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Teaching argument essay

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Teaching Argument Writing, Grades 6–12 - Heinemann

baruch spinoza essay Baruch Spinoza was born to Portuguese Jews living in exile in argument essay Holland, but his life among the an essay about Marranos there was often unsettled. Despite an early rabbinical education, he was expelled from the synagogue at Amsterdam for defending heretical opinions in 1656. While engaging privately in serious study of medieval Jewish thought, Cartesian philosophy, and the new science at argument essay, Rijnburg and algebra the Hague, Spinoza supported himself by grinding optical lenses, an occupation that probably contributed to the consumption that killed him. Private circulation of his philosophical treatises soon earned him a significant reputation throughout Europe, but Spinoza so treasured his intellectual independence that in 1673 he declined the opportunity to teach at Heidelberg, preferring to continue his endeavors alone. Spinoza's first published work was a systematic presentation of the argument essay philosophy of write an essay about, Descartes , to which he added his own suggestions for its improvement. The Principles of Descartes's Philosophy (1663) contain many of the characteristic elements of teaching, his later work, but Spinoza seems to have realized that a full exposition of his own philosophical views would require many years of devoted reflection. In the meantime, he turned his attention briefly to other issues of personal and social importance. The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus ( A Theologico-Political Treatise ) (1670) is an examination of superficial popular religion and a vigorous critique of the miltant Protestantism practiced by bachelor epfl, Holland's ruling House of teaching, Orange.

Spinoza disavowed anthropomorphic conceptions of god as both logically and theologically unsound, proposed modern historical-critical methods for biblical interpretation, and essays text defended political toleration of alternative religious practices. Christians and Jews, he argued, could live peaceably together provided that they rose above the petty theological and cultural controversies that divided them. Although he published nothing else during his lifetime, metaphysical speculations continued to dominate Spinoza's philosophical reflections, and he struggled to teaching argument, find an appropriate way to present his rationalistic conviction that the dissertation sur volkswagen universe is a unitary whole. Respect for deductive reasoning and for the precision of the Latin language led Spinoza to express his philosophy in a geometrical form patterned on that empolyed in Euclid's Elements . Thus, each of the five books of Spinoza's Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata ( Ethics ) (1677) comprises a sequence of significant propositions, each of which is deduced from those that have come before, leading back to a small set of teaching argument essay, self-evident definitions and axioms. Essay Music! In Book I Spinoza claimed to demonstrate both the necessary existence and essay the unitary nature of the in radical empiricism text unique, single substance that comprises all of reality. Teaching Argument! Spinoza preferred the designation Deus sive Natura (god or nature) as the retention most fitting name for this being, and he argued that the its infinite attributes account for every feature of the universe. Book II describes the argument essay absolute necessity with which the two attributes best known to us, thought and bachelor epfl extension, unfold in the parallel structure that we, with our dual natures, comprehend as the ideas and things with which we are acquainted in ordinary life.

This account also provides for the possibility of genuine human knowledge, which must be based ultimately on the coordination of these diverse realms. Argument Essay! Spinoza's Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione ( On the Improvement of the Understanding ) (1677) provides additional guidance on the epistemological consequences of his metaphysical convictions. Here Spinoza proposed a practical method for achieving the best knowledge of which human thinkers are capable. Spinoza applied similar principles to bachelor, human desires and argument agency in practice algebra Books III-V of the Ethics , recommending a way of life that acknowledges and appropriates the fundamental consequences of our position in the world as mere modes of the one true being. It would be moral bondage if we were motivated only by causes of which we remain unaware, Spinoza held, so genuine freedom comes only argument, with knowledge of what it is that necessitates our actions.

Recognizing the invariable influence of desire over bachelor epfl, our passionate natures, we then strive for the peace of mind that comes through an impartial attachment to reason. Although such an attitude is not easy to maintain, Spinoza concluded that All noble things are as difficult as they are rare. Primary sources: Spinoza Opera , ed. by C. Teaching Argument Essay! Gebhardt (Heidelberg, 1925) The Collected Works of Spinoza, Volume I , ed. by Edwin Curley (Princeton, 1985) Benedict De Spinoza, Ethics including the Improvement of the Understanding , tr. by R. H. M. Elwes (Prometheus, 1989) Baruch Spinoza, Theologico-Political Treatise , tr. by R. H. M. Write An Essay About London! Elwes (Dover, 1951) Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza , ed. by Don Garrett (Cambridge, 1995) Henry Allison, Benedict de Spinoza: An Introduction (Yale, 1987) Roger Scruton, Spinoza (Routledge, 1999) Genevieve Lloyd, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Spinoza and the Ethics (Routledge, 1996) Steven M. Nadler, Spinoza: A Life (Cambridge, 1999) Edwin M. Teaching Essay! Curley, Behind the Geometrical Method: A Reading of problems, Spinoza's Ethics (Princeton, 1988) Errol E. Teaching Argument Essay! Harris, Spinoza's Philosophy: An Outline (Humanity, 1992) Harry Austryn Wolfson, The Philosophy of Spinoza: Unfolding the Latent Processes of His Reasoning (Harvard, 1983) Spinoza: Metaphysical Themes , ed. by Olli Koistinen and John Biro (Oxford, 2002) Steven Nadler, Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind (Oxford, 2002) Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.philosophypages.com/referral/contact.htm. Last modified 25 November 2011.

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Homework assignments to enhance student engagement in secondary education. Secondary school teachers often complain that their students show a disengaged attitude in class. Students do not prepare for lessons, they show a passive attitude towards classroom activities and they have a limited awareness of their own learning process. Based on a pilot study, four homework assignments were designed, implemented, and evaluated to stimulate students to prepare for history lessons and subsequently show a more engaged attitude and involvement in classroom activities. Two groups of, in total 50, 11th grade students of pre-university education participated in one group pre- post-test design. Data on student engagement in class is gathered by argument essay, class observation: time on task, their level of activity, and sur volkswagen, amount and variety of questions students asked.

Students’ motivation and perceived learning outcomes are measured by means of a self-report: Three of the four homework assignments (jigsaw, preparing analytical skills, and teaching argument, the fragmented assessment) showed increase in student engagement compared to therapy, the baseline of the first two classes. Argument! Implications for practice are discussed. Studies have characterized high school students, in particular, as bored, staring out sur volkswagen blues, classroom windows, counting the seconds for the bell to ring, and pervasively disengaged from the learning process (Goodlad 1984 ; Larson and Richards 1991 ). Many teachers think that their students are disengaged in class and show little awareness of teaching essay their own learning process. The mostly heard complaint is practice that students do not prepare for class as they make only little use of instructional materials, extracurricular activities and assignments, and feedback of teachers to learn outside school. This lack of argument engagement outside school also leads to a passive attitude in class: Students complete the practice problems, minimum of exercises that is teaching argument essay needed for their exam (Battin-Pearson et al. 2000 ; Jonassen and Blondal 2005 ; Allen et al. 2007 ) However, certain educational designs might promote excitement and engagement. Practice Algebra! In this study, we see students’ class preparation outside school as a necessary condition for teaching essay their engagement in class.

The problem of this study therefore is how students can be encouraged to essay therapy, prepare class, not with the primary objective of gaining knowledge, but with the teaching essay, aim to essays in radical, become more engaged and active during the lesson. Student learning, engagement, and homework. Recent thinking on teaching and learning has been influenced by several theories of learning, including behavioral learning theory, cognitive learning theory, and social learning theory, rooted in the works of essay Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky. Essays In Radical Empiricism Text! Jonassen et al. Argument! ( 1999 ), in their constructivist approach to learning with technology, described instructional principles or characteristics of learning environments which are based on a synthesis of several theories of learning. They argue that meaningful learning only practice algebra, occurs when learners are engaged in knowledge construction, conversation, articulation, collaboration, authentic context, and reflection.

Barak ( 2006 ) derived four similar instructional principles from multiple learning theories. The first principle, learning is contextual , is based on theories of situated cognition (e.g., Brown et al. 1989 ) contending that knowledge is inseparable from the contexts and activities within which it is acquired. Learning occurs only essay, when students process new information in a meaningful way that makes sense within their own frames of reference. The second principle is learning is an active process . As most people, students learn better through their own experiences, than through passive acceptance of information provided by others or through technical means. Essay Music! Students actively construct knowledge by integrating new information and experiences into what they have previously come to understand, revising, and reinterpreting old knowledge in order to reconcile it with the new.

Consequently, educators should see teaching as means of knowledge construction and discovery, rather than of knowledge transfer of its passive acceptance (Johnson and Aragon 2003 ; Salomon 1998 ). Teaching! The third principle, learning is a social process , is based on write an essay london the work of Vygotsky ( 1978 ). Teaching Essay! This principle means that student learning is associated with the process of discourse between the student and other people—peers, teachers, experts, parents, and casual acquaintances. Lave and Wenger ( 2002 ) combine the first and third principle as they claim social learning to be a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning—learners become involved in an essay about a community of practice which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. The fourth principle of learning means that reflective practice plays a central role in learning . In his landmark work on teaching essay reflection, Schon described the concept of essay reflection-in-action as consisting of “on-the-spot surfacing, criticizing, restructuring and testing of essay intuitive understanding of experienced phenomena which often takes the algebra, form of a reflective conversation with the situation” (Schon 1983 , pp. 241–242). However, all these ideas on meaningful student learning—whether it should be active, creative, reflective, contextual, or social—infer that students are engaged with school and learning.

Student effort, or the extent to argument, which students perform activities in school, is a major indicator of the sur volkswagen, engagement with school learning (Astin 1984 ; Pascarella 1985 ). Kuh et al. showed that student engagement leads to higher achievements and teaching, has a positive effect on long-term learning outcomes as well as the personal development of the student (Carini et al. 2006 ; Kuh 2009 ). Music Therapy! Stoeber et al. ( 2011 ) found another indicator of argument student engagement with learning and school. In their study, they showed that a controlled (not obsessive) passion to practice algebra, study led to higher student engagement. Not only is the essay, relationship between student activity and learning outcomes important; students themselves prefer active and participatory education, more than traditional education (Harris and Haydn 2008 ). Students find activating work methods fun, it motivates them and they have the feeling that they learn. Thesis! Many of the activating work methods that have been developed in recent years focus on the activity of students within one or two lessons. The extent to which activating work methods in teaching essay class actually lead to bachelor thesis, activities of students is often impeded by a lack of teaching essay class preparation of the students. Students who show limited activity in the class will eventually experience less fun in learning activities and become bored and frustrated (Skinner et al.

2008 ). So, one of the ways to stimulate student activity and dissertation, student motivation is the work they do on argument homework. Employee Dissertation! Homework can be defined as any task assigned by teaching argument, schoolteachers intended for students to carry out in radical text, during nonschool hours (cf., Cooper 1989 ). Generally, a positive relationship is found between doing homework and school results. In their review of research on effects of homework, Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) demonstrated a positive relationship between homework of students and their school results in terms of both class grades and essay, standardized test scores. Essays In Radical Empiricism Text! This positive relationship was found for multiple subjects, but for secondary school students only. With respect to the time students spend on their homework, the authors concluded that the optimum benefits of homework for secondary school students lie between 1.5 and 2.5 h. Teaching! Based on multilevel analyses, Trautwein ( 2007 ) also concluded that completing homework has a positive effect on students’ achievements.

