quantum Pythagoreans book but then it is resume most recent extended even more in a2 electronics, the upcoming Stars and Rings book. What? Who needs cables? Five pointed star in a circle. There are three sources #150; and therefore more than one meaning #150; of the five pointed star. One meaning has its origin in the exact (geometric) division of a circle and is discussed on this page. It is ftp resume a fairly complex though rewarding topic that leads to the symbolism of a star issuing from a single circle. Another root comes from two orbits (hence two concentric circles/rings) of Venus and Earth, and is discussed and traced there . Coursework! (Venus, while most prominent through the five pointed star, is essay architect also associated with the a2 electronics, number eight and the meaning of the diagonal.) The third source of the five pointed star calls on non-concentric yet interlocking rings . The separation of the circles is in the golden proportion and this new five pointed and unique hyperstar construction has its own bookmark on the golden proportion page. This brings us to the diff between the sign/drawing of a pentagram and a pentacle . A pentagram is a five pointed star drawn with five straight and unbroken lines, aka the Pythagorean pentalpha. Ftp Resume! A penta cle has a cir cle (s) around the coursework, star. Recent! Yet, these are but technical differences.

There are three separate origins associated with a pentagram and you may want to a2 electronics coursework, show a pentacle to point out the root. In other words, a pentagram always issues from orbits/orbitals/circles/rings/rotation and there are three separate ways to written ib english, do so, as follows: 1 ) A single circle around the coursework, star makes it the classical or atomic pentacle that comes from atomic construction, and a single circle shows the standing wave around the nucleus -- the orbitals. Pagan-wise the classical pentacle stands for earth and if you think of it as 'materia' (from Latin), it's a close match to in my, 'atomic.' 2 ) Two concentric circles around the a2 electronics, star make it the cosmic or planetary pentacle and the two circles are the essay architect, orbits of Venus and Earth (can be computed via modulo math from the clockwise 8:5 orbit ratio and in the illustration on left the orbits are to scale). Points are between and close to the midpoint of the two orbits and the pentagram rotates (why that is so is on the Venus page). For Pagans, the double circle around the star is about 'drawing down the Goddess,' and a2 electronics coursework the circle diameters are calculated along with point sequencing on manets thesis the Venus page. If you speak of or draw a planetary pentagram , then you are substituting the two concentric circles with Venus and Earth symbols because you know there are several pentagram sources. 3 ) Separated but interlocked circles (rings) with centers at the hips of the pentagram show two separate atoms joined in a molecule, which I call the hyperstar pentacle . This is new and I don't presently know of anybody applying the hyperstar pentacle.

Although I think the hyperstar explains the atomic separation in a molecule, there are many, many meanings and applications. My feel is associating the hyperstar with friendship, marriage and a2 electronics angels. I like using it in Tai Chi and here is an example. A classical pentacle can be rotated/turned about the circle's center if someone wants to ftp resume support, do an upside down 5 point star. A2 Electronics Coursework! With the hyperstar, however, I flip the pentacle about the opinion, hips and then a completely new 10 point hyperstar happens -- a star with nothing but the golden triangles.

See below. [Flipping something about an axis is a feminine operation.] The abundance of the golden proportions associated with all penta. constructions deserves an analysis of its own. A2 Electronics Coursework! Whether it leads to harmonizing your environment and having good luck, building a pyramid, or even growing it into manets thesis, nature based religions the likes of Wicca or Shinto, the golden proportions are indeed linked to space borne intelligent energies. Once the a2 electronics coursework, circular geometries are engaged you'll end up with the pentagram. It is ftp resume then okay to draw just the pentagram but you want to draw the various pentacles if you want to show where the pentagram is coming from. A2 Electronics Coursework! For example, ancient Egyptians call the pentagon 'The Womb' and if you retain the circles on the hyperstar you just might see it. Okay guys, another story has Isis looking for Osiris' parts. She found all except the manets thesis, phallus, which was eaten by a fish. Strange story. Well, if you retain the circles you just might see a fish doing its thing. A2 Electronics Coursework! [So, is the hyperstar a lost ancient Egyptian star or is it THE Star, the most secret one?

I haven't seen it in their art but their stories sure seem to point at such possibilities. Self-test:) If you take the fish story personally and say ouch, for example, you are missing the alchemical dimension.] Pythagorean pentagram/pentacle symbolism is a bit different and possibly more sophisticated if you think in ib english, the square-a-circle context. The pentagram is encircled once and then a second ring is added as a piece of jewelry. The second ring is then at the right angle to the first. (The illustration is from Secret Teaching by Manly Hall.) Regarding the Satanic or (d)evil or demon side of the upside down (inverted) pentagram or pentacle, consider it a feeble attempt at coursework corruption by the self-proclaimed sign-of-the-beast creator and almost-priest Levi. You want to know where corruption comes from and manets thesis then you are in position to overcome it. In this case the upside down pentagram could issue from natural rotation of the Earth-Venus cosmic/planetary pentacle in the solar plane -- with the sun in a2 electronics coursework, the center -- and resume most then the satanic notion loses its meaning once you appreciate that the a2 electronics coursework, cosmic pentacle's rotation does not stop and there is no 'up' and 'down' of the essay architect, solar plane to coursework, begin with, just as you cannot tell if the whole coin on the right having odd (point, sun) symmetry is up or down. Resume Most Recent! (Under odd symmetry every point has a second point on the other side of the a2 electronics, center of rotation.) If you want to customized paper, unambiguously show the star's point-up or point-down placement on a coin, you have to place the star next to a2 electronics coursework, a non-symmetrical reference such as an resume recent animal (or introduce the even/mirror symmetry, which is the case in nature). The coin's design is odd-symmetrical, but if the lower half is erased then odd symmetry is gone.

It is then easy to see that the star placement becomes point-up because 'Republic' now provides up-down reference. So you can appreciate that up side down is not a given under odd symmetry alone because when your reference is but a point (such as the Sun in a2 electronics coursework, the center), you could see the star one way looking from the center and assignment b the opposite way looking into the center. Moreover, cw and coursework ccw rotation can be differentiated -- think mirror symmetry and angular momentum in 3D, which also means that 'above' aka heads and 'below' aka tails can be diffed absolutely under rotation. Ftp Resume Support! Geometric stars' origin is from orbits (macro) or orbitals (micro). Micro includes both the a2 electronics, atomic and/or molecular (valence) orbitals. This means that the essay, stars issue from odd [masculine] symmetry.

Yet, to a2 electronics coursework, get unambiguous and stable solutions, both the odd and even [feminine] symmetries are needed. Ancient Egyptians include a horizontal bar with their oval cartouche just for that reason, and the bar -- which is the customized essay paper, axis of the coursework, even symmetry [it is not the horizon] -- is very explicitly tied to the oval. Now, I am extending it past the Pharaohs' cartouche, and resume most there are more practical and new examples in the 5 and 10 point hyperstars below and, of course, the Golden Eye. When it comes to the androgynous nature of the coursework, beast (Levi's beast has feminine and masculine attributes as well as a point-down pentacle on written ib english b its forehead), consider that masculine-feminine cannot be merged because they each issue from different and unique symmetries. Masculine-feminine is about the duality that cannot be unified by merging but needs to be, and can be, balanced or married. (Achieving such balance is not trivial but there is more than one solution.) In essence, the evil side arises from conflicts that ignore nature's duality, and one of the coursework, gateways to its understanding is to ask, 'Why and how is the human brain separated and joined at the corpus callosum?' Focusing on construction of the visible universe, the gateway to balancing is through Quantum Mechanics. Oh, if you don't like the status quo get into vortex and free energy. Overlaying two opposing hyperstar pentacles , the up-and-down points from the two pentacles make a ten-pointed hyperstar, which is not a decagon nor a hexagon, either regular or not -- yep, not concave and ib english b not convex -- and definitely not for the Wiki trivia chasers. This hyperstar (on right) has a north-south axis with very unusual properties.

The axis can become absolute under spin and then the star symbolically acquires a touch of Tartaros (or Tartarus) -- but, as a Pythagorean you know what the axial post/pole is about. I like seeing the hyperstar as 'the seed of the thunderbolt,' but that's shade romantic. Did you notice all triangles on the hyperstar are golden? In the case of the classical pentacle, the upside down notion also has no meaning because the five-fold atomic orbital is a2 electronics coursework symmetrical about the atomic core and is free to in my, rotate without appreciable symbolism. (However, there do exist harmonious and disharmonious stars and in the book Quantum Pythagoreans you will learn which is which and why.) A human body has a close resemblance to a five pointed star. Indeed, Tai Chi makes a mere resemblance into coursework, a remarkable art, including the Martial art. The upside down star is not conventional (not normal) once you link a human body to in my thesis, the five pointed star. There is then a human mental aspect to an inverted star and the Venus page has a bookmark on a2 electronics that. However, if you place energy importance first (and you should) then the upside down aspect is written ib english about energy while the upside down body is a2 electronics a mental and positive construct in the service and manipulation of energy. How do you make your own pentacle or pentagram?

Buy or make is opinion thesis okay but to have your own you have to have it in your mind. And add a cw pentagon, too. [Feeling better?] Here is also a secret for coursework, the 21st century: You must know how to make the star geometrically and then -- by making the same body movements -- you will also attract beneficial (golden proportion) energies in the circular geometry that will stay with you. Manets Thesis! Oh, if you start doing Tai Chi, you'll see the geometric components very soon. If you wish to superimpose/overlay/map a human body onto a five pointed star , the five points of the inside pentagon are the a2 electronics, major reference points. The top two points are at the shoulder-neck transitions, just as you'd guess. The lower two side points are the hips while the lowest point is the crotch. If you do Tai Chi/Yoga exercises just a little, you will feel the essay, importance of these points. As much as I find occult interesting, the occult human body-onto-star overlay seems forced and this leads me to suspect the occultists do not exercise much. As you get more into mind-body-circle-star- energy interlocks, you'll jump or sail right into alchemy . You cannot power into alchemy but you can turn alchemy (Tai Chi or ancient Egyptian versions) into personal power, both logical and physical. Coursework! There is the Buddhist view, too. Ever seen an angel?

The book you will thoroughly enjoy. Harmony is talked about ever since antiquity but it is this book that actually allows you to predict whether any two tones will be harmonious. Opinion! Yes, the coursework, clockwise or counterclocwise rotation can be determined and that is the one (of the two) harmony components that was hidden until now. It is about the perfection of geometric stars and the waves that go with it. The radius measure of 2 (diameter of 4) in our pentagonal construction on essay the left is the outcome of a2 electronics using the shortest applied distance as the unit 1 . This is manets thesis not because you couldn't divide by two (you can -- and work with ? as the distance OA , for example), but if you construct other structures such as the the Great Pyramid with the shortest distance as the a2 electronics coursework, unit 1 , you will always be in sync with your numbers from one structure to the next. If you want to look at it metaphysically, each number has its own personality and you want to keep track. Ftp Resume Support! If you want to a2 electronics, have more fun, think of the unit distance OA as an irrational number. Essay Architect! Even Euclid did not think of the number 1 as just a counting number. On the political side, particularly in the association with Communist power , you want to be cognizant that the five pointed star issues from orbits and a2 electronics coursework the star is always a 2D entity made from 1D constructs. Making the star into a 3D star (the likes of the Kremlin) points to the lack of in my opinion understanding on coursework the root of the essay architect, star's creation.

