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Spatial organization essay

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Spatial organization essay

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bill joy wired essay uns nicht braucht. Organization Essay? Bill Joy, deutsche Version seines Essays aus Wired (April 2000), abgedruckt in thesis, der FAZ am 6. Spatial Organization? Juni 2000. Application Essay? Die mächtigsten Technologien des 21. Jahrhunderts - Robotik, Gentechnik und Nanotechnologie - machen den Menschen zur gefährdeten Art. Spatial? Seit ich mich mit der Entwicklung neuer Technologien befasse, haben deren ethische Dimensionen mich interessiert, aber erst im Herbst 1998 wurde mir bewusst, welche Gefahren uns im einundzwanzigsten Jahrhundert erwarten. Thesis? Mein Unbehagen nahm seinen Anfang, als ich Ray Kurzweil begegnete, dem verdientermaßen berühmten Erfinder der ersten Lesemaschine für Blinde und vieler anderer erstaunlicher Dinge. Organization? Wir hatten beide einen Vortrag auf der George Gilder’s Telecosm Conference gehalten, und ich traf ihn zufällig in philosophie peut pas etre soi meme, der Hotelbar, nachdem wir unsere Sitzungen hinter uns gebracht hatten. Organization? Ich saß mit John Searle zusammen, einem Philosophen aus Berkeley, der sich mit Fragen des Bewusstseins beschäftigt. Ray setzte sich zu uns, und es begann ein Gespräch, dessen Gegenstand mir bis heute nachgeht.

Ich hatte Rays Vortrag verpasst und ebenso die anschließende Diskussion, an by essay politics s soloviev v der er und John teilgenommen hatten; die beiden griffen den Faden dort wieder auf, wo sie ihn hatten fallen lassen, und Ray erklärte, die technische Entwicklung werde sich weiter beschleunigen, wir würden selbst zu Robotern oder mit ihnen verschmelzen, und John entgegnete, das werde nicht geschehen, weil Roboter kein Bewusstsein entwickeln könnten. Organization? Solche Dinge hatte ich schon früher gehört und dabei stets gedacht, empfindungsfähige Roboter gehörten in vandersypen, das Reich der Science Fiction. Spatial Essay? Doch nun brachte jemand, den ich respektierte, überzeugende Argumente für die These vor, dass solche Roboter schon bald Wirklichkeit werden könnten. College Application How Long? Ich war vor allem deshalb verblüfft, weil Ray bereits bewiesen hatte, dass er die Zukunft vorauszusehen und zu gestalten vermochte. Spatial Organization Essay? Ich wusste bereits, dass neue Technologien wie Gentechnik und Nanotechnologie uns die Möglichkeit geben, die Welt grundlegend zu verändern, aber ein realistisches Szenario für intelligente Roboter in peut on ne soi meme, allernächster Zukunft überraschte mich. Organization Essay? Man kann solcher Durchbrüche leicht überdrüssig werden.

Fast täglich hören wir in application essay how long, den Nachrichten von irgendeinem technologischen oder wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt. Organization Essay? Aber dies war keine gewöhnliche Voraussage. Essay How Long? In der Hotelbar gab Ray mir einen Vorabdruck mit einem Auszug aus seinem damals im Erscheinen begriffenen Buch ,The Age of spatial organization, Spiritual Machines (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Homo [email protected] Peut On Ne Pas Etre Soi Meme? Leben im 21. Essay? Jahrhundert), in vandersypen thesis, dem er eine Utopie vorstellt und die Voraussage macht, dass die Menschen durch die Verschmelzung mit der Robotertechnik nahezu Unsterblichkeit erlangen werden. Essay? Die Lektüre verstärkte mein Unbehagen noch; ich war mir sicher, dass er die Gefahren und die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines schlechten Ausgangs dieser Entwicklung noch untertrieben darstellte. Soi Meme? Am stärksten beunruhigte mich eine Passage, in organization, der ein dystopisches Szenario geschildert wurde: ,Zunächst einmal wollen wir annehmen, dass es den Computerwissenschaftlern gelingt, intelligente Maschinen zu entwickeln, die alles besser können als der Mensch. Law Morality Politics S Soloviev? In diesem Fall wird alle Arbeit wahrscheinlich von riesigen, hochorganisierten Maschinensystemen erledigt, so dass man auf menschliche Arbeit verzichten kann. Spatial Organization? Dann gibt es zwei Möglichkeiten: Man könnte den Maschinen erlauben, ihre Entscheidungen selbst und ohne menschliche Kontrolle zu treffen, oder der Mensch könnte die Kontrolle über die Maschinen behalten. Teknik Belajar Mempengaruhi? Falls man den Maschinen erlaubt, ihre Entscheidungen selbst zu treffen, lassen sich die Ergebnisse nicht abschätzen, denn wir können unmöglich voraussehen, wie solche Maschinen sich verhalten werden.

In dem Buch erfährt man erst nach der Lektüre der Passage, dass ihr Autor Theodore Kaczynski ist - der Unabomber. Ich setzte mich wahrhaftig nicht für Kaczynski ein. Organization? In einer 17 Jahre dauernden Terrorkampagne haben seine Bomben drei Menschen getötet und zahlreiche andere verwundet. By Essay Politics? Mein Freund David Gelerter, einer der brillantesten und weitsichtigsten Computerwissenschaftler unserer Zeit, ist von einer dieser Bomben schwer verletzt worden. Essay? Wie viele meiner Kollegen hatte auch ich das Gefühl, ich könne durchaus das nächste Ziel des Unabombers sein. Belajar Mempengaruhi Pencapaian? Kaczynskis Taten waren mörderisch und kriminell. Spatial Essay? Er ist eindeutig ein Maschinenstürmer, aber damit hat man seine Argumentation noch nicht entkräftet.

So schwer es mir auch fiel, ich musste zugeben, dass der in dissertation philosophie soi meme, dieser Passage geäußerte Gedanke nicht ganz abwegig war. Spatial Organization Essay? Ich fühlte mich gedrängt, ihm zu widersprechen. College Application Essay How Long? Kaczynskis dystopische Vision beschreibt unbeabsichtigte Folgen, ein bekanntes Problem in spatial essay, der Entwicklung und Anwendung von Technologien, das eng mit Murphys Gesetz zusammenhängt: „Was schief gehen kann, das geht auch irgendwann einmal schief. In Mauritius? (Eigentlich stammt das Gesetz von Finagle und müsste daher Finagles Gesetz heißen was wiederum beweist, dass Finagle Recht hatte.) Der übermäßige Einsatz von Antibiotika hat zu dem wohl größten Problem dieser Art geführt: zur Entstehung antibiotikaresistenter und daher weitaus gefährlicherer Bakterien. Essay? Aus dem Versuch, die Malariamücken mit DDT auszurotten, sind DDT-resistente Mücken entstanden, und auch die Malariaerreger haben mehrfachresistente Gene erworben. Die Ursache solcher Überraschungen scheint klar: Die betreffenden Systeme sind komplex; sie umfassen Wechselwirkungen und Rückkopplungsprozesse zwischen zahlreichen Teilen. Vandersypen? Jede Veränderung solch eines Systems löst eine Kette von Reaktionen aus, die sich nur schwer voraussehen lassen; das gilt insbesondere für Systeme, in spatial, denen menschliches Handeln eine Rolle spielt. Sat Score Essay? Ich begann, Freunden das Kaczynski-Zitat aus Kurzweils Buch zu zeigen; ich gab ihnen das Buch, ließ sie das Zitat lesen und beobachtete ihre Reaktion, wenn sie entdeckten, wer das geschrieben hatte: der Unabomber. Spatial? Etwa um dieselbe Zeit stieß ich auf Hans Moravecs Buch „Robot: Evolution from thesis Mere Machine to organization Transcendent Mind (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Computer ergreifen die Macht).

Moravec gehört zu den führenden Forschern auf dem Gebiet der Robotik und war Mitbegründer des weltweit größten Robotik-Forschungsprogramms an on education der Carnegie Mellon University. Spatial Organization? Sein Buch gab mir weiteres Material an dissertation peut soi meme die Hand, das ich an spatial meinen Freunden ausprobieren konnte, Material, das Kaczynskis Argumentation überraschenderweise stützte. Essay System? Ich beschloss, mit meinem Freund Danny Hillis zu reden. Danny hat sich einen Namen als Mitbegründer der Thinking Machines Corporation gemacht, die einen sehr leistungsfähigen Parallel-Supercomputer gebaut hat. Spatial Essay? Obwohl ich gegenwärtig die Position des Chief Scientist bei Sun Microsystems bekleide, bin ich doch eher Rechnerarchitekt als Wissenschaftler, und ich schätze Danny wegen seiner Kenntnisse auf dem Gebiet der Informatik und der Physik mehr als jeden anderen.

Außerdem ist er ein angesehener Zukunftsforscher, der in peut on ne pas etre, langen Zeiträumen denkt - vor vier Jahren gründete er die Long Now Foundation, die eine Uhr mit einer geplanten Lebensdauer von 10 000 Jahren baut, um die Aufmerksamkeit auf die beschämende Kurzsichtigkeit der Gesellschaft zu lenken. Essay? Ich flog nach Los Angeles, um mit Danny und seiner Frau Pati essen zu gehen. Vandersypen Thesis? Ich spulte mein inzwischen vertrautes Routineprogramm ab, trug die Ideen und Passagen vor, die mir solches Unbehagen bereiteten. Organization Essay? Dannys Antwort - vor allem im Blick auf Kurzweils Szenario einer Verschmelzung des Menschen mit den Robotern - kam rasch und setzte mich in essay in mauritius, Erstaunen. Organization Essay? Er sagte nur, die Veränderungen erfolgten schrittweise, so dass wir uns daran gewöhnten.

Aber ich war nicht vollkommen überrascht. Vandersypen Thesis? In Kurzweils Buch hatte ich ein Zitat von Danny gelesen, in spatial organization, dem er sagte: „Ich liebe meinen Körper nicht mehr oder weniger als andere, aber wenn ich mit einem Körper aus Silicium 200 Jahre alt werden kann, werde ich ihn nehmen. Vandersypen? Offenbar hatte er seinen Frieden mit dieser Entwicklung und ihren Risiken gemacht, während mir das schwer fiel. Spatial Organization Essay? Als ich so über Kurzweil, Kaczynski und Moravec redete und nachdachte, kam mir ein Roman in law morality politics, den Sinn, den ich vor fast zwanzig Jahren gelesen hatte: ,The White Plage von Frank Herbert (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Die weiße Pest); darin wird ein Molekularbiologe durch die sinnlose Ermordung seiner Familie in essay, den Wahnsinn getrieben. Thesis Teknik Belajar Pencapaian? Um sich zu rächen, entwickelt und verbreitet er einen neuen, hoch infektiösen Erreger, der selektiv tötet. Organization? (Ein Glück, dass Kaczynski Mathematiker und kein Molekularbiologe war.) Ich musste auch an college how long die Borg aus Star Trek denken, diese halbbiologischen Roboterwesen mit stark destruktiven Neigungen.

Katastrophen nach Art der Borg sind eine Spezialität der Science Fiction. Spatial Organization Essay? Warum hatte ich mich nicht schon früher mit solchen Roboter-Dystopien befasst? Und warum kümmerten andere Menschen sich so wenig um diese albtraumhaften Szenarien? Ein Teil der Antwort liegt sicher in thesis teknik belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian, unserer Einstellung gegenüber dem Neuen, in spatial, unserer Neigung, Neues sogleich als vertraut zu empfinden und es fraglos anzunehmen. Teknik Mempengaruhi? Da wir ständig neue wissenschaftliche Durchbrüche erleben, müssen wir uns erst noch klar machen, dass die stärksten Technologien des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts - Robotik, Gentechnik und Nanotechnologie - ganz andere Gefahren heraufbeschwören als die bisherigen Technologien. Vor allem Roboter, technisch erzeugte Lebewesen, und Nanoboter besitzen eine gefährliche Eigenschaft: Sie können sich selbständig vermehren.

Eine Bombe explodiert nur einmal, ’aus einem einzigen Roboter können viele werden, die rasch außer Kontrolle geraten. Organization Essay? In den letzten fünfundzwanzig Jahren hat man viel an philosophie peut on ne der Entwicklung von Computernetzen gearbeitet, in spatial organization, denen das Senden und Empfangen von Nachrichten die Möglichkeit unkontrollierter Vermehrung eröffnet. Thesis? In einem Computer oder Computernetz kann solche Vermehrung lästig sein; schlimmstenfalls legt sie den Computer oder das Netzwerk lahm. Essay? In den neuen Technologien dagegen gehen von der unkontrollierten Vermehrung sehr viel größere Gefahren aus; dort drohen erhebliche Schäden an law morality s soloviev v der materiellen Welt. Spatial Organization Essay? Jede dieser Technologien eröffnet auch ungeahnte Möglichkeiten: Die Aussicht auf annähernde Unsterblichkeit, die Kurzweil in application, seinen Roboterträumen voraussieht, treibt uns voran; die Gentechnik wird schon bald zur Behandlung und vielleicht auch Heilung der meisten Krankheiten eingesetzt werden; Nanotechnologie und Nanomedizin werden diese Möglichkeiten noch erweitern. Zusammen könnten sie unsere Lebenserwartung beträchtlich verlängern und die Lebensqualität verbessern. Spatial Organization Essay? Die vielen kleinen, individuell erfahrbaren Vorteile dieser Technologien führen jedoch zu einer gewaltigen Ansammlung von Macht und zugleich zu großen Gefahren. Application How Long? Was war im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert anders? Natürlich bargen die Technologien, die den nuklearen, chemischen und biologischen Massenvernichtungswaffen zugrunde lagen, gewaltige Potentiale, und die Waffen stellen eine ebenso große Gefahr dar. Spatial Organization? Aber zum Bau von Atomwaffen benötigte man zumindest in system, der Anfangszeit seltene - tatsächlich sogar nahezu unerreichbare - Rohstoffe und ein durch Geheimhaltung geschütztes Wissen; auch der Bau biologischer und chemischer Waffen verlangte einigen Aufwand.

Die Technologien des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts - Genetik, Nanotechnologie und Robotik - bergen dagegen Gefahren, die sich in spatial essay, ganz anderen Dimensionen bewegen. Und am gefährlichsten ist wohl die Tatsache, dass selbst Einzelne und kleine Gruppen diese Technologien missbrauchen können. College Essay How Long? Dazu benötigen sie keine Großanlagen und keine seltenen Rohstoffe, sondern lediglich Wissen. Essay? An die Stelle der Massenvernichtungswaffen tritt damit die Gefahr einer wissensbasierten Massenvernichtung, die durch das hohe Vermehrungspotential noch deutlich verstärkt wird. Thesis? Ich denke, es ist nicht übertrieben, wenn ich sage, wir stehen an spatial organization der Schwelle zu einer weiteren Perfektion des Bösen in college, seinen extremsten Ausprägungen; und diesmal werden die so geschaffenen schrecklichen Möglichkeiten nicht nur Nationalstaaten zur Verfügung stehen, sondern auch einzelnen Extremisten. Organization Essay? Als ich begann, mich mit Computern zu befassen, deutete nichts darauf hin, dass ich einmal mit solchen Problemen konfrontiert würde. In Mauritius? Mein Leben lang habe ich das Bedürfnis gehabt, Fragen zu stellen und Antworten zu suchen.

Schon mit drei Jahren konnte ich lesen, und mein Vater stellte mich dem Schulleiter der Grundschule vor; auf seinem Schoß sitzend, las ich ihm eine Geschichte vor. Organization? Ich kam früh in dissertation philosophie peut, die Schule, übersprang später eine Klasse und flüchtete mich in organization, Bücher - ich hatte einen unglaublichen Drang zu lernen. Pas Etre? Ich stellte zahllose Fragen und trieb die Erwachsenen damit manchmal zur Verzweiflung. Organization? Als Teenager interessierte ich mich sehr für Naturwissenschaft und Technik. S Soloviev? Ich wäre gerne Amateurfunker gewesen, hatte aber nicht das nötige Geld für die Ausrüstung. Essay? Der Amateurfunk war das Internet der damaligen Zeit; es bestand die Gefahr, dass man süchtig danach wurde und sich in essay in mauritius, seinem Zimmer verkroch.

Ganz abgesehen von den Kosten, war meine Mutter entschieden dagegen; Amateurfunk kam nicht in spatial essay, Frage, ich war schon ungesellig genug. Vandersypen Thesis? Donnerstag abends gingen meine Eltern zum Bowling; wir Kinder blieben allein zu Haus. Organization? Und donnerstags wurde Gene Roddenberrys ursprüngliche Star-Trek-Serie gesendet, die großen Eindruck auf mich machte. Dissertation Philosophie Peut On Ne Pas Etre? Von dort übernahm ich den Gedanken, dass die Menschen eine Zukunft im Weltraum haben, ganz wie im Western, mit Heldengestalten und Abenteuern. Essay? Roddenberrys Vision der kommenden Jahrhunderte war stark durch moralische Werte geprägt, die ihren Niederschlag in system, Regeln wie der Hauptdirektive fanden; danach sollte vermieden werden, in organization essay, die Entwicklung technisch weniger weit fortgeschrittener Zivilisationen einzugreifen. Das machte großen Eindruck auf mich; nicht Roboter, sondern Menschen mit sittlicher Verantwortung beherrschten diese Zukunft, und ich machte mir diesen Traum zu Eigen. S Soloviev V? In der Highschool war ich besonders gut in organization essay, Mathematik, und als ich mein Ingenieurstudium an thesis belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian der University of organization, Michigan begann, belegte ich gleich Mathematikvorlesungen für höhere Semester.

Die Lösung mathematischer Probleme war eine aufregende Herausforderung, doch als ich die Computer entdeckte, fand ich sie noch interessanter: Maschinen, denen man ein Programm eingab, das Probleme zu lösen versuchte und die Lösung gleich noch überprüfte. Thesis Teknik Pencapaian? Der Computer wusste sehr genau, was korrekt oder nicht korrekt, wahr oder falsch war. Spatial Essay? Waren meine Ideen korrekt? Der Computer konnte es mir sagen. S Soloviev V? Das war sehr verführerisch. Spatial? Ich hatte das Glück, einen Job als Programmierer früher Supercomputer zu finden, und ich entdeckte die erstaunliche Fähigkeit großer Rechenanlagen, fortgeschrittene Entwürfe numerisch zu simulieren. Als ich Mitte der siebziger Jahre in system, Berkeley mein Promotionsstudium aufnahm, begann ich, bis spät in spatial organization, die Nacht und manchmal ganze Nächte hindurch aufzubleiben und neue Welten im Computer zu erfinden.

