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Critical thinking art lessons

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Brutus and Antony#8217;s speeches to critical art lessons, the crowd after Caesar#8217;s death Essay Sample. #8220;Julius Caesar#8221; is top essay, a historical play by William Shakespeare. It is set in Italy, during the Roman era. The plot revolves around the critical art lessons murder of Julius Caesar and the power struggle between Caesar#8217;s friends and enemies. On E Cash? In this essay I will compare and contrast Brutus and Antony#8217;s speeches after Caesar#8217;s death. Critical Thinking? Both Brutus and Antony#8217;s speeches are used to try and convert the Roman public to their side.

After Brutus and his fellow conspirators kill Caesar outside the senate, Antony meets with Brutus and manages to persuade him that he agrees with the reasons why they killed the dictator, so that he is allowed to talk at Caesar#8217;s funeral. However, his real intentions are revealed in an emotional soliloquy that reveals that he is desperate to avenge his close friend Caesar. Brutus sets one condition on Antony#8217;s speech- that he must not say anything against the murderers. Brutus uses his speech to convince that he has acted for the common good of research paper on e cash payment system Rome, whereas Antony tries to make the people avenge the death of thinking art lessons his beloved Caesar. The first speech is that of Brutus. The most striking factor is the shortness of the hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis speech, but it is effective. It would be far less effective though, if the crowd didn#8217;t have such a high opinion of him. Critical? This is essay, demonstrated with the quote. #8220;Believe me for mine honour, and thinking art lessons, have respect to mine honour#8221;

The speech uses informal prose, which allows the audience to relate to him. He flatters the audience watching the writing services speech- describing them as having great wisdom. This flattery results in critical thinking the audience having confidence in him that helps him greatly later on in the speech. Also, he anticipates questions and provides answers to programs in new, them. Brutus is very democratic in his explanation of why they killed Caesar- he says he loved Caesar, but loved Rome more.

He claims that Caesar#8217;s downfall was due to critical art lessons, his high ambition, but isn#8217;t entirely effective. Again, he uses the crowd#8217;s high opinion of him to pull himself through this section of the speech. Towards the end of the speech he asks the crowd for a reply- this is a major gamble as it would be unlikely that he would be able to provide a satisfactory answer. Brutus#8217;s final comment is: #8220;As I slew my best lover for the/ good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself/ when it shall please my country to need my death#8221; He obviously doesn#8217;t mean it, but it is a fine example of dramatic irony, as later on in the play Brutus kills himself with the same dagger after his army are defeated at bulls edgeworth, Philippi. In a manner similar to the opening scene- where the fickle crowd changes from art lessons, Pompey to Caesar- the public proclaim Brutus as their ruler. On the other hand, Antony#8217;s speech is far more clever and manipulative. From the offset Antony claims that Brutus is a superior speaker, and paper on e payment system, this is thinking, portrayed well when he says. Writing? #8220;I am no orator, as Brutus is#8221; He is far from being a poor orator- he speaks articulately and uses elegant blank verse. Critical Thinking Art Lessons? At the beginning he appears to uphold what the conspirators have done but then he picks out the flaws in Brutus#8217;s argument. He counteracts what Brutus says about Caesar#8217;s ambition by reaction rates, reminding the crowd of how the dictator: rejected the crown 3 times, brought money into critical thinking, the Roman coffers, was a faithful friend and was kind to the poor. Antony uses irony extensively as he refers to the assassins as #8216;honourable men#8217;.

The crowd is hydrothermal, won over thanks to the suggestions that Antony, which are used in place of open judgements. Thinking? Personal support is enlisted from he crowd, emphasized with the cry from a member of the audience: #8220;Poor soul! His eyes are red as fire with weeping#8221; The idea of mutiny and rage is planted into the minds of the crowd by Antony, even though he claims he is doing the opposite. The crowd is hydrothermal, tantalized by Antony as he lets them know about Caesar#8217;s will but says he refuses to read it out- even although his intention is to tell them. Antony sends the crowd into an even deeper frenzy when he gives an imaginative account of what happened during the murder, even though he wasn#8217;t present when it happened. He claims to know which wound was made by each of the conspirators, emphasizing the thinking art lessons cut supposedly made by Brutus as: #8220;The unkindest cut of mfa creative writing programs york all#8221; Finally Antony#8217;s objective is complete when he reads out the will, which causes rioting from his Audience.

Yet again the public have switched allegiances from different sides. Antony knows Caesar#8217;s revenge will be attained when he states: #8221; Now let it work mischief, thou art afoot/ Take thou what causes thou wilt#8221; Despite the fact that both speeches have very different reasons, they share quite a few similarities. Both speakers were very close friends of Caesar, which allows both to speak of what Caesar was really like accurately. The two speeches are used to win over the crowd to their point of view, despite the very different manifestoes. Critical Thinking Art Lessons? The opening of both speeches is similar- an reaction rates appeal for thinking art lessons attention from the confused crowd. The differences are far more striking: democratic Brutus believes he has acted for the common good whereas Antony wishes to avenge his beloved Dictator and increase his political career. The speeches of Brutus and Antony are key moments in Roman history and their quality is apparent for essay on irish such an important occasion.

Antony claims he is a poor orator, but gives an art lessons excellent talk which dismisses everything Brutus said. Due to this he secures revenge for Caesar and seals the fate of Rome. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Brutus and Antony#8217;s speeches to the crowd after Caesar#8217;s death. Rates Coursework? essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Brutus and Antony#8217;s speeches to the crowd after Caesar#8217;s death. Art Lessons? Brutus and Antony are both portrayed as above average orators in the play Julius Caesar by mfa creative in new, William Shakespeare, and they both use this skill to achieve there preplanned goals in#8230; Comparison Between Antony and critical, Brutus.

Julius Caesar is one of Shakespeare#8217;s greatest works. It is about a group of top essay services conspirators who kill their king, Julius Caesar, in order to be #8220;free.#8221; Antony, who found no#8230; Antony VS Brutus. The conspirators depended on Marcus Brutus for one reason: to justify the murder of Julius Caesar. However after allowing Mark Antony to not only bring in the corpse of their#8230; ?Was Brutus a traitor or a patriot? “Our course will seem too bloody, Caius Cassius, To cut the head off and then hack the limbs, Like wrath in death and envy afterwards; For Antony is but a#8230; Reflection Paper on critical art lessons #8220;Julius Caesar#8221; by William Shakespeare. #8220;This was the noblest Roman of research paper on e cash them all,#8221; claims Marc Antony in the play Julius Caesar, written by the renowned playwright William Shakespeare. This famous quote is referring to the#8230; Rhetorical Analysis of Antony’s Eulogy. After Caesars death Antony requested to speak at his funeral.

Antony was a very good friend of Caesar. Thinking? In his eulogy, Antony denies accusations of Caesar being “too ambitious” and#8230;

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Pop Music Through The Decades Essay Sample. The 1950’s where so called the birth of critical thinking art lessons popular music. Chemosynthesis! The first half of the decade was run by popular music, or classic pop. This more vocal driven music had replaced the critical thinking earlier big band style. Artists such as Nat King Cole and Frank Sinatra where the top essay writing leaders of critical thinking art lessons this age of traditional pop. Often the most popular musicians that play this genre also played very well on the television and mfa creative in new sometimes they would be featured on music special shows, or perhaps even have a music variety of their own. They sang a lot of their own original songs but a lot of the hits where songs previously written and covered, meaning the public already knew them. Most songs in this genre where just described as been very simple and melodic, some even ballad like.

The whole genre was influenced by previously done jazz, swing and critical thinking art lessons big band. As well as this, there was the writing york development of other genres. The 1950’s saw the rise of Rock ‘n’ Roll, artists like Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley dominated the critical thinking scene as well as Carl Perkins. Perkins was seen as a pinoeer in the creation of essay rock and roll, he describes his music often as “Rockability” because it sounds like a combination of country and RB with rock influences. Perkins wrote the chart topping Blue Suede Shoes in 1955 which was then covered by the “King of Rock ‘n’ Roll” who enjoyed even more of its success. Elvis Presley was then a huge part of the popular music scene in critical art lessons, the 50’s, he was a cotoversial performer, with his famous hip gyrations appearing on hydrothermal vents, the Milton Berle show in thinking art lessons, 1956, a performance that shock the research paper system conservative adults, but at critical thinking the time drew in on mother, the youth. Its important not to forget the african-americans who created the genre but could never fund recordings, Little Richard, Chuck Beryy and Chubby Check, to name a few. Jonny Cash and Hank WIlliams defined the Country and Western style of music during this Decade. Cash’s music had a very country sound with some rockability influences, his music often revolved around as certain theme, life, sorrow, relationships, this made his music very relatable for thinking, many of his listeners.

Because of his respect and compassion for his fellow human, this resulted in Cash playing in prison across america, His most famous. performance been in hydrothermal, Folsom Prison. Rhythm and Blues emerged from jazz in the 40’s and was the term used for music that was slightly more upbeat and contained jazz, doo-wop, blues and gospel to create a unique sound during the critical thinking decade. Many artists, after enjoying time on the Rock and Roll chart where somewhat pushed into the RB genre as the on irish bulls edgeworth music industy was making way for thinking, the big shot white rock and rollers. Top Essay Writing Services! Some of the most notable RB artists of the decade include Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers and Sam Cooke. 1960’s. The first of the 60’s was still dominated by the later half of the 50’s, until 1963 artist such as Elvis and Ray Charles where still topping the charts. Post 63, a number of social influences would shape popular music, and give us the diversity we see today.

The British invasion was perhaps the most key area of the 60’s, This is the critical time in top essay writing, the early/mid 60’s in which many Britsish rock bands and critical pop artists found mainstream sucess in the US and worldwide. These bands where influenced by the US rock and roll scene, then went on to create there own unique and vary styles. The band that mainly comes to mind here is The Beatles, the band that changed and shaped pop music, broke the writing in new Us music scene in 63 but then really hit it big in 64 when they appeared on the Ed Sullivan l The Beatles then continued to dominate world charts until they broke up in critical, 1970. The scene surrounding The Beatles was known as Beatlemania, which caused many up and essay on mother coming band to try and create the critical thinking art lessons “liverpool sound”. Research Paper Cash Payment System! Other Bands linked to the British invasion would be The Who, The Rolling Stones, and The Animals, some of these reached comparable success of The Beatles and influenced music in a very different way. The Motown and RB where very significant in this decade in terms of the Civil Rights movement and intergration in critical art lessons, the American society. Motown begun as a Detroit based record label but quickly grew as it signed African-American groups singers and songwriters breaking the barriers of segregation. Two of the research on e cash most influential groups where Miracles and Diana Ross and the Supremes, both of which had as much chart success as any of the rock groups.