The purpose and utility of the five pointed star could also be said to be misunderstood by the Communists, not unlike the swastika adoption by the Nazis. [If the Nazi technology was as advanced in the flying saucer technology as is coursework rumored then the swastika would not be far off.] For the time being I'm not doing full 2D (area) or 3D red stars until the bloody aspects dissipate -- oh, about a hundred years, considering China. Manets Thesis! These stars are fancies anyway. Actually, Darwin started the whole mess with his 'strongest survive' evolution simplification, and it was the opportunism of Communists and Fascists who took in the reduction and used it literally. (There were alternatives available at Darwin's time but Mendel was pushed aside for the critical 15 years and at Mendel's rediscovery the industrial revolution was in full swing. Book review: The Monk in a2 electronics coursework, The Garden .) What to look for. People bent on power will promote and support the following: 1. Customized Paper! Nature is on our side. Best represented by a2 electronics, Dawkins' The Selfish Gene , the idea is that being loaded with money is natural (you guessed it, it's Gates' favorite). A virus is selfish, a gene is not.

In the UK the Oxford U nicely masks its ignorance with arrogance. In the US the customized, Harvard U is big on this kind of a2 electronics spin [they put out the best crap]. You will recall the dinosaurs and the dino eats dino times [I don't think they died out without a fight]. 2. Running out of energy. Usually about (peak) oil, this mentality replaced Running out of opinion food from the last century. This allows wars to go on, as it conjures up there is not enough for both of us. This is coursework but one example of reductionism. [If you don't see God, there are plenty of bosses to work under #150; here and on the other side.] The beauty of essay architect free energy is that it is really about smarts and a2 electronics without a large up front investment. Once you do a bit of reading, you will be LOL at the experts, but you'll also have to do the free energy yourself. If you complain that the govt does not release free energy, you are not getting it. 3. Essay Architect! Socialized medicine.

The mind job here is to convince you that you need the institutions of state and selected private hospitals and clinics for you to stay healthy but there is an obligation to a2 electronics coursework, pay extra premiums. It ends up that the healthier you are the more you pay and this becomes a tax on your health. Because you are smart and stay healthy by paying attention to your body's needs, you are pressured to pay for the ones who are not, and the power chasers are a sick lot. Most Recent! You may have to move to coursework, another state and/or become politically active (for example, AMA should not have a monopoly). You really begin to understand this when you start looking forward to stopping the payments of your premiums. You may find out it is the best thing for actually being healthy. Ftp Resume Support! There are three components : understand fear, pick up specialized exercise, and a2 electronics coursework keep up with alternate immunity discoveries (such as Dr.

Jan Raa's) as well as the revival of Raymond Rife technology. Once you understand the fear component, talk openly about the health alternatives should you meet an essay architect AMA doctor, for the tables might have turned. 4. A2 Electronics Coursework! Culture or religion-embedded values of guilt, fear, and intolerance. Once embedded they can be invoked without explanation (prejudice will not be seen for what it is). In My Opinion! This is usually about Bible and a2 electronics Koran waiving and could be difficult to deal with outside the US.

In some cases the fear and/or weakness and/or ignorance justifies betrayal [needs to be watched, even self-watched]. Betrayal is thesis also a component of a2 electronics power, and power has its own category (power is reversed in the virtual domain and there it is not based on specific might but on infinity). In the Pythagorean and Buddhist traditions the friendship works well. I also like Ronald Reagan's attitude because he 'liked all and feared none.' You might get hurt but you will have the last word. So you think you know your numbers and might think it's okay to reduce them to manets thesis, your liking.

But if you construct the Great Pyramid with the golden numbers and a2 electronics use the shortest distance as the unit 1 , you will arrive at paper the pyramid's base as having the side length of 4 . The base of the Great Pyramid is then 4 times of a2 electronics some unit of manets thesis measure. So now the pyramid's base periphery (4+4+4+4) and base area (4x4) carry the same square number 16 . You see, if you reduce the numbers and think of the pyramid's base as having the unit length of, say, two, the base periphery would have eight units of length but the base area would be but four (square) units. Coursework! If you do not reduce the numbers you can think of the number 16 in the context of acceleration (unit of measure per time squared) and derive the unit of length that is most appropriate for this planet [yeah, it's a foot]. Rational numbers are commensurable numbers -- that is, they all have finite or repeating sub-unity part of a number (mantissa) and all can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Manets Thesis! Rational numbers can also be called the exact, finite, or absolute numbers because we can write them down and coursework agree on their value. At times, rational numbers are called real numbers because all real things have a finite measure. Rational numbers happen when we ratio two integers. All mainstream mathematicians define the rational number as the in my opinion thesis, ratio of any two integers. So, a mainstream math guy would say, Of course the rational number is a ratio of two integers -- it is defined that way. Yet, you really do not want to be mainstream and a2 electronics coursework acquire but an encyclopedia knowledge of the world.

You do not want to think of somebody's definition as complete or adequate knowledge. You know that a rational number is a finite number (has a finite or repeating mantissa) and once it is finite it can be expressed as a fraction of two integers. As a smart person, moreover, you know that if another operation produces a naturally finite number then such operation also creates a rational number. The circumference of a circle is a transcendental number. Many of circle's round segments (arches) are transcendental numbers and their straight cord could be an irrational number -- and both of these numbers have an most recent infinite mantissa (infinite precision). The question now is: If you divide (ratio) some particular circular segment by its corresponding cord, will you get a finite (rational) number as a result? Some Pythagoreans view the coursework, number two as a problem number because it divides the assignment b, unity. Pythagoreans discourage division of the unit 1 until you understand the context of a2 electronics each degree of freedom -- but in any case the number 2 is not the culprit. (The number 2 is in ftp resume support, the denominator of the golden ratio and there it should stay as the number 2.) As you get familiar with this site the sub-unity will become applicable to atomic orbitals and hence the number 1 is the coursework, Great Divide between the macro-cosmic and micro-atomic. [My guess is that macro concepts are taught before the micro in the Pythagorean School.] Tetractys of customized essay paper Pythagoras deals with the coursework, organization of opinion thesis matter, among other things.

What makes you a Pythagorean? Short of visiting the Pythagorean page, you are interested in the actual construction of the visible universe. As a Pythagorean you want to a2 electronics coursework, know why some stars are constructible exactly and muse at the people who draw stars without regard to their actualization. Drawing stars just for fun is okay but to a Pythagorean that's in an entertainment category. The. compilations about stars are trivia, which quickly become distracting as well. Working the five pointed star is a wonderful start, for this star is geometrically, that is essay architect exactly, constructible. Constructing the a2 electronics coursework, real universe is, moreover, the greatest show there is. Construction and deconstruction of atoms are similar endeavors -- and you have no need for ftp resume, a hammer to construct or deconstruct something. The forces therein can add up in controlled fashion, too. There are dozens of philosophers and gurus talking about the coursework, omniscient nonlocal instant infinity of the conscious universe, but to a Pythagorean this is but one half of the show : You still have to put all that knowledge to work.

Yes, we have pictures. The upside down star has no negative meaning in the micro domain. There are in assignment ib english b, fact several stars nested inside the larger stars because there are many orbit jump opportunities with each pair of orbitals. Yes again, ALL triangles are golden. Oftentimes we think of star patterns only when tiling in 2D or building the Platonic solids (in 3D). But the patterns we encounter in a2 electronics coursework, the micro are usually made with overlapping stars and that makes nifty art shapes as well. The overlap comes from the inclusiveness of manets thesis waves. On July 17, 1991 at a2 electronics coursework Barbury Castle there appeared a crop circle named the Tetrahedron (a triangular pyramid). For its 20th anniversary we have a summary-update. Here is a poster for a Graphics show I had in manets thesis, Prague (where I teach now) in February 2013.

Large-print format is becoming affordable. With a careful equipment selection, one can avail to a high quality original poster that is not only less than the price of a reproduction, but is good for your health as well. Just about ready (second picture). Consider the existence of the even and odd symmetries as the point of departure between the Pythagorean and a2 electronics Aristotelian physics. Pythagoreans continue basing new concepts on numbers and then the ftp resume, even aka twofold symmetry issues from and relates to coursework, the number two (and the feminine). Ftp Resume! Aristotle refers to the Pythagoreans and flatly claims in Metaphysics that 'two' and 'twofold' are not the same and that 'twofold does not subsist in the two.' (Of course) the two and twofold are not the same but the number two spawns the even symmetry as two-points-make-axis construct and coursework then the number two is not just a counting number. If Aristotle rejects the Pythagorean 'number two is resume behind even symmetry,' does he propose something better or different?

It does not seem so, and this could be a nice example of ancient Greek debunking. Aristotle does not like it, and that's okay, but without offering his own reasons for a2 electronics, the existence of symmetries he will not be able to manets thesis, advance it. Sure enough, we don't hear from Aristotle on symmetries. Some star constructions speak of fixed length sticks, which at first glance can construct any size polygons. A2 Electronics Coursework! Here is customized essay where the executability of angles comes up. In space, the irrational angle is a2 electronics coursework constructible only approximately and ftp resume support only some angles will be actualized #150; think snowflake formation.

Also, we can calculate the points of a polygon along a circle but using sticks that have finite (rational) and equal lengths for the cords will not always fit in such points. In fact, a not-so-difficult case can be made that geometry takes precedence (has priority) over a2 electronics, arithmetic. [If you are a scientist, you may think of Emmy Noether who ignored the nature's beauty of snowflakes and made simplifying assumptions about space that proved the customized, 'ignorance is bliss' postulate #150; for in her world everything is reduced and a2 electronics coursework snowflakes and crystals don't exist.] You can calculate the area of any polygon by taking the written, area of the triangle and multiplying by the number of sides. When working the coursework, area of a circle or a polygon, the center point is (becomes) excluded . (If you are metaphysically inclined, think Isis looking for all parts.) In your Pythagorean mind, you need to link the area to its physics application. For example, a physical property that is proportional to radius squared is then also proportional to the area, which gives merit to area calculations. This is bigger than it seems. You are not just sweating your teacher's assignments -- you are actually working the physics entities if you know what they are. This one comes from Yosifusa Hirano of 19th Century Japan. It is elegant and also constructs the pentagon or pentacle on radius 2. All pentagram angles are a rithmetically divisible by support, nine. So, what's the a2 electronics, big deal if the number 360 (degrees in a circle) is assignment b no big deal?

If you line up all angles from the a2 electronics coursework, pentagram : 36, 72, 108, 144, etc. and sum their individual digits you will always get 9. In My! That may seem like magic, but once you appreciate that the number 360 is arbitrary, you don't need to ooh and ahh about a2 electronics it. If the customized, number of degrees in a circle were 320 or 260 or 364 the summing magic would not happen for 9. The circumference of a circle is 2Pi and putting in a number to stand for degrees is a2 electronics purely a practical consideration. In the case of 360, this number is 4x9x10 and now, because the opinion thesis, angles of a pentagram are in tenths of a circle, the a2 electronics coursework, number that is left is a multiple of 9 (and 4) and most recent so it will be always divisible by a2 electronics coursework, 9 (or 4). Resume Most Recent! All numbers divisible by a2 electronics, 9 have their digits sum up to 9 (modulo 9 #151; thank you, Gauss ). So, always work with fractions of a circle (or fractions of 2Pi) even if the essay architect, numerical sub-unity pushes your right brain into infinities. There is coursework plenty of real magic left in this subject, particularly if you get into the squaring of a circle. We have a collection of cool and hot designs inspired by the five-point star. View select designs -- or visit our store at Zazzle ( . com/Mike_Geo) and see how well you could look in a tee, hoodie, long sleeve shirt, or a polo. If you have new ideas you want to explore designs from the constructs of nature. All our designs come from nature and center on the golden proportion. Design on right is opinion called the Adventure of The Red Sun. A pentagon and the Great Pyramid are related, but it hadn't been easy to show both of them relating through the golden proportion.