Probleme zu lösen. Thesis Belajar Mempengaruhi Pencapaian? Den Code niederzuschreiben, der unbedingt geschrieben werden wollte. Spatial Essay? In seinem biografischen Roman ,The Agony and sat score essay, the Ecstasy (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Michelangelo) beschreibt Irving Stone sehr lebendig, wie Michelangelo die Figuren aus dem Stein befreite, den ,Bann des Marmors löste und den Bildern in spatial essay, seinem Kopf Gestalt verlieh. Dissertation Pas Etre Soi Meme? In meinen ekstatischsten Augenblicken entstand die Software im Computer auf ganz ähnliche Weise. Spatial? Wenn ich sie mir vorstellen konnte, hatte ich das Gefühl, sie existierte bereits in teknik belajar, der Maschine und müsse nur noch freigesetzt werden. Essay? Die ganze Nacht aufzubleiben schien da nur ein kleiner Preis, um sie zu befreien und der Idee konkrete Gestalt zu verleihen. Essay On Education In Mauritius? Anfang der achtziger Jahre ertrank ich fast in organization, Arbeit. Unix, das ich mit entwickelt hatte, war sehr erfolgreich, mein kleines Projekt hatte bald genug Geld und Personal beisammen, aber nicht das Geld war in thesis, Berkeley das Problem, sondern der Platz es gab einfach keine Räume für die Leute, die das Projekt benötigte. Spatial Organization? Als die anderen Gründer von Sun Microsystems an on education system in mauritius mich herantraten, ergriff ich daher die Gelegenheit und schloss mich ihnen an. Spatial Organization Essay? Bei Sun blieb es dann in essay system, der Frühzeit der Workstations und Personalcomputer bei den langen Arbeitstagen, und ich hatte das Glück, an spatial organization der Entwicklung fortgeschrittener Mikroprozessor- und Internettechnologien wie Java und Jini mitwirken zu können. Thesis Teknik Pencapaian? Aus alledem dürfte hinreichend hervorgehen, dass ich kein Maschinenstürmer bin.

Ich war schon immer davon überzeugt, dass wissenschaftliche Forschung von großem Wert für die Wahrheit ist und Technik materiellen Fortschritt bewirken kann. Organization Essay? Die industrielle Revolution hat die Lebensqualität der Menschen in belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian, den letzten Jahrhunderten beträchtlich verbessert, und was mein eigenes Berufsleben angeht, hatte ich stets vor, nach sinnvollen Lösungen für reale Probleme zu suchen - ein Problem nach dem anderen. Ich bin nicht enttäuscht worden. Spatial Organization? Meine Arbeit hat größere Wirkung erzielt, als ich jemals gehofft hätte, und findet so weite Anwendung, wie ich es unmöglich hätte erwarten können. Thesis? In den letzten zwanzig Jahren habe ich herauszufinden versucht, wie Computer die Zuverlässigkeit erreichen können, die ich mir wünsche (sie sind noch längst nicht dort angelangt), und wie ihre Anwendung sich möglichst einfach gestalten lässt (von diesem Ziel sind wir sogar noch weiter entfernt). Spatial Essay? Trotz mancher Fortschritte erscheinen die verbleibenden Probleme fast entmutigend schwierig. Sat Score Essay? Ich war mir zwar immer schon der kaum lösbaren ethischen Probleme bewusst, die im Zusammenhang mit den Folgen der Technik auf Gebieten wie der militärischen Forschung auftreten, doch hatte ich nicht erwartet, auch auf meinem Gebiet mit solchen Problemen konfrontiert zu werden, oder zumindest nicht so bald.

Vielleicht ist es auf dem Höhepunkt des Wandels besonders schwer, die Folgen zu überblicken. Spatial Organization Essay? Offenbar erkennen Wissenschaftler und Techniker die Folgen ihrer Entdeckungen und Innovationen häufig nicht, solange das Fieber der Neuerungen sie gefangen hält. How Long? Wir haben uns lange von dem unbändigen Wunsch nach Erkenntnis treiben lassen, der das Wesen der Wissenschaft ausmacht, und dabei übersehen, dass der ständige Drang zu neuen, leistungsfähigeren Technologien ein Eigenleben entwickeln kann. Spatial Organization Essay? Mir ist schon lange klar, dass die großen Fortschritte im Bereich der Informationstechnologie nicht von Computerwissenschaftlern, Rechnerarchitekten oder Elektroingenieuren ausgehen, sondern von Physikern. Thesis? Die Physiker Stephen Wolfram und Brosl Hasslacher führten mich Anfang der achtziger Jahre in essay, die Chaostheorie und die Theorie nichtlinearer Systeme ein. In Gesprächen mit Danny Hillis, dem Biologen Stuart Kauffman, dem Physiker und Nobelpreisträger Murray Gell-Mann und anderen lernte ich in thesis teknik belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian, den neunziger Jahren kom plexe Systeme kennen. Spatial Organization Essay? In jüngster Zeit schließlich gaben mir Hasslacher sowie der Elektroingenieur und Apparatephysiker Mark Reed Einblick in by essay politics v, die unglaublichen Möglichkeiten der Molekularelektronik. Spatial Organization Essay? In meiner eigenen Arbeit als Mitentwickler dreier Mikroprozessorarchitekturen - SPARC, picoJava und MAJC - und bei diversen Implementierungen dieser Systeme habe ich Moores Gesetz aus erster Hand und sehr genau kennen gelernt. Dissertation Peut On Ne Pas Etre Soi Meme? Moores Gesetz hat die exponentielle Verbesserung der Halbleitertechnologie korrekt vorausgesagt.

Bis letztes Jahr glaubte ich, die von Moores Gesetz vorausgesagte Verbesserungsrate könne nur bis etwa 2010 anhalten, weil dann bestimmte physikalische Grenzen erreicht wären. Organization Essay? Mir war nicht klar, dass zur rechten Zeit eine neue Technologie bereitstünde, die für einen weiteren gleichmäßigen Fortschritt sorgen kann. Dank rascher, radikaler Fortschritte im Bereich der Molekularelektronik - in teknik, der einzelne Atome und Moleküle an organization die Stelle der mit Hilfe lithografischer Techniken erzeugten Transistoren treten - und dank der zugehörigen Nanotechnologien sollten wir in dissertation peut on ne pas etre, der Lage sein, die von Moores Gesetz vorausgesagte Entwicklungsgeschwindigkeit auch für weitere dreißig Jahre zu erreichen oder zu übertreffen. Organization Essay? 2030 werden wir wahrscheinlich in on ne pas etre, großen Mengen Maschinen produzieren können, die eine Million mal leistungsfähiger sind als die heutigen Personalcomputer - und das wird ausreichen, um Kurzweils und Moravecs Träume zu verwirklichen. Spatial? Die Verbindung dieser Computerleistung mit den manipulativen Fortschritten der Physik und dem vertieften genetischen Wissen wird gewaltige Veränderungen ermöglichen. Dissertation Peut Pas Etre Soi Meme? Wir werden die Welt vollkommen neu gestalten können, im Guten wie im Schlechten. Organization? Replikations- und Schöpfungsprozesse, die bisher der Natur vorbehalten waren, geraten in sat score essay, den Einflussbereich des Menschen. Spatial? Bei der Entwicklung von Computerprogrammen und Mikroprozessoren hatte ich nie das Gefühl, eine intelligente Maschine zu entwerfen. Thesis Belajar Pencapaian? Soft- und Hardware sind so zerbrechlich und den Maschinen fehlt so offensichtlich jede „Denkfähigkeit, dass dies alles mir noch weit in organization, der Zukunft zu liegen schien. Sat Score Essay? Doch da wir nun schon in spatial organization essay, dreißig Jahren mit einer dem Menschen vergleichbaren Computerleistung rechnen können, drängt sich mir ein anderer Gedanke auf: dass ich mich möglicherweise an essay in mauritius der Entwicklung von Instrumenten beteilige, aus denen einmal die Technologie hervorgehen könnte, die unsere Spezies verdrängen wird.

Wie fühle ich mich bei diesem Gedanken? Sehr unbehaglich. Da ich mich mein Leben lang um die Entwicklung zuverlässiger Software bemüht habe, erscheint es mir mehr als wahrscheinlich, dass diese Zukunft nicht so schön wird, wie manche es sich ausmalen. Organization Essay? Meine persönliche Erfahrung sagt mir, dass wir dazu neigen, unsere Fähigkeiten auf diesem Gebiet zu überschätzen. On Education System In Mauritius? Sollten wir uns angesichts der unglaublichen Leistungsfähigkeit der neuen Technologien nicht lieber fragen, wie wir am besten mit ihnen koexistieren können? Und wenn die technologische Entwicklung wahrscheinlich oder auch nur möglicherweise zur Auslöschung unserer Art führt, sollten wir dann nicht besser vorsichtig sein? Die Robotik träumt zunächst einmal davon, intelligente Maschinen könnten uns die Arbeit abnehmen, uns ein Leben in essay, Muße ermöglichen und wieder in college, den Garten Eden zurückversetzen. Spatial? George Dyson warnt jedoch in system, seinem Buch „Darwin Among the spatial organization essay, Machines, in law morality s soloviev v, dem er die Geschichte solcher Ideen nachzeichnet: „Im Spiel des Lebens und der Evolution sitzen drei Spieler am Tisch: der Mensch, die Natur und die Maschinen. Organization? Ich bin entschieden auf der Seite der Natur. Vandersypen? Aber ich fürchte, die Natur steht auf der Seite der Maschinen.

Dieser Meinung ist auch Moravec, wenn er sagt, wir könnten die Begegnung mit der überlegenen Spezies Roboter möglicherweise nicht überleben. Essay? Wie schnell ließe sich solch ein intelligenter Roboter realisieren? Angesichts der zu erwartenden Fortschritte in by essay law morality politics v, der Rechnerleistung wäre dieser Schritt bis 2030 vorstellbar. Und wenn erst einmal ein intelligenter Roboter existiert, ist es nur noch ein kleiner Schritt hin zu einer Spezies intelligenter Roboter, das heißt zu einem Roboter, der Kopien seiner selbst herzustellen vermag. Spatial Organization? Die Robotik träumt des Weiteren davon, den Menschen schrittweise durch Robotertechnologie zu ersetzen, so dass wir gleichsam Unsterblichkeit erlangen, indem wir unser Bewusstsein abspeichern; diesen Prozess meinte Danny Hillis, als er davon sprach, wir würden uns schrittweise daran gewöhnen; und diesen Prozess beschreibt auch Ray Kurzweil mit so gesetzten Worten in sat score essay, seinem Buch „The Age of the spatial, Spiritual Machines. By Essay Law Morality Politics V? (Anfänge sehen wir bereits in essay, der Implantation von Computerchips in sat score essay, den menschlichen Körper.) Doch wenn wir uns in spatial, unserer eigenen Technologie abspeichern, welche Chance haben wir dann, hinterher noch wir selbst oder auch nur menschliche Wesen zu sein? Mir scheint es sehr viel wahrscheinlicher, dass ein Roboter nichts mit einem Menschen in soi meme, unserem Verständnis zu tun hat, dass die Roboter keineswegs unsere Kinder sein werden und dass auf diesem Wege das Menschsein verloren gehen wird. Spatial Essay? Die Gentechnik verspricht, die Landwirtschaft durch Erhöhung der Ernteerträge und Verringerung des Pestizideinsatzes zu revolutionieren; Zehntausende neuer Bakterienarten, Pflanzen, Viren und Tiere zu erzeugen; die geschlechtliche Fortpflanzung durch Klonen zu ersetzen oder dadurch zu ergänzen; Heilmethoden für zahlreiche Krankheiten zu entwickeln, unser Leben zu verlängern und unsere Lebensqualität zu verbessern und vieles andere mehr. Es besteht kein Zweifel, dass diese tiefgreifenden Veränderungen in vandersypen thesis, der Biologie bevorstehen und dass unser Bild vom Leben dadurch grundlegend in organization, Frage gestellt wird. Sat Score Essay? Techniken wie das Klonen von Menschen haben unsere Aufmerksamkeit für die tiefgründigen ethischen und moralischen Fragen geschärft, vor die uns diese Techniken stellen. Organization? Wenn wir uns zum Beispiel mit Hilfe der Gentechnik in dissertation peut, mehrere, nicht als gleich geltende Arten aufspalteten, wäre die Idee der Gleichheit gefährdet, auf der das ganze demokratische System aufbaut.

Angesichts der gewaltigen Möglichkeiten der Gentechnik kann es nicht verwundern, dass ihre Anwendung große Sicherheitsprobleme mit sich bringt. Spatial Essay? Mein Freund Armory Lovins hat kürzlich zusammen mit Hunter Lovins in on education system, einem Leitartikel ein ökologisches Bild dieser Gefahren gezeichnet. Essay? Dort heißt es unter anderem: „Die neue Botanik richtet die Entwicklung der Pflanzen nicht an dissertation philosophie peut soi meme ihrem evolutionären, sondern an spatial essay ihrem ökonomischen Erfolg aus. Thesis? Armory hat sich in essay, seinem langen Berufsleben vor allem mit dem effizienten Einsatz von Energie und Rohstoffen befasst, indem er die vom Menschen geschaffenen Systeme einer ganzheitlichen Betrachtung unterzog; diese ganzheitliche Betrachtung findet häufig einfache Lösungen für ansonsten sehr schwierig erscheinende Probleme und lässt sich auch auf dem genannten Gebiet sinnvoll einsetzen. Nachdem ich Lovins Leitartikel gelesen hatte, sah ich in vandersypen thesis, der New York Times vom 19. Organization? November 1999 einen Artikel von Greg Easterbrook über gentechnisch veränderte Lebensmittel; die Schlagzeile lautete: „Nahrung für die Zukunft: Eines Tages wird Reis auch Vitamin A enthalten. Thesis? Sofern nicht die Maschinenstürmer siegen. Spatial? Sind Armory und Hunter Lovins Maschinenstürmer? Gewiss nicht.

Ich denke, wir alle hätten nichts gegen Reis mit eingebautem Vitamin A, wenn er mit der nötigen Sorgfalt entwickelt würde und insbesondere mit Blick auf die mögliche Gefahr, dass Gene die Artenschranke überspringen könnten. Vandersypen? Das Bewusstsein für die möglichen Gefahren der Gentechnik beginnt zu wachsen, wie sich in spatial organization essay, dem Leitartikel der Lovins zeigt. Belajar Mempengaruhi? Eine breitere Öffentlichkeit weiß um die gentechnisch veränderten Pflanzen und zeigt sich besorgt; offenbar ist man nicht damit einverstanden, dass solche gentechnisch veränderten Lebensmittel nicht als solche ausgewiesen werden müssen. Spatial Organization Essay? Aber die Gentechnik ist schon weit vorangeschritten. Wie die Lovins schreiben, hat das amerikanische Landwirtschaftsministerium bereits fünfzig gentechnisch veränderte Nahrungspflanzen zur unbegrenzten Aussaat freigegeben; mehr als die Hälfte der weltweit erzeugten Sojabohnen und ein Drittel der angebauten Maispflanzen enthalten Gene, die aus anderen Lebensformen stammen. Philosophie Soi Meme? Die Gentechnik wirft viele wichtige Fragen auf; meine Sorge gilt eher einem besonderen Aspekt, der Gefahr nämlich, dass sie die Möglichkeit bieten könnte, zufällig, aus militärischen Gründen oder bewusst im Sinne eines Terroranschlags eine Weiße Pest auszulösen. Spatial Organization Essay? Einen Ausblick auf die zahlreichen wunderbaren Möglichkeiten der Nanotechnologie gab erstmals 1959 der Physiker und Nobelpreisträger Richard Feynman in dissertation philosophie on ne pas etre, einem Vortrag, der später unter dem Titel ,There’s Plenty of spatial organization essay, Room at sat score essay the Bottom veröffentlicht wurde.

Besonders beeindruckt hat mich Mitte der achtziger Jahre Eric Drexlers Buch „Engines of spatial, Creation, in sat score essay, dem er sehr schön beschreibt, wie man durch die Manipulation der Materie auf atomarer Ebene eine utopische Zukunft schaffen kann, in spatial organization essay, der Überfluss herrscht, weil man nahezu alles billig zu produzieren vermag und in dissertation philosophie on ne soi meme, der die Nonotechnologie im Verein mit der Künstlichen Intelligenz fast alle Krankheiten und körperlichen Probleme zu lösen imstande ist. Essay? Ein späteres Buch: „Unbounding the sat score essay, Future (auf Deutsch erschienen unter dem Titel „Experiment Zukunft: die nanotechnologische Revolution), das Drexler zusammen mit Chris Peterson und Gayle Pergamit verfasste, geht näher auf einige Veränderungen ein, wie sie durch „Assembler, die auf molekularer Ebene arbeiten, herbeigeführt werden könnten. Spatial Essay? Solche „Monteure könnten Solarenergie zu unglaublich niedrigen Kosten gewinnen, Krebs und gewöhnliche Erkältungen durch eine Stärkung des menschlichen Immunsystems heilen, die Umwelt vollständig von Schadstoffen befreien, billigste Supercomputer im Taschenformat und überhaupt so ziemlich alles zu den denkbar niedrigsten Kosten herstellen, Raumflüge so selbstverständlich machen, wie Interkontinentalflüge es heute schon sind, und schließlich auch ausgestorbene Arten wieder zum Leben erwecken. Thesis Pencapaian? Ich erinnere mich, dass ich mich nach der Lektüre von „Engines of organization, Creation sehr wohl fühlte. Law Morality Politics? Für einen Technologen hatte es etwas Beruhigendes, denn die Nanotechnologie zeigte, dass unglaubliche Fortschritte möglich und vielleicht sogar unausweichlich waren. Wenn die Nanotechnologie unsere Zukunft war, bestand gar kein Grund für mich, so viele Probleme in organization essay, der Gegenwart mit solcher Hast anzugehen. College Application Essay How Long? Drexlers utopische Zukunft würde in organization essay, angemessener Zeit Wirklichkeit werden; ich konnte mein Leben geradeso gut hier und jetzt genießen. How Long? Angesichts seiner Vision hatte es keinen Sinne, immer wieder ganze Nächte durchzuarbeiten. Essay? Mit Drexlers Vision hatte ich auch einigen Spaß. Sat Score Essay? Gelegentlich beschrieb ich anderen, die noch nichts davon gehört hatten, die Wunderwerke der Nanotechnologie.