Motown also paved the way for critical art lessons, other popular artists, such as Stevie Wonder and Marvin Gaye. Whilst rock was big in the 50’s, it really came into its own in the 60’s, creating many subgenres which would keep developing rock in itself. Surf Rock was a southern Californian type of rates dance music that was mostly instrumental until the arrival of the British invasion, and the genre grew to lyrics about girl and cars. The band that defined this genre was The Beach Boys, whose vocal harmonies and well-crafted composition came to critical art lessons define the genre of surf rock. Psychedelic rock was also very popular, more so in the later half of the services 60’s in which it reached its peak. Psychedelic rock was assosicated with hippie culture and hallucinogenic drug use, it was created with the thinking art lessons intention of enhancing the experience of listener who where using LSD or other mind-altering substances. There was much experimentation in the sound and much of essay on mother it was influenced by Eastern and Indian music. Many popular rock bands experimented with this genre, including The Beatles, The Doors, The Jimi Hendrix Experience.

Hard rock took the elements of rock ‘n’ roll and made them heavier as the genre formed in the middle of the decade. The sound is characterized by more aggressive tones and delivery. Thinking! Hard rock vocalists are identified by coursework, their higher range and critical thinking distinct and often raspy voices. The music was influenced heavily by blues rock, garage rock, and rhythm and reaction rates coursework blues. Critical Thinking! This style became associated with rebellious youth and an anti-authority demeanor, with a few acts even destroying their own instruments on stage (like The Who). The 1970s created a perfect musical bridge from the rebelliousness of the on e payment 1960s and the happy songs that are characteristic of the 1980s. Following the counterculture of the 60s, the 70screated a trend of relaxing music as well as dance music. If ever a musical style defined a decade, Disco was the definition of the 1970s. Thinking! Although its popularity was relatively short-lived, the genre hosted a great deal of songs and on irish edgeworth artists that people are still dancing to today and had a large influence on the fashions of the decade, too.This style of music became so popular that well respected artists like Rod Stewart and Diana Ross jumped on art lessons, the bandwagon by adding Disco elements to their new music or creating their own disco albums. Rates Coursework! Unfortunately, it did not take long for the public to see disco’s silliness and commercialization – something that they had just rebelled against a few years earlier.

Youths rebelled against the genre as well and it was not uncommon to see a few music fans sporting “Disco Sucks” T-shirts. Progressive rock was another popular genre during the critical 1970s. This type of music was typically characterized by rock music combined with another genre, such as classical or opera, to create a hybrid genre. Songs from this genre were often longer and bands tended to writing be more spontaneous and experimental while they were playing live. Many progressive rock albums were also concept albums, meaning that they followed a theme throughout the critical thinking art lessons entire album or series of albums. The band Pink Floyd were known for their concept albums and were considered some of the best in the genre. The punk rock genre also emerged in the 1970s.

This was a style that continued on the legacy of the 60’s but with a more upbeat and harder style. Heavy guitar riffs and more decibels helped to motivate those who were still upset about the hydrothermal chemosynthesis status quo in the country. The Ramones are often referred to as the original punk band. This band consisted of a group of family members that based their image on The Beatles but their music was much harder.The Sex Pistols also enjoyed a short-lived success as a punk rock band of the 1970s. Band members heavily used drugs and alcohol which eventually led to their dissolution shortly after forming, but not before releasing two hit albums, “God Save the Queen” and “Never Mind the Bullocks”, that created a wave of critical rebellion throughout the United States and the UK. Funk music came out of the research paper cash payment RB, Jazz and Soul music of the late 1960s after artists added more beats and psychedelic tones to their songs. This genre saw the height of its popularity encompass the 1970s with artists like James Brown, Parliament-Funkadelic, Sly and the Family Stone and Kool and the Gang dominating the music charts.

Funk was known for its danceable beats, strange costumes, outrageous personalities and often socially conscious lyrics. James Brown, “the hardest working man in critical art lessons, show business”, is often thought of as the creator of funk music and his 1967 album Cold Sweat is thought to feature some of the first main stream funk songs. The 1980s saw the emergence of pop, dance music and new wave As the term disco fell out of fashion in the decade’s early years, genres such as post- disco, Italo disco and on irish euro disco. The 1980s saw the reinvention of critical thinking Michael Jackson, and the discovering Whitney Houston and madonna and essay edgeworth who were all arguably the most powerful musicians during the time. Their videos became a permanent fixture on MTV and critical thinking gained a worldwide mass audience. Michael Jackson’s Thriller album from 1982 is the essay bulls best selling album of all time it is cited as selling as many as 110 million copies worldwide.

Being the biggest selling artist of that decade he was indisputably the biggest star of the 1980s. Critical Thinking! Beginning in 1983 and peaking in success in 1986-1991, the decade saw the resurgence of hard rock music and the emergence of its glam metal subgenre. Bands such as Queen Def Lepard, Bon Jovi, and Cinderella were among the most popular acts of the reaction coursework decade. The 1980s saw the emergence of wildly popular hard rock band Guns ‘n’ Roses and the successful comebacks of Aerosmith and Alice Cooper in art lessons, the late 1980s. The success of hard rock act Van Halen spanned throughout the on e payment system entire decade, first with singer David Lee Roth and critical later with Sammy Hager. Queen, which had expanded its music to experimental and crossover genres in the early 1980s, returned to guitar-driven hard rock with The Miricle in 1989. On Mother Sacrifice! By 1984, a majority of critical art lessons groups signed to independent record lables were mining from a variety of hydrothermal chemosynthesis rock and particularly 1960s rock influences. This represented a sharp break from the futuristic, hyper rational post-punk years.

Throughout the 1980s, alternative rock was mainly an underground phenomena. Art Lessons! While on occasion a song would become a commercial hit or albums would receive critical praise in mainstream publications like Rolling Stone alternative rock in the 1980s was primarily relegated to Independent record lables, fanzies and college radio stations. Alternative bands built underground followings by reaction rates, touring constantly and regularly releasing low-budget albums. In the case of the United States, new bands would form in critical thinking art lessons, the wake of rates previous bands, which created an extensive underground circuit in America, filled with different scenes in various parts of the country. Although American alternative artists of the 1980s never generated spectacular album sales, they exerted a considerable influence on later alternative musicians and laid the groundwork for their success. Encompassing graffiti art, break dancing, rap music, and fashion, hip-hop became the dominant cultural movement of the African American communities in the 1980s. The Hip hop musical genre had a strong influence on pop music in the late 1980s which still continues to the present day. During the art lessons 1980s, the hip hop genre started embracing the creation of rhythm by using the human body, via the vocal percussion technique of sacrifice beatboxing Pioneers such as Doug E Fresh, and Buffy from the Fat Boys made beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts. Art Lessons! “Human Beatbox” artists would also sing or imitate turntables scratching or other instrument sounds. Popular Music in the 1990s saw the continuation of teen pop and dance pop trends which had emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. Additionally, hip-hop grew and continued to york be highly successful in the decad. Aside from rap RB and thinking urban music in general remained extremely popular throughout the decade; urban music in on mother, the late-1980s and thinking 1990s often blended with styles such as soul funk and jazz resulting in fusion genres such as new jack swing and neo soul, and hip-hop soul, which were popular.

With the breakthrough of bands such as Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and coursework Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the critical thinking art lessons musical mainstream and many alternative bands became commercially successful during the reaction rates 1990s. By the start of the 1990s, the music industry was enticed by alternative rock’s commercial possibilities and major labels actively courted bands including Dinosaur Jr, and Nirvana In the early 1990s, bands like Rage Against The Machine, 311 and Cypress Hill brought a fresh sound by combining rap and rock with much success. These bands laid down the blueprints of nu metal. In the middle of the decade this style, which contained a mix of grunge, metal, and art lessons hip hop, became known as nu Metal.Korn and Limp Bizkit are nu metal pioneers who have sold over 40 and 30 million albums respectively. Some bands, such as Slipknot, employed a more shocking sound and image. The increasing popularity of nu metal spawned a wave of successful bands like Linkin Park in the following decade. Urban Pop became and on e payment system stayed popular throughout the 1990s, but was overshadowed by more pop-rock and dance music by the second half of the decade. Michael Jackson achieved continued critical and commercial success in the 90s with his 1991 album Dangerous which sold 35 million copies and his 1995 follow-up HIStory which sold 40 millions units (20 million copies of the double disc set). Jackson’s debut single from the former album Black or white was one of the best selling singles of the 1990s and the debut single from the latter album you are not alone became, on September 2, 1995, the first single to critical thinking art lessons debut at number one on hydrothermal chemosynthesis, the Billboard Hot 100 chart. British girl group The Spice Girls managed to break the American market, becoming the most commercially successful British Group in thinking, North America since The Beatles. With the essay explosive growth of computers, music technology and thinking art lessons consequent reduction in top essay writing, the cost of equipment in the early 1990s, it became possible for thinking, a wider number of musicians to produce electronic music.

Even though initially most of the electronic music was dance music, the genre developed in the 1990s as musicians started producing music which was not necessarily designed for the dance-floor but rather for home listening and vents chemosynthesis slower paced music which was played throughout chillout rooms—the relaxation sections of the clubs. The 2000s were for the most part, nondescript, with the earlier part of the decade retaining characteristics that dominated the 1990s, and styles from previous decades being revived later in the period. Unlike many past decades, the 2000s did not see the creation or emergence of many styles, with the thinking art lessons exception of a few indie-related genres such as Emo and electronic subgenres like UK Funky. Convergence of different styles was one of the paper system more defining features of the decade, as seen with the critical thinking creation and commercial success of the British Grime genre. Paper On E Cash System! The popularity of thinking teenage pop carried over from the 1990s with acts such as Britney Spears and Christena Agulea dominating the charts in reaction, the earlier years of the decade. RB which was very successful in the early years of the thinking 2000s, saw a steep decline in popularity throughout the decade. This was in part due to the rise of hip hop and subgenres such as crunk and snap music, even though a fusion of these styles with RB in crunkB and snapB saw success in the mid-to-late 2000s. During the early 2000s, a new wave of metal began with interest in the newly emerging genre nu metal and genres of a similar style such as rap metal and the later mainstream success rap rock. The popularity of nu metal music carried over from the late 1990s, where it was introduced by early work from bands such as Korn, Deftones, Limp Bizkit, Slipknot and Coal Chamber, into hydrothermal the early 2000s with the similar genre, rap rock, bringing in thinking, a wave of monster-hit artists such as System of a Down, Evanescence, Staind, Papa Roach, and top essay writing services Disturbed.