I construct them together using the new Golden Eye method in the Quantum Pythagoreans book and now the construction is available in color for your shirt or Tshirt as well -- in the Golden Eye design. The golden proportion is between the pyramid side and the half-base. The Great Pyramid is shown in a2 electronics coursework, a vertical cut through the essay architect, mid-face. Much detail is on a2 electronics coursework the golden numbers page. The five pointed stars attract energies on account of the golden proportions. Because under rotation the five fold symmetry can be either harmonious or disharmonious, you want to know which is which (ccw is harmonious on a pentagram, cw is harmonious on a pentagon) because you really cannot hide under a rock and support hope for the best. Some people rely on intuition and some want to understand things a bit first.

Either way, I wish this site and the book will do it for a2 electronics coursework, you. Two pentagons make a decagon, a regular ten pointed star. A regular pentagon made with the Hirano method can be used to easily make a regular decagon #151; an exact ten-point star. Support! A pentagon that is made by the exact division of a single circle can be duplicated 180 degrees out-of-phase (upside down) and decagon results from two pentagons. A2 Electronics! One pentagon is thus rotated about the center of the circle or, if you prefer, rotated/flipped about the horizontal axis. However, a regular ten pointed star that is a regular decagon is not a hyperstar. (Hyperstar is discussed in the right column.) While both stars are created from two regular five pointed stars, a decagon is always convex.

A hyperstar has some straight segments spanning three points. A decagon has its points on a single circle. A hyperstar has 8 of its 10 points on two identical circles separated by the golden ratio parameters. [I think the mathematical discoveries of construction ratios is what Plato refers to as 'Logistics,' which is thought to be a lost Pythagorean knowledge. In the case of customized a pentagon Diameter priority the ratio is with square numbers (1:4) because we go from 1D (unit length) to 2D (circle). The same ratio of 1:4 holds for the pyramidal construction because one unit of length ends up as four area units of a pyramid base. For a pentagon point-to-point Length priority, however, the ratio is 1:2 because one length becomes another length (1D to 1D) but the construction now must include rotation . In general, there is a rotational aspect in the Pythagorean Theorem even though the arithmetic of the Theorem does not capture it (it uses squares). Logically, any line (any 1D distance) inherently contains a direction and when staying in 1D a change in a2 electronics coursework, direction amounts to rotation. Squares (area, 2D) do not contain a static direction but they have something else.] Every time you double something #150; think octave. Every time you halve something #150; think node (or fit) for standing waves.

Every time you rotate by 45 degrees #150; think transformation. Every time you rotate by a right angle #150; think.. The funny thing is ftp resume this works for a2 electronics coursework, Tai Chi when your body, your arms, and your legs are doing the movements. Most! Geometry and movement is about your health too. Harmonious ten pointed star. The star below, if drawn counterclockwise, is classified as a (10+ 7 )/10 star using my method that is (x+y)/x in general y is between 1 and x #151; that is, xy=1 . The decagram star looks nice #151; it is unicursal, is regular during construction (advances by the same angle), has parallel sides and is harmonious. This star skips every six points and is the a2 electronics, only harmonious ten pointed star in the macro. (Decagon and all other ten-point stars are not harmonious, cw or ccw.) The Pythagorean style rationing (really proportioning) method (x+y)/x as well as the corresponding musical harmony or disharmony is explained in essay paper, the book, and you'll know why the proportioning approach presented here is much more useful than what the mainstream puts out. You noted x and y are integers but if x and y are the golden numbers then (x+y) : x is the golden proportion #151; and enter both the micro and the macro. (Rationing is not commutative because A/B is not B/A. Proportioning, however, is commutative because A : B is the same as B : A, and playing two musical notes has the a2 electronics coursework, same effect whether you analyze at essay architect it as A : B or B : A. Sometimes I think mainstream math is pathetic, for ignoring waves is the a2 electronics coursework, norm.) There exists symmetry about one point called the point symmetry (or odd or radial or rotational symmetry) [masculine]. There also exists symmetry about two points called the even symmetry (or axial or twofold or mirror line symmetry) [feminine] #151; the two points making an axis by which the manets thesis, original image rotates.

These two kinds of symmetries are all-pervasive in atomic construction where they are called the a2 electronics, odd and even wavefunctions. Yes, everything is coming up numbers. Now, how would you marry these two symmetries? You might have noticed that in opinion, the five-fold division of a circle the three points made by a compass' pin are at the corners of a right angle triangle having sides 1 and a2 electronics coursework 2 . (A pin of a compass centers the radial symmetry [masculine].) It is no coincidence that the Great Pyramid's Grand Gallery has the vertical height (rise) of 1 and the horizontal length of 2 while the Trough is the hypotenuse spanning the distance of SQRT (5) . (This also establishes the unit length 1 of this pyramid.) Is it a coincidence that to define Pi we need distances 1 and 2 ? Is it a coincidence that to construct the golden numbers we start with a right angle triangle with sides 1 and 2 ? There is more to 5. It is very easy to get excited about the number 5 and begin to paper, associate each of the five points with other things. A2 Electronics Coursework! This is a Pythagorean site and we love the number five but Pythagoreans also know that using numbers for counting is introductory to the power of essay architect numbers while correspondences are about the elemental #151; that is differentiating, power of numbers. The five discrete elements in Wicca and Tao are fine, yet the visual-geometric imagery based on the Penta. is about the infinity (irrationality) of the golden proportions stemming from the square root of five . With the golden numbers you construct many shapes that extend the Penta. beyond counting.

The images are also more than pretty pictures, for the waves in a2 electronics, space readily interact with such shapes in a computing relationship and things happen. You do not need to written ib english b, get esoteric to appreciate that energies have preferences for geometric shapes and the golden proportions have a unique predisposition to the operation of the reciprocal . (Yes, energies make things grow but also think about the nature's way of actually capturing the waves' energies.) So it is nice to recognize the golden shapes around you even though neither the a2 electronics, star or the number five jump out at you. The meaning could be shifted by another application but now it is not hidden. [There are also large corrupting influences in place just to keep you astray.] What if the Queen's Chamber in in my, the Great Pyramid has its spatial distances in the golden proportion? What if the spiral on the Eye of Horus were made through the golden rectangle or a golden triangle? How can you visualize the golden ratio in coursework, financial terms? Throughout the Hyperflight site I like to make fun of mainstream science.

These folks lower our understanding and appreciation of nature and their favorite first step is that 'this or that cannot be done or found out.' The best modern example is Einstein and I don't know of any of his concepts that are correct: This includes the special and general relativity theories (stemming from his inability to determine absolute motion/rest); photonic work function (a photon puts no pressure on a mirror); Brownian motion (molecules vibrate in place); and ftp resume support energy-matter mechanics (not reversible, i.e., nova or supernova). Errors of omission and a2 electronics coursework commission are also applied to corrupt the reality around us. The basic difficulty is that science popularizers use the right math but apply it to wrong concepts. It may take a while to get to essay architect, the bottom of this and what really helps is coursework that equations cannot make wrong concepts right, and therefore are suspect. On this page I said that 'up' and 'down' cannot be distinguished in the solar system under odd symmetry alone. Everything works and essay architect continues to a2 electronics coursework, grow, evolve, and can also be created whole in a particular context. It is ftp resume then the context that needs to be understood in addition to coursework, any some such conclusion. The 'up' and 'down' manner of speaking is relevant when the context has a line : things above the line are 'up' (above) and below the line are 'down' (below).

However, orbits and orbitals and opinion spin in general have a point as its construct of a2 electronics coursework rotational/spinning existence and it is then appropriate to say that when dealing with point symmetry there is no fixed 'up' or 'down' because there intrinsically is thesis no (fixed) line. The point is that if you understand the context you will understand whether someone's pronouncements are true, not true, or corruptive. For example, ignoring 0D (a point) as the fourth dimension of freedom -- which provides a movement construct just as 1D, 2D, and 3D do -- is corruptive because it does not recognize the spin/orbit that accounts for a2 electronics, 99% of the moving energy found in the universe. There are several ways of getting to the truth, too. Geometry is one. Tarot works nicely and in this case it's The Wheel of Fortune card.

Tarot has four suits, which stand for .. (your brainwork). Ftp Resume Support! You will then be in position to either speak out and/or just do what you know is coursework better : Free energy, Martial arts, spiritual medicine, telepathy/RV, superluminal travel, atom/matter creation -- all, not coincidentally, based on in my opinion ether scientists deny. Speaking out means that you have enough info based on merit and then your statements become less political. For example, I'd get a Tarot card deck without the Hebrew letters, for these lack symmetries and could be disruptive. A2 Electronics! (If you know the in my opinion thesis, Hebrew letters were added to Tarot later on, you'll also know it is about corruption.) As you learn how things really work the a2 electronics, misconceptions will release and thesis you become healthier. After reading a book on the history of the coursework, Chinese philosophy that weaves through the Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist pursuits over 2300 years there, it seems the Chinese never got to the understanding, and then the differentiation, of the symmetries.

Yet I would not relax too much after this. There are the philosophical and religious versions of ib english b Taoism and if you stay with the academia's version of philosophy you'll learn next to nothing. A2 Electronics! Once you get to the religious side you will read a lot about resume circles and spirits and demons, about keeping centered (weighed) in a point and a2 electronics having light crystallized -- but all this is pure alchemy and it takes some dedication for the ideas to ftp resume support, work their way through (just as you would do with the ancient Egyptians). While the Chinese did not push the three philosophies/religions into the objective realm we call science, the Chinese pursuit in the improvement of the coursework, individual's mind-body yielded Tai Chi with most significant implications -- and leaving a formidable gap for the West. Wang Fuzhi (b. 1619) gets very close, giving Chi (Qi, Ether) the essay architect, female-male aspects of a2 electronics Yin-Yang (ancient Egyptian Tefnut-Shu) and then nicely extends this to coexisting energy-matter duality along with a dynamic balance of the written assignment b, two. Wang Fuzhi is describing a free electron all right but then its detection and a2 electronics use happens in manets thesis, a body (yes, yours) rather than in an external and objective instrument. (Damn the self-serving Emperor/one-party systems and a2 electronics invest in yourself, literally?) Wang Fuzhi, or anyone after him, does not advance Li (order/construct/distance/1D) to geometry or symmetries, and this also means the Pythagorean tradition did not make it to China (until recently perhaps).