The author only found a positive effect of the frequency of working on homework assignments, not of the average amount of time students spent on their homework. However, Epstein and Van Voorhis ( 2001 ) concluded that students performed better in school when they spent more time in general on their homework. These authors argued that the bachelor, teacher also contributed by checking the homework assignments. Finally, Paschal et al. ( 2003 ) showed that setting homework had the best effect if the completed homework assignments were credited or provided with feedback. So, student homework can have an influence on argument essay students’ performance in class. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen Blues! Despite the growing knowledge based on the relationships between homework and achievements, four problems came up with drawing conclusions about the value of homework assignments in teaching argument secondary education (cf., Cooper et al.

2006 ; Corno 1996 ). First, many of the references to the value of homework for achievements provide ambiguous outcomes due to in radical text, the fact the teaching argument, purposes of homework assignments in these studies vary and include both instructional and music therapy, non-instructional objectives. Second, these references provide little or no information about the specific characteristics that are (assumed to be) responsible for the impact of homework assignments. Third, as Cooper et al. Teaching Argument! ( 2006 ) concluded in their review, most of the effects of homework on outcomes other than achievement have never been put to empirical test. Fourth, homework with the essay music, purpose of essay enhancing class instruction is thesis epfl underrepresented. Argument Essay! Most research is about homework with the purpose to practice or review material that has already been presented in class. Mulhenbruck et al. ( 1999 ) found that homework serves different purposes at different grade levels. Elementary school teachers used homework more often to review material already covered in class. Secondary school teachers were more likely to use homework to prepare students for work yet to come and to enrich classroom activities.

These findings are consistent with the notion that teachers believe young students do not yet have the skills to benefit greatly from unstructured home study. Homework assignments that vary, differentiate, offer students a choice, and have a limited content seem to trigger student engagement (Ames 1992 ). What are the effects of the various homework assignments on students’ time on task and their level of participation in class? Are these effects different for boys and an essay about, girls? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on the type of argument essay student questions in class? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes? To what extent do various teaching formats differ in students’ time on bachelor epfl task and the level of argument essay participation in class? The research design. O1 and O2 pre-test (baseline); O3 , O4 , O5 , and O6 post-test; O7 delayed post-test; X1 , X2 , X3 , and X4 four different homework assignments; L1 – L7 lessons 1–7 (one lesson per week) Students benefit from the possibility to essay music therapy, choose their assignments. If students get autonomy over their own learning process, they will be more inclined to learn.

Students should be aware of the teaching essay, aim of each homework assignment. These aims should be unambiguously formulated in terms students understand. Homework assignments should be straightforward. Algebra! Teachers need to be able to apply the instructional activity easily and students should be able to complete the assignments in time. Homework should be preparatory for the lesson. The acquisition of in-depth knowledge and complex skills should be part of the lesson with teacher supervision. Homework assignment 1: preparing analytical skills ( lesson 3 ) This homework assignment 1 promoted knowledge acquisition at home in order to prepare them to practice analytical skills in class. The strategy included four phases, two at home and two in class. The first two phases (at home) asked students to look carefully at teaching argument, a propaganda poster and to identify all elements. This means answering questions as; ‘what is happening in the poster’, ‘who are the people in employee dissertation het poster’, and ‘do you recognize any symbols used’. The last two phases (in class) asked students to examine the argument, goal and in radical empiricism, the technique of the poster in order to answer explanatory and analytical questions.

In this way, students learned to analyze propaganda posters and teaching, they hopefully experienced that class preparation—i.e., going through all phases—resulted in a more profound analysis. Homework assignment 2: the epfl, fragmented assessment (spread over six lessons) This homework assignment meant that each lesson students completed a part of argument a test, spread over practice algebra problems, six lessons. For each lesson, students learned only one sixth of the materials, and they had the possibility to argument, practice a test question. Therapy! In class, they had the opportunity to ask questions before completing the argument essay, part of the test about the materials they studied at home. Homework assignment 3: jigsaw assignment ( lesson 4 ) With the jigsaw assignment, students prepared at home different materials on a complex concept. For example, the concept of National Socialism is spread over four questions (What is an epfl, ideology, and what are the characteristics of fascism, racial doctrine and Lebensraum). In class, they discussed each part in order to get an overview of the whole concept. Then, students had to argument, apply their acquired knowledge in another assignment in class which contained source materials and questions. Each student prepared one source and then they had to discuss the additional information and their analysis with each other.

Homework assignment 4: student choice ( lesson 5 ) This homework assignment meant that students were allowed to choose their own assignment. All assignments were grouped on topic and difficulty. Students started at sur volkswagen, home and completed the assignments in teaching argument essay class. Students could choose for example, to analyze propaganda posters or to analyze a part of film ‘The great dictator’. So, students could choose an write an essay, assignment at their own ability level and matching the learning style they preferred. In this study, two groups of 50 grade 11 students in total (group 1, 22 students; group 2, 29 students) participated.

These students attended pre-university education in one school in a small town in the southeast of the Netherlands. The students were 16 or 17 years old and 35 of them were female. Data was gathered by means of class observations and a self-report questionnaire. Each lesson was recorded by two video cameras with a different perspective on teaching argument essay the students in class. With the observational data, four variables were measured: students’ time on task in class, their level of student participation, the questions students asked in class and the teaching formats applied in class. For homework assignment 2 (fragmented assessment) only students’ questions were collected as no variance was expected for the other three variables. A delayed post-test was administered in lesson 7 for group 1 only.

Students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes were measured by means of a questionnaire. The coding units were 3 ? 6 units of 30 s of each lesson. This means that there were eighteen 30-s coding units per lesson. The three periods of 3 min were spread over the lesson, based on different teaching formats used. Thesis Epfl! Students’ time on task was measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = completely off-task and 5 = completely on task . Students were on-task when they made notes, participated in the discussion, asked questions, or were listening. Teaching Argument Essay! Students were off-task when they did not pay any attention to the tasks or the in radical, teacher. The time on teaching task was registered for each individual student in class. Interobserver agreement was established between two researchers based on 48 coding units, the correlation between both scores was satisfactory ( r = 0.74).

For the level of student participation in class, we used the same coding units as with time on task. Student participation in class was measured using a five-point Likert scale, with 1 = very passive and 5 = very active . Students were active when they took notes, asked questions, and discussed; and they were passive when they were listening, kept quiet, or were reading. The interobserver agreement, based on 48 coding units and two researchers, was r = 0.72. For each lesson, all student questions were coded with the question as coding unit. Two main categories of student questions were distinguished: questions that focus on the content and questions aimed at learning a (historical) skill (e.g., How can I see the propaganda technique ‘prestige’ from the source?). For the main category content, student questions were clustered into five subcategories (based on the typology of Bloom 1956 ): knowledge questions (When did Hitler come into power?), comprehension questions (How did Hitler come into power?), application questions (How did Hitler make use of the political context?), analysis questions (Can you compare society in Germany in the 1930s with the one in Italy?), and evaluation questions (Could the political coup by Hitler have been prevented?). Motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Students’ motivation and epfl, their perceived learning outcomes with respect to the four homework assignments were measured in teaching argument both groups by means of a questionnaire in lessons 7 and 11, respectively (i.e. the an essay about london, first lesson after the final implementation of the homework assignment). The questionnaire was piloted with grade 10 students. Motivation with respect to their homework in the four interventions was measured by three items.

First, students had to teaching argument, report the dissertation sur volkswagen, extent to which they completed their homework (on a five-point Likert-type scale with 1 = in total and 5 = not at all ). Second, two statements were provided: one that homework was nice to teaching argument essay, do and one that home work was challenging. These items used a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree . Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four statements (on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree), for each of the four interventions (By doing my homework it improved my understanding of the lesson, doing homework was a meaningful activity, I learned a lot of doing my homework, and employee, it would be good to repeat this homework next time). Based on an inspection of the observation data, five teaching formats were distinguished: (1) self-regulated individual work, (2) self-regulated group work, (3) teacher-task instructions, (4) teacher-led classroom discussion, and (5) teacher explanation of the subject matter. Each time on task/level of participation unit received a teaching format code (W1, W2, W3, W4, or W5) As the two groups did not differ significantly in time on task and level of participation, we merged the data from both classes. And as the two pre-tests did not significantly differ in time on teaching argument task and the level of participation, we used their average scores as pre-test. Paired t tests were used between the pre-test, on the one hand, and each of the post-tests and the delayed post-test, on the other hand, to answer research question 1 (with time-on task and level of class participation as dependent variables) and research question 4 (with student motivation and perceived learning outcomes as dependent variables). Independent sample t tests were used to answer research question 2 with gender as independent variable and the difference scores (between pre-test and post-tests) on time on task and the level of class participation as dependent variables.

As we performed a series of t test in these cases, we adapted the essay music therapy, original significance level of 5 % based on the Bonferroni correction method (5 % divided by teaching argument, the number of analyses). Information about student questions was analyzed at the level of each lesson. Descriptive statistics were used to provide information about the about, frequencies of student questions. Argument! Univariate analysis of variance with Scheffe post hoc analyses were used to write an essay about, answer the argument essay, research question about differences between teaching formats (question 5). Teaching format was the independent variable and time on essays in radical text task and level of class participation were the dependent variables. Time on essay task and essays empiricism, level of class participation.

Means and standard deviations (between brackets) for time on task and level of class participation. Preparing analytical skills. Means and standard deviations (between brackets) for teaching argument essay time on task and level of class participation. After all the homework assignments were completed, a post-test and a delayed post-test was carried out. The students differed significantly in time on task and class participation between the pre-test and both post-tests.

Students were more time-on task in lessons 6 and 7 ( t (36) = ?7.35, p 0.001, d = 2.22 and t (26) = ?7.95, p 0.001, d = 2.4), compared to blues, the pre-test. Similar results with respect to class participation which showed that students participated more in lesson 6 ( t (36) = ?6.01, p 0.001, d = 1.81) and in lesson 7 ( t (1.26) = ?7.48, p 0.001, d = 2.26) compared with the pre-test. This describes the effect of the total amount of homework assignments. Differences between boys and girls in teaching essay time on task and the class participation. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in increase in essays time on teaching essay task and in class participation between the algebra problems, pre-test and all post-tests. So, the effects of the homework assignments as mentioned above were not different for boys and girls.

In all lessons girls scored higher than boys on teaching essay both time on task and class participation. Number of questions asked (in pretest, interventions, and both posttests) Preparing analytical skills. The fragmented assessment. Pretest is an average of the blues, two pre-tests. The delayed post-test was only carried out in one group. In all classes taken together, knowledge-oriented questions were asked most frequently (45 times).

Questions in which students analyzed the argument, subject were asked especially in the preparatory assignment (five times) and the fragmented test (10 times), with a total of write an essay about london 22 questions. Three out of four evaluative questions were asked during the fragmented test. Student motivation and argument, perceived learning outcomes. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Preparation analytical task. I have done the homework for this assignment.

I found the london, assignment useful. I could understand the teacher better. I could participate better in class. I have learned a lot from this assignment. I liked the assignment. I found the assignment challenging. I find the assignment repeatable.

Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four indicators: usefulness, improving teacher understanding, improving class understanding, and perceived learning. The scores on the fragmented test were significantly higher for usefulness (compared with jigsaw, t (39) = 4.99, p 0.001 and student choice, t (38) = 3.32, p = 0.002), for understanding the teacher (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (36) = 3.40, p = 0.002), and for perceived learning (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (38) = 5.07, p 0.001). Teaching Argument! For perceived learning, we also found significant differences between the dissertation blues, jigsaw assignment, on the one hand, and preparing analytical tasks ( t (38) = 3.07, p = 0.004) and student choice ( t (35) = ?3.04, p = 0.004), both with lower scores for the jigsaw assignment. No significant differences were found between the four homework assignments with respect to the extent to which students understood what was told in class. Finally, we asked students whether they would like it when the teaching, homework assignments were repeated. In two cases, we found a significant difference.

The jigsaw assignment again generally scored lower than preparing analytical tasks ( t (37) = 4.71, p 0. Algebra Problems! 001) and student choice ( t (36) = ?3.52, p = 0.001). Teaching formats and time on task and activity. We found a relationship between teaching formats applied in teaching argument essay a lesson, on the one hand, and students’ time on task ( F (4, 637) = 16.72, p 0.001) and class participation ( F (4, 637) = 45.43, p 0.001), on the other hand. Post hoc analyses (Scheffe) showed that teacher’s task instructions led to less time on task of students (all differences with p 0.029) and lower class participation of students (all differences with p 0.01). Furthermore, students participated significantly more in write an essay london class during self-regulated work (whether this was individual or group work) compared to the other teaching formats (all differences with p 0.001). In general, the homework assignments developed to argument essay, enhance students’ homework activities, did have an effect on students’ time on task in class as well as their class participation. Sur Volkswagen Blues! Although students were the least motivated, the jigsaw assignment led to the largest increase in argument both students’ time on task and class participation, compared to the other homework assignments. The strategy of preparing analytical tasks also increased students’ time on task and their class participation, compared to the baseline as indicated in epfl the pre-test. Students were more motivated for this strategy than the jigsaw assignment. Although students were more motivated by the strategy student choice compared with the jigsaw assignment, we did not find a significant increase in the level of class participation, compared to the pre-test, and essay, even a significant decrease in students’ time on task.

Subsequently, students reported to be mostly motivated by dissertation, the fragmented test: they experienced the argument essay, strategy as meaningful and challenging, and they perceived the largest learning outcomes. However, as the teaching format of working on a test is quite one-sided, no information about students’ time on essay task and class participation was collected. Essay! Finally, both the immediate and the delayed post-tests showed that students attained a higher level of time on task and of class participation. This might indicate that there was a long-term effect of the combination of homework assignments on students’ activity in class. The highest activity level was obtained when students were self-regulating their learning process, individually or in groups, more than during the teacher-led instruction formats. Student choice resulted in employee the lowest time on task and teaching argument, class participation of students.

Unlike the jigsaw and the preparation of analytical tasks, this assignment was performed completely individually. The other two assignments had a shared goal, in small groups or in class. The jigsaw with a high degree of employee dissertation interdependence yielded the highest scores on time on task and class participation. Some critical reflections are justified here. First, these interventions were designed and implemented by teaching argument essay, the first author. Bachelor Thesis! However, the homework assignments were verbalized in the digital learning environment before the start of the study in order to carry out the interventions as they were designed. Second, students were aware that they participated in a research study, which might have caused them to behave in a socially desirable manner. However, our pilot study showed that being part of argument essay a research study did not change behavior of grade 11 students at all.

To accustom students to algebra, the video cameras, we used these cameras in previous lessons as well. Argument Essay! Thirdly, our study was limited to only one level (pre-university education) and grade (11). This means that the conclusions about the effects of homework assignments can probably only be generalized to this specific group of students. The way this kind of homework assignments might work out with younger students and/or students in lower educational levels should be part of further research. In teaching, there are many possibilities to retention dissertation, increase knowledge, deepen insights, and widen horizons. All these initiatives require some kind of teaching essay activity from both teachers and write london, students. Teachers have a duty to inspire and activate their students to attend their classes. For students, class participation is crucial for their own learning process. Teaching Argument Essay! Students should already be active before the lesson begins, they should finish their homework so they know what class will be about.

This helps them to understand the materials better, ask meaningful questions, and get interested in the subject matter. The current study revealed some characteristics of homework assignments used to prepare class which go beyond the amount of time students spend on their homework. It appeared that the social context in which the assignment was completed and the perceived meaningfulness of the homework assignment helped to music therapy, trigger student participation in class. Essay! Both aspects were addressed by Corno ( 1996 ) who discussed the complicated nature of write about homework. One of the misconceptions about teaching essay, homework she described is that homework supports what students learn in bachelor thesis epfl school.

But she argued that “homework only supports school learning when it’s explicitly used with that purpose in mind. That is, teachers have to argument, give assignments that both reinforce what they are teaching in blues school and prompt students to reorganize and extend their learning into new and richer areas” (Corno 1996 , p. 28). But reality is different. The lack of class participation is detrimental to essay, students’ learning process. Music Therapy! Students tend to be passive in class and teachers get frustrated experiencing that students ‘never do anything’ which in teaching argument essay turn results in a lack of in radical text motivation to get students involved.

This can turn into a vicious circle from which students and argument essay, teachers hardly escape. Essay Therapy! Teacher work with homework assignments that promote both homework and class participation might break this vicious circle. In this study, some of these instruments were examined of which the teaching, jigsaw assignment and the preparation of analytical tasks were found to algebra, be effective. But we do need more research on argument how to use homework to enhance class instruction by engaging students in the process of learning and teaching. This article is dissertation distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the argument essay, original author(s) and practice algebra, the source are credited. Maartje Buijs . University of Amsterdam, Hermelijnstraat 57, 6531 JW Nijmegen, the Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected] Current themes of teaching argument research:

Student engagement in secondary education. Wilfried Admiraal . ICLON Leiden University Graduate School of Teaching, Wassenaarseweg 62A, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected] Current themes of research: Social-psychological aspects of education. Most relevant publications in the field of dissertation sur volkswagen Psychology of Education: Admiraal, W., Huizenga, J., Akkerman, S., Dam, G. ten. Teaching Essay! (2011). The concept of retention flow in argument game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior , 27 , 1185–1194. Akkerman, S., Admiraal, W., Brekelmans, M., Oost, H. (2008).

Auditing quality of social scientific research. Quality Quantity , 42 , 257–274. Admiraal, W., Wubbels, T. Essays In Radical Empiricism! (2005). Multiple voices, multiple realities, what truth? Student teachers’ learning to reflect in different paradigms. Teachers and Teaching , 11 , 315–329. Admiraal, W. F., Korthagen, F. A. J., Wubbels, T. (2000). Teaching Argument Essay! Effects of student teachers’ coping behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology , 70 , 33–52. Admiraal, W. F., Wubbels, T., Korthagen, F. A. J. (1996).

Student teacher behaviour in dissertation response to daily hassles in the classroom. Essay! Social Psychology of Education , 1 , 25–46. jtj/greinar/Back%20on%20track%20JTJ%20og%20Stella%202005.pdf . Accessed 4 Sept 2008. Maartje Buijs 1 Email author Wilfried Admiraal 2 1. University of Amsterdam Nijmegen the retention, Netherlands 2. Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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How To Teach Argument Writing

200 Prompts for Argumentative Writing. Sign up for our free weekly newsletter and get five new Student Opinion questions delivered to you every week. What issues do you care most about? What topics do you find yourself discussing most passionately, whether online, at teaching the dinner table, in write an essay the classroom or with your friends? Our annual Student Editorial Contest invites you to write an evidence-based persuasive piece on an issue that matters to you. To help jump-start your brainstorming, we have gathered a list of teaching argument essay, 200 writing prompts from our daily Student Opinion feature that invite you to in radical empiricism, take a stand. Argument Essay! Though you won#8217;t be limited to these topics for essays empiricism the contest, you#8217;ll see that our list touches on every aspect of modern life, from politics to sports, culture, education and technology. We hope the range inspires you, and we hope the fact that each question links to teaching argument, at least one related Times article gives you a starting point for finding evidence. So skim the retention list below to think about the topic you#8217;d most like to take on.

Technology and Social Media. Arts and Media: TV, Music, Video Games and Literature. Politics and the Legal System. Personal Character and Morality Questions. Comments are no longer being accepted. Argumentative prompts 200. Argument Essay! So i was thinking about doing a topic of Nuclear War for practice algebra problems school and i am not able to take and find it on here does anyone know were i can find it?

Many of these questions aren#8217;t at all appropriate for someone writing a persuasive speech. Take the teaching argument question about life existing other than on essay therapy earth. The only argument that should convince anyone that life exists other than on earth would use definitive scientific evidence. Teaching! And if we had that, there wouldn#8217;t be an argument in the first place. Regarding the section on Gender Issues: Where are the about questions regarding transgender teens or adults? Where are the argument essay questions regarding sexuality? Where are the questions regarding whether or not gender roles have an impact on teens?

Where are the questions regarding society#8217;s view on the LGBT(etc.) community? Hi Tasha, We have touched on all of these issues on employee retention dissertation the blog numerous times, but for this collection of argument, questions, we only highlighted those asked in a way that most naturally led to retention dissertation, argumentative writing. But, for example, we have a whole collection on teaching argument teaching about LGBT issues here, and we ask questions and run lesson plans around aspects of teenage sexuality regularly. (For instance, just off the top of my head, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and here.) But we#8217;re always open to suggestions, so let us know what else you#8217;d like to dissertation sur volkswagen blues, see. Katherine. I have another persuasive argument-should students have recess in junior high? Do Photoshopped Images Make You Feel Bad About Your Own Looks? Have you ever seen an image of a model in teaching essay a magazine and thought to yourself “wow, I wish I looked that remarkable”?

You are not the only one. They are perfect, however, the images we view of these women and men are 99.9% not how they actually look. Blues! They use a tremendous amount of photoshop to create a look they could not even achieve themselves. Yes, looking at these images have an outcome of someone staring unhappily in argument the mirror, not seeing perfect skin and chiseled abs. Text! Looking at perfect people in teaching argument essay pictures for dissertation blues hours and then looking at argument essay yourself, you seem to come across every blemish and fault that the models in the pictures did not have. Having the idea that you could never look as flawless as the unreal people in magazines does have the power to lower your self-esteem. You do not really know how bad you feel about your looks until you see teeth as bright as the sun, the perfect coke bottle shape, and the flawless sun kissed skin in employee your favorite magazine. Photoshopped images make you look and feel better, but then again it portrays an unrealistic person that is hardly yourself. Teaching Argument Essay! Everyone has flaws and with this photoshop madness, the flaws are erased. Retention Dissertation! With no flaws in these images there is no limit to teaching essay, how far someone will go to get that level of perfection, even though that level is unachievable because a great deal of lightening, smoothing, and shrinking has been added to the image.

The more photoshop is being used to clear up insecurities; the sur volkswagen more it is just adding to ours. Essay! If you see before and after photos, you will realize that people in the photoshopped images are not as perfect as they claim to be. And we should not feel bad about ourselves because of this, but we do. Seeing how a size 10 model can be photoshopped down to a size 1 is ridiculous. How can wrinkles vanish inconspicuously, uneven skin tones be evened out, dark circles erased, and bachelor thesis epfl, stretch marks blurred? In real life this is not possible to be completely without a blemish or flaw. So, when we see all of these photoshopped images we start putting our heads down in shame knowing we cannot look as impeccable as these fake images display. Altering images to try and fit the society’s way of how people should look is nonsense. We will never look like that and it is just making people self-esteem worse because we will go to the end of the world and back to figure out argument, every secret to acquire glowing skin and blues, youthful looking skin like the individuals in our magazine. Teaching Argument! But the secret is all in the image, it is a little thing called photoshop and retention, it is argument, ruining the way we look at an essay about ourselves.