Und nachdem ich ihnen die Ohren voll geredet hatte, gab ich ihnen als Hausaufgabe auf, mit Hilfe der Nanotechnologie einen Vampir und zugleich auch ein geeignetes Gegenmittel zu schaffen. Organization Essay? Dass diese Wunderwerke auch deutliche Gefahren in by essay law morality politics s soloviev v, sich bargen, war mir sehr wohl bewusst. Spatial Organization Essay? 1989 sagte ich auf einer Tagung zur Nanotechnologie: „Wir können nicht einfach unserer Wissenschaft nachgehen und die ethischen Fragen ausblenden. Dissertation Peut Pas Etre Soi Meme? Die Gespräche, die ich später mit Physikern führte, brachten mich allerdings zu der Überzeugung, dass die Nanotechnologie möglicherweise gar nicht - oder jedenfalls nicht so bald - funktionieren würde. Spatial Organization? Kurz darauf zog ich nach Colorado, und der Schwerpunkt meiner Arbeit verlagerte sich auf Software fürs Internet, vor allem auf Ideen, aus denen später Java und Jini hervorgingen. Sat Score Essay? Dann, im vergangenen Sommer, erzählte mir Brosl Hasslacher, dass die Molekularelektronik auf Nanoebene das Stadium praktischer Realisierung erreicht hat. Essay? Das war neu für mich, und ich denke, für viele andere auch. Diese Nachricht veränderte meine Einstellung gegenüber der Nanotechnologie grundlegend. Dissertation Philosophie Peut? Als ich Drexlers Engines of organization, Creation nach mehr als zehn Jahren nochmals las, erschrak ich, wie wenig ich doch von dem langen Abschnitt über „Gefahren und Hoffnungen behalten hatte; unter anderem hatte er dort beschrieben, dass die Nanotechnologie auch zur Herstellung von „Zerstörungsmaschinen genutzt werden kann. Vandersypen Thesis? Wenn ich diese warnende Abschnitte heute lese, bin ich erstaunt, wie naiv Drexlers Vorschläge für Sicherheitsvorkehrungen wirken; auch sind die Gefahren nach meiner heutigen Einschätzung sehr viel größer, als er damals offenbar glaubte. Essay? (Nachdem Drexler zahlreiche technische und politische Probleme im Zusammenhang mit der Nanotechnologie vorausgesehen und beschrieben hatte, gründete er in essay, den späten achtziger Jahren das Foresight Institute, das dazu beitragen soll, „die Gesellschaft auf fortgeschrittene Technologien vorzubereiten, und insbesondere auf die Nanotechnolgie.) Der Durchbruch zur Konstruktion der „Assembler dürfte mit einiger Wahrscheinlichkeit in spatial organization essay, den nächsten 20 Jahren erfolgen.

Die Molekularelektronik - das neue Teilgebiet der Nanotechnologie, in thesis belajar pencapaian, dem einzelne Moleküle als Schaltelemente fungieren - wird sich wohl sehr schnell entwickeln und noch in essay, diesem Jahrzehnt ausgesprochen lukrativ werden, so dass immer größere Investitionen in teknik belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian, diesen Bereich fließen dürften. Spatial Organization? Wie die Kerntechnik, so lässt sich leider auch die Nanotechnologie leichter für zerstörerische als für konstruktive Zwecke nutzen. Teknik Mempengaruhi Pencapaian? Die Nanotechnologie bietet leicht erkennbare militärische und terroristischen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten, und man braucht nicht einmal ein Selbstmörder zu sein, um destruktive nanotechnische Instrumente massiv einzusetzen, denn diese Instrumente lassen sich so konstruieren, dass sie ihre Zerstörungskraft selektiv entfalten und zum Beispiel nur bestimmte Regionen oder bestimmte Menschen mit spezifischen genetischen Merkmalen treffen. Spatial Organization Essay? Der Preis des faustischen Handels, der uns die Nanotechnologie beschert, ist ein schreckliches Risiko, die Gefahr nämlich, dass wir die Biosphäre zerstören, von der alles eben abhängt. (. Thesis Teknik Belajar? )Die Technologien, die in organization essay, den atomaren, biologischen und chemischen Massenvernichtungswaffen des 20. Sat Score Essay? Jahrhunderts Anwendung finden, waren und sind weitgehend militärischen Charakters und wurden in essay, staatlichen Forschungseinrichtungen entwickelt. Sat Score Essay? In deutlichem Gegensatz dazu handelt es sich bei Gentechnik, Nanotechnologie und Robotik um kommerziell genutzte Technologien, die fast ausschließlich von privaten Unternehmen entwickelt werden.

In unserer Zeit eines triumphierenden Kommerzialismus liefert die Technologie unter Zuarbeit der Wissenschaft - eine Reihe nahezu magischer Erfindungen, die Gewinne unerhörten Ausmaßes versprechen. Spatial? Aggressiv folgen wir den Versprechen dieser neuen Technologien innerhalb eines entfesselten, globalisierten Kapitalismus mit seinen vielfältigen finanziellen Anreizen und seinem Wettbewerbsdruck. Peut On Ne Soi Meme? Wir hätten aus dem Bau der ersten Atombombe und dem atomaren Wettrüsten, das darauf folgte, etwas lernen sollen. Organization Essay? Wir haben damals große Fehler gemacht, und die Parallelen zur gegenwärtigen Situation sind beängstigend. Politics V? Wie groß sind die Gefahren, die uns heute drohen, nicht nur von Atomwaffen, sondern von all diesen Technologien?

Wie groß ist das Risiko, dass wir uns selbst ausrotten? Der Philosoph John Leslie ist dieser Frage nachgegangen und dabei zu dem Schluss gelangt, dass die Gefahr einer Auslöschung der menschlichen Art bei 30 Prozent liegt, während Ray Kurzweil unsere Chance auf ein wenig mehr als 50:50 veranschlagt, wobei er allerdings einräumt, man sage ihm nach, ein unverbesserlicher Optimist zu sein. Spatial Essay? Diese Schätzungen sind nicht ermutigend, dabei berücksichtigen sie nicht einmal die Wahrscheinlichkeit vieler schrecklicher Szenarien, die nur in college essay how long, die Nähe einer Auslöschung kommen. Spatial Organization? Angesichts solcher Aussichten raten manche uns ernsthaft, die Erde möglichst bald zu verlassen. By Essay Politics S Soloviev V? Wir sollen mit von-Neumann-Sonden die Milchstraße kolonisieren und von einem Sonnensystem zum nächsten hüpfen. Organization? Dieser Schritt wird in s soloviev, etwa fünf Milliarden Jahren unvermeidlich sein (oder auch früher, wenn unserer Milchstraße in spatial essay, etwa 3 Milliarden Jahren mit der Andromeda-Galaxis kollidiert), doch wenn wir Kurzweil und Moravec beim Wort nehmen, könnte er schon in on education system in mauritius, der Mitte dieses Jahrhunderts erforderlich werden. Spatial? Welche moralischen Implikationen wären mit solch einem Schritt verbunden? Falls wir die Erde so bald schon verlassen müssen, um den Fortbestand der menschlichen Art zu sichern, wer übernimmt dann die Verantwortung für das Schicksal der Zurückbleibenden (und das werden die meisten sein)?

Und selbst wenn wir zu den Sternen flüchten, ist es nicht wahrscheinlich, dass wir die Probleme mit uns nehmen oder dass sie uns folgen? Unser Schicksal auf der Erde und unser Schicksal in sat score essay, der Galaxis scheinen unlösbar miteinander verbunden. Nach einer anderen Idee soll eine Reihe von Abwehrschilden gegen die Gefahren der einzelnen Technologien errichtet werden. Spatial? Die von der Reagan-Administration vorgeschlagene Strategic Defence Initiative war ein Versuch, solch einen Schild gegen einen möglichen atomaren Angriff der Sowjetunion zu schaffen. S Soloviev V? Arthur C. Organization? Clarke, der an sat score essay vielen vertraulichen Diskussionen zum Thema beteiligt war, sagte dazu: „Obwohl es möglich schien, unter gewaltigen Kosten ein lokales Verteidigungssystem zu schaffen, das ’nur’ einen kleinen Prozentsatz der ballistischen Raketen durchließ, war der vielgerühmte nationale Schutzschirm Unsinn.

Luis Alvarez, der wohl größte Experimentalphysiker unseres Jahrhunderts, sagte mir einmal, die Anhänger solcher Vorstellungen, seien ’sehr kluge Köpfe ohne jeden gesunden Menschenverstand’. Organization? Clarke meinte weiter: „Wenn ich in vandersypen thesis, meine oft getrübte Kristallkugel schaue, nehme ich an, dass ein vollständiges Verteidigungssystem vielleicht in spatial essay, hundert Jahren möglich sein wird. Application Essay How Long? Aber die dafür erforderliche Technologie würde als Nebenprodukt so schreckliche Waffen hervorbringen, dass niemand mehr einen Gedanken an spatial organization etwas so Primitive wie ballistische Raketen verschwenden würde. Thesis Belajar Mempengaruhi? In Engines of organization, Creation macht Drexler den Vorschlag, einen aktiven nanotechnologischen Schild - eine Art Immunsystem für die Biosphäre - zu schaffen, um uns vor gefährlichen Replikatoren jeglicher Art zu schützen, die aus Labors entkommen oder in on education system, bösartiger Absicht freigesetzt werden könnten. Organization Essay? Aber der Schild, den er vorschlägt, wäre gleichfalls mit gewaltigen Gefahren verbunden, weil niemand ausschließen könnte, dass er Autoimmunprobleme auslöste und die Biosphäre seinerseits angriffe. Auf ähnliche Schwierigkeiten stieße die Konstruktion von Schutzschilden gegen Robotik oder Gentechnik. By Essay Politics S Soloviev V? Diese Technologien sind zu mächtig, als dass wir uns in spatial essay, der zur Verfügung stehenden Zeit vor ihnen schützen könnten. College Essay? Und selbst wenn wir solche Schutzschilde entwickeln könnten, wären die Nebenwirkungen ihrer Entwicklung mindestens ebenso gefährlich wie die Technologien, vor denen sie uns schützen sollen. Essay? Diese Möglichkeiten sind also sämtlich entweder nicht wünschenswert oder nicht realisierbar oder beides zugleich.

Die einzig realistische Alternative, die ich sehe, lautet Verzicht: Wir müssen auf die Entwicklung allzu gefährlicher Technologien verzichten und unserer Suche nach bestimmten Formen des Wissens Grenzen setzen. Essay How Long? Mit der Gentechnik, der Nanotechnologie und der Robotik öffnen wir eine neue Büchse der Pandora, aber offenbar ist uns das kaum bewusst. Ideen lassen sich nicht wieder zurück in spatial essay, eine Büchse stopfen; anders als Uran oder Plutonium müssen sie nicht abgebaut und aufgearbeitet werden, und sie lassen sich problemlos kopieren. Essay? Wenn sie heraus sind, sind sie heraus. Essay? Churchill meinte einmal in sat score essay, seiner unnachahmlichen Art, die Amerikaner täten immer das Richtige, nachdem sie alle anderen Alternativen sorgfältig geprüft hätten. Spatial? In diesem Fall jedoch müssen wir mehr Voraussicht walten lassen; wenn wir das Richtige erst am Schluss tun, könnte es schon zu spät sein, überhaupt noch etwas zu tun. Teknik Pencapaian? Ich denke tatsächlich, die Situation war 1945 einfacher als heute. Essay? Bei den Nukleartechnologien konnte man kommerzielle und militärische Nutzung hinreichend klar voneinander trennen; die Überwachung war nicht schwer, weil Atomtests sehr auffällig sind und Radioaktivität leicht gemessen werden kann.

Die militärische Forschung lag in dissertation peut pas etre, den Händen staatlicher Forschungseinrichtungen wie Los Alamos, so dass die Ergebnisse sehr lange geheim gehalten werden konnten. Essay? Bei Gentechnik, Nanotechnologie und Robotik dagegen lassen kommerzielle und militärische Anwendung sich nur schwer trennen; angesichts ihres ökonomischen Potenzials kann man sich kaum vorstellen, dass nur staatliche Forschungseinrichtungen sich mit ihnen befassten. Thesis Teknik Belajar Mempengaruhi? Angesichts ihrer kommerziellen Bedeutung erforderte ein Verzicht Überwachungssysteme, wie man sie für biologische Waffen geschaffen hat, nur dass sie in spatial, diesem Fall ganz andere Größenordnungen annehmen müssten. Dadurch entstünden unvermeidlich Spannungen zwischen der Notwendigkeit einer unserem Schutz dienenden Überwachung und der Privatsphäre sowie dem Anspruch auf private Verfügungsgewalt über Informationen. Thesis Belajar Mempengaruhi Pencapaian? Gegen diesen Verlust an essay Freiheit wird es ohne Zweifel starke Widerstände geben. Sat Score Essay? Meine Begegnung mit Ray Kurzweil und John Searle liegt jetzt mehr als ein Jahr zurück. Spatial Organization Essay? Wenn ich mich umschaue, sehe ich einige Gründe zur Hoffnung: in essay, mahnenden Stimmen, die zu Vorsicht und Verzicht raten; in spatial, Menschen, die wie ich besorgt sind. Vandersypen Thesis? Auch fühle ich mich persönlich verantwortlich - nicht für die Arbeit, die ich schon getan habe, sondern für die Arbeit, die ich möglicherweise noch leisten werde an organization der Schnittstelle mehrerer Wissenschaften. Doch viele Menschen, die um die Gefahren wissen, bleiben schweigsam. Vandersypen? Spricht man sie darauf an, heißt es, das sei doch alles nicht neu - als wäre das Wissen um die möglichen Entwicklungen bereits Reaktion genug. Spatial Essay? Sie sagen, die Universitäten seien doch voll von Biochemikern, die sich den ganzen Tag mit diesen Dingen beschäftigen.

Sie sagen, darüber sei doch schon genug geschrieben worden, von Fachleuten, die Bescheid wüssten. Sat Score Essay? Sie klagen, meine Sorgen und Argumente seien ein alter Hut. Organization? Ich weiß nicht, wo diese Menschen ihre Angst verstecken. Politics S Soloviev V? Als Architekt komplexer Systeme betrete ich diese Arena ohne Vorurteile. Organization Essay? Sollte ich deswegen weniger besorgt sein? Ich weiß, dass aus berufenem Mund schon viel darüber geredet worden ist. Vandersypen Thesis? Aber hat es die Menschen erreicht? Meine Hoffnung richtet sich auf eine breite Diskussion der von mir hier angesprochenen Fragen.

Eine Diskussion mit Menschen aus den verschiedensten Lebensbereichen und in organization, einem Klima, das weder durch Technikangst noch durch blindes Vertrauen in thesis belajar, die Technik geprägt ist.

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Topic: Spatial Organization Of An …

7. Extracting Information from Text. For any given question, it's likely that someone has written the spatial organization essay, answer down somewhere. The amount of thesis, natural language text that is spatial organization essay available in electronic form is truly staggering, and is increasing every day. However, the complexity of application, natural language can make it very difficult to access the information in that text. The state of the art in NLP is still a long way from spatial organization being able to build general-purpose representations of meaning from thesis unrestricted text.

If we instead focus our efforts on a limited set of questions or entity relations, such as where are different facilities located, or who is employed by what company, we can make significant progress. The goal of this chapter is to essay, answer the following questions: How can we build a system that extracts structured data, such as tables, from unstructured text? What are some robust methods for identifying the sat score essay, entities and relationships described in a text? Which corpora are appropriate for spatial organization essay this work, and sat score essay how do we use them for training and evaluating our models? Along the way, we'll apply techniques from the last two chapters to the problems of chunking and spatial organization named-entity recognition.

If this location data was stored in Python as a list of peut on ne pas etre, tuples (entity, relation, entity) , then the question Which organizations operate in Atlanta? could be translated as follows: Companies that operate in Atlanta. Things are more tricky if we try to get similar information out of text. For example, consider the following snippet (from nltk.corpus.ieer , for fileid NYT19980315.0085 ). If you read through (1), you will glean the information required to answer the example question. But how do we get a machine to understand enough about (1) to organization, return the answers in 1.2? This is obviously a much harder task. Unlike 1.1, (1) contains no structure that links organization names with location names. One approach to this problem involves building a very general representation of meaning (10.). Thesis! In this chapter we take a different approach, deciding in advance that we will only look for very specific kinds of information in text, such as the spatial, relation between organizations and locations.

Rather than trying to on education in mauritius, use text like (1) to answer the question directly, we first convert the unstructured data of natural language sentences into the structured data of 1.1. Then we reap the benefits of powerful query tools such as SQL. This method of getting meaning from text is called Information Extraction . Information Extraction has many applications, including business intelligence, resume harvesting, media analysis, sentiment detection, patent search, and email scanning. A particularly important area of spatial organization, current research involves the attempt to extract structured data out of electronically-available scientific literature, especially in the domain of college essay, biology and medicine. 1.1 Information Extraction Architecture. 1.1 shows the architecture for a simple information extraction system. Spatial! It begins by processing a document using several of the procedures discussed in belajar 3 and 5.: first, the raw text of the document is split into sentences using a sentence segmenter, and each sentence is further subdivided into spatial organization words using a tokenizer. Next, each sentence is on education system in mauritius tagged with part-of-speech tags, which will prove very helpful in the next step, named entity detection . In this step, we search for spatial mentions of potentially interesting entities in each sentence.

Finally, we use relation detection to search for likely relations between different entities in the text. Figure 1.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for dissertation peut soi meme an Information Extraction System. Organization! This system takes the application how long, raw text of organization, a document as its input, and generates a list of (entity, relation, entity) tuples as its output. For example, given a document that indicates that the company Georgia-Pacific is thesis teknik belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian located in Atlanta, it might generate the tuple ([ORG: 'Georgia-Pacific' ] 'in' [LOC: 'Atlanta' ]) . To perform the spatial organization essay, first three tasks, we can define a simple function that simply connects together NLTK's default sentence segmenter , word tokenizer , and part-of-speech tagger : Remember that our program samples assume you begin your interactive session or your program with: import nltk, re, pprint. Next, in named entity detection, we segment and label the entities that might participate in interesting relations with one another. Typically, these will be definite noun phrases such as the knights who say ni , or proper names such as Monty Python . In some tasks it is useful to also consider indefinite nouns or noun chunks, such as every student or cats , and these do not necessarily refer to entities in the same way as definite NP s and proper names. Finally, in law morality politics s soloviev relation extraction, we search for specific patterns between pairs of spatial organization, entities that occur near one another in the text, and use those patterns to build tuples recording the relationships between the entities. The basic technique we will use for entity detection is belajar mempengaruhi chunking , which segments and labels multi-token sequences as illustrated in 2.1. The smaller boxes show the word-level tokenization and part-of-speech tagging, while the large boxes show higher-level chunking. Each of these larger boxes is called a chunk . Like tokenization, which omits whitespace, chunking usually selects a subset of the tokens. Also like tokenization, the pieces produced by a chunker do not overlap in the source text.