We can then also say that the Taoist five pointed star of the elements is indigenous to China (could've been discovered in more than one place) and testifies to the universal power and utility of the five fold division of customized paper a circle. The Chinese elements correspond roughly to those of Wicca except that 'spirit' is coursework taken as 'wood.' This seems strange but think of ftp resume support wood as the a2 electronics coursework, circles of tree rings, too. This also gives you an idea how hidden Chinese alchemy is. (Note the prominent spiritual link to the trees in the Druid tradition and essay architect a very explicit tree related experience of Joan of Arc.) The Taoist movement starts with Lao-tzu's Te-Tao Ching of 500 BCE (or so) and Te translates as Virtue. I am happy to have named the largest chapter in the Quantum Pythagoreans book the Virtual Domain (and before reading Te-Tao). The virtual domain is about infinities and there is much to explore there -- yes, this is an coursework understatement. In My Thesis! (One can also destabilize in John Nash fashion. A2 Electronics! If you don't figure out you are among infinities while using real/rational methods, you may stay there forever.) If I were to talk in support, Lao-tzu's puzzling way, the virtual domain Te holds nothing because it has everything (and now you'd have to a2 electronics, figure out the virtual domain Te has everything in the form of knowledge).

At times Te translates as Power (and knowledge is a close relative of power). Lao-tzu described Tao in the most general way. It was only written ib english, later that the Tao symbol arose from that and along with the religious side of coursework Taoism. But of course, the Tao symbol is paper but the Chinese version of what the infinite Tao is coursework or could be used for, including the manets thesis, label of a2 electronics 'Tao.' The virtual domain deals with knowledge that is ftp resume linked by associations. The Western alchemy's condensed virtual language could speak of the philosopher/sorcerer entering the stone only to discover there is no stone. Bewildered, the philosopher breaks out of the stone and finds the stone the same as before. He cannot break into the stone and a2 electronics coursework yet he does not have to break up the manets thesis, the stone to reenter it. The philosopher's stone can be had -- but not physically. Yikes! Here is s'more on stability via organization.

So you think you know your numbers metaphysically and a2 electronics feel comfy about the opinion, masculine-feminine stuff. You might be dividing by 2 and think it feminine. A2 Electronics! Not so. Real cutting is masculine : it makes two halves of an opinion thesis apple, severs an a2 electronics coursework interconnection of a relationship, or spatially reduces a spread out electron (QM). However, when you observe a biological cell division, don't rush to call it masculine, for it is feminine.

You'll have to get into symmetries to understand this. Meanwhile, don't make the silly mistake of equating masculine with a man and feminine with a woman -- unless you want to ftp resume, give up on one half of your brain. Oh, and think about a2 electronics coursework The One. Analytically attacking all three major pyramids at Giza as one layout can earn you a label or two, but on in my opinion this site Jiri starts with a square and then looks for a2 electronics coursework, the golden proportion #150; and essay architect gets very, very close to the actual measurements. Ready to bury the Pharaohs someplace else? Some basic geometry.

From a square angle to a square. There does not appear much we can do with a square. A2 Electronics Coursework! A square is pretty, has a lot of written b symmetries, but that's about coursework it. But as we go on, things are going to get interesting once we start to manets thesis, make cubes. Also, as a plain square, two circles can be fitted and defined by a square: an outer circle and a2 electronics coursework an inner circle. The illustration on left is taken from our ether page and it actually results in geometrically determining the speed of light. A square and a circle have been engaged from before Pythagoras (Thales) and there are several pages on this site (here and there and here too) on circle squaring. Pythagoreans love square numbers. In the present day vernacular, moving energy is proportional to velocity square d. Essay Paper! Any square can be made into any number of rectangles and any rectangle can be made into an exactly same-area square via the geometric mean. Geometric mean works with all distances, including irrational distances (but you need rotation).

And so any and all velocities resulting from, say, gravitational acceleration or collisions or explosions, have corresponding and exact energy values. Any square (any amount of energy) can be divided into as many squares as you want #151; and so the energy of one moving object is a2 electronics coursework conserved exactly even if the object is broken up into many other objects. Here is a simple yet powerful construction that. 1) Divides any distance exactly in half; 2) Erects the perfect right and square angle (making the Cartesian Coordinates); and. 3) Makes a true square using any circle centered at customized essay O (at the intercept of horizontal and vertical axes that are the coordinates). A square is a2 electronics also a four pointed star. Only straightedge and in my compass are needed. Coursework! (Straightedge is an unmarked ruler.) Both arcs (arches) have the same radius. Distance AB can be either rational or irrational, for there are no limitations on spatial distance between two (zero-dimensional) points A and B. Drawing a line between two points is about direction (1D) and yields a perfect line, too.

If you want to know the minimum separation between points before a line could become the real line, take a look at Absolute Minimum Length (it's about the infinitesimal). If distance AB is irrational, should it be dashed? If so, why? You will note that all geometric constructions start with the creation of the Cartesian Coordinates. Once you have them, you can make any square using a compass (a circle) and in my opinion thesis then make any star from the a2 electronics, perfect star family. A square, then, is inherent in all star constructions. A square is feminine and essay architect a circle is masculine. Some people get into spirituality and a2 electronics claim a circle is feminine because it is rounded. That is how you can tell a beginner.

Symmetries are the key here because they have very high priority -- on par with energy conservation. Ftp Resume Support! Ancient Egyptians, Native Americans, and Chinese have no problem here. Coursework! Pythagoreans and Plato are technically fine because of symmetrical 3D solids. Aristotle would not get into support, symmetries at all (and his historical contribution ends [should've stayed and die in Baghdad]). The Western applications of symmetries are generally weak, although, the Western alchemy is okay and at times superior (3 vs.

4). Three pointed star. Construct the coursework, perfect triangle on a circle and essay architect another triangle on a semicircle #150; in three steps. Triangle as a logical and mathematical construct. Because three-pointed and six-pointed stars are geometrically perfect they can be used, circled, as a symbol for a2 electronics, 3 or 6 wavelengths wrapping around the essay architect, nucleus.

However, a hexagon and hexagram reduce into coursework, a triangle under modulo math for harmonious ratios and recent do not manifest in orbits (macro) #151; that is, showing a six-pointed star with two circles does not reflect nature. A hexagon is also prominent in free energy work. Hexagon is full of different symmetries and, for better or for worse, enables rapid transformations or projections. A2 Electronics! A six sided star of hexagon could be of resume some interest regarding energy accumulation in the micro and we included it in the numerology section on the Pythagorean page. Without a circle, a triangle symbolizes 3-state systemic (complete and never-ending) systems, each state being in coursework, one corner. Such three pointed arrangement has no metric as it is assignment a logical, say clockwise, process. (Some systemic processes call for quaternaries #151; think ancient Egyptians.) For Pythagoreans a triangle provides bounds for the ten dots of Tetractys (a triangular numeral 10), which also becomes one facet of a tetrahedron (projection from the coursework, apex [or from your eye]). The right angle triangle does have metric of the Pythagorean Theorem, which relates 1D to opinion, 2D via (ir)rational numbers (but does not solve for transcendentals).

There is a very special place for the golden triangles. Two kinds of triangles apply here, depending on whether the shorter or longer distance is used for the triangle's base. Coursework! Golden triangles facilitate a perfect relationship between particular two circle's circumferences and a straight distance. Yes, this is the ib english, fundamental reason for the existence of particular atomic orbitals, which is a2 electronics coursework driven by the exchange in the electron's 2D and photon's 1D energy . This is not strictly about the squaring of a circle but it is paper close (it's about the difference in 2D energies). Differentiate by 3. Finally, there is an aspect to the number 3 as the fundamental qualitative differentiator of nature. We are mostly familiar with the dualities such as the a2 electronics, real-virtual (Yang-Yin) or odd-even or ordered-creative but there is also a lesser known differentiator by three. Essay Architect! Yes, we say animal, mineral, vegetable and think it special, but here we are very fundamental.

Pre-atomic, I'd say. So much so the a2 electronics, crop circles are worth studying just for that. [I would not go inside a crop circle for more than a few seconds when the circle is manets thesis less than a day old #151; it is about the coursework, 3D energies.] Alchemy's sulphur, salt, and customized essay paper mercury gets into that as well but without geometry it's an arduous road. Coursework! The Quantum Pythagoreans book explains what is at each corner of the support, Tetractys and that's what it's about. When you see a triangle with some symbol in a2 electronics, the center (a dot, an eye, dragon), take such symbol into 3D of the apex of a tetrahedron to resume most, see if it means something to you. Instructions: Draw horizontal and vertical lines. The intersect is the origin O. Draw a semicircle of a2 electronics coursework radius r around O . This makes point V.

Draw a circle around V of radius r. Now that we divided a circle into exact thirds, you can make a three pointed (Mercedes) star or a three sided star of a perfect triangle. In the illustration the most recent, larger triangle divides the circle with three exact cords of length c for a perfect three pointed star. The smaller (red) triangle divides the circle with six exact cords of length r resulting in a perfect hexagon or hexagram. You can verify (using the a2 electronics, Pythagorean Theorem) that the relation between the cord c and cord (radius) r is: What physical entity is proportional to r 2 ? If you know what that is, consider that the square of the cord c is three times that. A puzzle of a bad souffle: Given a square, construct a new square that is exactly one third of the in my, original square. You can be fairly certain that the person will try to partition the a2 electronics, square in some way but the essay architect, solution is to erect a triangle on the square's side and then obtain the radius for the circle that covers the a2 electronics, triangle. Radius r is the side of the ib english, new square. A2 Electronics! [In our case the bad souffle does not cave in but runs over manets thesis, the rim.]

It is not possible to reverse engineer a souffle without stepping back and understanding the a2 electronics coursework, relationships between the ingredients and their proportions #150; as well as the irreversible nature of the baking process. Can you apply the construction of the manets thesis, geometric mean in the solution of this puzzle? Could you use the geometric mean to coursework, generalize this puzzle for all possible ratios of square areas? If so, you would then be able to divide a square into any number of squares, including squares with irrational sides. The geometric mean equates the perimeter (or area) of any rectangle to the side (or area) of a particular square.

Could squares with irrational sides be included in the general division of recent a square into any and all other squares? If so, does it mean that geometry does one up on arithmetic once again because arithmetic cannot give you the exact irrational number for the square's side? Finally, if energy of a moving body is proportional to its velocity square(d) , can you divide such energy square into as many smaller square energy components as you wish? (Via a collision, gravitational attraction, or some other action-at-distance?) A six sided star, a hexagon, is a2 electronics coursework prominent in virus structures. Hexagons are partioned into a six-triangle grid, which serves -- through a geometric relation -- to identify almost all viruses. This is a complex topic. For example, a virus' hexagon is rendered benign with a pentagon [my own thing]. The overall structure in customized essay paper, 90+% of viruses is icosahedron . Although labeled 'an esthetically most pleasing shape' by some -- with 5-fold, 3-fold, and 2-fold symmetries -- all mainstream scientists ignore the coursework, morphing nature of the virus first brought forth by written assignment, Rife (bio) [virus approaches under a friendly flag and morphs].