Do Photoshopped Images Make You Feel Bad About Your Own Looks? Have you ever seen an image of Kim Kardashian in a magazine and teaching essay, thought to yourself “wow, I wish I looked that remarkable”? You are not the only one to think in this fantasizing way. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen! Kim is perfect; however, the images we view of her are 99.9% retouched. Photographers use a tremendous amount of photoshop to create a look of pure perfection they could not achieve themselves. Essay! Yes, looking at these images has an outcome of staring unhappily in the mirror, not seeing perfect skin and chiseled abs. Employee Dissertation! Looking at perfect people in argument essay pictures for hours and then looking at essays text yourself, you seem to come across every blemish and teaching, fault that the models in write an essay about london the pictures did not have. Having the idea buried in your mind that you could never look as flawless as the unreal people in magazines does have the power to lower your self-esteem. You do not really know how bad you feel about teaching argument your looks until you see teeth as bright as the dissertation blues sun, the perfect coke bottle shape, and the flawless sun kissed skin on your idle, in teaching your favorite magazine.

Photoshopped images make them look and feel better about themselves, but then again it portrays an unrealistic person that is hardly close to the real you. Everyone has flaws and with this photoshop madness, the flaws are erased. With no flaws in these images there is bachelor, no limit to how far someone will go to get that level of perfection, even though that level is unachievable because a great deal of lightening, smoothing, and shrinking has been added to the image. The more images being photoshopped to clear up insecurities; the more insecurity there is being piled on teaching argument the viewers. Practice Problems! If you see before and after photos, you will realize that people in the photoshopped images are not as perfect as they claim to be. And we should not feel bad about ourselves because of this, but we do. Seeing how a size 10 model can be photoshopped down to a size 1 is ridiculous. How can wrinkles vanish inconspicuously, uneven skin tones be evened out, dark circles erased, and stretch marks blurred?

In real life this is not possible to be completely without a blemish or flaw. So, when we see all of teaching, these photoshopped images we start putting our heads down in shame knowing we cannot look as impeccable as these fake images display. Essay! Altering images to teaching argument, try and fit into society’s way of how people should look is nonsense. We will never look like that and epfl, it is just making people self-esteem worse because we will go to argument, the end of the world and back to figure out every secret to acquire glowing and youthful looking skin like the individuals in our magazine. But the essay therapy secret is all in the image, it is a little thing called photoshop and it is ruining the way we look at ourselves. Carly H #038; Maggie W. Teaching Argument Essay! Galvin Middle School. Canton, MA 02021.

Should student be able to wear whatever they want? Many adults argue there is a line between skimpy and essays in radical empiricism text, sweet. More than 75 % of schools in the United States have issued dress codes that limit what boy and girls are allowed to wear on school grounds. Unless schools are supplying uniforms or paying money for students’ wardrobes we believe schools should not have a say. Although many teachers would say middle school and high school students’ choice of clothing is rather inappropriate and teaching, distracting, almost all parents and students would beg to differ.

As middle schoolers we strongly believe schools have taken away students right to express themselves. Middle school and high school age kids are just starting to come out of their shells. Some students feel more comfortable in their own clothes than they would feel in in radical text a uniform. Nowadays students have been bullied due to what they are wearing. Kids have been called “ugly” or “weird” and “gay”.

Kids want to teaching argument essay, fit in employee retention and wear the newest styles. It seems though these styles have been getting skimpier and skimpier. Letting a child wear clothing of their choice it can boost their self confidence. We feel that as long as your parents let you out teaching argument essay, of the house the way that you are dressed then the schools should not have a say. About 63% percent of dissertation sur volkswagen blues, kids in middle school get bullied because of what they are wearing. Without a dress code students have that chance to fit in and develop a personal style. Many teachers and faculty believe schools without dress codes have lower test scores.

People say that these low test scores can be because students are dressing inappropriately. Dressing inappropriately can distract other students and faculty. Some people have a hard time paying attention in school and then skimpy clothing can just make it worse. One theory suggests that students who wear uniforms and who don’t not have freedom to wear what they want get better grades in school. Even though wearing uniforms might seem like it can solve all problems no matter what people choose to do clothing will always be a debate in schools. All in all wearing whatever you want has its advantages but also disadvantages. When you have the freedom to wear what you want there is always going to teaching essay, be the kids that take that for granted.

But then having that freedom can be a way for children to essays text, fit in and express themselves. We believe that students should be able to argument, wear whatever they want. Galvin Middle School. Canton, MA 02021. Why women are not pursuing careers in the S.T.E.M. field. Eleanor Roosevelt once said “A woman is like a tea bag you can#8217;t tell how strong she is until you put her in hot water.” Throughout history humans haven’t been treated equally, most of this injustice has to do with sex, race, or ethnicity. Retention Dissertation! As humanity has developed we have created rights for teaching the discrimination.

Women have always been thought as the inferior gender, however as time has progressed women have earned more rights. Unfortunately many women still think of themselves as secondary. One reason the majority of female has not been choosing careers in math and science has to do with encouragement. Essay! Repetition builds a muscle, a muscle builds a habit and habit builds a character that sticks. Argument Essay! If children are not encourage from a young age, or don’t get exposed to S.T.E.M. careers, their mind has already been developed and london, is not focused on teaching argument essay exploring the science and math fields. Most children of this generation are steered toward sports from a young age, which does not allow females in particular to see a variety of career options in their future.

Its not that the epfl majority of women don’t want to work in essay the S.T.E.M. field but their upbringing does not promote these callings. Throughout history, women have always been stereotyped as the inferior gender. Women are usually thought as less intelligent and are relegated to lower paying jobs. Females in the past have had a very small work selection. From the 1950s to in radical empiricism, the 1970s, women commonly had two job options, becoming a teacher or a nurse. However, as time has progressed women have begun to teaching argument, expand their career choices but still make less than males.

The Media can make a big impact on how women are seen through pop culture. Even though statistics state that the percentage of females in the S.T.E.M. field has decreased, people still believe that our country has a stable science and math field. Many believe that in epfl our future, the teaching argument essay science fields will open up to women population more. This may be true but the text fields are already open for females to teaching, enter. However, the majority of females still do not choose to problems, pursue these careers. Just as Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “A woman is like a tea bag you can#8217;t tell how strong she is until you put her in hot water.” Until more women explore the S.T.E.M. fields we can never quite tell how strong and intelligent women are. Is Prom Worth it? As teenagers we all want to teaching essay, have one perfect night, especially girls. For us prom is the only chance to dissertation sur volkswagen blues, have a complete Cinderella dream.

You wait all these years until the teaching essay day finally comes, dress hunting. That’s the moment when you doubt and say the essay music unspeakable, “Is prom worth it?” Some might say yes while others may say no whatever the reason is the glitz or the thought of getting rejected. People come in and out of teaching essay, our lives, but many articles say this is our last chance to bachelor, be with our peers. Essay! It isn’t really because there is music therapy, still graduation but to argument, have a lot of fun with our peers, proms the night. In that one night you become the person you were when you walked into to high school for the first time and now you get to leave as the person you have become.

In high school you change, you make new types of choices and maybe become mature. Sometimes in growing up we forget the things that makes us, us and in about london this night you get a chance to teaching argument, remember and write an essay about, become that graduating class that you were always meant to be. To some people they still say no, however I think it is still worth it. Other articles say that prom is a big memorable moment. You all fall into places like in a story, there is a king and teaching, queen and moments to remember. Moments aren’t only captured in pictures but in bachelor thesis epfl places, in our minds, in people, in teaching argument essay heartbeats.

These moments are what brings a class together and helps us say, “Don’t you remember#8230;” This will definitely be something you will remember. Many of in radical text, us want to do everything, trying anything, and teaching argument, do them with the people they love. We have choices in our lives which sometimes get’s in the way of doing things but is prom a choice which helps us accomplish this? About twenty five percent of the teen population don’t attend prom. Some might not want to go after seeing the price on the dress tag or the ticket itself. Most families spend about a thousand one hundred thirty nine dollars.

For most families this is a lot and algebra problems, people don’t plan to spend this much unless it’s their wedding. In this economy college tuition also seems a lot to families and this seems like an unnecessary expense. Despite the cost and the drama that prom brings on, it is argument, a night to remember. From the moment you meet your date to the moment the limo picks you up there is a story to be told within. Grace K and John A. Galvin Middle School. Canton MA 02021. Essay Music! School Dress Codes. . In middle schools and high schools all over the country, administrators are punishing children for essay their clothing choices.

The reason for retention this being that girl specifically, dress too provocatively. Therefore, stricter dress codes are being enforced, but is it worth it? It isn’t appropriate for anyone besides a child’s parents to essay, tell them what they can and can not wear. Period. Algebra Problems! Most people buy their kids shorter, smaller and lighter clothes for the warmer months, spending their own hard earned money. For a public school to then proceed to tell those parents that their child is not permitted to wear that clothing on school grounds, where they spend over 7 hours of their day, just isn’t right. If a child’s legal guardian is perfectly fine with their kids wearing a pair of “short-shorts” then why should a school policy be allowed to argument, them they can’t? Especially when the school isn’t providing uniforms or money to buy clothing that fit into their particular dress codes.

Another reason why schools shouldn’t enforce such strict dress codes is because of basic human rights. Freedom of expression, by definition, is the right to express one’s ideas and opinions freely through speech, writing, and thesis, other communication. Argument! For centuries, clothing has been one of those forms of other communication. To deny people their rights is illegal, no matter what age, race, or sex and an essay about, schools not allowing students to wear clothing of teaching argument essay, their choice is no exception. Besides it being against the law, schools are supposed to retention, encourage kids to be themselves, stand up for what they believe in, and essay, help them find their identities. One of the bachelor thesis epfl best ways for our country’s youth to accomplish these things is to teaching argument, allow them to be as unique and personal with their clothes as possible. If this means letting a child wear a tank top with straps that are less than 3 inches wide, so be it. Many people don’t want to give kids, girls in particular; the freedom to wear whatever they want to school because they think it will be too much of a distraction for dissertation boys. While I agree with that, I think it is more important for children to be able to express themselves freely. Besides that, who’s to say that girls aren’t distracted by essay the clothing that boys wear? There are almost no restrictions or limitations towards the epfl clothing that boys are allowed to wear yet there are several for girls.

It shouldn’t be a female student’s problem that some young boys get too “distracted” by what they wear when boys are hardly even affected by the dress code at schools anyways. In conclusion, school dress codes are harsh and unnecessary and should be lessened at teaching argument the least. Plenty of people agree with this as well as disagree. Hopefully, schools will see the error of their ways and adjust their clothing policies, as they are currently unfair and too strict for music many different reasons. Galvin Middle School. Canton, MA 02021. Why women are not pursuing careers in the S.T.E.M. field. Eleanor Roosevelt once said “A woman is like a tea bag – you can’t tell how strong she is until you put her in hot water.” Throughout history humans haven’t been treated equally, most of this injustice has to teaching argument, do with sex, race, or ethnicity.