Figure 2.1 : Segmentation and Labeling at both the Token and Chunk Levels. In this section, we will explore chunking in some depth, beginning with the definition and representation of chunks. We will see regular expression and n-gram approaches to chunking, and will develop and spatial essay evaluate chunkers using the teknik belajar, CoNLL-2000 chunking corpus. We will then return in spatial (5) and essay on education system 6 to the tasks of spatial, named entity recognition and relation extraction. We will begin by considering the task of noun phrase chunking , or NP-chunking , where we search for chunks corresponding to sat score essay, individual noun phrases. For example, here is spatial some Wall Street Journal text with NP -chunks marked using brackets: As we can see, NP -chunks are often smaller pieces than complete noun phrases. For example, the market for thesis system-management software for Digital's hardware is a single noun phrase (containing two nested noun phrases), but it is spatial essay captured in NP -chunks by the simpler chunk the market . Vandersypen Thesis! One of the motivations for this difference is spatial essay that NP -chunks are defined so as not to contain other NP -chunks. Thesis! Consequently, any prepositional phrases or subordinate clauses that modify a nominal will not be included in the corresponding NP -chunk, since they almost certainly contain further noun phrases. One of the most useful sources of information for NP -chunking is part-of-speech tags. This is one of the motivations for organization essay performing part-of-speech tagging in our information extraction system.

We demonstrate this approach using an example sentence that has been part-of-speech tagged in 2.2. In order to create an NP -chunker, we will first define a chunk grammar , consisting of rules that indicate how sentences should be chunked. In this case, we will define a simple grammar with a single regular-expression rule . Application How Long! This rule says that an NP chunk should be formed whenever the chunker finds an essay, optional determiner ( DT ) followed by thesis any number of adjectives ( JJ ) and then a noun ( NN ). Using this grammar, we create a chunk parser , and test it on our example sentence . The result is organization essay a tree, which we can either print , or display graphically . Example 2.2 (code_chunkex.py) : Figure 2.2 : Example of sat score essay, a Simple Regular Expression Based NP Chunker. We can match these noun phrases using a slight refinement of the first tag pattern above, i.e. DT?JJ.**NN.*+ . Essay! This will chunk any sequence of tokens beginning with an optional determiner, followed by zero or more adjectives of any type (including relative adjectives like earlier/JJR ), followed by one or more nouns of any type. However, it is easy to find many more complicated examples which this rule will not cover: Your Turn: Try to come up with tag patterns to by essay politics v, cover these cases. Spatial Organization Essay! Test them using the graphical interface nltk.app.chunkparser() . Continue to refine your tag patterns with the help of the feedback given by this tool. 2.3 Chunking with Regular Expressions. To find the chunk structure for a given sentence, the RegexpParser chunker begins with a flat structure in which no tokens are chunked. The chunking rules are applied in turn, successively updating the chunk structure.

Once all of the rules have been invoked, the resulting chunk structure is sat score essay returned. 2.3 shows a simple chunk grammar consisting of spatial, two rules. Sat Score Essay! The first rule matches an optional determiner or possessive pronoun, zero or more adjectives, then a noun. The second rule matches one or more proper nouns. Organization! We also define an example sentence to be chunked , and run the chunker on this input . The $ symbol is a special character in regular expressions, and must be backslash escaped in order to match the tag PP$ . If a tag pattern matches at overlapping locations, the sat score essay, leftmost match takes precedence. For example, if we apply a rule that matches two consecutive nouns to a text containing three consecutive nouns, then only the first two nouns will be chunked: Once we have created the spatial, chunk for money market , we have removed the context that would have permitted fund to be included in a chunk. Sat Score Essay! This issue would have been avoided with a more permissive chunk rule, e.g. NP: . We have added a comment to each of our chunk rules. These are optional; when they are present, the chunker prints these comments as part of its tracing output. In 2 we saw how we could interrogate a tagged corpus to spatial, extract phrases matching a particular sequence of part-of-speech tags.

We can do the same work more easily with a chunker, as follows: Your Turn: Encapsulate the above example inside a function find_chunks() that takes a chunk string like CHUNK: as an argument. Use it to search the corpus for several other patterns, such as four or more nouns in a row, e.g. NOUNS: Sometimes it is easier to by essay v, define what we want to exclude from a chunk. We can define a chink to be a sequence of tokens that is not included in a chunk. In the following example, barked/VBD at/IN is a chink:

Chinking is the process of removing a sequence of tokens from spatial a chunk. If the matching sequence of thesis teknik mempengaruhi, tokens spans an entire chunk, then the spatial, whole chunk is removed; if the sequence of tokens appears in sat score essay the middle of the chunk, these tokens are removed, leaving two chunks where there was only spatial essay, one before. If the sequence is at dissertation, the periphery of the chunk, these tokens are removed, and organization essay a smaller chunk remains. These three possibilities are illustrated in 2.1. Three chinking rules applied to the same chunk. In 2.4, we put the entire sentence into a single chunk, then excise the chinks. 2.6 Representing Chunks: Tags vs Trees. Figure 2.5 : Tag Representation of sat score essay, Chunk Structures. IOB tags have become the standard way to represent chunk structures in files, and we will also be using this format. Here is how the information in 2.5 would appear in a file: In this representation there is one token per line, each with its part-of-speech tag and chunk tag.

This format permits us to represent more than one chunk type, so long as the chunks do not overlap. Essay! As we saw earlier, chunk structures can also be represented using trees. These have the benefit that each chunk is a constituent that can be manipulated directly. An example is shown in 2.6. Figure 2.6 : Tree Representation of Chunk Structures. NLTK uses trees for its internal representation of chunks, but provides methods for reading and vandersypen thesis writing such trees to spatial organization essay, the IOB format. 3 Developing and Evaluating Chunkers. Now you have a taste of what chunking does, but we haven't explained how to evaluate chunkers.

As usual, this requires a suitably annotated corpus. We begin by looking at the mechanics of converting IOB format into an NLTK tree, then at essay on education system in mauritius, how this is done on a larger scale using a chunked corpus. Organization Essay! We will see how to score the belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian, accuracy of a chunker relative to a corpus, then look at some more data-driven ways to search for NP chunks. Our focus throughout will be on expanding the organization essay, coverage of a chunker. 3.1 Reading IOB Format and the CoNLL 2000 Corpus. Using the corpus module we can load Wall Street Journal text that has been tagged then chunked using the IOB notation. Thesis! The chunk categories provided in spatial organization this corpus are NP , VP and PP . As we have seen, each sentence is by essay law morality politics s soloviev represented using multiple lines, as shown below: A conversion function chunk.conllstr2tree() builds a tree representation from one of these multi-line strings. Moreover, it permits us to choose any subset of the organization, three chunk types to use, here just for NP chunks: We can use the NLTK corpus module to essay, access a larger amount of chunked text. The CoNLL 2000 corpus contains 270k words of Wall Street Journal text, divided into train and test portions, annotated with part-of-speech tags and chunk tags in the IOB format.

We can access the data using nltk.corpus.conll2000 . Here is an example that reads the 100th sentence of the train portion of the corpus: As you can see, the CoNLL 2000 corpus contains three chunk types: NP chunks, which we have already seen; VP chunks such as has already delivered ; and spatial essay PP chunks such as because of . Since we are only application how long, interested in the NP chunks right now, we can use the chunk_types argument to select them: 3.2 Simple Evaluation and Baselines. Now that we can access a chunked corpus, we can evaluate chunkers. We start off by establishing a baseline for the trivial chunk parser cp that creates no chunks: The IOB tag accuracy indicates that more than a third of the words are tagged with O , i.e. not in an NP chunk. However, since our tagger did not find any chunks, its precision, recall, and f-measure are all zero. Now let's try a naive regular expression chunker that looks for tags beginning with letters that are characteristic of noun phrase tags (e.g.

CD , DT , and JJ ). As you can see, this approach achieves decent results. However, we can improve on it by adopting a more data-driven approach, where we use the training corpus to find the chunk tag ( I , O , or B ) that is most likely for each part-of-speech tag. In other words, we can build a chunker using a unigram tagger (4). Essay! But rather than trying to determine the sat score essay, correct part-of-speech tag for each word, we are trying to determine the spatial organization, correct chunk tag, given each word's part-of-speech tag. In 3.1, we define the philosophie peut, UnigramChunker class, which uses a unigram tagger to label sentences with chunk tags. Most of the code in spatial organization essay this class is simply used to convert back and forth between the chunk tree representation used by NLTK's ChunkParserI interface, and the IOB representation used by the embedded tagger. How Long! The class defines two methods: a constructor which is called when we build a new UnigramChunker; and the parse method which is used to chunk new sentences.

Example 3.1 (code_unigram_chunker.py) : Figure 3.1 : Noun Phrase Chunking with a Unigram Tagger. The constructor expects a list of training sentences, which will be in spatial the form of chunk trees. It first converts training data to a form that is suitable for training the tagger, using tree2conlltags to map each chunk tree to a list of word,tag,chunk triples. It then uses that converted training data to train a unigram tagger, and stores it in self.tagger for later use. The parse method takes a tagged sentence as its input, and sat score essay begins by extracting the part-of-speech tags from that sentence. It then tags the part-of-speech tags with IOB chunk tags, using the tagger self.tagger that was trained in the constructor.

Next, it extracts the spatial organization essay, chunk tags, and combines them with the original sentence, to yield conlltags . Finally, it uses conlltags2tree to convert the result back into philosophie on ne soi meme a chunk tree. Now that we have UnigramChunker , we can train it using the spatial organization, CoNLL 2000 corpus, and test its resulting performance: This chunker does reasonably well, achieving an overall f-measure score of essay in mauritius, 83%. Let's take a look at what it's learned, by organization essay using its unigram tagger to assign a tag to each of the part-of-speech tags that appear in the corpus: It has discovered that most punctuation marks occur outside of NP chunks, with the exception of # and $ , both of which are used as currency markers. On Education! It has also found that determiners ( DT ) and possessives ( PRP$ and WP$ ) occur at the beginnings of spatial organization, NP chunks, while noun types ( NN , NNP , NNPS , NNS ) mostly occur inside of NP chunks. Having built a unigram chunker, it is philosophie peut on ne pas etre quite easy to organization, build a bigram chunker: we simply change the class name to BigramChunker , and modify line in 3.1 to construct a BigramTagger rather than a UnigramTagger . The resulting chunker has slightly higher performance than the teknik belajar pencapaian, unigram chunker:

3.3 Training Classifier-Based Chunkers. Both the regular-expression based chunkers and the n-gram chunkers decide what chunks to create entirely based on part-of-speech tags. Organization Essay! However, sometimes part-of-speech tags are insufficient to determine how a sentence should be chunked. Application Essay How Long! For example, consider the following two statements: These two sentences have the same part-of-speech tags, yet they are chunked differently. In the first sentence, the farmer and organization rice are separate chunks, while the corresponding material in the second sentence, the computer monitor , is a single chunk. Clearly, we need to make use of information about the content of the sat score essay, words, in addition to just their part-of-speech tags, if we wish to maximize chunking performance. One way that we can incorporate information about the content of words is to organization essay, use a classifier-based tagger to chunk the sentence. Sat Score Essay! Like the n-gram chunker considered in the previous section, this classifier-based chunker will work by assigning IOB tags to the words in a sentence, and then converting those tags to spatial, chunks.

For the classifier-based tagger itself, we will use the vandersypen, same approach that we used in 1 to build a part-of-speech tagger. The basic code for the classifier-based NP chunker is shown in 3.2. It consists of two classes. The first class is almost identical to the ConsecutivePosTagger class from 1.5. The only two differences are that it calls a different feature extractor and that it uses a MaxentClassifier rather than a NaiveBayesClassifier . The second class is basically a wrapper around the spatial organization, tagger class that turns it into a chunker. During training, this second class maps the chunk trees in sat score essay the training corpus into spatial tag sequences; in the parse() method, it converts the soi meme, tag sequence provided by the tagger back into a chunk tree. Example 3.2 (code_classifier_chunker.py) : Figure 3.2 : Noun Phrase Chunking with a Consecutive Classifier. The only spatial organization, piece left to fill in is the college essay, feature extractor. We begin by defining a simple feature extractor which just provides the part-of-speech tag of the current token.

Using this feature extractor, our classifier-based chunker is spatial essay very similar to sat score essay, the unigram chunker, as is reflected in its performance: We can also add a feature for the previous part-of-speech tag. Adding this feature allows the classifier to model interactions between adjacent tags, and results in spatial a chunker that is philosophie peut on ne pas etre closely related to the bigram chunker. Next, we'll try adding a feature for the current word, since we hypothesized that word content should be useful for chunking. We find that this feature does indeed improve the chunker's performance, by about 1.5 percentage points (which corresponds to about a 10% reduction in the error rate). Finally, we can try extending the feature extractor with a variety of additional features, such as lookahead features , paired features , and spatial organization complex contextual features . This last feature, called tags-since-dt , creates a string describing the set of teknik belajar pencapaian, all part-of-speech tags that have been encountered since the most recent determiner, or since the beginning of the sentence if there is no determiner before index i . . Your Turn: Try adding different features to the feature extractor function npchunk_features , and see if you can further improve the performance of the NP chunker. 4 Recursion in Linguistic Structure.

4.1 Building Nested Structure with Cascaded Chunkers. So far, our chunk structures have been relatively flat. Essay! Trees consist of tagged tokens, optionally grouped under a chunk node such as NP . However, it is possible to build chunk structures of arbitrary depth, simply by creating a multi-stage chunk grammar containing recursive rules. 4.1 has patterns for noun phrases, prepositional phrases, verb phrases, and sentences. This is a four-stage chunk grammar, and can be used to create structures having a depth of at most four. Unfortunately this result misses the VP headed by saw . It has other shortcomings too. Let's see what happens when we apply this chunker to application essay, a sentence having deeper nesting. Notice that it fails to identify the VP chunk starting at . The solution to these problems is to get the chunker to loop over its patterns: after trying all of them, it repeats the process. Essay! We add an optional second argument loop to specify the number of times the set of patterns should be run: This cascading process enables us to create deep structures. However, creating and debugging a cascade is difficult, and there comes a point where it is more effective to do full parsing (see 8.).

Also, the cascading process can only produce trees of fixed depth (no deeper than the sat score essay, number of stages in the cascade), and this is insufficient for complete syntactic analysis. A tree is a set of connected labeled nodes, each reachable by spatial organization essay a unique path from a distinguished root node. Here's an example of a tree (note that they are standardly drawn upside-down): We use a 'family' metaphor to talk about the dissertation philosophie, relationships of nodes in spatial essay a tree: for example, S is the parent of VP ; conversely VP is a child of S . Also, since NP and VP are both children of S , they are also siblings . For convenience, there is sat score essay also a text format for specifying trees: Although we will focus on syntactic trees, trees can be used to encode any homogeneous hierarchical structure that spans a sequence of linguistic forms (e.g. morphological structure, discourse structure).

In the general case, leaves and node values do not have to be strings. In NLTK, we create a tree by giving a node label and a list of children: We can incorporate these into successively larger trees as follows: Here are some of the methods available for tree objects: The bracketed representation for complex trees can be difficult to read. Organization! In these cases, the draw method can be very useful.

It opens a new window, containing a graphical representation of the tree. The tree display window allows you to zoom in and out, to sat score essay, collapse and expand subtrees, and to print the graphical representation to a postscript file (for inclusion in a document). It is standard to spatial organization, use a recursive function to traverse a tree. The listing in 4.2 demonstrates this. Example 4.2 (code_traverse.py) : Figure 4.2 : A Recursive Function to Traverse a Tree. We have used a technique called duck typing to detect that t is a tree (i.e. t.label() is defined). At the start of this chapter, we briefly introduced named entities (NEs). Named entities are definite noun phrases that refer to specific types of individuals, such as organizations, persons, dates, and so on. 5.1 lists some of the more commonly used types of NEs. These should be self-explanatory, except for Facility: human-made artifacts in sat score essay the domains of architecture and organization civil engineering; and GPE: geo-political entities such as city, state/province, and country. Commonly Used Types of Named Entity.

The goal of a named entity recognition (NER) system is to identify all textual mentions of the mempengaruhi pencapaian, named entities. Essay! This can be broken down into two sub-tasks: identifying the boundaries of the NE, and identifying its type. While named entity recognition is frequently a prelude to identifying relations in Information Extraction, it can also contribute to other tasks. Politics V! For example, in Question Answering (QA), we try to organization essay, improve the precision of Information Retrieval by recovering not whole pages, but just those parts which contain an vandersypen thesis, answer to the user's question. Most QA systems take the documents returned by standard Information Retrieval, and spatial organization then attempt to isolate the minimal text snippet in the document containing the answer. Thesis! Now suppose the spatial organization essay, question was Who was the teknik belajar pencapaian, first President of the spatial organization essay, US? , and one of the documents that was retrieved contained the following passage: Analysis of the vandersypen thesis, question leads us to expect that an answer should be of the form X was the first President of the US , where X is not only a noun phrase, but also refers to organization essay, a named entity of type PERSON. This should allow us to ignore the first sentence in mempengaruhi the passage. Spatial Essay! While it contains two occurrences of Washington , named entity recognition should tell us that neither of them has the correct type.

Figure 5.1 : Location Detection by Simple Lookup for a News Story: Looking up every word in a gazetteer is error-prone; case distinctions may help, but these are not always present. Observe that the college, gazetteer has good coverage of locations in many countries, and spatial essay incorrectly finds locations like Sanchez in the Dominican Republic and On in Vietnam. Of course we could omit such locations from the gazetteer, but then we won't be able to identify them when they do appear in thesis a document. It gets even harder in the case of organization, names for by essay law morality people or organizations. Any list of such names will probably have poor coverage. New organizations come into existence every day, so if we are trying to deal with contemporary newswire or blog entries, it is unlikely that we will be able to recognize many of the entities using gazetteer lookup. Another major source of difficulty is caused by spatial organization essay the fact that many named entity terms are ambiguous. Thus May and North are likely to s soloviev, be parts of named entities for DATE and LOCATION, respectively, but could both be part of spatial organization, a PERSON; conversely Christian Dior looks like a PERSON but is more likely to be of type ORGANIZATION.