Because the current work on viruses discloses but the stained (i.e. dead) viruses, the mainstream is still way behind Rife. If you understand the corrupting mechanisms in the present day medicine, you will know why you do not have to join a walk for or against this or that disease. You don't have to follow, or agree with, generally published explanations but spend your money and time your way -- and a better way at that. There are several recent breakthroughs in virus' geometric construction. The geometric steps in virus' formation are : diagonal projection of a cube resulting in a hexagon; slicing-and-projecting a cube grid resulting in a hexagram (aka the Star of David); and rotating-and-zooming (as shown above, [which is the final projection onto the material plane]). I see some of these elements in a2 electronics, the crop circles and, short of taking sides, I'd like the virus construction viewpoint represented in crop circle analysis. We are dealing with a very advanced technology but it is very advanced only because the mainstream science coming from the universities is primitive and corrupt. In practical terms the most, twelve pointed construction is about the design of coursework a clock's face.

In astrology the twelve Signs of the Zodiac is about the twelve sided division of the Solar ecliptic. There is an even more interesting side : There are twelve computable states along the most, periphery at the third level of the Great (Golden) Pyramid. In the infinite superposition of the virtual variables (aka wavefunctions), there are geometrically enabled states inside the pyramid that allow a computable state to form. A2 Electronics Coursework! Yes, infinities can be worked and the Quantum Pythagoreans book gets into that and at all levels of the pyramid. Our construction for in my opinion thesis, the twelve fold division of a circle also divides a circle into eight exact segments, or angles, because the 45 degree diag onals are available for a2 electronics, free from our twelve point construction if you make full circles (and don't stop at the intersects with the central circle). This is also true the written b, other way: When constructing the eight point division that is a regular octagon, the twelve fold division happens as well if the central circle is drawn in full (and you don't just mark the a2 electronics, intersects with the cardinals). So here you have the in my thesis, combined 8 12 point star construction.

After a short Internet search I did not find an a2 electronics coursework 8 12 point star common construction . I found one logical assembly having the Chinese Zodiac on the outside circle and ib english b eight binary Paqua states on a2 electronics the inside circle. (This tells me divination is intended but, because of our inherent construction feature, I'd turn it around the customized, other way : 12 sides on the inside circle and 8 points on the outside circle. This is counter-intuitive but there could be [is] a form of Tai Chi in this.) The common construction of the eight and 12 pointed stars starts with the combined two and three pointed stars. A2 Electronics Coursework! As you double the count the ratio stays the same : 3 to 2. (As you double the manets thesis, points you go up by an octave.) This is a musical ratio and a harmonious one at a2 electronics that. What planets subscribe to manets thesis, this ratio? It is a2 electronics coursework not Venus-Earth but it is on the Venus page. The eight pointed star is full of symbolism associated with Venus and the transformations via the diagonals.

The ccw octagon is harmonious and made by Earth-Mars interplay, too. So enjoy the eight-point star construction here via the cardinal and support semi-cardinal directions but the Venus page has a lot more on a2 electronics coursework the eight fold division of a circle, including the Hunab Ku symbol. These watch face designs are inspired by the Mesoamerican Hunab Ku symbol. Instructions for customized, drawing a 12-pointed/12-sided star: 1. Draw a horizontal line and erect the vertical line. The intersect is the origin O. 2. A2 Electronics! Draw a full circle of radius R around O . This will be the clock face. 3. At each of the horizontal and vertical intercepts draw additional circles of the same radius R. 4. The intercepts of the manets thesis, central circle with the cardinals and coursework with the other circles yield the twelve points exactly distanced around the central circle.

Can you see how you could make a 24 point star using the diagonals? Almost every month we offer quick topics of general interest. In May 2011 a single construction shows how to make both the 24-point and assignment ib english 16-point stars in just one construction. Perfect star families. It is easy to draw stars using geometry's tools, a straightedge and compass. By now we want to make stars geometrically, not just for perfection, but also because only the perfect stars manifest in nature. A circle can be divided exactly into 2 , 3 , 5, 15 , and 17 equal segments, technically called constructible polygons. (Some exclude the 2-segment division because it yields but a virtual line of a circle's diameter #151; but I include it.) You may call this the 'fundamental' or 'primary' or direct sequence of perfect stars. Since any and all segments can be also exactly (evenly) divided by a2 electronics, 2, you can find all stars that have their points exactly spatially distanced by manets thesis, geometric means. A2 Electronics Coursework! You can also say that the assignment, doubling expansion forms a perfect star family. For example, you can make an eight point star or a 64 point star from a2 electronics a two point star through simple halving of distances. Resume! From a three point star (above) you can make the exact hexagon and from there the twelve point star of the coursework, Zodiac or do a layout of ftp resume support a twenty four point star for Feng Shui.

Starting with a 2 point star #151; the only direct even star #151; you can construct 4, 8, 16, etc. stars you could also label the 'evenly even' sequence of stars. This is the original Pythagoreans' terminology, which presently would be called the 'binary' sequence of stars. From the 3 point star you can continue to halve each side to make the coursework, 6, 12, 24, etc. point stars. From the five-point star you can make the 10, 20, or 40 point stars. Every perfect star with the customized, even number of points will have symmetry about an axis and a2 electronics coursework about a point. If you think there is no such thing as a two point star, it is on the Venus page and it is customized formed by coursework, the combined Neptune-Pluto 3:2 orbit.

The stars that are left out from direct and doubling constructions cannot be constructed exactly. For example, you cannot make a nine point star directly #151; or indirectly from a three point star. The seven, eleven, and essay architect thirteen pointed stars are also not constructible. Numbers that divide a circle exactly could have a name of their own. A good fit is 'circumpositional,' for these numbers compose in a circle exactly and will be [are] prominent in atomic constructions. Carl Gauss recently added the 17 sided polygon as the perfect star.

The 15 sided polygon is in Euclid 's Elements , Book 4, Proposition 16, and coursework is made by in my opinion thesis, a combo of a three and a five pointed star (a 5-point star is evenly rotated three times around the circle). One interesting property of the perfect star families is that they do not intersect directly. A sequence growing from each of the direct perfect star number does not match (overlap) with another sequence. That is, from 2 we get 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 , 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, etc. from 3 we get 6, 12 , 24 , 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072, 6144, 12288, 24576.. from 5 we get 10 , 20, 40, 80 , 160, 320 , 640, 1280, 2560, 5120, 10240, 20480.. from 15 we get 30, 60 , 120, 240, 480, 960, 1920 , 3840, 7680, 15360, 30720.. from 17 we get 34, 68, 136, 272, 544, 1088, 2176, 4352, 8704, 17408, 34816.. Each member of the a2 electronics, perfect all-star family has but one origin.

Once a number becomes even it stays even. 3, 5, 15, and 17 make the only exact odd stars. A circle is a zero pointed star having an infinite number of points. On a circle there are no inbound-outbound changes and, therefore, no points. Ftp Resume! Topologically, however, a circle is composed of infinitely many geometric points.

This is a technical play on words. A2 Electronics Coursework! However, a single geometric point, a 0D point, has an infinity built within it [yeah, takes work]. 360 does not divide a circle exactly. 260 does not divide a circle exactly (Mayan Tzoltek calendar). The end of the Tzoltek calendar is not (cannot be) synchronized with a rotational parameter such as the precession. It is conceivable the Mayans had difficulties reconciling the rotational parameters (based on resume most recent transcendental numbers) with some linear time-measuring parameters. Coursework! The numbers' unexact nature would lead to disaster conclusions. Resume Most! Well, yes, it could have been their own square-a-circle problem. 320 does divide a circle exactly and the 1/320 (reciprocal) is called ro by the ancient Egyptians. While a circle can be divided exactly by hours (24) or minutes (60), a circle cannot be divided by a2 electronics coursework, hours and minutes (24x60=1440). 60 does divide a circle exactly and the sexagesimal (60-base) system is first used by the Sumerians (2000+ BCE).

Although all mainstream math books claim we use 60 minutes and 60 seconds as a result of Sumerian and Babylonian cultures, none of these math references mention that while 60 does divide a circle exactly, a circle cannot be divided exactly by minutes and seconds (by 3600). But of course, mainstream math is cluless on what the exact geometric circle division brings to the table. While a circle is divisible by 10 exactly, a circle is not divisible exactly by a hundred or a thousand or any higher decimal multiple. The decimal fraction format aka the opinion thesis, decimal fraction notation is not suitable for the circular geometry beyond the first decimal point. Is it strange the Mayans #151; while having the positional notation of base 20 #151; had no sub-unity base-20 fractions? Perhaps not. Just as in the decimal and sexagesimal systems, the base 20 (vigesimal) system is useless past the first vigesimal point in circular geometry. One star inside another star.

Among the applications are spatial designs that combine perfect stars. In watch design, for example, the circle being divided by twelve looks fine and is harmonious. In addition, it is harmonious to a2 electronics, overlay the 12 point layout with triangular, square, or pentagonal designs. You would not want to put a seven point star with a triangle together in the same (concentric) circle, for example, unless you want to invoke disharmony. Six gets tricky because it is disharmonious with larger numbers but is harmonious with five, making a pentagon (not a pentacle). Resume Most Recent! There is also a disharmonious ccw pentagon and a2 electronics that one does not include six.

When using but a single star you choose one from the perfect star families. When combining stars, however, you also must deal with harmony. A doubled star is resume recent always harmonious with its parent star -- they differ by an octave, but not all star combinations are harmonious. We are talking about harmony in point symmetry, which is coursework applicable to both the micro and the macro. See the manets thesis, book. If a musical tone x is a2 electronics harmonious with tone y and y is harmonious with z , is z harmonious with x ? Not always.

The book explains harmony's geometric foundation and then the star drawings bring harmony into manets thesis, the visual range. Quantum Pythagoreans provides the formula for harmonious musical notes and you will also know why some stars just do not feel right. Harmony is not just extended to the macro. Harmony is fundamental to both the micro and macro constructions and, therefore, to stability in coursework, general. Thanks to Paganism, a five-pointed pentacle star is presently classified as harmonious (opening) or disharmonious (banishing). In the book you'll learn how ANY and all stars can be classified as harmonious or disharmonious. In the ftp resume support, beginning was the number #150; and coursework the power of numbers begins ..

The perfect star families of numbers introduce some changes to our perception of universe building and how everyday reality happens to customized essay, come about. A2 Electronics Coursework! Mathematicians can make all kinds of star constructions, in 2D and 3D #150; but only the perfect star families can begin to bridge the in my thesis, straight line energies, such as photonic energy, with circular orbits and orbital energies. Because the vast majority of the real energy in the universe is in the form of a2 electronics coursework spinning or orbital energy #150; that is, energy having angular momentum, the perfect star families of numbers take the front seat. Scientists can draw all kinds of in my thesis curves but these are usually fancies. Coursework! Mathematicians in particular insist their work has no bounds, yet in their hearts they know their discoveries should have some practical application.

Starting with 24 hours per day and having 80 minutes in an hour, every minute of every day (24x80= 1920 ) would divide a circle exactly. Such is not the case today. After that, a binary number 1024 would stand for seconds and continue to divide the resume recent, day's circle exactly. One of the new seconds would then be the exact 1,966,080th part of a day. The new second would be somewhat faster than one twentieth of the present second (0.05). While adequate for almost all sports without further division, additional circle-exact divisions are always available #150; something that is not possible to do today. A2 Electronics! (Once you lose the exact circle division it cannot be recovered.) The sweep of the support, seconds hand would be 1/3 faster than the present sweep to make one full revolution in 1/80th of an hour.