As humanity has developed we have created rights for the discrimination. An Essay About! Women have always been thought as the inferior gender, however as time has progressed women have earned more rights. Unfortunately many women still think of themselves as secondary. One reason the majority of female has not been choosing careers in math and science has to do with encouragement. Repetition builds a muscle, a muscle builds a habit and teaching argument, habit builds a character that sticks. If children are not encourage from a young age, or don’t get exposed to S.T.E.M. careers, their mind has already been developed and essays in radical empiricism, is not focused on exploring the science and math fields. Most children of this generation are steered toward sports from a young age, which does not allow females in particular to see a variety of career options in their future.

Its not that the majority of women don’t want to work in the S.T.E.M. field but their upbringing does not promote these callings. Argument! Throughout history, women have always been stereotyped as the inferior gender. Women are usually thought as less intelligent and are relegated to lower paying jobs. Females in the past have had a very small work selection. From the 1950s to the 1970s, women commonly had two job options, becoming a teacher or a nurse. However, as time has progressed women have begun to expand their career choices but still make less than males.

The Media can make a big impact on how women are seen through pop culture. Retention Dissertation! Even though statistics state that the percentage of essay, females in the S.T.E.M. field has decreased, people still believe that our country has a stable science and math field. Many believe that in our future, the science fields will open up to employee retention, women population more. This may be true but the fields are already open for females to enter. Teaching Essay! However, the majority of females still do not choose to essay music therapy, pursue these careers. Just as Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “A woman is like a tea bag – you can’t tell how strong she is until you put her in teaching hot water.” Until more women explore the S.T.E.M. fields we can never quite tell how strong and essay music therapy, intelligent women are. Should cyber-bullying laws be passed? Cyber-bullying is extremely serious, no one should suffer from teaching argument cyber-bullying, those doing the bullying should not get away with it they need to employee retention, be punished.

More laws on teaching argument essay cyberbullying and an essay, punishments need to be passed. If cyber bullying doesn#8217;t get prevented it will drastically increase over the years due to the progress of new technology. Cyberbullying is cruel and hurtful, it can cause depression, thoughts of suicide and teaching, low self esteem. Anna Maria Chavez the chief executive officer of girl scouts once said “unless and until our society recognizes cyberbullying for what it is, the suffering of thousands of silent victims will continue.” Hurtful words take a toll on the individual, at times they may feel worthless and believe the practice algebra world would be a better place without them. In the United States 49 states have bullying laws only 19 states include cyberbullying, meaning 31 states have yet passed a cyberbullying law. How much longer until more cyberbullying laws are passed? How many more lives will be lost?

Each year over 13 million individuals are bullied, there are about 4,400 deaths in the United States by suicide those being bullied have a greater chance to teaching, be one of those individuals. No one should be cyber bullied, bullies need to be punished for their actions. Write London! Megan Meier from Dardenne Prairie, Missouri committed suicide on October 17, 2006 at argument essay the age of 13 due to cyberbullying. After Megan#8217;s death, her mother Tina Meier urged that Megans bully must be punished, and was able to get “Megans Law” passed which protects individuals from harassment on social networking sites. The majority of parents plead for more cyberbullying laws, why aren#8217;t they passing? Therefore each state should pass laws preventing cyberbullying and punishments for bullies.

Bullying is a stab in retention dissertation the heart after the teaching argument constant fighting,trying to get through the pain, the thesis heart gives up as the individual cannot take it anymore. Katherine Jenkins, a classical crossover singer has said “children should be able to live free from argument essay bullying and harassment and it is time that we all took a stand.” Cyber Bullying must end before it?s too late. The Associated Press. #8220;Mother Wants Maximum Penalty in Cyberbullying Case.#8221; The New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Nov. Practice Algebra Problems! 2008. Web. 04 Mar.

2014. #8220;About Tina Meier.#8221; Megan Meier Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014. #8220;State Cyberbullying Laws.#8221; N.p., Feb.-Mar. 2014. Web. Feb.-Mar. 2014. . #8220;Bullying and Suicide.#8221; Bullying Statistics. Teaching Essay! N.p., n.d. Web.

02 Mar. 2014. Jenkins, Katherine. #8220;Beatbullying#8217;s The Big March 2012.#8221; Beatbullying#8217;s The Big March 2012. Feb.-Mar. 2014. Address. Write! Chavez, Anna Maria. #8220;Confronting Cyber Violence in argument the Digital Age.#8221; The Huffington Post.

TheHuffingtonPost.com, 25 Apr. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen! 2013. Web. Essay! 04 Mar. Algebra Problems! 2014. When Should You Be Able to Buy Cigarettes, Drink Alcohol, Vote, Drive and Fight in Wars? It can’t be worked out systematically. Young people need to leap beyond the assumption that at 18 they can do everything; buy cigarettes, drink alcohol, vote, drive and fight in wars—but it actuality, not until they’re 21.

Young people need to be protected by teaching essay law since a majority is algebra, ignorant of the consequences that follow every decision. Anemona Hartocollis found that many young people thought they weren#8217;t mature enough in making life-or-death decisions before 21. Teaching Argument Essay! It not only applied to drinking and smoking, but combat as well. When both parties are in agreement that one is in need of guidance, justifies raising the age limit, making it equivalent, provides consistency. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen Blues! Dealing with consumption, privileges and essay, the civic engagement, privileges are the least controversial of the three. At 16, young people can receive their license. There should be regulations—which some states have already implemented. The ‘We Check to Protect-Vertical Identification Program’ requires those under 21 a vertical (portrait) style driver’s license (Johnson). This ensures health and safety of young people as reminder for teenagers, parents, businesses, law enforcement, retailers and merchants.

Buying cigarettes and drinking alcohol is next controversial. Enforcing an dissertation sur volkswagen, age limit is virtually impossible (by society’s standards, since keeping up with our standard of living in our culture of instant gratification, where underage this that and the other, are the best things these days) it wouldn#8217;t make a difference. It would receive outcry. “If [loved ones] condone it, then… it’s acceptable,” says Patrick Brown who sought the consultation of his mother before enlisting. Even though it may not be idealistic with underage consumption, ‘Older adults with the teaching benefit of a lot of hindsight might tend to bachelor thesis epfl, agree’ (Hartocollis). Immaturity extends beyond a person’s legal entrance into adulthood. Cheryl G. Healton, dean of Global Health at N.Y.U. says, “The executive function [of the brain]…is really not fully developed until…over 21” (Hartocollis). Essay! If, through someone else’s experience, has better knowledge about these issues, then the government raising the bachelor age limit to 21, for a majority of them, is right when young people aren#8217;t fully prepared to comprehend such actions psychologically. Some will argue about the consistency.

Keeping the age limit to drive at 16, treating them like minors until 21, and raising it to 21 for the other issues, will receive different levels of criticism. It’s simpler to have a bit of essay, difference than to thesis epfl, have no congruity. Buying cigarettes, drinking alcohol, voting, driving and fighting in argument wars shouldn#8217;t be given freedom until 21. Retention! Young people are supposed to make mistakes and everyone is argument essay, a life lesson learned. We don’t want to be guilty by in radical text association of not trying to prevent such lessons learned at severe expenses and/or too early. Hartocollis, Anemona. #8220;Smoking?

Combat? Wait Till 21, Young Recruits Say.#8221; New York Times [New York] 23 Apr 2013, early ed. A19. Teaching! Web. 4 Mar. 2014. Epfl! . Johnson, Ruth. Michigan. Department of State. Vertical Driver#8217;s License Helps with Age Verification!. State of teaching argument, Michigan, 2003.

Web. . Are we Ever Without God? People often wonder “Can we be good without God?” . Employee Retention Dissertation! It’s a common question; one may argue that there are good atheists all around us. This is true, even by Christian standards; there are atheists practice good deeds and some who practice evil deeds, just like there are Christians who practice good deeds and some who practice evil deeds. Some atheists give to the poor, help those in jail, feed the hungry, clothe the teaching essay naked and do other things a good Christian should do. Being an atheist does not always equate to being an immoral or bad person. So yes you can be good and you can do this without believing in God. Write About London! What is God, is teaching essay, there a single definition or are there multiple? According to Roman Catholic belief, what we refer to as God is an dissertation sur volkswagen, all powerful deity consisting of The Father, the son, and teaching argument, the Holy spirit. A common understanding of this God, to many non-Christians is the guy in the white garb standing on the clouds with the in radical empiricism text beard and argument essay, sandals;this is not the sole image of God.

God is write an essay about, all powerful, so why would ‘he’ maintain one form for all the 7 billion plus people on earth now, not to teaching, mention all the people who have come before us? In truth God is all things good, God is happiness, God is essay music therapy, love, God is teaching essay, faith, God is truth and sur volkswagen, God is compassion. Truly whatever religion whatever race what ever culture, if you are just and teaching, honest and practice these things then God is with you. So The more prevalent question here instead of essays in radical empiricism, can you be good without god is: are people ever without God? God is not bound to teaching, human form nor is music, God bound to any of the laws of physics or reality that are recognized by modern day science(Proverbs 15:3) This means that God can and does appear in a multitude of forms and situations. We must be careful not to teaching argument essay, put God into human restraints: God is not subject to the same terms that we judge our fellow men and women(Job 11:7-9). In this way God is bachelor epfl, all around us, even inside our hearts. God knows us like we know ourselves because we all have a little piece of teaching essay, God in ourselves, this furthers the fact that no one can be without God.

Even people who are commonly considered immoral or evil have God in them or around them; just because one does not believe in blues God does not mean God is not present so even murderers and stone cold criminals have God in argument their life. God is also all knowing, meaning that god knows the future, the write an essay about london present and the past by “heart”. The argument can be made that if God knows a certain person will go to teaching argument essay, hell after they die from the beginning why does he not just send them straight to hell? The answer is that life is a journey and if God were to send people straight to hell without giving them a chance to walk the path of life and understand what they are called to do, then it would be extremely unfair. Just because a person is an atheist does not mean they are doomed to hell; actions speak louder than words. It really is true. So if you worship god in dissertation blues your actions but don’t do it in your voice or mind then this still counts as being with God. Essay! God loves all of us; every human to an essay london, walk this earth have received love from God even if they don’t know it. God has a roundabout way of getting things done. Every Action is weaved into God#8217;s design: running like a perfect machine every action affects somebody,then somebody else then somebody else and so on.

God is in fact everywhere and teaching argument, we cannot and will not part unto death. Essay Music! until then there is never a step one person walks without God. “I believe in God, but not as one thing, not as an teaching argument essay, old man in the sky. I believe that what people call God is something in essay all of us. I believe that what Jesus and Mohammed and Buddha and all the rest said was right. It#8217;s just that the translations have gone wrong.” Due to the controversial and seemingly almost unique view included in this editorial, there are no New York Times sources that support the ideas expressed. I hope to receive a slight pardon for not having a NY times source. Argument! If this essay does not qualify, I understand. Why does society (men and women) tell women that they have to appeal a certain way to bachelor epfl, the public eye?

Women are the most beautiful creation God has made because without women, there wouldn#8217;t be a population to grow to carry out the future. Since this is true who do we as a society tend to present to women that they need to change. keep in thought that we don#8217;t have to make something perfect, if it was already perfect to begin with. Teaching! In some cases women have always been told what to dissertation sur volkswagen, do or how to appeal a certain way to the public eye. I believe that society’s appeal to the preconceived image of the perfect woman is unjust because no two women are the same and no to women should have to conform to look like one another. Society, both men and women, have been putting pressure on women to have that ‘perfect’ body. Teaching Argument! From the dissertation blues New York Times, Katherine Schulten had said that “the ads show girls of different races and sizes, and others playing sports in a wheelchair. Each one with the campaign’s slogan: ‘I’m beautiful the way I am.’” This describes how women shouldn’t be discriminated on how their body appears in the public eye. The woman should see herself just as worthy as she sees all the other women. In some circumstances, women have always been told that they have to take the second seat to man.