Pop music continued and due to TV shows such as Xfactor and Britain’s got talent. It seemed the music industry was assesable for almost everyone, this is clear from the example of One Direction, 5 average singers put together on Xfactor that are taking over the charts with their love orientated songs written for them. My Opinion. I have decided to conclude this journey through the thinking history of pop by adding in my own opinion. Personally I think music is constantly evolving, and will continue to do so, in so ways this isn’t so good because the music industry is becoming flooded, and a dream of top essay writing been famous and a household name is becoming harder to reach. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Also this is good as it allows new and different genres to emerge.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Pop Music Through The Decades. essay editing for only $13.9 per essay on irish, page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Pop Music Through The Decades. Popular Music is Any music since industrialization in the mid-1800s that is in thinking art lessons, line with the on e system tastes and preferences of the middle class. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! What theme does pop music typically use… Rock and Roll- A Great Movement in reaction, Music. The type of music that later became known as “rock and roll” evolved in the mid 1950’s.

It was a combination of jazz, rhythm and critical blues, country, and gospel sounds…. Punk Music Concert Review. Peeking into reaction coursework the Punk Scene Punk music is a unique form of music that incorporates heavy, raw and distorted guitars; intricate, deep sounding bass lines; high paced, pounding drumbeats; and… Illegal music downloading is stealing. ‘’Illegally downloading music is stealing’’ A common source of controversy nowadays is illegal music downloads and critical art lessons music file sharing. Some people say that there is nothing wrong with it, but… Music: Why it is the most important thing in my life. Music is the most important thing in my life.The reason this is, I think, is chemosynthesis, because my family was built around two main things: Music and Religion. Although I value… The Emergence of Pop Punk Music.

The displacement of an original genre of critical thinking music is thought to be what creates a subgenre of music. This displacement may have been brought on by cultural, economical, or political…

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Paul et Virginie de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Dans une plaine intérieure de l'Ile de France (la future île Maurice), le narrateur découvre les ruines de deux petites cabanes. Critical Art Lessons! Il rencontre un vieillard venant à passer aux environs et lui adresse la parole : Mon père, lui dis-je, pourriez-vous m'apprendre à qui ont appartenu ces deux cabanes ? Le vieil homme, à la fois conteur, témoin de ce paradis perdu, et unique survivant va lui conter l'histoire de Paul et Virginie : Mon fils, ces masures et ce terrain inculte étaient habités, il y a environ vingt ans, par deux familles qui y avaient trouvé le bonheur. Deux françaises, Mme de la Tour, la jeune veuve d'un aristocrate libertin, et Marguerite, une paysanne bretonne séduite et abandonnée ont fui la métropole et sont venus cacher leur déshonneur dans cette colonie française. Elles mettent au monde, vers 1726, Virginie et Paul. Essay! Mme de la Tour, avec sa fille Virginie, et Marguerite, avec son fils Paul, sont aidées par un couple de noirs, Marie et Domingue. Art Lessons! Les deux femmes unissent leur détresse et leur pauvreté et exploitent la terre.

Leurs deux enfants grandissent comme frère et sœur : A insi ces deux petits enfants, privés de tous leurs parents, se remplissaient de sentiments plus tendres que ceux de fils et de fille, de frère et de sœur, quand ils venaient à être changés de mamelles par les deux amies qui leur avaient donné le jour. Les deux mères et leurs deux enfants goûtent sur cette île un bonheur simple qui semble vouloir effacer leurs malheurs passés. Reaction! Chaque jour était pour ces familles un jour de bonheur et de paix. Critical Thinking! Ni l'envie ni l'ambition ne les tourmentaient. Research Cash! Elles ne désiraient point au-dehors une vaine réputation que donne l'intrigue, et qu'ôte la calomnie; il leur suffisait d'être à elles-mêmes leurs témoins et leurs juges. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Cette petite communauté connaît une existence paisible dans la splendeur des paysages tropicaux. Sacrifice! Paul et Virginie grandissent en parfaite harmonie avec la nature.

Ils sont vertueux et candides : leur innocence les préserve du mal tant en actes qu'en pensée. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Seule une lettre de la tante de la Mme de la Tour vient, en 1738, troubler momentanément leur bonheur. Rates! Cette lettre, en provenance de France, que la mère de Virginie espérait depuis plus de dix ans, ne contient que reproches et leçons de morale. Thinking Art Lessons! Heureusement le trouble qu'elle provoque ne semble être que passager : Ainsi ils continuèrent tous d'être heureux et ce ne fut qu'un orage au milieu d'une belle saison. Mfa Creative In New York! Paul et Virginie grandissent , et c'est là qu'apparaît le mal de Virginie : Cependant depuis quelque temps Virginie se sentait agitée d'un mal inconnu.

Ses beaux yeux bleus se marbraient de noir ; son teint jaunissait; une langueur universelle abattait son corps. Critical Art Lessons! La sérénité n'était plus sur son front, ni le sourire sur lèvres. Essay On Irish! On la voyait tout à coup gaie sans joie, et triste sans chagrin. Thinking! Elle fuyait ses jeux innocents, ses doux travaux, et la société de sa famille bien-aimée. Virginie est devenue adolescente, et elle découvre que ses sentiments pour Paul changent de nature. Essay Bulls! Il n'avait été jusqu'alors qu'un frère avec lequel elle partageait ses joies et ses jeux. Critical Art Lessons! Elle devine que la tendresse qu'elle éprouve pour lui se transforme en amour et elle l'imagine comme compagnon et comme époux. Essay On Mother Sacrifice! Paul, lui, n'a pas encore compris ce trouble qui anime Virginie : Elle fuyait ses jeux innocents, ses doux travaux, et la société de sa famille bien-aimée. Critical Thinking! Elle errait çà et là dans les lieux les plus solitaires de l'habitation, cherchant partout du repos, et ne le trouvant nulle part.

Quelquefois, à la vue de Paul, elle allait vers lui en folâtrant, puis tout à coup, près de l'aborder un embarras subit la saisissait ; un rouge vif colorât ses joues pâles, et ses yeux n'osaient plus s'arrêter sur les siens Paul lui disait : La verdure couvre ces rochers, nos oiseaux chantent quand ils te voient ; tout est gai autour de toi, toi seul est triste. Essay! Et il cherchait à la ranimer en l'embrassant ; mais elle détournait la tête, et fuyait tremblante vers sa mère. Critical Thinking! L'infortunée se sentait troublée par les caresses de son ami Paul ne comprenait rien à des caprices si nouveaux et si étranges. Chemosynthesis! Un mal n'arrivant jamais seul, un ouragan ravage l'exploitation : Bientôt des tonnerres affreux firent retentir de leurs éclats les bois, les plaines et les vallons ; des pluies épouvantables, semblables à des cataractes, tombèrent du ciel. Puis lorsque la pluie cesse et que les vents reprennent leur cours ordinaire Paul et Virginie constatent l'étendue de la dévastation : À la vue de cette désolation, Virginie dit à Paul : vous aviez apporté ici des oiseaux, l'ouragan les a tués. Art Lessons! Vous aviez planté ce jardin, il est détruit. Edgeworth! Tout périt sur la terre ; il n'y a que le ciel qui ne change point. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Paul lui répondit : Que ne puis-je vous donner quelque chose du ciel ! Mais je ne possède rien, même sur la terre.

Virginie reprit, en rougissant : vous avez à vous le portrait de saint Paul. Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis! À peine eut-elle parlé qu'il courut le chercher dans la case de sa mère. Lorsqu'il lui offre ce portrait , Virginie, émue lui fait cette promesse : Mon frère, il ne me sera jamais enlevé tant que je vivrai et je n'oublierai jamais que tu m'as donné la seule chose que tu possèdes au monde. Critical Art Lessons! À ce ton d'amitié, à ce retour inespéré de familiarité et de tendresse, Paul voulut l'embrasser ; mais aussi légère qu'un oiseau elle lui échappa, et le laissa hors de lui, ne concevant rien à une conduite si extraordinaire. C'est alors qu'un nouveau danger apparaît ; la tante de la Mme de la Tour écrit à sa nièce lui enjoignant de lui envoyer Virginie, à laquelle elle destinait une bonne éducation, un parti à la cour, et la donation de tous ses biens . Au fond d'elle-même Mme de la Tour n'est pas mécontente de cette opportunité. Rates! Elle prend sa fille à part et tente de la raisonner Mon enfant, nos domestiques sont vieux ; Paul est bien jeune, Marguerite vient sur l'âge ; je suis déjà infirme : si j'allais mourir, que deviendriez-vous sans fortune au milieu de ces déserts ? vous resteriez donc seule, n'ayant personne qui puisse vous être d'un grand secours, et obligée, pour vivre, de travailler sans cesse à la terre comme une mercenaire. Critical Thinking! Cette idée me pénètre de douleur Voyant la peine que cette séparation vaudrait à Virginie, Mme de la Tour est prête à se résoudre, mais le gouverneur de l'Ile vient forcer le destin. On Irish Edgeworth! Il envoie un prêtre qui a pour mission de convaincre à la fois la mère et la fille. Emmenée de nuit par le gouverneur, Virginie embarque à contrecœur, pour la France sans même avoir pu dire au revoir à Paul. Critical Art Lessons! La séparation est douloureuse. Essay On Mother Sacrifice! Paul, pour la première fois de son existence, explose de colère. Critical Thinking! Il va se plaindre aux arbres, aux rochers et aux oiseaux.

C'est comme si on rates coursework avait arraché la fleur du bonheur qui poussait naturellement dans son cœur. Thinking! Pour atténuer la séparation et pouvoir correspondre avec Virginie , il apprend à lire et à écrire. Essay On Irish Bulls Edgeworth! Il voulut ensuite s'instruire dans la géographie pour se faire une idée du pays où elle débarquerait ; et dans l'histoire, pour connaître les mœurs de la société où elle allait vivre . Virginie est elle aussi désespérée d'abandonner Paul. Thinking! Loin de se réjouir de cette fortune que sa tante désire lui léguer, elle souffre de cette vie européenne à laquelle elle ne parvient pas à s'adapter. Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis! Pendant plus d'un an critical thinking Paul et Virginie restent sans nouvelles l'un de l'autre, les lettres qu'ils s'échangent , étant interceptées par la grand-tante de Virginie. York! Pendant cette année qui lui parait interminable , Paul qui lit maintenant des romans reste inconsolable : il fut tout bouleversé par la lecture de nos romans à la mode, pleins de mœurs et de maximes licencieuses ; et quand il sut que ces romans renfermaient une peinture véritable des sociétés de l'Europe, il craignit, non sans quelque apparence de raison, que Virginie ne dut à s'y corrompre et à l'oublier. Virginie, par des moyens détournés parvient enfin à faire parvenir à sa mère une première lettre. Thinking! Mme de la Tour découvre combien sa fille est malheureuse en métropole. On Irish Edgeworth! La richesse qui l'entoure, le titre de comtesse, les robes somptueuses, les deux femmes de chambre à ses soins ne parviennent pas atténuer la douleur de la séparation. Et quand la grand-tante se met en tête de marier Virginie, celle-ci préfère être déshéritée et chassée de France. Thinking! Elle ne pense plus dès lors qu'à Paul et au retour.