A term like Yankee will be ordinary modifier in some contexts, but will be marked as an entity of type ORGANIZATION in the phrase Yankee infielders . Further challenges are posed by multi-word names like Stanford University , and by names that contain other names such as Cecil H. Green Library and s soloviev Escondido Village Conference Service Center . In named entity recognition, therefore, we need to be able to identify the beginning and essay end of multi-token sequences. Named entity recognition is a task that is well-suited to essay, the type of classifier-based approach that we saw for noun phrase chunking. In particular, we can build a tagger that labels each word in a sentence using the IOB format, where chunks are labeled by their appropriate type. Here is part of the CONLL 2002 ( conll2002 ) Dutch training data: In this representation, there is one token per line, each with its part-of-speech tag and its named entity tag. Based on this training corpus, we can construct a tagger that can be used to label new sentences; and use the nltk.chunk.conlltags2tree() function to convert the tag sequences into a chunk tree. NLTK provides a classifier that has already been trained to essay, recognize named entities, accessed with the function nltk.ne_chunk() . If we set the parameter binary=True , then named entities are just tagged as NE ; otherwise, the classifier adds category labels such as PERSON, ORGANIZATION, and GPE.

Once named entities have been identified in a text, we then want to extract the relations that exist between them. Thesis Teknik Mempengaruhi! As indicated earlier, we will typically be looking for relations between specified types of named entity. One way of approaching this task is to spatial, initially look for all triples of the thesis, form ( X , ?, Y ), where X and Y are named entities of the required types, and ? is the string of words that intervenes between X and Y . We can then use regular expressions to pull out just those instances of ? that express the relation that we are looking for. The following example searches for strings that contain the word in . The special regular expression (?!b.+ingb) is a negative lookahead assertion that allows us to disregard strings such as success in supervising the transition of , where in is followed by a gerund. Searching for the keyword in works reasonably well, though it will also retrieve false positives such as [ORG: House Transportation Committee] , secured the most money in the [LOC: New York] ; there is spatial organization unlikely to be simple string-based method of excluding filler strings such as this. As shown above, the conll2002 Dutch corpus contains not just named entity annotation but also part-of-speech tags. This allows us to devise patterns that are sensitive to by essay law morality politics v, these tags, as shown in the next example.

The method clause() prints out the relations in a clausal form, where the binary relation symbol is specified as the value of spatial, parameter relsym . Your Turn: Replace the last line , by print (rtuple(rel, lcon=True, rcon=True)) . This will show you the actual words that intervene between the two NEs and vandersypen also their left and spatial organization right context, within a default 10-word window. With the help of a Dutch dictionary, you might be able to figure out why the result VAN( 'annie_lennox' , 'eurythmics' ) is a false hit. Information extraction systems search large bodies of unrestricted text for specific types of entities and relations, and use them to populate well-organized databases. These databases can then be used to college application essay, find answers for specific questions. The typical architecture for spatial essay an information extraction system begins by segmenting, tokenizing, and part-of-speech tagging the text. The resulting data is then searched for specific types of on education system in mauritius, entity.

Finally, the information extraction system looks at spatial, entities that are mentioned near one another in the text, and belajar mempengaruhi tries to determine whether specific relationships hold between those entities. Entity recognition is often performed using chunkers, which segment multi-token sequences, and label them with the appropriate entity type. Common entity types include ORGANIZATION, PERSON, LOCATION, DATE, TIME, MONEY, and GPE (geo-political entity). Chunkers can be constructed using rule-based systems, such as the RegexpParser class provided by organization essay NLTK; or using machine learning techniques, such as the ConsecutiveNPChunker presented in this chapter. In either case, part-of-speech tags are often a very important feature when searching for chunks. Dissertation Philosophie Peut Pas Etre Soi Meme! Although chunkers are specialized to organization essay, create relatively flat data structures, where no two chunks are allowed to overlap, they can be cascaded together to law morality politics v, build nested structures. Relation extraction can be performed using either rule-based systems which typically look for spatial organization specific patterns in the text that connect entities and the intervening words; or using machine-learning systems which typically attempt to learn such patterns automatically from a training corpus. Extra materials for this chapter are posted at http://nltk.org/ , including links to freely available resources on college how long, the web. For more examples of chunking with NLTK, please see the Chunking HOWTO at http://nltk.org/howto . The popularity of spatial organization essay, chunking is dissertation philosophie peut soi meme due in great part to pioneering work by Abney e.g., (Church, Young, Bloothooft, 1996).

Abney's Cass chunker is described in http://www.vinartus.net/spa/97a.pdf . The IOB format (or sometimes BIO Format ) was developed for NP chunking by (Ramshaw Marcus, 1995), and was used for the shared NP bracketing task run by the Conference on Natural Language Learning (CoNLL) in 1999. The same format was adopted by CoNLL 2000 for annotating a section of Wall Street Journal text as part of a shared task on NP chunking. Section 13.5 of (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) contains a discussion of spatial organization, chunking. Chapter 22 covers information extraction, including named entity recognition. For information about thesis, text mining in biology and medicine, see (Ananiadou McNaught, 2006). #9788; The IOB format categorizes tagged tokens as I , O and B . Why are three tags necessary? What problem would be caused if we used I and O tags exclusively? #9788; Write a tag pattern to match noun phrases containing plural head nouns, e.g. Spatial Organization! many/JJ researchers/NNS, two/CD weeks/NNS, both/DT new/JJ positions/NNS. Try to do this by generalizing the essay on education in mauritius, tag pattern that handled singular noun phrases. #9788; Pick one of the three chunk types in the CoNLL corpus. Inspect the essay, CoNLL corpus and try to politics, observe any patterns in the POS tag sequences that make up this kind of spatial organization essay, chunk.

Develop a simple chunker using the regular expression chunker nltk.RegexpParser . Discuss any tag sequences that are difficult to chunk reliably. #9788; An early definition of chunk was the material that occurs between chinks. Develop a chunker that starts by putting the whole sentence in a single chunk, and then does the rest of its work solely by chinking. Determine which tags (or tag sequences) are most likely to make up chinks with the help of your own utility program. Compare the performance and simplicity of dissertation philosophie peut, this approach relative to organization, a chunker based entirely on chunk rules. #9681; Write a tag pattern to cover noun phrases that contain gerunds, e.g. the/DT receiving/VBG end/NN, assistant/NN managing/VBG editor/NN. Sat Score Essay! Add these patterns to the grammar, one per spatial line. Test your work using some tagged sentences of your own devising. #9681; Write one or more tag patterns to handle coordinated noun phrases, e.g. Dissertation Philosophie Peut On Ne Pas Etre Soi Meme! July/NNP and/CC August/NNP, all/DT your/PRP$ managers/NNS and/CC supervisors/NNS, company/NN courts/NNS and/CC adjudicators/NNS. #9681; Carry out the following evaluation tasks for any of the chunkers you have developed earlier. (Note that most chunking corpora contain some internal inconsistencies, such that any reasonable rule-based approach will produce errors.) Evaluate your chunker on 100 sentences from a chunked corpus, and organization essay report the precision, recall and F-measure. Use the chunkscore.missed() and chunkscore.incorrect() methods to college application how long, identify the spatial essay, errors made by your chunker. Discuss. Compare the performance of your chunker to the baseline chunker discussed in the evaluation section of this chapter. #9681; Develop a chunker for one of the sat score essay, chunk types in the CoNLL corpus using a regular-expression based chunk grammar RegexpChunk . Use any combination of rules for chunking, chinking, merging or splitting. #9681; Sometimes a word is incorrectly tagged, e.g. the head noun in 12/CD or/CC so/RB cases/VBZ. Instead of requiring manual correction of tagger output, good chunkers are able to work with the erroneous output of spatial organization essay, taggers.

Look for other examples of correctly chunked noun phrases with incorrect tags. #9681; The bigram chunker scores about 90% accuracy. Study its errors and try to by essay law morality, work out why it doesn't get 100% accuracy. Spatial Organization! Experiment with trigram chunking. Are you able to improve the performance any more? #9733; Apply the by essay law morality, n-gram and Brill tagging methods to IOB chunk tagging. Instead of assigning POS tags to spatial organization essay, words, here we will assign IOB tags to the POS tags. E.g. if the dissertation, tag DT (determiner) often occurs at the start of a chunk, it will be tagged B (begin). Evaluate the spatial organization, performance of these chunking methods relative to the regular expression chunking methods covered in on education system this chapter. #9733; We saw in 5. Spatial Organization Essay! that it is possible to establish an upper limit to tagging performance by philosophie peut soi meme looking for ambiguous n-grams, n-grams that are tagged in more than one possible way in the training data. Apply the same method to determine an upper bound on spatial organization essay, the performance of an n-gram chunker. #9733; Pick one of the three chunk types in the CoNLL corpus. Write functions to do the following tasks for vandersypen thesis your chosen type: List all the organization, tag sequences that occur with each instance of teknik pencapaian, this chunk type. Spatial Organization Essay! Count the frequency of each tag sequence, and produce a ranked list in order of decreasing frequency; each line should consist of an philosophie pas etre, integer (the frequency) and the tag sequence.

Inspect the high-frequency tag sequences. Use these as the basis for developing a better chunker. Spatial Organization! #9733; The baseline chunker presented in sat score essay the evaluation section tends to create larger chunks than it should. For example, the phrase: [every/DT time/NN] [she/PRP] sees/VBZ [a/DT newspaper/NN] contains two consecutive chunks, and our baseline chunker will incorrectly combine the spatial organization essay, first two: [every/DT time/NN she/PRP] . Write a program that finds which of these chunk-internal tags typically occur at the start of a chunk, then devise one or more rules that will split up these chunks. Law Morality! Combine these with the existing baseline chunker and re-evaluate it, to spatial essay, see if you have discovered an improved baseline. Essay On Education In Mauritius! #9733; Develop an NP chunker that converts POS-tagged text into a list of tuples, where each tuple consists of a verb followed by a sequence of noun phrases and spatial organization prepositions, e.g. the little cat sat on the mat becomes ( 'sat' , 'on' , 'NP' ) . #9733; The Penn Treebank contains a section of tagged Wall Street Journal text that has been chunked into noun phrases. By Essay Law Morality Politics! The format uses square brackets, and we have encountered it several times during this chapter. The Treebank corpus can be accessed using: for spatial essay sent in nltk.corpus.treebank_chunk.chunked_sents(fileid) . These are flat trees, just as we got using nltk.corpus.conll2000.chunked_sents() . The functions nltk.tree.pprint() and nltk.chunk.tree2conllstr() can be used to create Treebank and IOB strings from a tree. Thesis Belajar! Write functions chunk2brackets() and essay chunk2iob() that take a single chunk tree as their sole argument, and return the required multi-line string representation. Essay In Mauritius! Write command-line conversion utilities bracket2iob.py and essay iob2bracket.py that take a file in Treebank or CoNLL format (resp) and peut soi meme convert it to spatial essay, the other format. (Obtain some raw Treebank or CoNLL data from the NLTK Corpora, save it to thesis teknik belajar, a file, and then use for line in open(filename) to access it from Python.) #9733; An n-gram chunker can use information other than the current part-of-speech tag and spatial essay the n-1 previous chunk tags.

Investigate other models of the context, such as the essay on education, n-1 previous part-of-speech tags, or some combination of previous chunk tags along with previous and following part-of-speech tags. #9733; Consider the organization essay, way an n-gram tagger uses recent tags to inform its tagging choice. Now observe how a chunker may re-use this sequence information. For example, both tasks will make use of the college application essay how long, information that nouns tend to essay, follow adjectives (in English). It would appear that the same information is on education system in mauritius being maintained in two places. Is this likely to become a problem as the size of the rule sets grows? If so, speculate about any ways that this problem might be addressed.

About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. It is spatial organization essay distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/]. This document was built on Wed 1 Jul 2015 12:30:05 AEST.

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Write a resume that will land you a programming job. Justin James lays out what he sees on a developer's resume that makes him say wow!. and what makes him say ugh! I usually read 5 - 20 resumes each week. Both my boss and I are extremely busy, so it's important that a programmer's resume grab our attention quickly by providing the right mix of necessary information with something that makes that person stand out from the pack. I've been involved with our hiring process for more than six months, so I feel fairly confident that I can distill what it takes for a programming resume to get me to say, Let's arrange an interview. Here are my tips for spatial organization essay, writing and organizing a pitch perfect programming resume. Keep in mind: I am not every hiring manager; also, all resumes go through our recruiters and HR department first. Moreover, regular readers know that some of my ideas fall a touch outside the norm when it comes to what makes a good developer. Reading the in-depth details of how you used mainstream skill XYZ to thesis teknik belajar, accomplish typical task ABC is spatial organization, not at law morality politics v, the top of my agenda.

I want to essay, see your skills up front, so I don't need to go trolling through your resume to see if you meet my minimum needs. Skip the summary and maybe even the objective. Those summaries are a waste of my time. It is essay on education, going to spatial essay, say something like seasoned IT pro with great communication skills or proven veteran with 10 years of programming experience. How do I know this? Because they all say this.

Skip it, please. The objective is a slightly different story; it is useful only if it informs the interviewer about something that the skills and experience does not. Vandersypen! The objective's relevance to me is largely a function of whether you wish to keep doing what you have been doing. If I see you have been programming — particularly at the data access layer and organization essay the business object layer — and there is no objective, I am going to vandersypen thesis, assume that you are looking for more of the same with a different employer or location. If you want to do more of that work and put an objective, you are wasting space. If you are looking for spatial organization, a change of pace — like getting more into the presentation layer or heading towards a management track — it's important to state that in your resume. Otherwise, we may discover during the dissertation philosophie peut on ne, interview that you are not interested in what we have to essay, offer.

Some IT hiring managers put a huge emphasis on certain educations but I do not. I always want you to list your school and your major, but I will only ask you about your education if there is something unusual or intriguing. For instance, a candidate with a Computer Science degree from MIT or with a PhD in Organic Chemistry will draw my eye because these degrees show a level of high intelligence. On the flipside, an AA in basket weaving or a lack of by essay law morality s soloviev v, a degree will not count against organization, you. In most cases, I am not even curious about your education until I have already made up my mind. This includes certifications — MCSEs and CCNAs do not impress me that much at this point.

They matter to some folks, and sat score essay they do not hurt you in my opinion, but I will only take that certification into organization essay account if all else is dissertation philosophie pas etre, equal. Even if my project is a run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven application (which it is not), I still want to see that you are more than someone with 10 years of experience writing run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven applications. For example, compare these two items: East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control machinery. The hardware interface was handled in spatial essay, a COM library that was written by another team. Application was robust and reliable. How Long! Wrote Web-based tool to track system faults.

Created Web service to allow partners to consume portions of the database. East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to organization essay, control nuclear reactor. Peut On Ne Pas Etre Soi Meme! Real-time control and monitoring of systems handling 10,000 unique data inputs per second. Organization Essay! Wrote advanced algorithms in C# to detect imminent system failure, which were used within a Web-based application. Created Web service in C# to dissertation, allow partners to access data in spatial essay, a secure, reliable, and thesis teknik mempengaruhi responsive manner; typical data set was 1,000,000 rows and concurrency challenges needed to organization essay, be overcome at the database and application layers. See the college, difference? Control machinery does not help me much — you could have been working on the elevator system for spatial, all I know. Programming a nuclear reactor impresses me, especially since there has not been any nuclear reactor disasters during your employment. Writing advanced algorithms in C# touches my engineer's heart; whereas writing a mere Web-based tool is ho hum. And, while writing a Web service is fairly simple, particularly in by essay law morality politics s soloviev, ASP.Net, it's not so easy to organization essay, write one that is law morality politics s soloviev v, secure, reliable, and organization responsive with that size of a data set.

It's also not easy to on education system in mauritius, deal with concurrency issues at two different levels. I am not saying that it needs to be wordy or full of minute details, but if you are doing work beyond what a summer intern could do, I need to know about it. Organization! Every developer has written a Web-based, data driven application. Thesis! Show me more. Make sure that your experience highlights your skills. I don't expect your employment history to include a list of spatial organization essay, all your skills. But if you are looking for work as a .Net developer, show me that you have done some .Net work. If you do not list that experience, I am going to assume that you have little or no experience with it — even if it is on your skill list.

If you have large amounts of experience outside of the workforce, find a way to show that on your resume. Keep your resume between two to application how long, four pages long. I have struggled through seven-page resumes filled with jargon and boring details that made me want to cry. An overly long resume doesn't necessarily make me rule out essay a candidate, but why make it hard on me? On the other hand, a resume that tries to stick to the one page rule is vandersypen, not going to cut it for spatial organization essay, a technical person unless they are new to the field. In my experience, two to four pages is just right. Also, please use some whitespace, so I do not feel like I am drowning.

While technical pros' resumes do not need to be pretty, formatting can make a huge difference in application essay how long, a resume's readability. If you cannot put three pages of text in front of me in a readable form, do I really want you touching the UI or writing code that someone else might have to maintain? I recommend that you stick to a larger font size (e.g., 10 - 12 pt.) in organization essay, a font that reads well onscreen and in print (e.g., Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Helvetica). If you want a slightly fancier font, use it only for section headers. Essay In Mauritius! Also, do not mix Serif and Sans Serif fonts — that is just ugly. Do not use Comic Sans anywhere, especially in organization essay, hot pink or baby blue (and yes, unfortunately, this needs to be stated). Keep your margins and space between paragraphs large enough to provide the reader some breathing room. I give applicants some slack on sat score essay, employment history. For instance, five year stints are fairly rare in IT, and I give anyone a lot of essay, leeway if their history includes anything that occurred during the dot com boom/bust. If you are (or were) a contractor or consultant, make sure that is clearly stated; otherwise, I will think that you get fired and/or quit every 3 - 12 months. If you were not a contractor or a consultant, and it looks like you have a hard time staying at a job, I am going to be very cautious.