There’s a song that compares women and society, it shows how “we say to girls: ‘You can have ambition but not too much. Teaching Essay! You should am t be successful, but not too successful, otherwise you will threaten the essay music man’ (Knowles). Throughout this song i can confer that some women are able to essay, handle the practice algebra pressure of the workplace, whereas other women like the role of being a domestic engineer. However, Maybelline expresses through their campaign that women should indeed wear makeup. Maybelline’s President, David Greenberg, claimed that “makeup helps women feel more comfortable with going out in teaching public.” Mr. Greenberg says that they’re not trying to make women have a false identity, but instead trying to make them have a secure sense of security.

Women shouldn’t be judged by their appeal to bachelor, the public eye. Teaching Argument! Society needs to stop advertising a certain type of therapy, woman, and show all types of women. If a woman were to walk down the street, either she is insecure, obese, and/or depressed, and she were to look up to a beautiful woman on the billboard, shes going to feel more insecure and want to change how she appears. Teaching! A life of a woman shouldn’t be based on their physical appearance, because every woman is beautiful in write an essay about their own way and it shouldn’t be hidden due to what society says. Schulten, Katherine. #8220;Is There Too Much Pressure on Girls to argument essay, Have ‘Perfect’ Bodies?#8221; The Learning Network Is There Too Much Pressure on Girls to employee, Have Perfect Bodies Comments. Argument! New Yorks Times, 03 Oct.

2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. . Practice Algebra! Does Technology make us more alone? As a greatness that has increased the argument way that we perceive the world, technology can be a burden. Unlike the many screen glossed eyes and over exerted thumbs, technology is doing something far worse than hand cramps: it is making the human mind more comfortable with being alone and devoid of human contact. Practice Problems! Technology has created, based upon evidence stated by Sherry Turkle, the argument essay desire #8216;to customize our lives#8217; through the vast creativity that technology provides.

It forces people to only #8216;pay attention to what interests them#8217;. But who wouldn#8217;t? People typically pay more attention to the subjects that interest them and would most likely try to find those subjects online where they are easiest to access. Yes, despite increasing our knowledge, it is essay music, decreasing our ability to converse with one another. The fear of being judged all gone with eye contact glued to a screen. It is as if no one wants to be bothered by others around them, but is willing to have millions follow them on social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter.

Even Sherry Turkle- a psychologist and professor employed at M.I.T- states in teaching essay her article The Flight from Conversation that #8216;people are comforted by london being in touch with a lot of people- carefully kept at bay#8217;. This need to be important and loved by a persona is teaching argument, a reassuring concept that provides those two wants without having to deal with actual human emotion. The need for interaction with living, breathing people seems to be cast aside for the more accurate version from a nonliving thing such as a robot. We live in an age where technology is a necessity in life, but it is becoming a way to destroy connecting and music therapy, feeling emotions from other people, enforcing being alone in a world that is barely real. Drugs aren#8217;t as harmful as people believe them to be. Marijuana is more helpful than harmful. Statistics state that 88,000 people die from teaching alcohol and more than 480,000 people die from cigars. While less than a hundred people die from the retention marijuana usage.

This drug benefits people with diseases such as cancer. It seems that many people would rather drink alcohol that can become addictive rather than smoke marijuana which is a drug that most people value for medical needs. Marijuana is being legalized in teaching argument many places for different reasons. In Mexico City officials suggest #8220;Legalization of marijuana, not other drugs.#8221; People smoke the drug instead of sur volkswagen blues, having any other addictions such as shopping, sex, tv and teaching, video games. Practice Algebra! In Guatemala, the president has put forward a plan for the government to legalize and sell the argument essay drug. While these two places are allowing the drug, majority of the U.S is still against an essay the use of marijuana. #8220;The U.S has rejected legalization as a solution to drug use.#8221; Citizens in the U.S have different emotions about this debate with many citizens not accepting the drug. Marijuana isn#8217;t harmful because it is a natural substance. People should be able to smoke a substance that is natural rather than tobacco which is mixed with a highly addictive substance called nicotine. Allen St.

Pierre a Executive Director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws agrees that the drug marijuana should be legalized. He stated that he hopes more Americans would legalize it. Teaching Argument! #8220;Since 1996, 18 states approved marijuana for medical use.#8221; And also #8220;13 states have decriminalized the possession of marijuana, removing the possibility of jail time.#8221; This suggest that many of the world#8217;s population are able to persuade their government that marijuana isn#8217;t as much as an addictive drug as society believes it to be. Marijuana isn#8217;t a harmful substance unless it is laced with another drug. In Radical! Marijuana has been proven to be a palliative drug and should be legalized in teaching the U.S. Music Therapy! Archibold, Randal C. #8220;Americas Coalition Suggests Marijuana Laws Be Relaxed.#8221; New York Times. 18 May. Argument Essay! 2013: A.7. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 11 Mar.

2014. Gonchar,Michael. Should marijuana be legalized?.Ny times. 31, May 2013. Web. 10, March 2014. Epfl! Sexual Violence against Young Women. According to American Medical Association, Sexual violence and argument, rape are considered the most under reported violent crime. In the Steubenville case 2 high school football players were found guilty of raping a 16-year-old girl.

After being found guilty of raping and sending nude images of the girl around, 1 boy got 1 year in juvenile jail and the other boy got 2 years. After the case one of the boys apologized to the victims family stating “No pictures should have been sent around, let alone ever taken.” The fact that the 2 high school boys raped and essay therapy, took pictures shows that we as a society are not teaching the effects and consequences of rape to young adults. According to an article in the New York Times, “the judge of the case noted that the boys could have had far worse punishments and said that this was a cautionary lesson.” The fact that the judge is giving them a cautionary lesson astounds me. Rape is rape and no matter what age the rapists are the consequences should be served based on teaching essay the crime not their age. In Ms. Essay! Nathman’s article “Raising children who will speak up tot prevent rape, not defend it,” she discusses the “Cult of Masculinity” and how male power and strength are being praised upon especially since these 2 boys were football stars. The teenage boys thought that because they were football stars that they were unstoppable and could get away with anything until they were caught and found guilty. Nathman states that there is often and impulse to “Blame the victim” and that is one thing I disagree with her. There in teaching argument any case is never an impulse to blame the essays in radical empiricism text victim noted on what she was wearing. So the amount of insincerity people are showing to the victim of teaching essay, this case is unbearable. Social media also had a big role on the insincerity people showed the victim.

In my opinion, the work of these college activists is impressive, but we need to do more. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen Blues! I also agree with the argument essay college activists saying that colleges and high schools are falling short in educating students about sexual assaults since most young adults are defending the rapists of this case. Also many people are tweeting to the victim that she “ruined their life” when the rapist ruined their own life. “Rape is bachelor thesis epfl, not a recreational activity. We, as a society, have an obligation to do more to educate our young people about rape. Teaching Essay! They need to know that it is a horrible crime of text, violence. And it is simply not ok.” Stated Ohio attorney of the Steubenville case Dr. DeWine. Guarino, Mark “Steubenville’s Troubling Question: Is Rape Just a Part of ‘Hook-up Culture?’ Christian Science Monitor, March 20, 2013 n.p.

Oppel, Richard “Ohio Teenagers Guilty in Rape That Social Media Brought to argument essay, Light”. New York Times, March 17, 2013. In 2002 at a Arizona university, an irate student shot three professors to death. This event and employee retention, many other school shootings lead to argument essay, one of the biggest questions in Arizona#8217;s and other states government and schools#8230; #8220;Should weapons be aloud on dissertation blues campus?#8221; Guns and other weapons should not be permitted in schools and on campuses. They can cause danger to other students and professors. Teaching Argument! Students or teachers may use them without a cause or for blues the wrong reasons, and bringing weapons to campus can be the cause of more school shootings. If students bring weapons to school, it can put everyone in that building or on that campus in danger. Students or professors may feel unsafe and not comfortable there, even though a campus is supposed to argument, be a comfortable, friendly environment. Retention Dissertation! Having people on campus able to carry weapons on them can cause students and/or teachers to teaching argument, have violent outburst.

For example, if the thesis epfl student thinks it#8217;s unfair to have an assessment or finds the material they are learning too difficult, they might use their weapon upon argument the teacher. The number of dissertation, students bringing weapons to school is sky rocketing and the number teachers being threatened by their students is increasing as well. As of now the risk of a student accidentally getting shot or obtaining a gun during a school year has increased by argument essay 40 percent in the past four decades. Because of one child carrying a gun on campus, others may feel they can too. #8220;Campus shootouts are a relative rarity, but they do occur. The most notorious shooting at an Arizona university took place in 2002 when a disgruntled nursing student shot three professors to death.#8221; Just from being angry and bachelor epfl, dissatisfied, she shot the people there to teaching essay, help her. About London! Exactly as Carmen Themar stated, #8220;#8230;and bullets don#8217;t always go where they are aimed.#8221; Taking out your frustration on someone may impact another#8217;s life. The shooting victims. most likely have families that are devastated. The anger could cause those certain people to shoot others. A gun shooting is essay, more than just injuring or killing that human; whole families are affected. Guns should stay out of any educational environment because schools are for learning and guns have no purpose to music therapy, be there. #8220;Should Guns Be Permitted on College Campuses?#8221; The Learning Network Should Guns Be Permitted on College Campuses Comments. N.p., n.d.

Web. 11 Mar. 2014. Szabo, Liz. #8220;Guns in teaching argument essay the Home Are Proving Deadly for Kids.#8221; http://sks.sirs.com. Newspaper USA Today, 29 May 2013. Web. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen! Is it really worth calling a sport?

From experience, I can tell you cheerleading is a sport. Girls train endless, tiring hours each week perfecting a routine that includes a combination of gymnastics, dance, and stunting. Not only do you need a high level of strength and skill, cheerleading offers a high risk of teaching essay, injury. And what is that cheerleading doesn’t have that other sports do? “An athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature” is the definition of a sport according to Dictionary.com. Cheerleading exceeds all these criteria. According to the Women#8217;s Sport Foundation, a sport must include a physical activity which involves propelling a mass through space or overcoming the resistance of mass, like a football, baseball, or in cheerleading, a person.Of course it takes strength and skill to throw a ball accurately, but to throw a person up into the air takes a tremendous amount of strength. Practice! All sports are governed by rules, and have some element of competitiveness.

Cheerleading has rules that restrict skills in each level and performance time, and as far as I know, cheerleading is the most competitive sport I’ve ever participated in. Cheerleaders travel the U.S. all year round to teaching, compete in retention dissertation different states. There is teaching argument, even a competition called The World Championship that is problems, broadcasted on ESPN. If its broadcasted on argument essay television, then its definitely a sport. 65.1% of in radical empiricism, all catastrophic sports injuries in high school females are from cheerleading, according to livescience.com. So, over teaching essay, half of all injuries in high schools in girls are from essay music therapy cheerleading, so what makes it not a sport? Injuries are sadly common in every sport, and I have experienced one before. As a backspot, my job is to catch and make sure my flyer stays up safely in the air. While putting their safety before mine, I have numerous girls fall on me, especially my head. After many visits to argument, the doctors, I was diagnosed with a concussion. Missing many days of school, I had left my team stranded with one less team member.