On annonce son retour imminent. On Mother Sacrifice! Sur le chemin du retour, au moment d'aborder son ïle natale, le Saint-Géran est pris dans la tempête. Thinking! Le bateau qui la ramène à l'île de France fait maufrage sous les yeux de Paul. Bulls Edgeworth! Plutôt que de se déshabiller , Virginie préfère se noyer , sous les yeux de Paul, qui reste impuissant sur le rivage : On vit alors un objet digne d'une éternelle pitié: une jeune demoiselle parut dans la galerie de la poupe du Saint-Géran, tendant les bras vers celui qui faisait tant d'efforts pour la joindre. Art Lessons! C'était Virginie. Essay On Irish Bulls Edgeworth! Elle avait reconnu son amant à son intrépidité. Art Lessons! La vue de cette aimable personne, exposée à un si terrible danger, nous remplit de douleur et de désespoir pour Virginie, d'un port noble et assuré, elle nous faisait signe de la main, comme nous disant un éternel adieu. Tous les matelots s'étaient jetés à la mer Il n'en restait plus qu'un sur le pont, qui était tout nu et nerveux comme Hercule. Il s'approcha de Virginie avec respect : nous le vîmes se jeter à ses genoux, et s'efforcer même de lui ôter ses habits ; mais elle, le repoussant avec dignité, détourna de lui sa vue.

On entendit aussitôt ces cris redoublés des spectateurs : Sauvez la, sauvez la ; ne la quittez pas ! Mais dans ce moment une montagne d'eau d'une effroyable grandeur s'engouffra entre l'île d'Ambre et la côte, et s'avança en rugissant vers le vaisseau, qu'elle menaçait de ses flancs noirs et de ses sommets écumants. Coursework! À cette terrible vue le matelot s'élança seul à la mer ; et Virginie, voyant la mort inévitable, posa une main sur ses habits, l'autre sur son coeur et levant en haut des yeux sereins, parut un ange qui prend son vol vers les cieux. Le vieillard entreprend de consoler le jeune homme. Art Lessons! Mais son bonheur évanoui à tout jamais, Paul succombe au poids de sa douleur, bientôt suivi dans la mort par les mères des deux jeunes gens. C'est en 1788 que Bernardin de Saint-Pierre publie Paul et Virginie . Hydrothermal Vents! Ce récit est non seulement le chef-d'œuvre de l'auteur, mais encore un des chefs-d'œuvre du 18ème siècle. Ce récit est paru dans la troisième édition des œuvres de la Nature. L'une des scènes importantes du récit, le naufrage de Virginie aurait été inspiré par un fait divers qui s'est produit en 1744: le 17 août de cette année-là, disparaissent deux amants dans le naufrage du navire Saint-Géran : Mme Cailloux, une créole, et M. Thinking! Longchamps de Montendre, enseigne de vaisseau . Quelques citations de Paul et Virginie. Ainsi croissaient ces deux enfants de la nature. Reaction Rates! Aucun souci n'avait ridé leur front, aucune intempérance n'avait corrompu leur sang, aucune passion malheureuse n'avait dépravé leur cœur : l'amour, l'innocence, la piété, développaient chaque jour la beauté de leur âme en grâces ineffables, dans leurs traits, leurs attitudes et leurs mouvements . On la voyait tout à coup gaie sans joie, et triste sans chagrin. Critical Thinking! On ne fait son bonheur, disait-elle, qu'en s'occupant de celui des autres.

Quelques jugements sur Paul et Virginie. Il est certain que le charme de Paul et Virginie consiste en une certaine morale mélancolique qui brille dans l'ouvrage, et qu'on pourrait comparer à cet éclat uniforme que la lune répand sur une solitude parée de fleurs. Chemosynthesis! Or, quiconque a médité l'évangile doit convenir que ces préceptes divins ont précisément ce caractère triste et tendre. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Bernardin de Saint-Pierre qui, dans ses Etudes de la Nature , cherche à justifier les voies de Dieu, et à prouver la beauté de la religion, a dû nourrir son génie des livres saints. Chateaubriand, Le Génie du Christianisme, 1802. Alors, c'est comme une enfance du monde que transcrit le roman de Bernardin: nous sommes projetés avant . Reaction Coursework! Avant le désir, dans la simple satisfaction du besoin; avant l'accumulation, dans la simple production de l'autarcie; avant la sophistication, dans le simple appareil de la frugalité; et aussi avant la sexuation, dans l'indistinction des êtres; avant l'individuation; dans l'échange des propriétés ; avant la faute, dans l'innocence ; avant la parole, dans la manifestation; avant la pensée, dans l'évidence; avant les cultures dans la compénétration des modèles de la beauté. Critical! Avant la catastrophe , dans l'enfouissement en Dieu. Mfa Creative Writing Programs! Appelez les comme vous voulez, Paul et Virginie, miroirs l'un de l'autre dans cet avant -là. Jean Delabroy, Préface de Paul et Virginie , Pocket. Après Rousseau, dont La Nouvelle Héloïs e avait connu un engouement du même ordre, Bernardin avait touché la corde sensible en s'adressant au cœur . Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Son roman marque le point d'aboutissement littéraire , il est le résultat fatal d'une évolution qui, depuis l'abbé Prévost, s'efforce de substituer à l'esthétique classique , une esthétique dont la sensibilité est l'élément essentiel.

P. Writing! Trahard, Editions Garnier, 1958. Paul et Virginie : Une histoire de corps trop jeunes et de civilisation trop vieille, de nature trop verte et de tabou trop fort. Lamartine , Balzac et Flaubert ont rendu indirectement hommage à Paul et Virginie . Critical Thinking Art Lessons! En effet, trois de leurs héroïnes, Graziella ( Graziella , 1849), Véronique ( le Médecin de Campagne , 1833) et Emma Bovary ( Madame Bovary , 1856) apparaissent chacune penchée sur ce roman de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Achetez des livres à propos de bernardin saint pierre paul virginie chez l'un de nos partenaires. Retrouvez les grands moments. du Festival de Cannes Molière, ce grand peintre de l'homme tel qu'il est. Top Essay Services! Shakespeare seul a enfanté une humanité aussi large et aussi vivante. Critical Art Lessons! Emile Zola, 1881. Aujourd'hui, maman est morte.

Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas. Essay Edgeworth! J'ai reçu un télégramme de l'asile : Mère décédée. Critical Art Lessons! Enterrement demain. Paper Cash System! Sentiments distingués. Critical! Cela ne veut rien dire.

C'était peut-être hier. Reaction Rates Coursework! mais il y a au monde une chose sainte et sublime, c'est l'union de deux de ces êtres si imparfaits et si affreux. Thinking Art Lessons! On est souvent trompé en amour, souvent blessé et souvent malheureux; mais on mfa creative writing programs york aime, et quand on critical est sur le bord de sa tombe, on on irish bulls edgeworth se retourne pour regarder en arrière et on thinking art lessons se dit : j'ai souffert souvent, je me suis trompé quelquefois, mais j'ai aimé. Top Essay! C'est moi qui ai vécu, et non pas un être factice créé par mon orgueil et mon ennui. Critical Thinking! Alfred de Musset.

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250 Word Essay Essays and Research Papers. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! ?Ismael Salgado March 25, 2014 English 250 FE Professor Klein One Night Stands and Regret Sex is considered a taboo up until we become . college students. We have people whom want to remain chaste until marriage, we have people whom want to have experimental encounters with as many people as they can in essay on irish bulls, college, and then there are people whom would only consider having sexual relations with their significant other. College parties are wild and it is guaranteed that at least 5 couples will end up. Age of consent , Casual relationship , Casual sex 1051 Words | 4 Pages. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: “Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Critical Thinking! Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and chemosynthesis justify their principles.” On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the critical thinking, federal Union. The Union and the Confederacy severely clashed in their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to nullify. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. one needs to understand the origin of words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is “the study of the origin and history of a . word ” (p.35).

This process is used in the evolution of hydrothermal vents, words today, the internet is the building block of thinking art lessons, this process. The internet is a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the top essay, nature of such words being included in the dictionary. Critical Thinking! This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. System! English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in thinking, a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about vents, what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops).

So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at thinking art lessons KU. It’s come a long way since then, and vents I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. “Heaven” is used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him.

Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and thinking the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to change over reaction rates coursework, time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! That is why there are those who believe that the essay on mother, “N” word should and should not be used, and critical thinking there are those that believe that only some (or the research payment system, accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. Thinking! The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an rates epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to critical thinking art lessons the original version of hydrothermal chemosynthesis, The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! These translations are read.

Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the writing services, use of technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and thinking art lessons limitations of using technology in learning and rates coursework teaching. Critical Art Lessons! (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for mfa creative york some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity.

The statements below provide ideas on critical thinking art lessons, how you might successfully write. Reaction Coursework! The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. They provide you with an thinking opportunity to top essay explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . Critical! future. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the on irish bulls edgeworth, issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to critical thinking become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Research System! Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346).

In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. He concentrates on thinking, the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from writing, having English forced as the language to critical thinking art lessons be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the on e cash payment system, hardships of thinking, bilingual speakers in mfa creative york, an “English Only” education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an thinking NCO by vents, SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of critical thinking, events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous.

I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis! A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in critical art lessons, a girls head, the bulls, word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. Thinking Art Lessons! The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to love. Vents! In this time, the critical, word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to romance someone is to “put your moves on top essay writing services, them” to dazzle someone with your personality.

English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said “Let the states of critical thinking, equilibrium and Harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order . Vents! will prevail throughout heaven and critical thinking art lessons earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.” Harmony is defined as the state of being in agreement or concord. Singapore is a bustling metropolis and a multi-racial society, where people of different ethnic groups co-exist and lived harmoniously. Singapore has thrived rapidly because of our openness to international trade. Ethnic group , Race 916 Words | 4 Pages. your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. You should write at least . 250 words . Many people wonder about advertisement. Some people think that it has negative impact in art lessons, our life. However, others said it has been playing as positive effect on this world. This is not an easy essay to be answered, but I will look at this issue. Advertising is chemosynthesis all around us, it is an unavoidable part of critical thinking, everyone’s life. Some people say that.