If I see an increasing progression of job titles, mercenary pops into my head. Also, if I see that they are lateral (or worse, negative) moves, bad apple is my first thought. Of course, sometimes you get hit with a string of sat score essay, employers that go under or get acquired — it happens to the best of spatial organization essay, us. If that is the case, find a way to convey that information so I don't think you are unemployable. It is by essay law morality politics, critical that the spelling and grammar in your resume is flawless. Organization Essay! I have seen applicants misspell the philosophie pas etre soi meme, name of essay, their state and the name of their school. If grammar and spelling are not your forte, ask someone to look over your resume for dissertation pas etre, you. While I understand that many IT pros are not native English language speakers (or are English language speakers who paid little attention to those subjects in school), you should still ask someone for organization essay, help. In fact, knowing when to ask for help is a hallmark of the peut on ne soi meme, best developers.

If I interview you and realize from your speech that you had the spatial essay, sense and humility to sat score essay, ask someone for help on your resume, I am going to be truly impressed. Organization! (For examples of what not to do, check out this list of real-life resume blunders.) Stay out of EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) territory. In the United States, companies with more than 10 employees need to follow EEO rules. Sat Score Essay! These rules state that an employer cannot discriminate against or show preference for an employee based on spatial organization essay, certain group membership items or personal lifestyle issues, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nation of origin, religion, sexual orientation, and thesis pencapaian so on. So, do me a favor and try to spatial, not expose any EEO-related information to me on the resume.

In a face-to-face interview or even a phone interview, some of it will be unavoidable. But I will never solicit that information. Politics! Not only do I want to spatial essay, keep my employer and myself out of peut on ne, trouble, but I personally feel that EEO is important. I can understand that many names (or even college attended) are strongly correlated with ethnicity, religion, or nation (or at least general geographic region) of origin, and college graduation or attendance dates give some age clues. Minimize this as much as possible.

Please do not tell me about spatial essay, your church, your family situation, your home life, your parents, and so on. Sat Score Essay! It is spatial essay, not that I am not interested — I would probably love to learn these things about you if we hire you — but I do not need or want to know them before that you come on college, board. Outside interests, hobbies, achievements, and spatial organization activities. I like to see these, but only if they are relevant. Sat Score Essay! I really do not need to know about how big of a fan you are of the New York Knicks; but if you wrote a piece of software that can do something nifty with the team's statistics for fun, I would love to know about spatial essay, it. People who contribute to open source projects get a huge gold star in my book, but only if I feel like they would be comfortable working on proprietary software with proprietary tools, and not bringing anything GPL'ed into my codebase. That is thesis, a small caveat there. Contributed to project XYZ in the areas of organization, ABC and DEF is enough to whet my appetite.

Show me some outside learning too — don't let me think that you get home at 6;00 and shut off your brain. If this work is not interesting enough for thesis belajar pencapaian, you to read about or experiment with on your own time, why would I think that you will be engaged or even interested in spatial essay, the job we would hire you for? Please give me something meaty that we can discuss during the interview. So, where it is relevant, try to show me how much of by essay politics s soloviev, a nerd you are. For instance, try to mention the hovercraft you made from an spatial organization, inner tube and a lawn mower engine. Sat Score Essay! Make note of the iterative, evolutionary game theory system you coded in Lisp that proves that Nash's equilibrium is dead wrong. Tell me something about spatial organization essay, your three chess championship victories. I do not want to know that you memorized UHF or that you have a pocket protectors collection that have logos of now defunct minicomputer vendors. I know most of this falls under the thesis, previous section, but it is relevant. I love to work with programmers who love technology and logic and using their brains.

People like that are simply better programmers. Why would I want to hire someone who is spatial organization essay, intellectually lazy for by essay v, an intellectually challenging job? Obscure or nonmainstream technologies. I am not hiring Lisp, Prolog, Erlang, APL, Scheme, Clipper, PowerBuilder, Delphi, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, Python (forgive me for organization, including those four in sat score essay, this list), Fortran, Ada, Algol, PL/1, OCaml, F#, Spec#, Smalltalk, Logo, StarLogo, Haskell, ML, D, Cobra, B, or even COBOL (which is organization essay, fairly mainstream) developers. If you show these on your resume, I will want to dissertation peut soi meme, interview you just for the sake of slipping in a few questions about these items. I am serious. Spatial Organization! As part of my secret geekiness, I am really into by essay politics s soloviev v obscure and spatial organization almost obscure languages and thesis mempengaruhi pencapaian technologies.

I know that a lot of those items take better-than-industry-average intellect and experience to organization, do; they also provide a set of experiences that gives their practitioners a great angle on problems. While you will never directly use those skills in my shop, you will be using those ways of thinking, and it will give us something to talk about on your first day. ( Aside: A coworker was shocked to application essay how long, learn that I played Half Life. He said, You are such a ‘business person' — I never thought you played video games. I guess I'm camouflaging my secret geekiness too well!) I've given away crown jewels here. In my perspective, these tips will help any programmer write a perfect resume and get them an spatial essay, interview. What do you think gets applicants an interview? If you read resumes as either a hiring manager, a recruiter, or an HR employee, what makes you say wow! or ugh! when you see it on dissertation philosophie peut on ne, paper? Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent. Justin James is the spatial essay, Lead Architect for Conigent.

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3 Keys to Realizing Your Dreams and spatial organization, Goals. When it comes to manifesting our dreams and accomplishing our goals, there are three vital components that deserve our attention. Before we get into that, ask yourself the following question: Am I actively moving toward my goals and dreams every day? Everybody has dreams and most people have goals. If you want your goals and dreams to politics v become reality, you must move toward them consistently and spatial organization essay, purposefully. By nature, we always begin with distance between where we are and where we want to be. Our job is to narrow that distance until it no longer exists. To accomplish that, we need to draw our goals and college, dreams closer to essay us, while simultaneously moving toward them. Some people attempt to attract their goals without taking much action. Others choose to act on by essay law morality v, their goals, but without the added advantage of also drawing those goals to spatial organization essay them. Law Morality Politics S Soloviev V? Action alone can bring positive results, but it is much faster to combine the two techniques.

For the spatial essay sake of clarity, let’s differentiate between dreams and wishful thinking. In some conversations, the two might be interchangeable. Not so in this case. When I talk about dreams, I am really talking about highly desirable goals, future realities that we fully intend to belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian realize. For our purposes, a dream is something that we are willing to work toward, and are determined to spatial organization essay manifest, just like a goal. What kind of dreams and vandersypen, goals do you have? When you project your thoughts into the future, how do you see things? Do you see a variety of positive changes across the full spectrum of your life? Do you see yourself healthier, wealthier, and wiser?

Are you willing to move toward that vision in spatial organization, order to realize it? If so, then this is really a highly desirable goal, and that is exactly the by essay kind of dreams we are talking about today. 3 ways to move toward the spatial essay realization of your dreams. 1) Total clarity. Before we do anything else, you need to clearly define exactly what your dreams or goals are. This is not the time to deal in generalities; you need to be very specific. One of the best ways for you to get really clear is to essay on education system in mauritius write down a detailed description of exactly what you want to accomplish. Writing things down requires that you get a well defined mental image first. The very process of putting your thoughts into words creates clarity.

This clarity will help you form a vivid mental image that you can carry around with you 24 hours a day. Most of the time your personal reference to your goals and dreams will be that mental image, but you will also be able to refer back to the written description to help you maintain clarity. One of the organization essay most powerful things you can include when writing down your goals and dreams is how they make you feel. The feelings you attach to the things you intend to accomplish are your greatest source of motivation and energy. So, be sure to include your feelings in your written description. Think carefully about each aspect of this future reality. Politics S Soloviev? How does it make you feel? What emotional anchors resonate with each detail? Write them down. As you read back through your written description, allow yourself to experience those feelings and get emotionally involved in the picture. When you conjure up this mental image of how your life is going to be, fully experience it on an emotional level.

This is the organization essay true power of having clearly defined goals and dissertation philosophie pas etre, dreams, and identifying your emotional attachments to them. 2) Take action. Now that you can see and feel your goals and dreams with clarity, it’s time to begin moving toward them. What steps do you need to take to spatial essay move you closer to realizing these dreams? What sequence do those steps need to be in to produce your intended result? What action can you take each and every day to keep you moving in the right direction? Once again, writing these things down will produce clarity.

It is much easier to take action when you know what actions need to be taken. Reaching your goals means that you need to take the proper actions at the right time. There is a natural sequence that will produce your intended result. Following the right sequence allows events to unfold in a very productive way. Always take time to college application how long create an organization essay, action plan. Not only will it keep you moving in the right direction, but it will also allow you to anticipate what comes next. Of course, we can’t anticipate everything, and politics, we need to spatial essay be willing to dissertation on ne pas etre soi meme make adjustments along the spatial organization essay way.

That’s the beauty of having an how long, action plan, it allows us to be flexible without getting too far off course. So, even though we will need to make minor adjustments, a plan keeps us heading in th direction of your dreams until we reach them. 3) Attract your dreams to you. Now that you know exactly where you are going, how you feel about it, and spatial organization, how you are going to get there, what’s next? When we started out there was distance between you and sat score essay, the dreams and goals you are working toward. You have been actively closing that distance by moving toward your vision for the future. Now, it’s time to spatial organization draw your dreams toward you. How can you do that? It’s really just a matter of perspective.

Up until now, you have been projecting yourself into this vision that exists in the future, but let’s reverse that. Thesis? Instead of projecting yourself into a future reality, allow yourself to receive that reality in the present tense. See yourself as stationary and your goals and dreams as moving toward you, and then let them surround and essay, engulf you. Peut On Ne? Wrap yourself up in them like a giant blanket. Feel the joy of receiving that vision. Imagine how wonderful it feels to have the reality of that vision totally permeate your life right now. Feel your dreams realized in the here and now. Spatial Essay? *** If part of your dreams was a beautiful new home, don’t see it from the outside; see yourself in the middle of that beautiful dream house. See yourself living there, going about your daily activities, feeling completely at home and comfortable. System? See yourself as a full participant, not a spectator. Organization? *** If you have been actively moving toward a new career, visualize yourself actually performing the duties of application, that career. Again, don’t see it from the spatial organization outside as a spectator would.

If your new career involves a desk, a computer, and a telephone, put yourself there. Look at the screen, answer the sat score essay phone, lean back in that amazingly comfortable leather chair – participate! Always harness the power of a 3 dimensional approach. By employing all three of these techniques, your dreams will become your realities much faster than you may have thought possible. Nothing in life is organization essay, one-dimensional. The quicker you shorten the distance between where you are and where you want to be, the more empowered you become. This approach allows you to essay on education in mauritius override the spatial organization perceived limitations of essay, time and space, and to more fully comprehend your own ability to manifest your dreams and organization, goals. Politics S Soloviev? What do you think about this approach?

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Essential Job Skills Essays and spatial organization essay Research Papers. Skills are just something that you are good at or they are a part of you. Everybody in the world has a skill , but sometimes they . Thesis? are hard to organization essay find. When employers look for some one to philosophie soi meme hire they are looking for people with specific skills to fit the spatial organization essay, job . Each job has different skills that are accompanied with each job , but there are four main areas in which all employers look for when they want to hire somebody. They are: basic skills , thinking skills , people skills , and most importantly personal qualities. Employment , Interpersonal skills , Learning 1696 Words | 5 Pages. plan activities carry them through effectively FLEXIBILITY 9 Adapt successfully to sat score essay changing situations environments TIME MANAGEMENT 10 Manage time . effectively, prioritising tasks and able to work to deadlines. Other skills that were also seen as important GLOBAL SKILLS Able to spatial organization speak and thesis understand other languages. Appreciation of other cultures. See Study and spatial organization essay work placements outside the UK Working Abroad NEGOTIATING PERSUADING Able to influence and convince others, to discuss. Awareness , Educational psychology , Management 330 Words | 3 Pages.

?Abstract Leadership is philosophie peut on ne pas etre soi meme based on a plethora of skills that assist in reaching specific goals. Spatial Organization Essay? It is hard to choose specific . skills that are more important than others. I have selected five that I feel are the most important when dealing with leadership. In order to create a successful team you have to choose the skills that you’d like to add to your own list. The following skills are what I look for in my management team. Essay System? Determining specific skills that make an essay, outstanding leader is quite a. Confidence , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 1581 Words | 4 Pages. For this unit I will be looking at the different types of skills you will need for a specific job role. I have chosen to do . trainee business manager for my job role and I will look at the different employability, communication and sat score essay personal skills that McDonalds might required for the job . Employability skills Qualifications When applying for a trainee business manager’s job at McDonalds they ask you do you have any GCSE’S in maths and organization essay English.

They also ask you are they A* TO C or D. Communication , Grammar , Leadership 656 Words | 3 Pages. Essential English Skills Through Computers. ESSENTIAL ENGLISH SKILLS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION THROUGH COMPUTERS ABSTRACT Now a days it is essential for . the engineering students to learn the language skills which are helpful to develop their career in college application essay, a good company. According to the job requirements in spatial, the industries today, they are supposed to learn to essay system in mauritius communicate with other in a flawless language, with confidence, and with a good body language. It is the responsibility of the institutions to give them training to get good opportunities. Communication , Education , English language 1195 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative: Skill and On-the-job Training.

present. First day of training is a big challenge for me, I must consider all . the essay, policies and procedure in a particular department. Also a challenge to meet their expectations as IT student. I must bring all ideas I had. During my training on-the- job -training, I push to thesis work better.. That was a big challengefor the spatial, me. I was only a trainee, so the supervisor must supervise us and not to let us handle a situation than he didn’t know. And because of that, I learned to put a dedication to my work. Practice , Profession , Skill 1847 Words | 6 Pages. Essential Assessment Skills Ch 1. Intro to assessment Assessment is the foundation for treatment Helps you uncover client . Essay? expectations Helps you understand how problems manifest and spatial organization impact your client’s lives Helps you figure out college, why the essay, problem exists Helps you select the best treatment for college application essay how long, your client Helps you evaluate how quickly therapy is bringing about change Challenges of doing an spatial, effective assessment Beginning therapists may feel overwhelmed with the amount of info that is.

Educational psychology , Family therapy , Mental health 696 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing: Essential Knowledge, Skills and thesis teknik belajar Attitudes. Nursing: Essential Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Introduction Nursing is not just a collection of tasks. To provide safe . and spatial organization effective care to the clients, nurses must integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes to make sound judgement and college how long decisions. This essay describes some of the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes of nursing and essay discusses why they are essential attributes of a competent nurse. Nursing knowledge and clinical skills These are obvious essentials for nursing practice. Critical thinking , Ethics , Florence Nightingale 1091 Words | 4 Pages.

Examination 65 Essential Web Publishing Skills EXAMINATION NUMBER: 08301500 Whichever method you use in submitting . your exam answers to the school, you must use the belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian, number above. For the quickest test results, go to http://www.takeexamsonline.com When you feel confident that you have mastered the spatial organization essay, material in college essay how long, this study unit, complete the following examination. Then submit only your answers to the school for grading, using one of the examination answer options described in your “Test. Copy editing , Editing , Graphic design 822 Words | 4 Pages. What Are the Essential Skills to Be Possessed by a Manager? Q:-What are the essential skills to organization be possessed by a manager? A:- In order to perform your role as a good manager, you need to teknik belajar mempengaruhi . possess and exhibit a range of skills to plan, control, organize, lead and take decisions of an organization essay, organization. In this article I am giving a brief idea of belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian those unique set of skills needed for a professional manager. Planning skills It’s often needed to define the organization, future of an organization. Managers must be able to vandersypen ensure that his company does exist in the future. Control , Decision making , Leadership 922 Words | 4 Pages.

Employability Skills * Experience in spatial organization, the job - if they already have experience they have a better advantage as they don't need . training and they have the knowledge they need to teknik mempengaruhi complete the job . For example - if applying to be an administrative assistant experience is preferred as you training and they have the knowledge they need to complete the organization essay, job . For example -. Knowledge , Learning , Skill 1246 Words | 4 Pages. Job Title | Description | Skills Required (list at least five skills , three of which are specific . skills in the field of criminal justice). | Why are the skills listed needed to succeed in the position? | Forensic Science Technicians | * Walk through and teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian determine what and organization how evidence should be collected. Sat Score Essay? * Take photographs * Make sketches of the crime scene * Keep notes of spatial organization essay observations amp; findings * Collect physical evidence such as weapons, fingerprints, DNA, bodily fluids *. Crime , Critical thinking , Federal Bureau of Investigation 950 Words | 3 Pages. of Job Analysis • Job Description: is a statement indicating what a job entails, what the jobholder does, . how it is done, under what condition and why. It includes ? Job title ? Job identification ? Job duties or essential functions ? Job specifications • Job specification: is a statement indicating the minimal acceptable qualifications incumbents must possess to essay on education in mauritius successfully perform the essential elements of their jobs . Spatial Essay? . Employment , Human resource management , Job description 281 Words | 3 Pages.

Unit 301: Adults and Young People as Essential Skills Learners Essential skills play a fundamental . part in everyone’s lives no matter who you are. On Education System In Mauritius? Essential Skills are the skills that people need for learning, work and life. They are used in the community and the workplace, in different forms and at different levels of complexity. Essential Skills provide the organization essay, foundation for learning all other skills and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to workplace change. They are needed for. Discrimination , Education , Educational psychology 2784 Words | 9 Pages. Skills Management and Conceptual Skills. need three basic and important skills : technical, human and conceptual. College Application Essay How Long? What is more, these three skills are relatively . essential to managers who are at different levels that include first-line, middle, top management positions. Spatial Essay? There will be a discussion about the importance of belajar mempengaruhi pencapaian conceptual skills that are needed by all managers at spatial organization, all levels, especially by top level of managers. The purpose of this essay is to sat score essay identify and discuss the spatial organization essay, importance of conceptual skills that top managers are required.

Conceptual art , Leadership , Management 1707 Words | 5 Pages. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS What are employability skills ? Employability skills are non-technical or generic . skills , such as communication, team work and problem solving, which contribute to your ability to be an effective and successful participant in the workplace. They are sometimes referred to as key, core, life, essential , or soft skills . Unlike many technical skills , employability skills are transferable between jobs . Given the sat score essay, value employers place on organization, workplace experience, entry-level positions. Communication , Employment , Job 795 Words | 4 Pages. Transferable Skills ? We all have “learned” abilities and college “natural” abilities. Learned abilities are our skills and natural . abilities are our talents. Spatial Organization Essay? So what are Transferable skills or job -related skills ? Simply put, transferable skills are the skills and abilities you have acquired during any activity in your life – your jobs , classes, projects, volunteer work, parenting, hobbies, sports, virtually anything – that are applicable to what you want to do in your next job . Sat Score Essay? Learned abilities are skills you develop. Human resources , Leadership , Learning 1394 Words | 5 Pages.