Injuries really take a toll on life, especially when you play a sport that has a high risk of it occurring. According to, George W. Bush was the head cheerleader at Phillips Academy in dissertation Andover, Mass. Since, cheerleading has grown tremendously. Numerous cheer gyms are opening in every state, why would there be such a demand for them if cheerleading wasn’t a sport. Not only teaching argument, are their gyms continuously opening, but cheerleading is all over the media, television and online shows are dedicated to the sport. So, if you still don#8217;t think cheerleading is essay therapy, a sport, ask cheerleader, and teaching essay, they will tell you countless reasons why it is.

Thomas, Katie. #8220;Cheering Clamors to Be Sport.#8221; The New York Times 22 May 2011: 1-5. IS Music The Key to Success? Music. It’s Not Just For Entertainment. Collaboration. Creativity. Discipline. Three important qualities that are hard to come by in retention society today. As people, we need to find a way to acquire these traits. Many people look to music for entertainment.

Unfortunately they are missing the big picture. Teaching Argument Essay! Music can encourage these desired qualities within us. In fact, many successful people in business, acting and newscasting have been classically trained in practice algebra problems music. Coincidence? I think not.

Alan Greenspan, a man who served as the chairman of the federal reserve,and grew up playing the clarinet and piano, told the New York Times that he himself, knows that this is no coincidence. Teaching Argument Essay! “The probability that this is just chance is extremely small.” Greenspan explains. In agreement, many pose the question, “Why does this connection exist?” Most would simply say “It just does.” Paul Allen says otherwise. Text! The co founder of Microsoft has played both the violin and the guitar. He informed the New York Times that at the end of a long day of programming, he would pull his guitar out and play, learning to express himself in essay a brand new way. The sad part is that music isn’t being taught to many students. Algebra Problems! In a 2003 Gallup Poll, only 54% of American households said they have have at argument essay least one musician. Since 1978, this statistic has dropped by 15%. Sooner or later, there will be nobody playing musicians. Parents have argued that the dissertation sur volkswagen blues arts do nothing for our students, but do gym classes really do anything for us? At a small middle school in Holliston Massachusetts, kids are required to take a form of music class.

Students can play instruments, sing in the chorus or study general music. Holliston has ranked number 18 in the state. Interestingly, all of the schools ranked ahead of Holliston require music to teaching essay, graduate. In an article in Forbes Magazine, a writer says that if a scientist were to have musical training it would have no relevance on how great a scientist they are. Thus, countering the fact that musical training will lead to success. This may be true but most would agree that listening to music can help us concentrate on work.

Music being a branch of performing arts also can give us confidence. SInging in front of dissertation, a crowd could help with public speaking. Playing an instrument in front of thousands shares the language of melody, sharing our ideas in teaching essay front of a crowd shares the language of our knowledge. Many instrumentalists refer to music as a “hidden language.” If we believe that languages of countries will help us to essay music, be successful, then we believe that the language of music will help too. Lipman, Joanne. #8220;Is Music the Key to Success?.#8221; The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Oct.

2013. Web. 10 Mar. Teaching! 2014. .Ubel, Peter. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen! #8220;An Embarrassingly Unscientific New York Times Op-Ed On Music And Success.#8221; Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Jan. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. . Music.

It’s Not Just For Entertainment. Collaboration. Creativity. Argument! Discipline. Three important qualities that are hard to come by in society today. As people, we need to find a way to therapy, acquire these traits. Teaching Argument Essay! Many people look to music for entertainment.

Unfortunately they are missing the big picture. Music can encourage these desired qualities within us. In fact, many successful people in bachelor thesis business, acting and newscasting have been classically trained in music. Coincidence? I think not. Alan Greenspan, a man who served as the chairman of the federal reserve,and grew up playing the clarinet and piano, told the New York Times that he himself, knows that this is no coincidence. “The probability that this is just chance is extremely small.” Greenspan explains. In agreement, many pose the question, “Why does this connection exist?” Most would simply say “It just does.” Paul Allen says otherwise. The co founder of Microsoft has played both the violin and teaching, the guitar. He informed the bachelor thesis epfl New York Times that at the end of a long day of programming, he would pull his guitar out and play, learning to express himself in teaching essay a brand new way. Dissertation! The sad part is that music isn’t being taught to many students. In a 2003 Gallup Poll, only 54% of American households said they have have at teaching essay least one musician.

Since 1978, this statistic has dropped by 15%. Sooner or later, there will be nobody playing musicians. Parents have argued that the arts do nothing for our students, but do gym classes really do anything for us? At a small middle school in Holliston Massachusetts, kids are required to take a form of music class. Students can play instruments, sing in the chorus or study general music. Dissertation Blues! Holliston has ranked number 18 in teaching the state.

Interestingly, all of the schools ranked ahead of Holliston require music to graduate. In an article in Forbes Magazine, a writer says that if a scientist were to have musical training it would have no relevance on how great a scientist they are. Thus, countering the fact that musical training will lead to success. This may be true but most would agree that listening to music can help us concentrate on in radical empiricism work. Music being a branch of argument, performing arts also can give us confidence. SInging in front of a crowd could help with public speaking. Playing an instrument in front of thousands shares the language of melody, sharing our ideas in dissertation blues front of a crowd shares the essay language of our knowledge.

Many instrumentalists refer to music as a “hidden language.” If we believe that languages of countries will help us to be successful, then we believe that the language of retention, music will help too. Lipman, Joanne. #8220;Is Music the teaching essay Key to Success?.#8221; The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. .Ubel, Peter. #8220;An Embarrassingly Unscientific New York Times Op-Ed On Music And Success.#8221; Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Jan. 2014. Web. 10 Mar.

2014. Music Therapy! . Music. It’s Not Just For Entertainment. Essay! Collaboration. Creativity. Discipline. Three important qualities that are hard to come by in essay music society today. As people, we need to teaching essay, find a way to acquire these traits. Many people look to music for entertainment. Unfortunately they are missing the big picture.

Music can encourage these desired qualities within us. In fact, many successful people in business, acting and newscasting have been classically trained in music. An Essay About! Coincidence? I think not. Alan Greenspan, a man who served as the teaching argument chairman of the federal reserve,and grew up playing the clarinet and piano, told the New York Times that he himself, knows that this is no coincidence. Dissertation Blues! “The probability that this is essay, just chance is extremely small.” Greenspan explains. In agreement, many pose the in radical text question, “Why does this connection exist?” Most would simply say “It just does.” Paul Allen says otherwise. The co founder of Microsoft has played both the violin and the guitar. He informed the New York Times that at the end of a long day of teaching argument, programming, he would pull his guitar out and play, learning to practice algebra problems, express himself in teaching argument a brand new way. Write London! The sad part is that music isn’t being taught to many students. Teaching Argument Essay! In a 2003 Gallup Poll, only 54% of dissertation sur volkswagen, American households said they have have at least one musician. Since 1978, this statistic has dropped by 15%.

Sooner or later, there will be no musicians left. Parents have argued that the arts do nothing for our students, but do gym classes really do anything for us? At a small middle school in Holliston Massachusetts, kids are required to take a form of music class. Students can play instruments, sing in essay the chorus or study general music. Holliston has ranked number 18 in the state. Interestingly, all of the schools ranked ahead of Holliston require music to graduate. In an article in write an essay london Forbes Magazine, a writer says that if a scientist were to have musical training it would have no relevance on teaching essay how great a scientist they are.

Thus, countering the fact that musical training will lead to success. Sur Volkswagen Blues! This may be true but most would agree that listening to music can help us concentrate on work. Music being a branch of performing arts also can give us confidence. SInging in front of a crowd could help with public speaking. Playing an instrument in front of argument, thousands shares the language of melody. Sharing our ideas in front of about london, a crowd shares the argument essay language of our knowledge. Many instrumentalists refer to music as a “hidden language.” If we believe that languages of countries will help us to be successful, then we believe that the language of music will help too. Lipman, Joanne. Sur Volkswagen! #8220;Is Music the Key to Success?.#8221; The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Oct. Argument! 2013. Essay! Web.

10 Mar. 2014. .Ubel, Peter. Teaching Essay! #8220;An Embarrassingly Unscientific New York Times Op-Ed On Music And Success.#8221; Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Jan. 2014. Web. Write About! 10 Mar. 2014. . Can you suggest me any topic /argumentative essay on aboriginal health?

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copy essay respect A conversation with Aldous Huxley not infrequently put one at the receiving end of an unforgettable monologue. About a year before his lamented death he was discoursing on a favorite topic: Man's unnatural treatment of nature and its sad results. To illustrate his point he told how, during the argument essay, previous summer, he had returned to a little valley in England where he had spent many happy months as a child. Once it had been composed of delightful grassy glades; now it was becoming overgrown with unsightly brush because the rabbits that formerly kept such growth under control had largely succumbed to a disease, myxomatosis, that was deliberately introduced by the local farmers to reduce the essays in radical text, rabbits' destruction of crops. Being something of a Philistine, I could be silent no longer, even in the interests of great rhetoric. I interrupted to point out that the rabbit itself had been brought as a domestic animal to England in 1176, presumably to improve the protein diet of the argument essay, peasantry. All forms of life modify their contexts. The most spectacular and benign instance is doubtless the coral polyp. By serving its own ends, it has created a vast undersea world favorable to thousands of other kinds of practice problems animals and plants. Ever since man became a numerous species he has affected his environment notably.

The hypothesis that his fire-drive method of hunting created the world's great grasslands and helped to exterminate the teaching, monster mammals of the Pleistocene from much of the globe is plausible, if not proved. For 6 millennia at write an essay about london, least, the banks of the lower Nile have been a human artifact rather than the swampy African jungle which nature, apart from man, would have made it. The Aswan Dam, flooding 5000 square miles, is only the argument, latest stage in a long process. In many regions terracing or irrigation, overgrazing, the cutting of forests by Romans to build ships to fight Carthaginians or by Crusaders to solve the logistics problems of their expeditions, have profoundly changed some ecologies. Observation that the French landscape falls into two basic types, the essay music therapy, open fields of the north and the bocage of the south and west, inspired Marc Bloch to undertake his classic study of medieval agricultural methods. Quite unintentionally, changes in human ways often affect nonhuman nature. It has been noted, for example, that the advent of the automobile eliminated huge flocks of sparrows that once fed on the horse manure littering every street. The history of ecologic change is still so rudimentary that we know little about what really happened, or what the results were.

The extinction of the teaching argument essay, European aurochs as late as 1627 would seem to music, have been a simple case of overenthusiastic hunting. On more intricate matters it often is impossible to find solid information. For a thousand years or more the teaching essay, Frisians and Hollanders have been pushing back the North Sea, and the process is music culminating in our own time in teaching argument essay, the reclamation of the Zuider Zee. What, if any, species of animals, birds, fish, shore life, or plants have died out in algebra problems, the process? In their epic combat with Neptune have the Netherlanders overlooked ecological values in such a way that the teaching essay, quality of human life in the Netherlands has suffered? I cannot discover that the bachelor, questions have ever been asked, much less answered. People, then, have often been a dynamic element in their own environment, but in the present state of historical scholarship we usually do not know exactly when, where, or with what effects man-induced changes came. Teaching Argument! As we enter the last third of the 20th century, however, concern for the problem of ecologic backlash is mounting feverishly. Essays Empiricism Text! Natural science, conceived as the effort to understand the nature of things, had flourished in argument, several eras and employee dissertation among several peoples.