At all numerical markings in the illustration on coursework right #150; the hours, minutes, and seconds #150; would not be fractions. Most! For example, the sweep of the seconds hand spanning one half of the quadrant adds up to 128 seconds . One half quadrant, then, is 128 seconds or 10 minutes or 3 hours. The new minute count of 80 per coursework, hour divides a circle exactly and using 80 points around the circle can make the perfect 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 40, and customized essay 80 pointed stars. From the 24 hour clock face one would make the perfect 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 pointed stars. A pentagram star is harmonious (opening in Wicca speak) if drawn counter-clockwise and disharmonious (banishing) if drawn clockwise. Once you understand the a2 electronics, harmony/disharmony, you will be able to extend it to other stars besides pentagram.

Some counter-clockwise 8 and 10 pointed stars are harmonious but these stars are disharmonious if drawn clockwise. This does not mean the clock's hands rotation should reverse. See the Venus page. Now, could you come up with another sequence that always makes an exact circle division, both locally (by itself) and overall (with respect to the starting circle)? Yes. Start with 20 hours per day and ftp resume support divide each hour by 192 minutes. Both 20 and 192 divide a circle exactly but, in addition, 20 times 192 is 3840, which also divides a circle exactly. A2 Electronics! Is there more to written assignment, this than making new and different watches? You bet. Tiling of pentagons and stars.

Tiling does not involve direct construction but only translation and/or rotation in two dimensions. Translations are linear (straight) motions. The line provides symmetry about a (such) line [feminine] while rotations are always symmetrical about a point [masculine]. This does not seem like a big deal but the a2 electronics coursework, property that allows (in this case pentagon's) translation or rotation to get to an identical solution is ib english exceptionally important in coursework, universe building (and in the group theory, too) . Tiling of five pentagons to in my, make a cool five pointed star was (first?) published by Kepler in Harmonic es Mundi (1619) When the ancients instructed us to use the straightedge and compass, they were not really talking about constraints because they were talking about geometry. Rotation about a point is about the use of the compass. Coursework! Straight movement (translation) is about a symmetry about a line and perhaps you could see now that the line of symmetry is a virtual line #150; that is, the line of essay architect symmetry is an empty slit. (Would you go as far as to have Justice brandishing her sword with a slit down the a2 electronics, middle of the ftp resume support, blade?) The virtual line has powerful geometric properties but you do not want to ask a woman about that. Not that you couldn't, it's just that the explanation is nonverbal. The pentagon template for the illustration on the left was obtained with MS PowerPoint by selecting AutoShapes .. Basic Shapes. Pick the a2 electronics coursework, pentagon object. On the newer versions it is Insert .. Shapes .. In My Opinion! Basic Shapes.

If you tile five pentagons you get the a2 electronics, five-point star in the center. Now, if you take five five-point stars and arrange them around with their points touching, do you get a pentagon in the center? You always want to test for reversibility , even at the expense of appearing dyslexic. Relations are reversible only under certain conditions and you want to paper, know what they are. Coursework! If you assume relations are always reversible as they are in algebra, you will 1 ) understand but a limited subset of essay architect reality [if you are lucky] and/or 2 ) misinterpret relations that are not reversible.

For example, if there is a quantum mechanical explanation of gas pressure, there could be a way of making the coursework, phenomena reversible. Now, how would you reverse the rotation of a light mill? (Give it a thought and get the answer .) We readily apply force to get things moving. Essay! So, how would you reverse 'something' and a2 electronics have the ftp resume support, force arise? A circle of stars, a pattern of stars: Testing for reversibility is crucial in the understanding of relationships. Dyslexia is a condition that is constantly reversing relationships in a2 electronics coursework, all modalities: verbal, tonal, geometric, written -- to see if the reversal possibly acquires another meaning, or if the reversal carries no meaning. Customized Paper! The Quantum Pythagoreans book treats the difficult topic of relationships by novel exploration of dependent-independent properties of a relationship. You will then understand and normalize the difference between, for example, 'planning your work' and 'working your plan.' The tiling construction #151; that is, movement about a point and/or translation along a line, of some objects may result in the appearance of another object.

This is at coursework times referred to as negative space. While it is true that the original object is real and in some respects positive, the 'negative space' label is but an introductory way of looking at it (and a left-brain way at that). A good way is to see this as the act of creation of the manets thesis, virtual object . When working the Great Pyramid, you may want to think of the chambers and passageways as virtual objects or empty-space objects. It really helps. Self test:-) Straighten up two adjacent fingers. Do you see a difference if you think of these fingers as two closely spaced pencils #150; or as an empty slit or space that is between the pencils?

Photons and coursework electrons do, for they make very different patterns for a single bar, two bars, a single slit, or a dual slit. For brainwork: 1 ) How is recent it possible, and 2 ) What is the a2 electronics coursework, utility of the result that one pattern ends up in the left side of the brain while the manets thesis, other in the right side? Ancient Greek-speaking scholars debated geometry and arithmetic, and understood the complexities even without a PC. A circle is an angle (of 360 degrees) that is divisible by three exactly using geometric means. This result is significantly more interesting than the mainstream mathematicians' proof that an angle is not, in general, divisible by three. If you think of a circle with the a2 electronics, orbit (cosmic) and/or orbital (atomic) applications in mind, you will see there is written ib english b lots of fun in figuring out what works[, rather than beefing up your resume with things that don't]. So, the a2 electronics coursework, ancient riddle about support dividing the angle into thirds has more than one answer and no answer is the a2 electronics, wrong answer. It is, however, a parting, or the Tau riddle that to written assignment ib english, some makes all the difference. But again, no angle can be divided by three exactly arithmetically. A2 Electronics Coursework! No angle can be arithmetically divided exactly by any rational number even if such angle was first obtained geometrically and exactly.

A circle cannot be divided by 7 or 9 equally and exactly. This fact may lead to some new discoveries but if your skills are mostly in arithmetic you'll likely think of it as a curiosity. That is the essay architect, basis of reductionism, for a reductionist first makes a claim that arithmetic is just as good as geometry (brain grouping), and a2 electronics then happily ignores the in my, advantages of geometry. Similarly, equating irrational and rational numbers is erroneous but the mainstream math guys think them equal and miss a lot (see incommensurables). Yet, the best example of the power of geometry is in the construction of the so-called geometric mean. Here, the semicircle and the Pythagorean Theorem produce a square root of any rational or irrational number. Moreover, the geometric mean can multiply two irrational numbers together and a2 electronics produce an exact result, the assignment b, infinite mantissa and all. No computer can do that.

The bottom line: Geometry always leads, arithmetic always follows. For example, I came up with a nice infinite series that relates the power (exponent) of the golden ratio to two terms of the numbers from the Fibonacci series F n . What this relation shows is that any power n of the golden ratio a/b can be expressed as a multiple of a2 electronics a single golden ratio a/b . Initially I called this the IG series for manets thesis, I nstant G old series. I liked the a2 electronics coursework, label 'instant' because Kepler got to the golden ratio a/b using the infinite progression of the Fibonacci series F -- but here and now the Fibonacci is not taken to the infinite limit to get a/b . I also discovered that this equation, in essay paper, a form a bit different from mine, already exists. After a while and a2 electronics coursework once I figured out essay architect what is happening geometrically, I could not help but calling it the a2 electronics, I vsin G old series [yes, thank you], simply because the geometric understanding opens up a whole new world of applications . Recent! The arithmetic equation by a2 electronics coursework, itself is okay but the applications just do not reveal themselves if you look at it algebraically. Try it yourself .. In another example, you know that 360 degrees in a circle is arbitrary. Written Ib English! Very soon (just below) you'll see why a circle cannot have another number of degrees that would match the power of geometry. A circle becomes (is) a unitary entity of its own and arithmetic can deal with a circle only coursework, via an infinite series. Support! Having said that, a circle would not be possible to a2 electronics, turn into a square #151; but, by using the virtual numbers and manets thesis understanding the a2 electronics coursework, infinite superposition .. .. A circle can be constructed or divided in finite time only geometrically. Moreover, a circle's manipulations must be exact if you want to understand how an atom is or could be made.

It is now time to visit the essay architect, angles of a2 electronics a circle. Can we map the angles in such a way as to obtain correspondence between geometry and essay architect arithmetic? Arithmetic makes it strange. In a calculator, the angle of 360 degrees is divisible by coursework, 9 without a remainder, but this is but an arithmetic computation. Opinion! In geometry, the circumference of a circle issues from Pi, which is a transcendental number and so you cannot be arbitrary about the coursework, length of the circle or the exactness of an angle inside a circle. Yes, the angle of 40 degrees is not constructible exactly because a circle is not divisible by 9 exactly. But it does happen that a circle is divisible by 40 exactly and then an angle of 9 degrees can be had exactly. Division of a circle into an arbitrary integer quantity of equal and exact segments (or angles) is not possible. What then is the advantage in dividing the circle exactly by manets thesis, this or that number?

The atom holds together by having electrons wrapping around the nucleus. Because the coursework, electron's momentum is also a wave ( de Broglie ), the electron's wave must evenly, that is exactly, close upon itself to form a standing and a round wave that is symmetrical about a point. To the assignment ib english b, Pythagoreans the numbers are everything and a2 electronics coursework this is because numbers actually create things. The mainstream scientists' argument that computer's representation of an irrational number is close enough is, unfortunately, not relevant to manets thesis, atomic construction. Scientists just do not know how to interpret 'precise' and 'exact' in an applications setting. The scientist can divide the circle by coursework, nine to a very large number of decimal places, but there will never be a wavelength that would fit nine times around the circle of the orbital. Incidentally, 'fit' is the original (superior?) word for a 'node' that was used by Newton in his description of standing waves. In today's terminology, we would say that a nine-wavelength, or 18-node, standing circular wave cannot and will not happen (will not fit).

Numbers 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25 and others cannot divide a circle exactly. Most of these numbers are incomposite (prime) numbers. Number 9, though, is manets thesis a composite number as well as a square number, but it cannot be used to divide a circle exactly. [Does this mean the Chinese Emperors could not sing? Having said that, they might have been good golf players.] Number 5 is incomposite but can be used to a2 electronics coursework, divide a circle exactly. What is needed, then, is a class of numbers that compose in a circle , instead of just being composite numbers (composed of products of other numbers). These numbers, called circumpositional numbers [by yours truly], are prominent in atomic construction.

Above, we introduced these numbers as the perfect all-star family of numbers. If you don't mind additional complexity, or perhaps simplicity, a circle can be divided exactly only through geometric means. Another way of saying 'geometric means' is 'spatial distance means.' Yes, the circumference of paper a circle is a transcendental number and a division of a2 electronics any transcendental number by any real number remains transcendental (a real number is thesis finite). The computer can use only coursework, real numbers and the length of the circumference is then rounded off if it is to recent, be stored in a computer. What this also means is that a computer cannot give you a perfect star. What this really means is that you must have movement to create a perfect star. In other words, you cannot make a perfect star via placement or measurement (statically, topologically) with a ruler or a computer or a computer-calibrated protractor.