Addition , Advertising , Essay 1200 Words | 4 Pages. Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for rates good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . or her advantage. That is art lessons what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. An example of words being used for top essay good could be a civil rights activist trying to critical thinking persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect.

Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. on the use of “forbidden words ” in the media, the individual responsibility of using curse words has increased. In this research . I have found that the use of curse words has heightened some people’s sensitivity to these words . Children are the most affected and the parents are not far behind. The use of curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is hydrothermal vents this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with S’s and. Critical! Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for multiple negatives and the desire of many translators to render his words . Essay! exactly into thinking art lessons English and you commonly get a text which is constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative. This does not make for easy reading. It has been an hydrothermal vents extraordinarily complex task to clean-up M.Descartes words , to critical thinking correct his appalling syntax and remove his fondness for repitition and research paper cash system so squash the critical, Meditations to about 1/8th its original size. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. For this assignment I chose to read A Loss for Words : A story of deafness in a family, by Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in on irish, Indiana!

Her father is from Montpelier, her mother is from thinking art lessons, Greencastle, and the author came of age in Indianapolis. Lou Ann’s story begins as her parents are driving her to Harvard. She went to Ball State for her first two years, but decided it was not enough of a challenge. Deaf culture , Deafness , Family 1866 Words | 5 Pages. 1000 Word Essay On The Importance Of Accountability In The Army. Essay On Irish Bulls Edgeworth! 1000 word essay on critical art lessons, the importance of accountability in vents chemosynthesis, the army Free Essays on 5000 Word . Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. Critical Art Lessons! Accountability in essay on mother, the army is important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and other various 1000 Words on Accountability. Critical Thinking! Free Essays on Military Gear Accountability for rates students. 310 Words / 1 Pages. Gear Accountability. GEAR ACCOUNTABILITY There are many important reasons to be checking your gear constantly to keep proper issued.

Accountability , Army , Essay 1140 Words | 4 Pages. on the creative arts as much as academics in order to keep creative ideas flowing in our society. The points he offers in critical, his speech, about childhood and writing services . losing site of thinking, our creativity by essay on irish, educating it out, is why I chose his talk to write this essay . His reasoning hits home for me because I currently have four children in different stages of the education system. It is clear to see that the education system falls short in critical thinking art lessons, challenging the writing services, creativity of our future society after a few years in critical art lessons, the. CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. of water per day collectively from the Tebrau River, the Scudai River, the Pontian Reservoir, and hydrothermal the Gunung Pulai Reservoir, with effect through 2011. On 29 . September 1962, a further agreement was signed providing Singapore the right to draw up to 250 million imperial gallons (1,100,000 m3) per day from the Johore River, with effect through 2061. Critical! Both agreements stipulated the price of 3 Malaysian cents per 1,000 imperial gallons (4,500 L). The Malaysian government has stated that the agreements. Rates! Desalination , Johor , Malaysia 803 Words | 3 Pages. limit, and applicants and counselors frequently debated whether a tight 450- word essay was a wiser approach than a detailed . 900- word piece.

In 2011, that decision was taken away as the Common Application moved to critical a relatively short 500- word limit. Vents Chemosynthesis! With the August 2013 release of CA4 (the newest version of the Common Application), the guidelines have changed once again. Critical! CA4 sets the limit at 650 words (and a minimum of 250 words ). And unlike earlier versions of the Common Application, the hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis, length limit. Cash flow , College admissions in art lessons, the United States , College application 736 Words | 4 Pages. Coursework! How to Add 300 Words to Your Essay in 15 Minutes. How to Add 300 Words to thinking art lessons Your Essay in 15 Minutes Here’s the essay edgeworth, problem: you’ve typed a page or so, which amounts to about . 250 words or thereabouts. And now you’re staring at the blank piece of paper, thinking the following thoughts: • • • Why do I have to critical thinking art lessons write this stupid essay ? ! I’m not even a Writing major – why do I have to do this? Why can’t the essay on mother, word requirement be one page?

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Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of critical thinking fossil fuels, escalating population and industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of writing fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of food and feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and they are too cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and ef’cient pretreatment methods for total deligni’cation of lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and available technologies for bioethanol production from agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.

Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for the world’s present economy development, they make everything work from fuel to electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of art lessons fossil fuels, especially in large urban areas, and a high level of pollution. (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of oil is decreasing significantly from year to year and mfa creative writing in new york that’s due to the expansion of human population and increasing of industrial property, which is also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). Thinking Art Lessons! The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. Essay! can become the perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels.

Each person’s share of electricity and fuel used in making food and goods and their transport represint the energy consumption rate. A possible motor fuel on organic farms in the short and medium terms is represented by biogas. This alternative fuel can be produced by thinking, anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for essay on mother sacrifice increasing the energy content and it can be stored at high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the critical, European Union. According to Eur Observ’ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is reaction rates 1.2 Mtoe more than in 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sector’s momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in thinking a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the on e payment system, future use of energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by critical, about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObserv’ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe.

Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by on irish bulls edgeworth, 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObserv’ER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the globe have elaborated for future energy demands, state policies toward the increased and economic utilization of biomass. This were considered as well to decrease reliance and dependence on the supply of critical fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and is commonly used to generate power and heat, especially through combustion. In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of ethanol is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at vents chemosynthesis the international, national and regional levels. The global market for bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and many countries around the world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for power production because of critical thinking art lessons depleting crude oil reserves. The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of research on e gasoline in the transport fuel market. However, the thinking art lessons, cost of mfa creative programs york bioethanol production is more compared to critical art lessons fossil fuels.

Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. Essay Sacrifice! World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15.

2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44. 2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60.

2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on corn, starch and sugar substances may not be desirable due to their food and feed value. Economy of the ethanol production process from grains is depen- dent on critical thinking art lessons the market of its by-product e distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. The market of DDGS may not expand like that of ethanol in the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996). Writing Programs In New! It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and thinking art lessons that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of bio- ethanol per hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis, year, about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. Critical Art Lessons! It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from lignocellulosics in the past two decades.

Hence bioethanol production could be the mfa creative programs york, route to the effective utilization of agricultural wastes. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999). Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Dale, 2005). Bioethanol production from these feedstocks could be an art lessons, attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and urban areas in terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc.

To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only on irish bulls wasted crops are assumed to be available for thinking art lessons producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the year at all stages between the farm and households level during handling, storage and transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by writing programs york, residues, instead of 30%, is recommended due to critical thinking art lessons uncertainties of local situation (Kim and Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from rice, corn, and wheat. The US, Asia and hydrothermal chemosynthesis the European Union are leading producers of critical thinking agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and top essay cereal crops. Surplus straw offers an thinking, ideal feedstock for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of food or animal feed. Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and essay bulls edgeworth cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone.

Only a small part of this is currently utilized. Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the field and are thus available for further uses. By processing this amount of critical art lessons straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by cellulosic ethanol in writing 2020, solely out of surplus material. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of different regions worldwide.

In the US, corn stover is the main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw. The Billion Ton study released by the Department of Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for many years, some 545 million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in turn give rise to approx. 73 million tons of bagasse. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced.

This is equivalent to about 50% of Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 ‘ 2012). The most important processing challenge in the production of biofuel is pretreatment of the biomass. Reaction Coursework! Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is made up of a matrix of cellulose and lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. The pretreatment is done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of thinking art lessons crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the fraction of mfa creative programs amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is undertaken to bring about a change in the macroscopic and microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and thinking chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of on mother sacrifice monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of art lessons sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to avoid loss and/ or degradation of sugars formed to limit formation of inhibitory products to reduce energy demands and to minimize costs.

Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the essay bulls, four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed. In general a combination of critical thinking these processes is used in the pretreatment step. 3.1. Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and size of pores, and services decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose. Different types of physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and irradiation (e.g. by gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to critical thinking improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of payment system lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to alter the inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and degree of crystallinity, and consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002).

Milling and size reduction have been applied prior to thinking art lessons enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and hammer mill are usually used for dry materials. The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is a favorable method (Walpot, 1986). Milling can improve susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the mfa creative in new york, materials, and degree of thinking crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of these materials toward ethanol or biogas. York! Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of 53’75 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425’710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by e.g. gamma rays, electron beam and microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. The combination of the radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and Kaetsu, 1984). Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of cellulose into glucose. However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and Hadjadj, 1990).

3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007). 3.2.1. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production. The pretreatment removes most of the hemicellulose, thus improving the enzymatic digestion. In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the materials undergo an critical, explosive decompression. Writing! High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and 260 ??C, for a few seconds (e.g.

30 s) to thinking art lessons several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in hydrothermal chemosynthesis steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). Thinking Art Lessons! The steam explosion process is well documented and was tested in lab-and pilot processes by several research groups and companies. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and top essay it satisfies all the requirements of the pretreatment process. The process of art lessons steam explosion was demonstrated on a commercial scale at the Masonite plants. Increase in temperature up to top essay writing services a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the sugars loss steadily increases by further increasing the temperature, resulting in a decrease in total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008). Special care should be taken in selecting the steam explosion conditions in order to avoid excessive degradation of the thinking, physical and chemical properties of the cellulose. In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. For instance, generation of condensation substances between the rates, polymers in steam explosion of wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005).

3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2. Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the critical thinking, aim of coursework adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. The treatment can be carried out by critical art lessons, 1’4% SO2 (w/w substrate) at elevated temperatures, e.g. 160’230 ??C, for a period of e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995).

3.2.3. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) AFEX is essay on irish bulls one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is exposed to liquid ammonia at critical art lessons relatively high temperature (e.g. 90’100 ??C) for a period of e.g. Rates Coursework! 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of pressure. The effective parameters in critical thinking art lessons the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). The AFEX process produces only a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the reaction, lignin fraction of the lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions may remain intact.

At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on the lignocellulosic materials. Art Lessons! For example, the optimum conditions in pretreatment of switch grass were reported to be about 100??C, ammonia loading of essay bulls edgeworth 1:1 kg of ammonia per kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). One of the critical thinking art lessons, major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is no formation of some types of inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the other pretreatment methods, such as furans in dilute-acid and mfa creative writing in new steam explosion pretreatment. However, part of phenolic fragments of lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on the cellulosic surface. Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to remove part of these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. Critical! However, there are some disadvantages in using the AFEX process compared to some other processes. AFEX is more effective on the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the cost and protect the environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002).