The Effects of Business Education Skills and Staff Job Performance. The Effects of Business Education Skills and Staff Job Performance The main purpose of this research is to investigate the . relationship between business Education Skill and Staff Job Performance in government establishment. The underlying philosophy is the need for management to essay acknowledge and openly accept that skills development is one of the teknik pencapaian, commitment-based strategies that can be utilized to enhance organizational performance. Based on these, the study recommends that: i. Essay? Employees. Employment , Human resource management , Learning 1238 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: Staffing Organizations – Job Descriptions Maintaining Job Descriptions Sharon Chambers Strayer University . Dr.

Annette West July 24 , 2011 Current Issue The InAndOut, Inc., company provides warehousing and fulfillment services to small publishers of books with small print runs. Sat Score Essay? After the books are printed and spatial organization essay bound at a printing facility, they are shipped to essay system in mauritius InAndOut for handling. The owner and president of InAndOut, Inc., Alta Fossom is independently wealthy and. At-will employment , Employment , Job description 1464 Words | 7 Pages. High Schools and Jobs “My Mom says that I have to get a chance to enroll in a university after I graduate!” This was my answer when my . Spatial Organization? classmates asked me in high school. On Ne Pas Etre Soi Meme? I was a normal student at that time, so I did not know if it would be better to work or continue studyingin a post-secondary education. I really thank my Mom who showed me the best way for my life at this time.My situation is similar to the high school students now. While the quality of the U.S. Organization Essay? high schools are rated as the good.

College , Graduation , High school 867 Words | 3 Pages. Organizational Structure Because our restaurant manager requires a new restaurant supervisor instead of a person leaving the job , I conduct . a job analysis to vandersypen assist selection. JOB ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE | JOB TITLE : Restaurant Supervisor DEPARTMENT : Hotel restaurant ANALYST'S NAME : Claire ANALYSIS DATE : 5th April | Purpose | What is the purpose of this position? | Responsible for assisting the restaurant manager in organization, managing three. Customer , Customer service , Employment 1314 Words | 5 Pages. ?SOFT SKILLS Soft skills is a term often associated with a person's EQ (Emotional Intelligence Quotient), the cluster of . Sat Score Essay? personality traits, social graces, communication, language, personal habits, friendliness, and optimism that characterize relationships with other people. Soft skills complement hard skills which are the occupational requirements of a job and spatial organization essay many other activities. They are related to college how long feelings, emotions, insights and (some would say) an 'inner knowing': i.e. they provide an. Communication , Emotional intelligence , Interpersonal skills 1228 Words | 4 Pages. whether the work and spatial essay skills of a manager are the same regardless of the level of their position within the dissertation peut, organization.

Through research . conducted into three main theorists namely Henri Fayol, Henry Mintzberg and Robert L. Katz it is concluded that the spatial organization essay, core work functions a manager does are the same irrespective of position. The work roles in sat score essay, which a manager occupies within the organization are dependent upon spatial organization essay, the organization and their position within the organization. The skills that are needed by. Control , Goal , Henri Fayol 1867 Words | 6 Pages. documentation produced in order to recruit new staff, including job descriptions, person specifications, advertisements and by essay law morality s soloviev v application forms. Essay? . Sat Score Essay? It is important to understand what these documents contain and the reasons for this information.

You need to collect examples from the coffee industry for each of the below. You could look for a manager, barista, cleaner or similar position for any of the coffee companies. Spatial Organization? Job AdvertThis is a job advert which provides the application essay how long, necessary information for a cafe manager. Barista , Coffee , Coffeehouse 2277 Words | 6 Pages. Essential skills : • Minimum of 3 years solid industry experience I used to essay work as a graphic designer and application essay Jn.

Creative Art . Director 4 years for a advertisement agency called ArtPeople when I was in Istanbul, Turkey. • Web experience required During the studying and working, I have designed some websites. • Proficient with Adobe CS tools and organization Flash I have Illustrator, Photoshop, Indesign and Flash skills . • Exceptional creative ability When I was working for ArtPeople Istanbul, I was. Adobe Creative Suite , Art director , Creativity 403 Words | 2 Pages. Job Descriptions Brenda Harris PSY 302 April 14, 2013 Gary Boyles Job Description Job descriptions are one . Essay On Education System In Mauritius? of the most important tools employers can use to articulate the most important outcomes needed from spatial organization their employees. Sat Score Essay? They are essentially a tool to organization tell the employee or potential employee where their job leaves off and jobs of other employees begin. They tell the employee exactly where their job fits in within their department and the company as a whole. They also help other employees. Accountancy , At-will employment , Cost 893 Words | 4 Pages.

Managerial Skills Management is sat score essay a challenging job . It requires certain skills to accomplish such a challenge. . Thus, essential skills which every manager needs for doing a better management are called as Managerial Skills . Spatial? According to Professor Daniel Katz, there are three managerial skills , viz., 1. Conceptual Skills , 2. Human Relations Skills , and 3. Technical Skills . According to Prof. By Essay Politics S Soloviev V? Daniel Katz, all managers require above three managerial skills . However, the spatial essay, degree (amount). Decision making , Leadership , Management 629 Words | 3 Pages. Job Analysis Heather Murphy PSY302: Industrial/Organizational Psychology Instructor Ioannis Papazafiropoulos September 22, 2014 . Job Analysis Creating a job analysis is an by essay politics s soloviev v, important step that needs to be taken in order to create an effective job description. A job analysis will generally include information regarding job tasks/responsibilities, worker requirements, and contextual factors. Implementing this type of information will allow you to create a more successful job description. Employment , Industrial and spatial organization essay organizational psychology , Job description 1216 Words | 7 Pages. Leadership Assignment - 1,500 words Leadership is a skill that anyone can learn and successfully apply Discuss. College Application Essay? Nothing happens . without leadership. Nothing changes without leadership. Organization Essay? Nothing develops without leadership.

Nothing improves without leadership. Nothing is corrected without leadership. Everyone, everywhere, every time is always being led. Leadership is perpetually exercised daily whether by a politician, priest, parent, boss or teacher. Leaders are not born. They are made through. Fiedler contingency model , Kurt Lewin , Leadership 1557 Words | 5 Pages. environment, which made me think out of the box as well. The most important thing after gathering data and college before starting the project was planning and . organising the spatial essay, project with in time frame and fulfilling OBU requirement along that. This required my skills of project management which I had acquired during the college how long, high school. I categorised the spatial organization, project into several activities and system steps, made my detailed planning as well as made critical path to achieve the objectives.

Since I attempted all of my papers. Annual report , Communication , Fundamental analysis 1856 Words | 5 Pages. Academic skills Academic skills are a collection of study habits, learning strategies, and time management tools that help . students learn and absorb school lessons. For most students, learning is about much more than access to information. Teachers often include academic skills in their lessons in order for students to really master certain concepts. These skills not only benefit the students when it comes time to take tests, but can also help in the future: solid study skills are essential for spatial organization, college. Academia , College , Education 749 Words | 3 Pages.

Job Description Letha Tolbert BUS/303 Tonya James July 29, 2012 Job Description Job descriptions are . necessary to define the required knowledge, skills , responsibilities, training, experience, certification or licensure, and outline of reporting for vandersypen, a specific job within an organization. Carolyn Youssef (2012), states that “a job description identifies characteristics of the job to be performed in terms of the tasks, duties, and spatial responsibilities to be fulfilled” (The Job Analysis section. Certified Nursing Assistant , Human resource management , Human resources 1028 Words | 4 Pages. Preliminary Economics Skills Shortage Essay. The skills shortage issue in the Australian labour market is law morality politics very apparent. In any case, the organization, reasons as to why this is by essay s soloviev occurring always relates . to factors of change. These factors of organization change include; the dissertation pas etre, general economic conditions, conditions in the firms industry, changes in technology, the ageing population, the demand for labour, and the education, skills and experience of workers. The government investigates ways in essay, which they can protect the Australian economy and sat score essay the Australian workforce. Spatial? This.

Australia , Australian Labor Party , Employment 1047 Words | 4 Pages. Guidelines for Writing a Competency Based Job Description. Guidelines for Writing a Competency Based Job Description OVERVIEW A job description serves several purposes: • • • • Provides . essential information for assigning the vandersypen thesis, appropriate pay grade, job function and/or title for organization essay, the job , Assists in recruiting efforts for screening and interviewing, Identifies the essential functions of the by essay politics s soloviev, job based on job specific competencies, and spatial organization essay Provides the incumbent an understanding of the primary accountabilities, duties and responsibilities they are expected to. Employment , Job description , Performance 1544 Words | 6 Pages. communication skill . Its design rests on two assumptions. First, for a person to improve as a communicator, instruction must be individualized, . based on repeated opportunities for practice and feedback. To create this condition MGC breaks from traditional business school conventions. It requires only essay on education in mauritius single-author writing projects, convenes small groups in conference room settings for spatial organization, individual presentations, and employs an action-based workshop format for developing team management skills . The. Communication , Simeon the Righteous 1222 Words | 7 Pages. Robots have been used all over the world to help make dangerous or even long labored jobs a simple task (Reaching).

They work in mines, . industrial factories, consumer goods factories, and many more places. Robots are also used as personal hobbies, as seen in many movies, shows, etc (Schoeffler). Robots have existed for over 80 years and there potential is system only growing more and organization more (Robot). Robots are essential to the world we live in today, because of sat score essay all the different things they are used for. Automobile , Encyclop?dia Britannica , Human 1463 Words | 4 Pages. ? Skills Characteristics of Mental Health Human Services Workers BSHS/471 December 24, 2013 Skills . Organization Essay? Characteristics of Mental Health Human Services Workers Personal characteristics of a human services professional can be both essential and detrimental for success. Essential characteristics of a professional do not make the by essay law morality politics s soloviev, job easier. However, they create a higher tendency for spatial essay, the professional to work successfully with clients. An open-minded professional recognizes differences. Practice-based professional learning , Professional , Psychology 1154 Words | 4 Pages. middle managers and vandersypen thesis top managers.

Each of the spatial organization essay, three managers has different specific ability required. This essay focuses on top-level managers and what are . the skills necessary for college essay, top-level manager or Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). This thesis will also identifies the spatial, three types of sat score essay managerial skill and compares Katz theory of Managerial Skills with Minzberg theory of Managerial Roles. Chief executives officers (CEOs) are certainly responsible enough for their position in the firm. “Top managers. Administration , Chief executive officer , Corporate governance 1675 Words | 6 Pages.

organizations. Essay? Carlopio and application essay how long Andrewartha (2012) introduce ten main key skill areas for managers, namely managing stress, self-awareness, . effective communication, problem solving, power influence, conflict and spatial organization negotiation, motivation, empowering and peut delegation, effective change management and spatial essay building teams. Out of college application these, the organization, purpose of sat score essay this paper is to address the spatial organization, importance of effective communication as a management skill . It will incorporate the concepts provided by vandersypen Antonakis et al (2012) and. Authority , Charisma , Charismatic authority 1508 Words | 7 Pages. Job Analysis and Job Specification. one of spatial organization essay job for this project (the job must be difference with the presentation assignment), after that: 1. Arrange . By Essay V? job description, job analysis and job specification 2. Essay? Specify the sat score essay, source to get the prospective candidate 3. Specify the selection tools for the candidate (like test, etc) 4. Arranges 5 questions for each types of question (situational interview, behavioral interview, job related interview and stress interview) I. Job Description, , job analysis and job specification . Dental assistant , Dental auxiliary , Dental implant 2126 Words | 7 Pages. Essential of Motoric Development in Life Skill Exercise. The Essentials of Motor Development in Practical Life By: Intan Rahmanita If teaching is to spatial organization essay be effective with young children, it must . assist them to advance on the way to independence. It must initiate them into application how long, those kinds of activities, which they can perform themselves.

We must help them to learn how to spatial organization walk without assistance, to run, to go up and down the stairs, to pick up fallen objects, to dress and undress, to wash themselves, to essay on education system in mauritius express their needs, and to organization attempt to satisfy their. Fine motor skill , Maria Montessori , Montessori method 2316 Words | 7 Pages. Review on Clinical Safety Specialist Job Analysis Review job Analysis of the job description . proper contents or lack there of: Identifying Top essential function of the job , determine the appropriateness of these function, identify the function that is missing or incomplete, educational level, certificates etc. Safety or other aspect deem important to do this job Human resource professionals use job descriptions and by essay law morality politics s soloviev job analyses as basic building blocks for many human resource. Adverse event , Clinical research , Clinical trial 1259 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Math Skills In Manufacturing. Importance of Math Skills In Manufacturing The importance of spatial organization mathematical skills is extremely evident in the field of . manufacturing. In many cases, jobs in manufacturing revolve around math and the skills that come along with it. Often the essay on education system in mauritius, success of manufactured products depend on the correctness of several different fields of organization math that are used in the processes that take place in a plant.

The financial success of a manufacturer can also often depend on mathematical skills . Between the. Calculation , Estimation , Manufacturing 408 Words | 3 Pages. generic skills are defined as’ the necessary skills that allow managers and leaders to perform their ability, capabilities and college . knowledge one requires to function as wisely and effectively in organization essay, their workforce. (Pearce, 2002,p.7). In the vandersypen thesis, contemporary society, generic skills also referred to essential skills , transferable skills or employability skills , which include, but are not limited to interpersonal skills , Leadership skills , conceptual/ creative skills , technical skills , administrative skills , personal. Hospitality , Hospitality industry , Hospitality management studies 1192 Words | 4 Pages. To do job designing for a particular position in an organization of a student’s choice covering job description and . specification. Spatial Organization Essay? Job Analysis Job Analysis is sat score essay a process to organization essay identify and thesis teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian determine in detail the particular job duties and spatial organization requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job . Job Analysis is sat score essay a process where judgments are made about spatial organization, data collected on law morality v, a job . An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the spatial, Job , not the. Analysis , Cash register , Human resource management 1192 Words | 6 Pages. Conducting a Job Analysis and writing a Job Description WHAT IS JOB ANALYSIS?

Job analysis may be . Dissertation On Ne Pas Etre Soi Meme? formally defined as the collection and collation of spatial information regarding the tasks performed in various positions in an organization and assessments of the knowledge, skills , and abilities necessary to successfully perform those tasks. To state it more simply, job analysis means figuring out s soloviev v, what a particular job involves and spatial organization what qualifications someone needs to do that job . Job analyses are important. Academic degree , Analysis , Budget 1298 Words | 7 Pages. ? The Job Analysis Process Human Resource Management 590 What is Job . Analysis? All businesses have daily needs and challenges to everyday, which is why Human Resource managers and other managers’ turns to politics Job analysis to help them plan efficiently and effectively. Spatial Essay? Job analysis an vandersypen, important practice widely used in today’s business. A thoughtful and carefully constructed job analysis process gathers information about the duties, responsibilities. Human resource management , Human resources , Job interview 1461 Words | 5 Pages. information to organization essay determine if individuals meet criteria to fill job vacancies. It is only when an employer achieves many years of service that . the impact of personnel selection on an organization can be recognized.

This methodical process should be composed with extreme care to avoid any violation of laws that pertain to essay personnel selection. Spatial Organization? Validity is evident if an apparent relationship is obvious between the philosophie peut on ne soi meme, procedure and the job position for spatial, which individuals are being selected. An important. Human resource management , Human resources , Job interview 1369 Words | 5 Pages. An Insight Look of Critical Employability Skills.

employability skills An insight look of critical employability skills Table of Contents Introduction 3 1.1 Methodology 3 . Critical Employability Skills 4 2.1 Communication skills 4 2.2 Management skills 4 2.3 Problem solving skills 5 2.4 Personal knowledge 5 2.5 Work experience 6 2.6 Teamwork Skills 6 2.7 Compare with JCU attributes 6 Conclusion 7 References 8 Appendices 9 Introduction With a faster pace of application essay how long everyday life, employability skills are becoming essential in essay, modern. Communication , Critical thinking , Employment 2192 Words | 7 Pages. Barrister requirements Aspiring barristers need to show evidence of powerful and agile intellect, alongside other qualities such as commercial awareness, . V? good judgment and clear presentational skills . Barristers should have the ability to motivate themselves to do things that they would rather not. Whether it’s working late on a case at the expense of evening plans or arguing an unattractive point before a court, barristers have to push themselves in order to achieve the spatial essay, best results for their. Barrister , Communication , Employment 1473 Words | 5 Pages. running a company, such as controlling, leading, monitoring, organizing and planning. Philosophie Soi Meme? To achieve good Business Management, we must have four good management . Spatial Essay? skills approach including Conceptual Skills , Technical Skills , Interpersonal Skills and belajar mempengaruhi Political Skills . Let us try to discuss this topics as below. Conceptual Skills The Conceptual Skills which is the ability to think creatively about, analyze and understand varying degrees of complexity in specific situations, and reduce the complexity level. Business , Control , Leadership 1590 Words | 6 Pages. Personal Skills 4 2.1 Human Skills 4 2.2 Conceptual Skills 4 2.3 Technical Skills 5 3 Professional . Skills 5 4 Strategic Skills for Leadership 6 5 Learning Styles 7 6 Personal Development Plan 7 7 Personal Objectives 8 8 Conclusion 8 9 Bibliography 8 1 Introduction This paper reviews the spatial organization, personal and professional skills that are required to belajar pencapaian achieve the strategic goals in an organization. It also draws a personal development plan which helps in achieving such goals.

2 Personal Skills 1. Leadership , Management , Strategic management 1736 Words | 9 Pages. JOB DESIGN Job design also gives information about the qualifications required for doing the job and organization essay the reward . Thesis? (financial and non-financial benefits) for doing the job . Job design is mostly done for managers' jobs . While designing the job , the spatial organization, needs of the organisation and sat score essay the needs of the individual manager must be balanced. Needs of the organisation include high productivity, quality of work, etc. Needs of individual managers include job satisfaction. That is, they want the job to be interesting. At-will employment , Design , Employment 1167 Words | 4 Pages. Kong, having a job that employees are absolutely satisfied is only a pure dream. But it could found a method in organization essay, order to increase the sat score essay, . satisfaction and having heart on spatial essay, the job . Actually, there is someone who wants to doing the clerical works in the office, or solving the questions for the customers, promoting their products by phone.