As a Pythagorean you might realize that you cannot construct a perfect star without a compass #150; that is, you need rotation to complete exact constructions. A compass is the a2 electronics coursework, only tool that allows you to enter 2D from 1D. In other words, a compass allows you to turn. In My Opinion! A larger implication is coursework that there must be movement even at essay architect the atomic core level #151; and a2 electronics under radial symmetry the in my opinion, movement is also about frequency. (You might guess here is one of the gateways to gravitation and yes, the philosopher's stone opens up to coursework, the alchemist.) The necessity of movement permeates everything. Even the ability to square a circle appears like basic stuff when developing (Tai) Chi in your body (think 3D). Arithmetic makes it practical. Pythagoreans had a category of numbers they called 'abundant.' Such numbers are evenly divisible (without a remainder) by manets thesis, many other numbers. Number 60 (minutes in an hour) is a good example as it is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60 -- which, not incidentally, are the number of points of stars one can make with minute watch face markings. Another convenient (abundant) number is 24 (hours in a day), but we presently divide the a2 electronics coursework, day only by 2 (am and pm) and by resume most recent, 3 (work part), and possibly by 12 (entertainment).

Facilitating easy workings in the geometry of a2 electronics coursework a circle, however, calls for a more abundant number. Essay Architect! If you were to come up with a good working number for a2 electronics, the total number of degrees in a circle, you may find 360 to be a very accommodating number. 360 degrees of a circle divide evenly into quarters (possibly the assignment, most important requirement right next to 365 days in a year). It divides evenly by 5, 10, and 20, too. You've already noted that the division by 5 (and consequently by 10) is very practical because a circle division by five brings in the golden proportion. The practicality of this number won the day even though 360 is also evenly divisible by 9 and a circle cannot be divided by 9 exactly. If you were a stickler for details such as this, you most definitely would insist on a2 electronics coursework 2040 degrees in a circle.

2040 is evenly divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, and 17 -- all numbers that divide a circle exactly through geometric means. The good old 360 is in my not evenly divisible by 17 and that means that exact geometrically-obtained angles do not necessarily have a corresponding whole number of a2 electronics coursework degrees if we stick to the present 360 quantity notation. Both 360 and 2040 are not evenly divisible by 7, 11, and 13 -- as it should be. But 2040 is also not evenly divisible by 9, and we have even better correspondence between geometry and arithmetic. The year 2040 could be the most harmonious year coming up. [But don't tell IRS. Essay Architect! They'll put this number on a form and a2 electronics coursework spoil it.] Now that all people are smart enough to handle as huge number as 2040, is it time to make our circle geometry as sophisticated as it can be? Are you ready for assignment, the sum of internal angles in a triangle to equal 1020 degrees instead of 180? And the internal angle of an equilateral triangle would be 340 degrees instead of 60? Even if you could legislate the change #150; and during the French Revolution they legislated 100 degrees in a circle and 100 minutes in an hour -- the a2 electronics, bottom line is that there is no perfect number for a quantity of degrees in a circle that would be a whole number or even a rational number. That is, there is essay architect no number that would be evenly divisible by those numbers that divide a circle exactly geometrically.

In the example of the 2040, this number is not evenly divisible by 16. [Some Masonic authors give Freemasons credit for leading the French Revolution. Coursework! If so, they would certainly be quite ignorant on what to do in ftp resume, the aftermath #150; all their Gs notwithstanding.] Whole numbers and rational numbers are called real numbers #150; a good name. An incommensurable (transcendental or irrational) number can never become a real number unless it is transformed . The transformation is a2 electronics irreversible because we cannot save an irrational number such as SQRT(2) in a computer and retrieve it as (convert it back into) the original irrational number without first taking a nip off the number #150; think Ouroboros and visit Circle and Pi . Reversing the transformation calls for addition of the virtual energy [think Isis and resume recent possibly Thoth if you are familiar with his eye restoration story]. If you want to get deeper into transformations of rational (real) and irrational numbers #150; think ancient Egyptian fractions [here, you will need to appreciate three things: 1 ) Ancient Egyptian fractions are quite sophisticated; 2 ) Present day scientists are clueless as to the ancient Egyptian fraction applications or origin; and 3 ) Our present civilization is a2 electronics coursework not necessarily advancing.] When dividing a circle with the straightedge and compass, the goal is to make the number to become , for the number's geometric construction creates something specific to that number. There is, then, more to numbers than philosophy, and you may want to visit the original number apps guys, Pythagoras and his fellow Pythagoreans . There is a treatment there of real, virtual, and irrational numbers. In My Thesis! Irrationals and coursework transcendentals are in the family of incommensurables but transcendentals are not constructible through the Pythagorean Theorem (from 2D of the curve to 1D of the hypotenuse), while additional differences between irrationals is based on manets thesis applications. [There are good and bad numbers and some of them have an a2 electronics infinite mantissa.]

What does a star in a circle represent? What is the meaning and symbolism of a star inside a single circle? The point count of the star is about the essay architect, wavelength multiples that curve and create the atom. Don't bother with scientists' point electron orbiting core pictures, for coursework, atomic electrons are really standing waves having point symmetries (symmetry about the core). As always, you will need to learn which stars are geometrically constructible and can be actualized, and which are just the arithmetic's (or computer's or religion's) fancy. Is the atomic core composed of standing waves? You bet.

Scientists have way too much invested in the solid and static core hypothesis and so it is safe to talk about the pulsing and standing waves of the core. Scientists are way off and, for example, they made up strong nuclear force because they do not understand the manets thesis, wave nature of the core. In a way this is okay, for you can make many advancements while the scientist remains clueless. Coursework! For example, the core's shape is resume not necessarily spherical. With all their equations, scientists think highly of whatever it is they describe with them. Saying that the scientist will remain clueless is no idle talk, however. On our Circle Pi page we also highlight the inadequacy of algebra, for algebra's constructs cannot deal with the operation of equivalence. Algebra completely misses irreversibility, too. As a Pythagorean you want to figure out what entity will prevail in the interaction with a standing-wave electron and with a standing-wave proton. Why, could you then do a precision surgery on the atom? Seven pointed star.

A circle cannot be divided by a2 electronics, seven exactly. Yes, we can say that seven people cannot share a round pizza equally, and recent leave it at that, except that the coursework, number seven is the first number with such property. When things are happening inside a circle #151; that is, when things are spinning and evolving, the wave folding encounters the number seven and b consequent inability to fit around the circle (and make a perfect star). A2 Electronics! When you examine the manets thesis, Mesoamerican Hunab Ku symbol, there are two seven-sided areas (heptagons) and a2 electronics coursework now the challenge is to explain that. The seven sides are not drawn equal in length and that gives the symbol some credibility. The heptagons pivot into 3D and resume now it gets really intriguing. If we don't take the Hunab Ku (some say Hanub Ku) as a product of coca leaf-chewing fancy, there are many interesting things happening around the a2 electronics coursework, number seven.

I'd be careful in using the in my, seven pointed star. Adopting a regular heptagon or a regular seven pointed star shows you don't get it. So I'd draw the star free hand or use an irregular heptagon. Mayans have a gap in their seven-segment Ouroboros too. The Goddess Seshat's symbol from ancient Egypt is a contextualized seven-leafed plant (she is a scribe, which means she is a magician). The leaves spread out in a2 electronics coursework, a star configuration, but the resulting seven pointed star is not regular. In My Opinion! [If you think the symbol is a cannabis plant then that's fine by me. A2 Electronics Coursework! However, geometry prevails (has priority) while cannabis also has 5 and 9 leaf varieties.]

The Statue of Liberty has a hair dress with seven rays. The symbolism of her 7-point star is rich with 'seven seas' and 'seven liberal arts' interpretations, but I prefer to look at it geometrically and enjoy the fact the rays are not regular. The wonderful part of the circular geometry is that it needs to be treated separately and carefully. Euclid may have proved that no two Natural numbers (integers) when put in a ratio will result in an incommensurable (irrational) number. But some incommensurable numbers when put in resume, the ratio (or are proportioned) could result in a rational number. You may want to reflect on coursework what it means.

As far as Euclid goes, not much. After all, Euclid talks about what does not happen. Opinion! But what does it mean when transcendental -- that is curving -- and straight line (ir)rational geometries meet at certain points? Think transformations and visit the Proofs page that talks about the squaring of coursework a circle. Understanding the angles in a circle certainly takes you to another and ftp resume very substantial pursuit of universe building. A2 Electronics Coursework! Looking back, is there some work that was done just in this area? But of course, you'll have to ftp resume support, step over the reductionists, yawn at the popularizers, and laugh at coursework people who allow to essay paper, be called experts. [I'd bet 10:1 they will talk about running out of energy.] The ancient Egyptian fractions have the numerator expressed as an oval having the value of 1 . A2 Electronics Coursework! It is a symbol for a unitary entity that has symmetry about a point such as a circle or an ellipse. And if you have two circles that you want to divide into sub-unity fractions, are we really talking about two atomic orbitals and the possible (energy) fractional values they can acquire during an electron jump? So now you have yet another quest to make. A road where you will also discard all the modern mathematicians musing at the awkwardness of the ancient Egyptian fractions. The Rhind papyrus has the 2/n expansion and now you know what the 2 is about.

Riemann sees a sphere with longitudinals that, with identical curvature, converge and meet at the poles at finite distance where they close upon themselves (think atomic orbitals in a closed 3D topology). Essay Architect! Although Riemann, a math guy, did not have an atom in his mind, his geometry is 'parallel yet finite.' He discovered an unusual way of obtaining all incomposite (prime) numbers. We have three book reviews on this remarkable individual. Then there are the coursework, scales of the fish [yeah, the dumb fish]. The sweeps of the scales subtend a particular angle. Do you think a fish could fly or extract energy from the swirling water around it by customized, using the coursework, geometry of its scales? In reverse, could you work the straight-moving energy to close upon itself and ftp resume support make an atomic orbital? Think pyramid geometry and Schauberger . Illuminati, Masons and New Order Guys. Pythagoreans, too. Symbolism is a2 electronics about associating something with something similar.

Pythagorean logic, for example, says that two points make an axis and essay architect then the number two is behind the a2 electronics, mirror symmetry, aka the resume, axial, even, or feminine symmetry. As a Pythagorean you have no problem with that, and wouldn't use the term axis of coursework evil because both the constructive and destructive energies exist about an axis (about 1D). You'd then apply one point of essay architect 0D as the source for rotation and consequent (odd, masculine) symmetry. But you are also smart enough to figure out that after 3 points (of volume) you enter a different, virtual domain that is based on the number 4. Associations can go on and on and are thus unbounded, and in a fine distinction the associations become infinite relationships. A2 Electronics Coursework! So now you can relate and associate from here to eternity and each time you may get to a different conclusion.

You can now perhaps see the possibility of making something bad or evil out of something that is pedestrian or even boring. So you want to customized paper, ask if the result you reached is a2 electronics beneficial or not. If you think accusing someone of evil thoughts is beneficial to your religion then you are a part of manets thesis a religion that is sustained by attempted oppression of others. In short, your religion is not based on truth. In fact, all possible thoughts and all knowledge exist in infinite superposition with each other and is to a greater or lesser degree available to you. A2 Electronics! You are never fully locked out from knowledge you seek, but its usefulness may not be obvious.

If you keep an open mind you will soon discover that working with infinities is no easy matter. Shutting down your mind (narrow one's mind) is a defensive reaction to an onslaught of information. Manets Thesis! You may even figure out that all religions attempt to understand infinities and could well be defined just by a2 electronics, that. So relax. Infinities can be worked but they need different methods. Things that don't add up simply won't happen.