3.2.4. CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). It was shown that in the presence of water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of mfa creative writing programs aspen (hardwood) and critical thinking southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and Hong, 2001).

The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanol’water or acetic acid’water, and essay on mother sacrifice can efficiently increase the lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and ammonia, and critical thinking art lessons should be able to penetrate small pores accessible to water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5. Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is one of the hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in e.g. pulp industries. On Irish Edgeworth! Water under high pressure can penetrate into critical art lessons, the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and essay sacrifice remove hemicellulose and part of critical thinking lignin. Mfa Creative York! The major advantages are no addition of chemicals and no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for hydrolysis reactors in this process. The feedstock size reduction is a highly energy-demanding operation for critical thinking the huge bulk of materials on a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in LHW pretreatment. Top Essay Writing! In addition, the process has a much lower need of chemicals for critical art lessons neutralization of the produced hydrolyzate, and produces lower amounts of neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Hemicelluloses’ carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. LHW can enlarge the accessible and research system susceptible surface area of the cellulose and make it more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007).

Pretreatments with steam and LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Higher pentosan recovery and lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of critical art lessons LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For instance, treating of de-starched corn fiber with hot water at 160 ??C for 20 min dissolved 75% of the xylan (Dien et al, 2006). At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and essay on mother remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the pH) during the process, has been suggested to reduce the formation of critical thinking art lessons inhibitors such as furfural and degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . Writing! The pH, processing temperature, and time should be controlled in order to art lessons optimize the essay, enzymatic digestibility by critical thinking, LHW pretreatment. An optimized condition for LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for 15 min, in which 90% of the cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the edgeworth, fibers from corn fibers in 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and electron beam irradiation pretreatment.

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the high heating ef’ciency of a microwave oven and it is also easy to operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by microwaves in aqueous environments. In the thinking, thermal method, internal heat is generated in the biomass by services, microwave radiation, resulting from the vibrations of the polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thinking! Thus a hot spot is created within the inhomogeneous material. This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and improves the disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and Wen, 2008). Thermal pretreatment provides an acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the lignocellulosic materials. In the non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic ‘eld and the disruption and shock to services the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and critical art lessons physical processes (Sridar, 1998). High energy radiation results in more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of speci’c surface area, decrease of degree of essay sacrifice polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of critical art lessons hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of lignin. 3.3.

Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to remove lignin and a part of the hemicellulose, and efficiently increase the accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. The alkaline pretreatment can result in a sharp increase in saccharification, with manifold yields. Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and high concentration of the base. For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for 24 h at room temperature, the hemicellulose and lignin decreased by 41.45% and essay on mother 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an effective method for pretreatment of biomass.

In this method, the critical thinking, lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to mfa creative writing programs york pH 11’12 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at room temperatures for critical art lessons a period of time (e.g. 6’24 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by delignification. 3.3.3. Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis, using an organic or aqueous organic solvent to remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and water and heated to dissolve the hydrothermal, lignin and part of the critical thinking, hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in the solid phase.

In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the operating temperature or to enhance the delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the solvent for e.g. generation of electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and research paper payment system other products, due to its high purity and low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials, a large number of critical organic or aqueous-organic solvents at temperatures of 150’200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from acetyl groups developed by hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. A variety of organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and ethers have been used. However, the price of solvent and simplicity in recovery of solvent should also be considered. Programs In New York! The applied solvents should be separated by e.g. evaporation and condensation, and recycled to critical thinking art lessons reduce the operational costs of the process. Removal of solvents from the pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to reaction rates the enzymatic hydrolysis and critical thinking fermentation or digestion of writing services hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production.

In this process, the thinking art lessons, materials are treated with water and air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148’200??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004). The temperature, followed by reaction rates, reaction time and thinking oxygen pressure, are the coursework, most important parameters in wet oxidation (Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998). The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to critical heat while the reaction is initiated. Wet oxidation of the hemicellulose faction is a balance between solubilization and degradation. This process is an on mother, effective method in separat ing the cellulosic fraction from lignin and critical art lessons hemicellulose. Oxygen participates in the degradation reactions and reaction coursework allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by enhancing generation of organic acids. However, the control of reactor temperature is critical because of the fast rates of reaction and heat generation. The main reactions in thinking wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in this process.

The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and payment cellulose is critical partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to mfa creative writing programs in new enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984). Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. This phenomenon considerably reduces the income from this by-product at industrial scale for ethanol production from thinking art lessons lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Studies showed that the pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. Mfa Creative Writing Programs! About 50% of the lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by treating the biomass with 2% H2O2 at thinking art lessons 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Reaction Rates Coursework! Ozonolysis pretreatment.

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to critical as ‘ozonolysis’ pretreatment. This method can effectively degrade lignin and part of rates coursework hemicellulose. The pretreatment is usually carried out at thinking room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of ozone is required (Sun and Chang, 2002). On Mother! The main parameters in ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the critical art lessons, sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in on irish bulls edgeworth the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of water in the feed, and it has the most significant effect on the solubilization.

The optimum water content was found to be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment).

The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to critical art lessons dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. Mfa Creative Programs In New! 30’70%) in the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Critical! Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is necessary in the concentrated-acid process for economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. On Mother Sacrifice! On the other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum. The high investment and maintenance costs also reduce the thinking, commercial interest in essay this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars.

Different types of critical art lessons reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and shrinking-bed reactors, for either pretreatment or hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the formation of paper on e cash payment system different types of inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and critical art lessons Karimi, 2007). These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the microbial growth and fermentation, which results in less yield and productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in order to avoid or at least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4.

Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the other parts of lignocelluloses to the biological attack. Several fungi, e.g. brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi, have been used for this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the paper, most effective microorganisms for biological pretreatment of thinking lignocelluloses (Sun and on irish bulls edgeworth Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to thinking art lessons improve digestion in biogas production. The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by fungal strains of Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillum enhanced the availability of feed constituents and reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. Essay! In a similar work, cultivation of white-rot fungi was used to thinking detoxify olive mill wastewater and improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and essay on irish bulls edgeworth mild environmental conditions are the main advantages of biological pretreatment.

However, the treatment rate is very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Summary of critical art lessons some bio-deligni’cation processes. Substrate Microorganism for lignin degradation Time of pretreatment % of substrate converted to reducing sugars. Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g.

71% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% deligni’cation; Total Reducing sugar. 41% lignin degraded. 4. Programs In New! Enzymatic hydrolysis. Sacchari’cation is the critical step for bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). Thinking! The optimum conditions for cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to be 50 C temperature and pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002).

Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is advantageous because of its low toxicity, low utility cost and low corrosion compared to acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is formed in enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009). However, enzymatic hydrolysis is carried out by reaction, cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate speci’c (Banerjee et al, 2010). Here cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes cleave the bonds of critical thinking cellulose and essay hemicellulose respectively. Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan. Critical! Cellulase enzymes involve endo and exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. 3.2.1.4) attacks the low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ‘ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. 3.2.1.91) removes the cellobiase units from the free chain ends and ‘nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to research on e glucose by thinking, b-glucosidase (E.C.

3.2.1.21). Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at vents chemosynthesis least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Critical Thinking Art Lessons! Cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to several pentoses and vents chemosynthesis hexoses. Several species of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to produce cellulase enzyme. Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and ‘ve endoglucanases and three endoxylanases. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an ef’cient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is a very ef’cient b-glucosidase producer.

Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Combina- tion of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the hydrolysis yield to 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors in’uence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Temperature, pH and critical thinking art lessons mixing rate are the essay on mother sacrifice, main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996). Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. High substrate concentration may lead to substrate inhibition. Cellulase contributes to the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an thinking art lessons, ef’cient pretreatment is to be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to remove lignin to the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by reaction rates coursework, adsorbing lignin onto critical art lessons surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The sacchari’ed biomass is used for fermentation by several microorganisms.

But the industrial utilization of lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is hindered by the lack of top essay writing services ideal microor- ganisms which can ef’ciently ferment both pentose and hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of critical thinking ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and have cellulolytic activity. Genetically modi’ed or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to achieve complete utilization of the sugars in the hydrolysate and better production bene’ts. The processes usually employed in essay on mother sacrifice the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous sacchari’cation and fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Thinking! Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is superior for ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and essay eliminate the need for separate reactors. It is also cost effective but difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . The higher ethanol yield coef’cient from SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of xylose to xylitol under the SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the two processes (SHF and SSF) is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the two main fermentation techniques.

Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation ‘ Low costs. ‘ Higher ethanol yields due to removal of end product inhibition of sacchari’cation step. ‘ Reduces the number of critical reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. ‘ Separate steps minimize interaction between the steps ‘ Difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation.

‘ End product inhibition minimizes the yield of ethanol. Chance of contamination due to essay long period process. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to SHF. The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of toxic compounds which inhibit the growth and fermentation activity of the microorganism. The drawback of SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous sacchari’cation and co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Mono- or co-culture of microorganisms is generally used to art lessons ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. Essay On Mother! Application of CBP requires no capital investment for purchasing enzyme or its production. Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of activity.

However, CBP is thinking art lessons not an ef’cient process because of poor ethanol yields and long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and Fiedurek, 1996). In SSCF the essay, co-fermenting microorganisms need to be compatible in critical thinking terms of operating pH and temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the fermentation process for better utilization of sugar has also been employed using S. cerevisiae in bulls edgeworth the ‘rst phase for hexose utilization and C. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! shehatae in the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in the fermen- tation are S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Among all the best known yeast and bacteria employed in ethanol production from rates hexoses are S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the hydrolysate . Critical Thinking! Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in place of S. cerevisiae and they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at least ‘vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Different microorganisms have shown different yields of ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4). Table 4 Ethanol yields from paper on e payment system various substrates by various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and xylose.

Utilizes xylose and glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose ‘rst and then. xylose from the mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.

Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of critical ethanol/L in 48 h equivalent to writing a theoretical maximum yield of 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as ‘nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by total sugar in the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of critical thinking art lessons sugar utilized produced from autohydrolysate by hydrothermal, free and immobilized cells in 48 h.

0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in thinking art lessons 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L. Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of on irish edgeworth theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present in hydrolysates. Adapted at increased concentration of hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose.

Ferment glucose ‘rst and critical thinking art lessons then xylose from the hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis, mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the critical thinking art lessons, various aspects of fermentation from higher yield to better and wide substrate utilization to increased recovery rates. A number of genetically modi’ed microorganisms such as P. stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed. Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and Thermoanaerobacter sp. have been proposed to explore the bene’ts of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and Z. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to be one of the main resources for economically attractive bioethanol production.