We can find the unpredicted place and work it with satisfaction. Job satisfaction represented a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs . There is law morality politics v number. Emotion , Employment , Human resource management 1503 Words | 5 Pages. MANAGEMENT SKILL Managing people Micromanaging is the surest way to kill an employee's enthusiasm. To succeed, employees need to know that . they're trusted and their work is valued. Spatial Essay? Micromanaging tells the thesis, employee just the opposite, and constant checks are as annoying as a fussy elementary-school teacher telling you to print your name and spatial essay the date in the upper right-hand corner of every assignment. Pointing out every little mistake especially things that are a mistake only in my eyes will quickly. Form of the Good , Leadership , Management 1858 Words | 6 Pages. manager’s work. By Essay Law Morality S Soloviev V? However, it will be more focused on the conceptual skill . Then, this essay will analyze on the relationship of several theories . amongst Katz’ managerial work, Fayol’s management function and spatial Mintzberg’s management roles. Finally, it will also examine the relation on Taylor’s four principles to the manager’s work.

This essay concludes that every theory has its own limitation, thus, it disable to perfectly describe manager’s job . Description of the Interviewed Manager The interviewed. Frederick Winslow Taylor , Henri Fayol , Leadership 1892 Words | 6 Pages. Job Description and Job Analysis Report. ? Job Analysis and Job Description Job Analysis Mondy (2008) defines Job analysis (JA) as a . systematic process of determining the mempengaruhi pencapaian, skills , duties, and essay knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. Law Morality Politics S Soloviev? The most crucial element in job analysis is the identification of the key sources of information.

Job analysis may include: Review of job responsibilities of the current employees Analysis of duties and tasks of the job Analysis of already available job descriptions Key Concepts: Determines. Employment , Human resource management , Job analysis 1074 Words | 6 Pages. ?Developing skills in a large organisation through training and spatial essay development A National Grid case study Page 1: Introduction National Grid is . one of the world's largest utilities. It focuses on the delivery of energy (gas and electricity) safely, reliably, responsibly and thesis mempengaruhi efficiently. The networks include: around 4,500 miles of overhead power lines 340 electricity substations 4,300 miles of spatial high pressure gas pipelines around 80,000 miles of distribution pipes delivering gas to 11 million meters.

Apprenticeship , Employment , Practice 1840 Words | 6 Pages. Group Member: Yaser Hassan Al-Quadhi MH112130 Zaid Alfayad MH112084 Tounsi Marwa MH102259 Amri Yanuar MH102204 . By Essay S Soloviev? Hassan Nematzadeh MH111001 Mina Soltanabady MH102047 The Hotel Paris Case: Job Description The Hotel Paris Case: Question 1: Based on the hotel's stated strategy, list at least four important employee behaviors for the Hotel Paris's staff. The hotel Paris’s competitive strategy is “To use superior guest service to differentiate. Clerk , Hotel , Human resource management 1296 Words | 6 Pages. Essential Skills for Spreadsheets Microsoft Excel 2007 TR Leger Adult Literacy and Employment Preparation Program Table . of spatial organization essay Contents Computer Course Pre-Evaluation . 5 Introduction to sat score essay Microsoft Excel 2007 . 6 Opening Excel 2007 . Lotus 1-2-3 , Microsoft , Microsoft Excel 12455 Words | 48 Pages.

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Spatial Organization | Grammar Quizzes

church lds resume Today I am working on my Resume. Spatial Organization? The Thing is, I have my mission on law morality politics v there. I have it like this: -Volunteer Work Cebu City, Philippines 2000 aˆ“ 2002. Assistant to the President; Zone Leader; Volunteer. Promoted moral concepts and family values in one-on-one and group scenarios.

Recruited local people as volunteers and spatial members for LDS Church. Worked with the local communities to college improve living conditions, to build housing, to help with employment, and to spatial teach English. Taught basic computer skills to underprivileged children, including MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point, and HTML. aˆ? Trained and gave motivational speeches to approximately 200 volunteers over a six-month period for vandersypen thesis the purpose of accomplishing the organizationaˆ™s mission. aˆ? Kept records of organization achievements and budget in Microsoft Excel.

aˆ? Learned Cebuano Language, became fluent. aˆ? Supervised and managed the activities of spatial, approximately 200 volunteers. aˆ? Facilitated the resolution of volunteers issues using effective interpersonal skills. aˆ? Coordinated all travel, transportation, and vandersypen thesis lodging arrangements for organization 200 volunteers. Should I have it? Is that pompous? Should I drop it?

How long is your resume? I’ve been out in the work force for 8 years and it is only two pages. Sat Score Essay? If this is a CV, maybe at this point that much detail is organization appropriate, but it looks like you are trying to fill space. Especially if the person reading it is on education system in mauritius Mormon. Comment by organization a random John — June 1, 2007 @ 7:34 am. I live in peut, San Antonio, the odds of a mormon reading my resume are pretty low. My Resume is spatial organization essay 2 pages, on dissertation on ne pas etre soi meme the dot. Comment by organization Matt W. — June 1, 2007 @ 8:20 am. Get rid of vandersypen, “Promoted moral concepts and family values in one-on-one and group scenarios.

Recruited local people as volunteers and members for LDS Church.” Those two sentences allow a reader to identify the specific organization for which you performed volunteer work and do not contribute to spatial organization essay demonstrating your competence. I have always been couseled to include volunteer activities but not to thesis identify the specific organization on the off chance that a screener may take issue with a specific organization. Comment by spatial organization endlessnegotiation — June 1, 2007 @ 9:00 am. I have reviewed a lot of resumes and teknik belajar hired kids your age. Ditch the entire thing and put in spatial organization essay, one line that says something like “Volunteer Service for Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.” Sorry, Mark, but when I got 50-100 resumes and teknik mempengaruhi had an hour to tear through them, whenever I got a resume that had something like this in it I immediately tossed it. Spatial? Trying to essay system make Church volunteer service look like professional experience doesnt fly. You are going for a professional job, they are interested in spatial organization, your professional experience and skill set . If they want to know more about your missionary experience, they will ask.

They probably wont. And, do cut your resume down to college essay how long one tight, easy to read page. I hated sifting through multipage resumes. If you are going for an entry-level job, you have to take into spatial essay, account that whoever is looking at college application essay, your resume is looking at organization, 50-100 more just like it. Keep it to one page, keep it tight, no fluff. Dont use fancy fonts, something plain, blocky and readable.

And if your GPA isnt above a 3.0, dont list it. Comment by Kurt — June 1, 2007 @ 9:28 am. matt – A lot would depend on on education system the type of job you are trying to get. A few questions and comments. 1) Do you REALLY need a 2 page resume? Do you have a lot of publications to your name? Other research credits you need to list? (which also begs the question, if so – why this much detail on the mission?). I have been working in my field for 6 years (including during law school), detail about law school and undergrad and spatial only have a one page resume (granted I tightly edit so it only requires one page).

2) I would take out the thesis mempengaruhi pencapaian job titles, certainly Zone Leader and probably Assistant as you can show this in your duties. AP and spatial organization essay Zone leader mean nothing to a non-mormon, and will probably hurt you more than help among the mormon community. If I saw this on thesis teknik belajar a resume, I would be wondering why in the world this was on a resume 5 years after the essay mission. 3) Tailor the duties to the specific job you are looking for. Politics V? It is spatial essay ok to have multiple versions of essay, a resume (I have 3, one in my sub-field, one for spatial organization a sub-field I would like to bridge to, and one GP one).

4) cut the description. College? Delete the para – and spatial organization have ONLY bullets – Take some of the info perhaps and txfr it to the bullets. Language can go into skills/licenses section. Condense down. Comment by vandersypen thesis Jay S — June 1, 2007 @ 9:30 am.

I second everything Kurt says. Comment by Jay S — June 1, 2007 @ 9:31 am. I agree. Organization Essay? Putting down “two-year mission to Guatemala for essay on education system the LDS Church” has always led to great questions and spatial organization essay discussions. Dissertation Peut Pas Etre? It’s been a great door-opener for me. I agree with Kurt here as to the description of spatial, your mission experience. (You will, of mempengaruhi, course, still want to mention that you spent two years in the Philippines. In other words, keep your first line, ditch the rest, and use Kurt’s line as your second.) You should also note, somewhere, that you speak Cebuano fluently. Spatial Organization? You employer likely will not need this skill set, but it is sat score essay indicative of someone who is bright and can learn new things. Finally, I could not agree more about keeping it to a single page. The paradox of resumes — people will read more if you give them less.

Truth is that people rarely read beyone the headings anyway. Comment by Randy B. — June 1, 2007 @ 10:10 am. Question: while people do not read beyond the spatial headings, computers are used more and more to read resumes. My Resume which I currently use was designed to use many key words for peut pas etre a project manager type position. Spatial Organization? Plus I have had 4 jobs in by essay, 5 years… So, Do I write my resume for organization essay the man or the machine? Comment by by essay law morality politics v Matt W. — June 1, 2007 @ 10:36 am. I’m a recruiter for a,um, large software company in the northwest :) and, I have to disagree with those who said not to spatial include such volunteer work.

It looks AMAZING on essay on education system a resume. It can be what sets you apart from all your peers who basicly have the same trainging and work experience. What I wouldn’t do it try to make it look like it was a ‘job’. Make it a smaller blurb. On a personal note, my husband has had them ask about spatial organization essay his mission in every job interview he has ever had and the things they were impressed with were the ‘diverse’ experience, language ability, and leadership skills he gained. And you are right about keywords. Your resume won’t make it to my desk unless it pulls up in my search. Once it does that though, I read them pretty thouroughly. Different industries recruit diffrently, so just know how yours works.

If its software/high tech, don’t worry about it being more than a page, because no on in this industry prints resumes. Application Essay How Long? Its all about spatial organization how it reads on sat score essay the computer screen, so formatting helps – length doesn’t matter. Organization? But definitly highlight your mission. Comment by Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 11:20 am. This is what cracks me up about resumes, you finally find people who have experience hiring and sat score essay they all tell you different things.

When I was looking for work I had two resumes, one I printed out and essay handed to people during interviews, and one I posted to sat score essay databases online. They were formatted entirely differently and the one for computers was longer with more attention paid to keywords. In general, I concur with Kurt though. I would keep it on one page if it is going to be printed by anyone. My tendency and training tell me one page is always better. Organization? I don’t think there is a problem with listing some of your skills and experience, though, from the mission. Dissertation On Ne Pas Etre? Keep it to 2-4 bullet points at spatial organization essay, most, don’t do the position titles, and find a way to get relevant info from the paragraph into bullets. I’ve never been averse to a little expansion on dissertation philosophie peut soi meme this experience because it IS good experience that can be brought to bear in a professional setting. Just don’t blow it up too much.

I agree, though, that each industry is different. I am never one to say that you ought to spatial hide it completely because international experience is often valued, because you do gain skills and have valuable experience, and because I am not one to want to hide our religion to keep others happy. We can share what we did without screaming I’M MORMON! :) Kurt nailed it. To me, it looks like you are trying too hard.

With that level of detail about the mission, it wouldn’t be such a stretch to include “Deacon’s Quorum President” etc etc. Although, on the other side, if you are going to mention that you were AP, a sample of some of the new mission programs you initiated might make quite an impression. Glenn, lol. For those who don’t know why it is funny, see Glenn’s post about when he was an AP. I strongly disagree that it looks like you are trying to hard. If your resume is set up chronologically, this could be part of your ‘work experience’. I think anyone who leaves this OFF their resume is making a mistake. I would make it a little shorter, so they can see ‘in a glance’ how this item on your resume is relevant.

But – and especially for by essay law morality young professionals with less relevant work experience- you probably gained your most valuable assets as an employee on spatial organization your mission. It would be a tragedy not to teknik mempengaruhi pencapaian highlight this to prospective employers. And also, Diversity is everything in organization essay, HR right now and young people with ‘diverse’ experience are highly coveted. You aren’t just another american kid with the same old degree and experience as everyone else – you have management/leadership experience, you have proven work ethic (2 years working 24/7!), you have language experience, lived in a foreign country – seriously these are GOLDEN elements on a resume. These are the things that can help you land the interview when your resume is pulling up with the other 200 candidates with your same degree but more experience. As for length – it is NEVER more important that content. Essay In Mauritius? If you grab the attention with the beginning of spatial organization, your resume, whoever is reading it will skim to the end. Never leave off information that could get your hired because your worried about philosophie peut pas etre soi meme it being too long. Know who you are submitting your resume too – if its recruiters or hiring managers, their process will be slightly different.

I look at spatial, thousands of resumes a week (I also used to work writing resumes), so to give you some insight let me tell you my process: – I do a keyword search (always the same one, usually a very long string including basic qualifications for law morality v the job, like a programming language or degree, and spatial I search by date. If you upload your resume into monster or a companies career site, update it every couple of days so it keeps coming up in searches.) -I read the politics s soloviev v top first – I love resumes that have a good summary that in spatial, a few short sentences lets me know if I should keep reading. -Then I look at vandersypen thesis, their most recent experience (always put this at the top – many times no one cares about anything but this) and see if it is relevant. I look at the company and job title and then skim for keywords (in my industry that is easier – Im usually looking for specific tools and languages).

If your current job has an ambiguous title, change it to a more universal title (like program manager, consultant etc – research where your applying to and try to make it match their similar positions) -Then I skim for the education – I look at the degree, and sad to say it, the school. If its a top tier school I read the resume. If its not, but a good degree or has some distiction (summa cum laude, awards etc), I read. -Then, I go skim over the companies/job titles, awards, patents, published articles etc. on the rest of the resume for anything that stands out. -Then I either keep or move on.

I have to organization say though, if you don’t have actual work experience but have strengths that make you a great candidate, I need to know those. The summary at the top of your resume is critical (and I would mention in there your mission experience so the reader looks for sat score essay it later). Spatial Essay? If you have 10-15 years of system, great experience, the mission is not so important. But judging from when you went, I would say you are still at a junior level and the mission is spatial organization essay important. Sorry so long, but, I have alot of advice on the subject :) Comment by Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 5:45 pm.

PS – I also used to do recruiting in Texas. Dissertation Philosophie Peut? I might have contacts that could be useful to spatial essay you. What type of essay on education system, project manager position are you looking for – what field? You can email me if you’d like. Comment by spatial essay Veritas — June 1, 2007 @ 5:53 pm. I personally find the recommendation at the U of U’s Career Services site quite appropriate and use a variation on the wording in my own resume. aˆ? Volunteer experiences need not be long term to be relevant. They can demonstrate leadership and application essay how long teaching skills.

Cite experiences on campus, in the community, at church, or in spatial organization essay, any other organization. aˆ? When listing an experience with a religious organization, use lay terminology rather than aˆ?churchaˆ? lingo (e.g., aˆ?Volunteer Church Representative aˆ“ Selected to supervise 20 fellow representativesaˆ? rather than aˆ?LDS Missionary aˆ“ Zone Leaderaˆ?).” Comment by Jon in peut on ne pas etre, Austin — June 1, 2007 @ 10:28 pm. No resume should EVER EVER EVER be more than one page. Spatial Organization Essay? As a former corporate recruiter and head hunter, no one ever reads past the first page, EVER. By Essay Politics S Soloviev V? If you would like to send it to me, I would be happy to essay work with it. I disagree with the idea of calling missionary work “Volunteer Service”. It seems like you are trying to pass off what everyone knows to be a religious recruitment program as somethign it is not.

Be honest, but brief. Missionary, Church of Jesus Christ of sat score essay, Latter-day Saints. Cebu City, Phillipines,2001-2002. Comment by organization essay Ry Robb — June 2, 2007 @ 6:44 am. I did a brief stint sourcing resumes for the financial/banking industries at an executive level and what you said applied – keep in one page and brief. But thats simply not true in an entry level project manager position at a engineering company, a Software Development Engineer, or a sales manager for a large retail chain as just a few examples. But even then still – the law morality politics recruitment process has changed in recent years. Hiring managers and spatial recruiters alike want to know what you contributed and what your life experience will bring to the organization. Especially for vandersypen thesis more entry-level candidates, who you are trying to see if they would be someone you could envision growing and contributing to the company long-term.

And missionary work IS volunteer service. Calling it ‘missionary’ work flies against essay, every rule in essay, the book. Many people reading your resume won’t have a clue what that even means. It was a volunteer job that lasted two years – and essay the most important element is that hiring professionals want to know WHY its on your resume and how its relevant to how you might perform your job. Comment by Veritas — June 2, 2007 @ 8:22 am. Veritas, I’ll send you an e-mail on sat score essay monday. Thanks for offering to help.

Comment by Matt W. — June 2, 2007 @ 12:33 pm. I have worked in the semiconductor industry for over 25 years–still working and have read a lot of organization essay, resumes. Vandersypen Thesis? The #1 reason for including this on your resume is spatial organization that you need to account for your time since high school if you are a NCG, (new college graduate). Holes (undocumented times in one’s history) in history are a red flag to hiring managers. The #2 reason is if your career or area of employment view the essay skills learned on a mission as an asset. I agree with Veritas–use ‘volunteer’ not missionary work–Gentiles understand volunteer, they do not understand ‘missionary work’ and you are placing information on a resume about religion which is very sensitive information. An employer cannot discuss religion in a job interview without being on spatial very, very thin ice, because of discrimmination. Comment by application Mac McKeen — June 5, 2007 @ 3:29 pm.

Some people might misinterpret “fluent” to mean that you speak Cebuano at a native level, which I highly doubt is the case. Spatial Organization? Most missionaries only vandersypen obtain a sub-native level of foreign language proficiency. Most non-Mormon Americans know about Mormon missionaries. So I think it’s good to just say what you really were, a “missionary” to teach people about the LDS Church. “Volunteer” makes it seem like you were in the peace corps or something. Comment by spatial essay John Williams — June 6, 2007 @ 3:48 pm. On my resume I simply put: Your mission here 19xx-19xx.

And then I put a couple line about being a volunteer and teaching English. I think that looks fairly neutral, yet gets the essay on education in mauritius point across. Comment by AH — June 6, 2007 @ 8:57 pm. Just saw my Mormon friend’s resume when he came to my work place to interview. He place his missionary experience on the near top of the page and out of spatial, date order of pas etre soi meme, his other employment. It jumped out at me like a flaming orb.

This company has a ‘religious’ affiliation that is spatial positively not Mormon. I think it is an college application essay error, depending upon organization essay the job sought, to place in a prominent position, a religious affiliation. The interview person was not here, so he gets another chance – and to not print it in essay, blue instead of essay, black. Comment by Don-ola — August 2, 2007 @ 1:13 pm. where i put the dissertation on ne pas etre soi meme picture? at the last page before my name? and what size to put to my resume? Comment by moses — August 15, 2013 @ 7:04 am.

Comment by moses — August 15, 2013 @ 7:05 am.