[So what is my Pythagorean take on the 7-point irregular star? It is about the creation or release (liberation) of energy. Manets Thesis! As with anything it could have a down side, but with superior assistance (God?) it can be managed and be useful. Oh, the thing about God is that you have to ask. It's not because God is busy, but because you get a specific answer to a specific question. Most importantly, you will never get an order or a command: only knowledge.

The action (or non-action) is yours and is based on a2 electronics your free will and your consequent responsibility for your actions.] Johann Balmer was the guy who opened wide the barn doors of quantum mechanics. Fifteen years before Planck , he came up with the relation that produces a sequence of numbers matching the wavelengths of resume recent light coming from hydrogen. A2 Electronics! These are not just any numbers #150; they are wavelengths corresponding to most, particular electron jumps and no other. Balmer did for quantum mechanics what Kepler did for gravitation: He came up with the math equation that matched known experimental data and made successful predictions of other new, yet undiscovered, wavelengths. But there is a bit more to it.

Balmer used integers and square numbers in his relation that were those of the Pythagorean Theorem. Well, good ol' Pythagoras was not only a2 electronics, right all along but the breadth of his #150; some say HIS #150; teaching was also the foundation of quantum mechanics. Natural numbers and his theorem are also the source of the quantum behavior of atoms. This topic is expanded and has a page of its own. To reconcile the straight (1D) and the curving (2D or 3D), you will be dealing with the customized paper, squaring of coursework a circle.

Algebra works fine when things are straight or polynomial or exponential. Generally, however, when geometry picks up another dimension and lines start to be circular, the equations are not enough as the transcendentals come up. The relationship of the squaring of a circle to this page's perfect division of a circle is in the possibility of linearizing the essay architect, curved segments (arcs) of a circle and then making a tractable exchange between curving and a2 electronics straight topologies. So there is essay paper a continuation to a2 electronics coursework, 'how to draw a star' and it deals with energy. Can we say that geometry is about energy? Can we say that the exactness of particular geometric solutions goes along with the exact conservation of energy? Of course, Pythagorean methods are used to find new ways while mainstream science continues to be arm chair science by playing up one trivial answer as the only answer.

At times politicians pick up the 'square a circle' analogy and resume then you should know they are trying to find excuses and explain failures to their supposedly dumb constituents. So, even though the a2 electronics, squaring of a circle is not possible using real methods , the squaring of a circle is possible. The complexity of our environment is oftentimes worked through alchemy. In My! There is a method behind the seemingly strange associations and we offer the interpretation of The Emerald Tablet on our Alchemy page. Summary, Cosmic (Macro) Pythagorean discovery of irrationals spawned the urgent pursuit of geometry lasting over 2400 years.

Kepler brought arithmetic to the forefront by establishing the mathematical and arithmetic relations of heavenly orbits. In effect and in a2 electronics coursework, fact, Kepler introduced the essay architect, parameter of time in a2 electronics coursework, the mathematical context, which made it possible to make planetary position forecasts #151; forecasting being Kepler's life long passion. Because any two gravitationally interacting bodies always have a solution, the paper, parameter of time derived from such periodic solutions is a2 electronics also repeatable (periodic) and time can be used to written assignment ib english, make forecasts. Even though time is always a derived (dependent) variable, the mathematical solution establishes reversibility and a2 electronics coursework allows the ftp resume support, time parameter derived from this system to be used. (The equal sign indicates reversibility but reversibility is by no means a given.) Another way of seeing the mathematical solution and consequent time reversibility is that the spatial distance (space) and time form an a2 electronics overlay. Ftp Resume Support! In a chaotic system, or in a non-periodic system such as the free economy system, the parameter of coursework time cannot be used to make predictions.

Geometrically, you can take any square and written assignment b construct another square that has exactly twice the area of the original square. A square can be increasing in coursework, infinitely small increments, including irrationals, while the manets thesis, doubled square follows that exactly (think conservation of energy of a moving object). This is something your computer cannot do. A2 Electronics Coursework! If you think this is no big deal and it is something for the ancients to support, contemplate #150; that's fine. The gateway question that makes all the difference is: Can you construct infinity? Certainly the most enticing question is: Can you stop moving bodies at a distance? Light is understood as moving or standing linear -- that is, straight, waves following Newton's analysis of fringes (first observed as fringe rings). Coursework! As light becomes closely associated with matter, Balmer kicks off the QM atomic pursuit with a Pythagorean relation. A wavefunction is understood as a probability distribution of an atomic particle #151; a great step forward by Heisenberg and essay architect von Neumann.

A moving particle has momentum but momentum can also be worked as a wave #151; a second great step, this time by de Broglie. A moving electron now gets to become a wave as well, but this wave must curve #150; that is, become circular , and close upon a2 electronics itself in a symmetry about a point (about a core). The circular (or rounded) electron orbital and the straight path of light need to be energy-reconciled through the squaring of customized essay a circle #151; the first difficult hurdle. Ether is taken out of coursework science's purview, which is the Great Reduction making the scientist that much poorer in recent, the end. Scientists cannot make headway and talk about impossibilities. They reduce everything until there is no intelligence in a2 electronics coursework, their design and take an early exit. (In their last hurrah the angry mob bashes and trashes cold fusion.) Scientists thus successfully reduced themselves into a group of believers in 'light-is-real-and-puts-pressure-on-mirror.' While much of today's physics rests on manets thesis it, the scientist has no guts and no brains to perform the actual experiment measuring the presumed pressure light puts on a mirror.

Scientists are not able to face up to a2 electronics coursework, the truth that a light beam does not and cannot put pressure on a mirror and most recent so they are stuck perpetuating, defending, and proselytizing their dogma. Meanwhile, geometry is receiving new impetus by reviving its superiority over arithmetic and coursework algebra. The golden proportion, the infinite and instant wavefunction superposition, the understanding of irrational and transcendental numbers, linearizing particular segments of a circle, and ftp resume support the possibility of creating electron waves with harmonics-series energy components just might get the atomic understanding going again #150; perhaps in another country, perhaps by a2 electronics coursework, another group of professionals. The cosmic (or planetary) pentagram and the five fold atomic orbital make the five pointed star a joining symbol for both the macro and the micro. While the atom's orbitals are symmetrical about a point (have radial symmetry), the valence orbitals in a molecule need to written assignment ib english b, close around two points of symmetry (the cores of the atoms are some distance apart).

Yes, the Hyper s tar has an answer to that on our golden proportions page. Self-test:-) If you are not happy about the a2 electronics, pentagon base and/or the pyramid being split up or broken up or separated, you are not getting the picture. Support! You may want to coursework, think about the red part as being the tangible component while the blue part is the intangible (knowledge, virtual) component. If that does not help, stay in 2D [earthbound?] where the pentagon is continuous. If you think Two rather than Four is feminine , you are very close. You will need to appreciate that the virtual variables are double-ended and resume have opposites. Then you'll need to center these variables to relate them in infinite superposition. A2 Electronics Coursework! ( Quantum Pythagoreans book helps in essay, this area too.) The engagement of Three and Four is just that: It can be supportive in some contexts and in others it could be conflicting, in which case rebalancing work is needed. So, the recommendation for The Pentagon is to modify one of the pentagons (or build a new inner one) to reflect the a2 electronics, separate golden trapezoid and the golden triangle. The new construction slants upward toward a point. It does not need to ftp resume, top off in a point as long as the a2 electronics, edges are converging toward a point. (If it does top off, think about the straightness of the edges -- it ain't straightforward.)

This pentagonal pyramid is on Mars. The picture credit most likely goes to NASA although I don't know the opinion thesis, particulars of image enhancements processing -- none or too much. Note the pentagonal aspect is not regular (a point-to-point straight line over a ridge and through the center can be made). There is one symbol that uses a circle framed by a2 electronics coursework, two vertical lines. These lines are at times shown as two (usually) identical posts or columns. At other times it is resume recent shown as a person holding two vertical sticks, candles, or wands. Coursework! This symbolism, however, is not about the 3 vs. 4. Rather, the two lines or sticks or columns are about the virtual line of the even symmetry that is essay architect relevant to the virtual domain and the energy therein. The upcoming book (late 2013) deals with the construction in the micro domain via the stars, the rings and the symmetries.

Yes, knowledge is organized energy. Three and Four must remain separate even though they are also joined. You can then see it as a five sided pyramid made from two pyramids that each have unique properties. The overall 3D structure has almost all numbers in a2 electronics coursework, it but the point is that the numbers must play together to their best advantage (rather than just being represented). Do you see the number zero? Or is it the infinity? Could it be both? Is the number zero combined with infinity the source of the Pythagorean fire? The root of the essay architect, pyra-mid? The Central fire?

The hearth of Zeus? Archimedes' fulcrum of the heaven and the earth? Just a plain (free) electron? The convergence of the north and the south poles on decreasing Riemann sphere? A point of the zero dimensional (0D) geometric construct? 'The One' of alchemy? Something even smaller than the infinitesimal of Newton and Leibniz?

The dot in a2 electronics, the semicircle on the AUM symbol? A computational construct for all of the above from opinion thesis all of the a2 electronics coursework, above? The top dot of Tetractys? My favorite : The eye Thoth sends to look for Tefnut when she runs away to Nubia (yes, the eye finds her). If you think this pyramid is about marriage, you are on the right track. The Three [male] and Four [female] are joined through the point of the b, infinite.

This joining is applicable to the actual marriage where the joining is a2 electronics coursework through God #150; all there is. The alchemical marriage would have the female part becoming more abstract although the four-sided pyramid geometry continues to be needed for dealing with the infinite. Customized Essay! You are, perhaps surprisingly, also looking at a2 electronics the joining of matter at the atomic or micro level. The virtual component (in sky blue here; would be white for the ancient Egyptians) has the golden trapezoid for its base, for the longer to the shorter sides are in in my opinion, the golden proportion. A2 Electronics! The real component has one of the golden triangles for its base.

If you like alchemy, the triangular pyramid is the king (or sun, gold) while the four-sided pyramid is the queen (moon, silver). Yes, this is the 3 vs. 4. In the ancient Egyptian context, the crown of customized paper Egypt has two separate components: The white (upper, virtual) and a2 electronics the red (lower, real). The gap between the in my opinion, two is the ancient Egyptian blue crown and is invoked at war. (The gap is white in our pentagonal pyramid.) Book by a2 electronics coursework, Mike Ivsin. Pythagoreans use the knowledge of numbers to arrive at harmonious and support stable systems. Numbers' properties under different symmetries yield specific solutions. Numbers create the duality while the engagement of the duality's components leads to a2 electronics, organization.

Quantum Pythagoreans applies the Tetractys construct and that results in all observable cosmic topologies. The book describes the nature's computational mechanism, especially as it applies to waves. What it takes to written b, transform energies. Your body is a component and a2 electronics it is not the only one. Essay Paper! The shapes inherent in the human body have certain geometric context that is revealed in the book and it is about your health, too. You will like and appreciate the simplicity and the power of numbers. The Pythagorean management of numbers takes you on the road to reality and invites you to drive it as well. Go or select another topic from the a2 electronics, gold post. HyperFlight home Portal in new window. 2005 -- 2013 Backbone Consultants Inc.

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