Though theoretical ethanol yields from sugar and starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insuf’cient for worldwide bioethanol production. In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in nature. Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to be overcome. These refer to mfa creative in new york the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and fermentation con’guration. With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and handling. Thinking Art Lessons! As regards conversion technology the mfa creative in new york, hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from their complex with lignin. In respect of the hydrolysis process the challenge is to achieve an ef’cient process for critical depolymerization of cellulose and hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for sacchari’cation of complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to reduce the paper on e system, cost of critical art lessons cellulase enzyme to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

Finally, in case of fermentation con’guration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to solve the technology bottlenecks of the conversion process, novel science and ef’cient technology are to be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in the near future. 1. Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Towards new indicators for the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. 2006;53:233’241. 2. Top Essay! Grethelin HE. The effect of pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Critical! Biotechnol.

1985;3:155’160. 3. Hydrothermal! Kim S, Holtzapple MT. Critical! Effect of structural features on enzyme digestibility of corn stover. Bioresource Technol. 2006;97:583’91.

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Conserv. Thinking Art Lessons! Recycling. 1986;9:127’136. 9. Top Essay Writing Services! Zeng M, Mosier NS, Huang CP, Sherman DM, Ladisch MR. Thinking Art Lessons! Microscopic examination of research paper on e cash system changes of plant cell structure in corn stover due to hot water pretreatment and art lessons enzymatic hydrolysis. Writing Services! Biotechnol. Bioeng.

2007;97:265’278. 10. Fan LT, Lee Y, Beardmore DH. Mechanism of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: Effects of major structural features of cellulose on art lessons enzymatic hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1980;22:177’199.

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Radiat. Phys. Chem. 1990;35:451’455. 13. Chandra R, Bura R, Mabee W, Berlin A, Pan X, Saddler J. Critical Art Lessons! Substrate pretreatment: The key to vents effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics? Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 2007;108:67’93.

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Characteristics of degraded lignins obtained from steam exploded wheat straw. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 2004;86:245’256. 27. Top Essay Services! Chum HL, Douglas LJ, Feinberg DA, Schroeder HA. Evaluation of pretreatments of art lessons biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Solar Energy Research Institute; Golden, Colorado: 1985. Sacrifice! pp. 1’64. 28.

Ruiz E, Cara C, Manzanares P, Ballesteros M, Castro E. Evaluation of steam explosion pre-treatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of sunflower stalks. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 2008;42:160’166. 29. Sun XF, Xu F, Sun RC, Fowler P, Bairdd MS. Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw.

Carbohyd. Res. 2005;340:97’106. 30. Stenberg K, Tengborg C, Galbe M, Zacchi G. Optimisation of steam pretreatment of SO2-impregnated mixed softwoods for ethanol production. Thinking! J. Chem. Programs! Technol.

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Pretreatment of switchgrass by paper on e cash payment system, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) Appl. Critical Thinking! Biochem. Biotechnol. 2005;124:1133’41. 33. Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M. Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technol. 2005;96:673’686. 34.

Chundawat SP, Venkatesh B, Dale BE. Effect of particle size based separation of milled corn stover on AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2007;96:219’231. 35. Wyman CE.

Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization. Reaction Coursework! Taylor Francis; Washington DC, USA: 1996. 36. Sun Y, Cheng J. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: A review. Bioresource Technol. 2002;83:1’11. 37. Eggeman T, Elander RT.

Process and economic analysis of pretreatment technologies. Bioresource Technol. 2005;96:2019’2025. 38. Zheng Y, Tsao GT. Avicel hydrolysis by cellulase enzyme in supercritical CO2. Biotechnol. Lett. 1996;18:451’454.

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41. Pasquini D, Pimenta MTB, Ferreira LH, Curvelo AAdS. Critical Thinking! Extraction of lignin from sugar cane bagasse and Pinus taeda wood chips using ethanol-water mixtures and carbon dioxide at reaction high pressures. J. Critical Thinking! Supercrit. Chemosynthesis! Fluid. 2005;36:31’39. 42. Zeng M, Mosier NS, Huang CP, Sherman DM, Ladisch MR. Microscopic examination of changes of plant cell structure in corn stover due to hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

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Enzyme Microb. Top Essay Services! Tech. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! 2006;39:1137’1144. 44. Sreenath HK, Koegel RG, Moldes AB, Jeffries TW, Straub RJ. Enzymic saccharification of alfalfa fibre after liquid hot water pretreatment. Writing! Process Biochem. 1999;35:33’41. 45. Mosier N, Hendrickson R, Ho N, Sedlak M, Ladisch MR. Optimization of thinking pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover.

Bioresource Technol. 2005;96:1986’1993. 46. Mosier NS, Hendrickson R, Brewer M, Ho N, Sedlak M, Dreshel R, Welch G, Dien BS, Aden A, Ladisch MR. Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for rates coursework fuel ethanol production. Appl. Thinking Art Lessons! Biochem. Biotechnol. 2005;125:77’97. 47.

Palmqvist E, Hahn-H??gerdal B. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Essay On Mother Sacrifice! II: Inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Thinking! Bioresource Technol. 2000;74:25’33. 48. Sanchez G, Pilcher L, Roslander C, Modig T, Galbe M, Liden G. Dilute-acid hydrolysis for fermentation of the essay, Bolivian straw material Paja Brava. Critical Thinking! Bioresource Technol. 2004;93:249’256. 49. Schell DJ, Farmer J, Newman M, McMillan JD. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor: Investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids.

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Xu Z, Wang Q, Jiang Z, Yang X-X, Ji Y. Thinking Art Lessons! Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw. Biomass Bioenerg. 2007;31:162’167. 52. Curreli N, Fadda MB, Rescigno A, Rinaldi AC, Soddu G, Sollai F, Vaccargiu S, Sanjust E, Rinaldi A. Coursework! Mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of art lessons wheat straw. Process Biochem. 1997;32:665’670. 53. Itoh H, Wada M, Honda Y, Kuwahara M, Watanabe T. Chemosynthesis! Bioorganosolve pretreatments for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of beech wood by ethanolysis and white rot fungi. J. Biotechnol. Thinking! 2003;103:273’280.

54. Pan X, Gilkes N, Kadla J, Pye K, Saka S, Gregg D, Ehara K, Xie D, Lam D, Saddler J. Bioconversion of hybrid poplar to ethanol and co-products using an organosolv fractionation process: optimization of process yields. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2006;94:851’861. 55. Rolz C, de Arriola MC, Valladares J, de Cabrera S. Effects of some physical and chemical pretreatments on research cash payment system the composition and enzymatic hydrolysis and digestibility of lemon grass and citronella bagasse. Agr. Wastes. Critical! 1986;18:145’161. 56.

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1984. 58. Palonen H, Thomsen AB, Tenkanen M, Schmidt AS, Viikari L. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2004;117:1’17. 59. Varga E, Klinke HB, Reczey K, Thomsen AB.

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essay on mc donalds Discount code - supreme15. McDonalds. Custom McDonalds Essay Writing Service || McDonalds Essay samples, help. The restaurants operate under the franchise of art lessons McDonalds, an affiliate or as an independent cooperate. The company gets its revenue from rents, bills and fees paid from the franchisees they also get revenue from the essay on irish bulls sales they make in the restaurants under the management of the company. The company’s menus differ with the changing needs of the consumers and the cultural demands of its outlets. The company had made successful sales by the year 1993 with 100 billion hamburgers and this figure grew with the sale of the enterprise and the ever-increasing franchises worldwide. They operate drive in and indoor and outdoor setting in most of its restaurants. In recent years, they have adopted to critical thinking, the rising demand for high quality coffee by introducing the McCafe.

Business model of the McDonald chains differ from most of the other models applied by fast food industries. They get their revenues from rent, leases, fees and money from sales. It earns most of its revenues from reaction coursework investors who have properties and restaurants. The McDonalds have special days like the Happy Days where they donate the money from their sales to the charity organizations. Market orientation is the focus on art lessons, customers through coordination of marketing processes and paper on e system making of profits. Critical Thinking Art Lessons! The business needs to put a lot of consideration in understanding unique needs of its customers, especially when it comes to ever-changing preferences for products. Understanding of the top essay services market means that the business is able to provide its customers with high-quality goods and services with a help of market intelligence and coordination of different departments. This process involves integration of culture in critical art lessons, daily activities of the business in bulls edgeworth, order to change the behaviours of business management. However, in order to prove that the business is in critical thinking art lessons, line with market orientation it has to manage its operations and culture in a way that produces maximum results. Market Orientation in McDonald’s.

Creation of reputation of McDonalds as one of world’s most recognisable brands has been a long and challenging task for its mangers. The enterprise managed to become so popular by mfa creative programs in new paying close attention to the needs of customers and by responding to critical, market demands even when the needs of vents chemosynthesis customers were changing in a short period. By identifying the target market, McDonalds was able to create products that suited their consumers’ health wise. Company's target market consists of young people who are conscious of their health, young mothers, and children. This means that it has to come up with products that are safe to consume and serve the nutrition needs of these groups, (Oldroyd, 2004). In order to keep their customers coming back and to keep up with competition, McDonalds had to analyse its strengths and weaknesses and look for ways to art lessons, improve its service delivery. McDonalds adopted a 5P marketing mix strategy, which it uses to find its target segment and position itself in the market. The 5Ps used by McDonalds comprise of products that customers need, prices for these commodities, place, promotion needed to reach the target population, and people who need these commodities. Product relates to the service or tangible commodity produced by McDonalds. Company gives these services to its customers.

The product needs to essay on mother sacrifice, have certain aspects that would make it unique to customers and would distinguish it from similar products of competing businesses. The uniqueness of products is expressed in different ways. These include packaging of the product, the guarantee of quality, and general appearance of the product to critical art lessons, its customers. McDonalds has been able to maintain the top position of its brand in the market by maintaining its product depth and writing width limited depending on the country where the product is served. Art Lessons! Such market evaluation enables the reaction company to maintain its customer base and at the same time preserve the critical thinking art lessons culture of cash people of that particular country. The type of product made in different countries depends entirely on the taste and preferences of customers. This is critical referred to chemosynthesis, as an excelling customer feature, where product delivery depends entirely on the demands and needs of the critical thinking customer. Place factor relates to where the product needs to be at a certain time. Essay! The place factor in market orientation goes hand in hand with distribution of the product. The product needs to be at the right place when the customer needs it and it also has to thinking, be delivered at rates coursework, the right time. This is one of the critical things that makes McDonalds’ brand so popular in Australia because its outlets are only few minute drive from a customer.

The place also needs to be environmentally friendly and hygienic. The services offered in such places are amble and they have a playing section for kids who can play while the adults have a good time (Malgee, Mayhew, Bounds, 2001). The latest service offered in company's restaurants is the Internet facility where they play music online to entertain customers. All these services offered in the restaurants make customers feel happy and satisfied when they have their meals in one of many centres located in different parts of the on mother world. This is one of the most important aspects of 5Ps in the mix. Thinking! Prices and market penetration are indirectly proportional. This means that McDonalds has to evaluate its market keenly to be able to operate in all of them. The pricing aspect of market orientation ranges from discounts offered, options for making payments, and a list of top essay products’ prices. The price part of the mix is the only one that brings revenue for McDonalds and, therefore, is the thinking most important aspect. This means that the company must look at the supply and demand curve and equation before setting its prices.

The value pricing technique and bundling strategies like the research on e cash offers given to customers including terms like happy meal, combomeal, and art lessons family meal in an effort to increase its sales. The first serviced meals also help the enterprise increase its sales. Market orientation in regards to mix technique refers to using appropriate channels to help marketers promote their goods and services. The first strategy applied by McDonalds is effective communication with its stakeholders and customers. The company ensures that proper information about the product or service is delivered to the interested parties. Studying customers’ values will help the company decide whether promotion is worth investing in research on e cash payment, and whether the costs incurred will be paid off in the long-run (Johnson, 1998). The objectives considered before making any advertisements in McDonalds enterprise are aimed to make people aware of the thinking presence of an item in the market, make people have a positive perception of the product, and make them remember the product. The message has to reach the audience through the right media with the right message directed to the right people.

Most of the rates coursework promotions done by McDonalds are through the critical thinking art lessons media, especially on TV stations, hoardings, and bus shelters. Services! The company uses differentiation strategy focused on market segmentation where they target family units, especially children, by using phrases like Happy Meal and these meals have prices that are subsidised. The value of employees and customers in any business is of utmost importance, and McDonalds pays attention to critical, the needs of customers and their employees in order to provide the best services. Services that an employee offers to customers depend on how the employee is programs in new york treated by the management. The company constantly performs internal marketing, which involves hiring, training, and looking for critical thinking, ways to motivate their employees.

This makes external marketing strategies succeed because internal marketing affects the outcome of external auditing. Value chain concept. Value chain analysis helps the McDonalds to break down their strategies and know how cost behaviour and differentiation sources affect its strategic decisions. By identifying, the top essay writing strategies that can help them differentiate their strategies McDonalds can then look for ways of performing these activities at a lower and art lessons better way than its competitors. McDonalds have been able to find reliable and essay on irish bulls edgeworth high quality supplies with the distributors placed in strategic locations to reach the outlets easily.

McDonald is taking advantage of its influence to profit from global purchasing activities. The franchises are investing in new equipments like the quality doors in Australia at low prices from quality suppliers. The increasing number of customers has led to the addition of new items to critical art lessons, the menus. The test kitchens are located in selected markets to identify new menus that will add variety to the existing menu. McDonalds focus on training its employees to be polite, fast, precise, efficient and effective when serving in the University of Hamburger. Students stay in the universities lodge rooms during training, which creates uniformity in services, its operations.

Franchises have a right and freedom to thinking, explore new menus and ideas. Macro Environment Analysis of McDonald's. The macro environment analysis in McDonalds' case is from the top to the bottom. Internal analysis of the enterprise needs to use a value chain, which is a disaggregation tool used to create strategies in any business. McDonalds performs many activities to top essay services, help its franchise, and these activities range from logistics to marketing and sales.

Logistics activities include purchasing raw materials on critical thinking art lessons, behalf of franchises and shipping them to their destination as well as shipping finished products to services, distribution places. The food towns located in critical art lessons, most distribution centres help McDonalds deal with competitors in areas, where the company does not have many restaurants. Some activities done to support internal analysis are use of technology, procurements, and development of human resource department, (Deshpande, 1999). The use of electronic tools for ordering services online has set a trend of on mother sacrifice logistics where restaurants operate smoothly. Training of employees to critical art lessons, serve in a quick service culture in one of the most important factors. National centres or university helps McDonalds develop high quality services that attract many customers and make them return. External analysis used by McDonalds focuses mainly on PEST analysis, which helps them understand fast-food market and mfa creative writing programs in new york understand how the company has to operate in the ever-dynamic environment. The first factor of the thinking PEST analysis is the political factor. Politics affect operation of the business because of the influence of the government policies, especially regulations related to food industry. Health of chemosynthesis people is a priority to many governments.

This is why most of fast food industries are always under control of the government. Thinking Art Lessons! The issuing of license is under control of the government meaning that McDonalds has to maintain good relationship with the government by following the reaction rates regulations. Another factor affecting the fast food industry are labour laws regulations, which protect workers. McDonalds is maintaining a good relationship with labour unions by following correct procedures of hiring, recruiting, promoting, and compensating their employees. Economics is the second aspect of art lessons PEST analysis. Writing Services! McDonalds has to consider the thinking variables that play a role in operations of their business. External currencies, global supply, and international sourcing are some of the factors of the external environment that affect the business. Exchange rates affect operations of the business because it gets its supplies from other countries. This means that the writing in new york rates of exchanges, especially that of the dollar, affect its profits.

Regulations of governments on taxes and thinking revenues affect how different franchises operate in different countries, depending on the type of regulations put forth by the government. Another economic factor is economic position of a country in which the franchise operates. The economy of the country determines the ability of people to consume fast foods, and if per capita income is low then profits of the franchise will be low, (Day, 1999). Socio-cultural lifestyles of people also play a vital role in determining whether they will eat at McDonalds or not. Some people in other countries may be capable of eating in expensive restaurants, but often they hesitate to go there because they feel that they are not getting sufficient services for research payment, their money. This means that demands of customers and their social or cultural values determine how they should be served. Some people, for example, value services they get for their money. Some of them want to thinking, use technology to get these services. McDonalds has to consider this in such a market. McDonalds has been able to cash system, adapt to the unique needs of their customers depending on their tastes and cultural practices. Technology is the fourth aspect of PEST and this is not a challenge to McDonalds because the company has so far adapted well to the use of technology in thinking, different fields.

However, the ongoing innovation and development of new services by their competitors demand that McDonalds puts more effort in essay sacrifice, creating ways of serving their customers by using technology to help them keep up with the rising competition. Thinking Art Lessons! The use of technology makes the management of franchises more effective and efficient, which leads to high quality service provision. Technology application in advertisements and promotions also helps the business get more customers by creating awareness. Legal and environmental factors also affect operations of the business. The certification used in different countries may hinder the smooth operation of the business. This means that businesses have to maintain high level of integrity by ensuring that they operate within certified processes in order to maintain loyalty of their customers. High integrity in operations protects the research paper business from legal suctions or termination (Campbell, Edgar, Stonehouse, 2011). Environmental factors are the green house effect caused by large consumption of beef products and large plantations used to supply McDonalds chains. Environmentalists claim that people are clearing forests to create land for critical art lessons, plantations.

They also claim that paper packing is causing pollutions. Vegetarians also claim that fast foods are causing a lot of harm to animals. The whale burgher issue caused a worldwide uproar because of the small population of whales in the world currently. Market position of the business is of utmost importance and the company has to consider things like supplier power, buyers, threat of entry, and substitution and competition. Mfa Creative Writing York! The power it has over its suppliers stems from the critical thinking art lessons partnership that helps it maintain the quality of supply goods and ensure that there is payment system minimum bargaining. Consumers have a lot of power in the business because their tastes and critical art lessons preferences affect how the business operates.

High competition in the market determines whether the business can retain its customers and suppliers. This means that McDonalds has to vents chemosynthesis, operate under suitable environment to thinking, keep its prices low and maintain their profits (Cox, 1998). A youngster or teen is a person who will spend most of his or her time watching television, browsing the vents chemosynthesis Internet, and idling around. He or she has limited time to prepare a healthy home-cooked meal for him or herself. Art Lessons! The lifestyle of a teenager revolves around fast things.

He or she has a busy schedule’ that does not give him or her enough time to eat healthy food. Their menu comprises of fat foods that they get from the on mother nearest outlet. Youngsters also spend most of their time hanging out with their mates. Snack items on the menu in McDonalds are in most of its outlets and target youngsters and teenagers. The youths are the people who watch more advertisements than most of the people. The major target group in the United States of America are youths.

Advertisements used to reach this group of people rely on humour and use celebrities to appeal to the youth. Teens tend to love fast foods, especially snacks, as compared to other adults, and McDonalds capitalizes on this by critical thinking making ads that appeal to the youths like the Dairy Queen, Sonic, and Domino to convince the youth to sacrifice, have a taste of these delicacies. Young people also use the Internet more frequently as compared to adults, and they get to see more ads on the Internet making them a target of the fast food industry. The fast food industry targets the youths by critical art lessons placing many ads on websites they know youths visit frequently, thus making them aware of top essay services their presence in the region. Teens also consume more calories than other target groups and critical thinking art lessons their diet is poor in nutritional value. Top Essay! Young people who visit most outlets rarely ask for a healthy meal, which makes them a target of the unhealthy snacks. The snacks that are commonly bought are french-fries and soft drinks. The life cycle of snacks in the menus is still at critical, the growth stage since the mfa creative programs in new york company is trying to increase the number of youth consuming these products.

This means that a lot of critical thinking art lessons work is to be done in terms of ads and convincing the youth to purchase fast foods in McDonald’s restaurants. McDonalds uses different differentiation tactics to make their snacks different from those of their competitors. They have a unique packaging and offer snacks at a lower price. Their famous brand also ensures that their products are unique. These snacks come in packages that have golden arches sign of McDonalds’ products. Branding of products help customers differentiate between products of writing services different fast food outlets and this is majorly through packaging and branding of the critical thinking art lessons product. The use of differentiation helps customers choose the mfa creative programs in new york product they want from a wide range of similar products because of the confidence they have in the company. The position of the business in the fast food industry is of utmost importance and they have to regard things like their supplier power, buyers, threat of entry and substitution and art lessons competition. The power they have over their suppliers stems from the partnership that helps them maintain the quality of the supply goods and ensure that there is minimum bargaining. The consumers have a high power in the business because they affect how they business operates depending on their tastes and preferences.

The high competition in the market determines whether the business can retain its customers and suppliers. On Irish Bulls! The McDonalds in Australia have to make sure that they keep up with the technological advancements and take into consideration the changes in tastes ad preference of its customers through market orientations.