Similarly there had been an age-old accumulation of technological skills, sometimes growing rapidly, sometimes slowly. But it was not until about four generations ago that Western Europe and North America arranged a marriage between science and argument essay technology, a union of the theoretical and the empirical approaches to retention, our natural environment. The emergence in widespread practice of the Baconian creed that scientific knowledge means technological power over nature can scarcely be dated before about 1850, save in the chemical industries, where it is anticipated in the 18th century. Its acceptance as a normal pattern of argument essay action may mark the greatest event in human history since the invention of essays text agriculture, and perhaps in nonhuman terrestrial history as well. Almost at once the new situation forced the crystallization of the novel concept of ecology; indeed, the word ecology first appeared in the English language in 1873. Teaching Argument Essay! Today, less than a century later, the impact of thesis our race upon the environment has so increased in force that it has changed in essence. When the first cannons were fired, in the early 14th century, they affected ecology by sending workers scrambling to the forests and teaching argument mountains for more potash, sulphur, iron ore, and sur volkswagen charcoal, with some resulting erosion and teaching argument essay deforestation. Hydrogen bombs are of a different order: a war fought with them might alter the genetics of all life on this planet. By 1285 London had a smog problem arising from the burning of epfl soft coal, but our present combustion of fossil fuels threatens to change the chemistry of the globe's atmosphere as a whole, with consequences which we are only beginning to guess.

With the teaching essay, population explosion, the carcinoma of planless urbanism, the now geological deposits of sewage and garbage, surely no creature other than man has ever managed to foul its nest in such short order. There are many calls to action, but specific proposals, however worthy as individual items, seem too partial, palliative, negative: ban the bomb, tear down the billboards, give the Hindus contraceptives and tell them to retention dissertation, eat their sacred cows. The simplest solution to any suspect change is, of course, to stop it, or better yet, to revert to a romanticized past: make those ugly gasoline stations look like Anne Hathaway's cottage or (in the essay, Far West) like ghost-town saloons. The wilderness area mentality invariably advocates deep-freezing an ecology, whether San Gimignano or the High Sierra, as it was before the first Kleenex was dropped. But neither atavism nor prettification will cope with the ecologic crisis of our time. What shall we do? No one yet knows. Write About London! Unless we think about fundamentals, our specific measures may produce new backlashes more serious than those they are designed to remedy. As a beginning we should try to clarify our thinking by looking, in some historical depth, at the presuppositions that underlie modern technology and essay science. Science was traditionally aristocratic, speculative, intellectual in intent; technology was lower-class, empirical, action-oriented.

The quite sudden fusion of these two, towards the about, middle of the essay, 19th century, is surely related to the slightly prior and contemporary democratic revolutions which, by reducing social barriers, tended to assert a functional unity of essay music brain and hand. Our ecologic crisis is the product of an emerging, entirely novel, democratic culture. The issue is teaching argument essay whether a democratized world can survive its own implications. Essay! Presumably we cannot unless we rethink our axioms. The Western Traditions of Technology and Science.

One thing is so certain that it seems stupid to verbalize it: both modern technology and modern science are distinctively Occidental. Our technology has absorbed elements from essay, all over retention dissertation, the world, notably from China; yet everywhere today, whether in Japan or in Nigeria, successful technology is Western. Teaching! Our science is the heir to all the sciences of the past, especially perhaps to the work of the write about london, great Islamic scientists of the Middle Ages, who so often outdid the ancient Greeks in skill and perspicacity: al-Razi in medicine, for teaching example; or ibn-al-Haytham in optics; or Omar Khayyam in mathematics. Indeed, not a few works of such geniuses seem to have vanished in the original Arabic and to survive only in algebra, medieval Latin translations that helped to lay the foundations for teaching argument essay later Western developments. Today, around the globe, all significant science is Western in style and method, whatever the pigmentation or language of the scientists. A second pair of facts is less well recognized because they result from quite recent historical scholarship. The leadership of the West, both in technology and in science, is far older than the algebra problems, so-called Scientific Revolution of the 17th century or the so-called Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. These terms are in fact outmoded and obscure the teaching argument essay, true nature of dissertation sur volkswagen blues what they try to describe--significant stages in two long and separate developments. By A.D. 1000 at the latest--and perhaps, feebly, as much as 200 years earlier--the West began to apply water power to industrial processes other than milling grain.

This was followed in the late 12th century by the harnessing of teaching essay wind power. From simple beginnings, but with remarkable consistency of style, the West rapidly expanded its skills in retention dissertation, the development of power machinery, labor-saving devices, and automation. Those who doubt should contemplate that most monumental achievement in teaching argument, the history of automation: the weight-driven mechanical clock, which appeared in two forms in the early 14th century. Not in craftsmanship but in basic technological capacity, the Latin West of the essay music therapy, later Middle Ages far outstripped its elaborate, sophisticated, and esthetically magnificent sister cultures, Byzantium and teaching Islam. In 1444 a great Greek ecclesiastic, Bessarion, who had gone to Italy, wrote a letter to a prince in Greece. He is amazed by the superiority of Western ships, arms, textiles, glass. Essays Empiricism! But above all he is teaching essay astonished by practice, the spectacle of waterwheels sawing timbers and pumping the bellows of blast furnaces.

Clearly, he had seen nothing of the sort in the Near East. By the teaching essay, end of the 15th century the technological superiority of Europe was such that its small, mutually hostile nations could spill out over all the rest of the world, conquering, looting, and colonizing. The symbol of this technological superiority is the fact that Portugal, one of the weakest states of the Occident, was able to become, and to remain for a century, mistress of the East Indies. And we must remember that the technology of Vasco da Gama and Albuquerque was built by pure empiricism, drawing remarkably little support or inspiration from therapy, science. In the teaching, present-day vernacular understanding, modern science is supposed to have begun in blues, 1543, when both Copernicus and Vesalius published their great works. It is no derogation of their accomplishments, however, to point out that such structures as the Fabrica and the De revolutionibus do not appear overnight. The distinctive Western tradition of science, in fact, began in teaching essay, the late 11th century with a massive movement of employee dissertation translation of Arabic and Greek scientific works into Latin.

A few notable books-- Theophrastus, for example--escaped the West's avid new appetite for science, but within less than 200 years effectively the teaching argument, entire corpus of Greek and Muslim science was available in Latin, and was being eagerly read and criticized in write an essay, the new European universities. Teaching Argument Essay! Out of criticism arose new observation, speculation, and practice algebra increasing distrust of ancient authorities. By the late 13th century Europe had seized global scientific leadership from the teaching essay, faltering hands of essay therapy Islam. It would be as absurd to deny the profound originality of essay Newton, Galileo, or Copernicus as to deny that of the in radical text, 14th century scholastic scientists like Buridan or Oresme on whose work they built. Before the teaching argument essay, 11th century, science scarcely existed in the Latin West, even in Roman times.

From the 11th century onward, the scientific sector of bachelor Occidental culture has increased in a steady crescendo. Since both our technological and our scientific movements got their start, acquired their character, and achieved world dominance in the Middle Ages, it would seem that we cannot understand their nature or their present impact upon ecology without examining fundamental medieval assumptions and developments. Medieval View of Man and argument Nature. Until recently, agriculture has been the chief occupation even in advanced societies; hence, any change in methods of tillage has much importance. Early plows, drawn by two oxen, did not normally turn the sod but merely scratched it. Thus, cross- plowing was needed and fields tended to be squarish. Practice Algebra! In the fairly light soils and teaching argument semiarid climates of the Near East and Mediterranean, this worked well. But such a plow was inappropriate to the wet climate and often sticky soils of northern Europe.

By the practice algebra, latter part of the 7th century after Christ, however, following obscure beginnings, certain northern peasants were using an entirely new kind of plow, equipped with a vertical knife to cut the line of the furrow, a horizontal share to slice under the essay, sod, and a moldboard to turn it over. The friction of this plow with the soil was so great that it normally required not two but eight oxen. Write London! It attacked the argument, land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed, and fields tended to be shaped in long strips. In the days of the bachelor epfl, scratch-plow, fields were distributed generally in units capable of supporting a single family. Subsistence farming was the presupposition. Essay! But no peasant owned eight oxen: to use the new and employee more efficient plow, peasants pooled their oxen to form large plow-teams, originally receiving (it would appear) plowed strips in proportion to their contribution. Thus, distribution of land was based no longer on the needs of a family but, rather, on the capacity of a power machine to till the earth. Teaching Essay! Man's relation to the soil was profoundly changed. Write! Formerly man had been part of nature; now he was the exploiter of nature.

Nowhere else in the world did farmers develop any analogous agricultural implement. Is it coincidence that modern technology, with its ruthlessness toward nature, has so largely been produced by descendants of these peasants of northern Europe? This same exploitive attitude appears slightly before A.D. Teaching Argument! 830 in Western illustrated calendars. In older calendars the months were shown as passive personifications. The new Frankish calendars, which set the style for the Middle Ages, are very different: they show men coercing the world around them--plowing, harvesting, chopping trees, butchering pigs. Man and nature are two things, and man is master. These novelties seem to be in harmony with larger intellectual patterns. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen Blues! What people do about their ecology depends on what they think about teaching essay, themselves in relation to things around them. Human ecology is deeply conditioned by beliefs about our nature and essay music therapy destiny--that is, by religion. To Western eyes this is very evident in, say, India or Ceylon.

It is equally true of ourselves and of our medieval ancestors. The victory of Christianity over paganism was the greatest psychic revolution in teaching essay, the history of our culture. Dissertation Blues! It has become fashionable today to say that, for better or worse, we live in essay, the post-Christian age. Certainly the forms of dissertation our thinking and language have largely ceased to be Christian, but to my eye the substance often remains amazingly akin to essay, that of the blues, past. Our daily habits of action, for example, are dominated by an implicit faith in argument essay, perpetual progress which was unknown either to Greco- Roman antiquity or to the Orient. It is rooted in, and is indefensible apart from, Judeo- Christian theology. The fact that Communists share it merely helps to show what can be demonstrated on many other grounds: that Marxism, like Islam, is a Judeo-Christian heresy. We continue today to live, as we have lived for about 1700 years, very largely in a context of Christian axioms. What did Christianity tell people about their relations with the environment? While many of the world's mythologies provide stories of creation, Greco-Roman mythology was singularly incoherent in algebra, this respect.

Like Aristotle, the intellectuals of the ancient West denied that the visible world had a beginning. Indeed, the idea of teaching argument essay a beginning was impossible in the framework of their cyclical notion of time. In Radical Empiricism! In sharp contrast, Christianity inherited from Judaism not only a concept of time as nonrepetitive and linear but also a striking story of creation. By gradual stages a loving and all- powerful God had created light and teaching argument essay darkness, the heavenly bodies, the earth and all its plants, animals, birds, and fishes. Finally, God had created Adam and, as an afterthought, Eve to keep man from being lonely. Man named all the animals, thus establishing his dominance over them. God planned all of this explicitly for man's benefit and rule: no item in bachelor epfl, the physical creation had any purpose save to serve man's purposes. Teaching Argument Essay! And, although man's body is made of bachelor thesis epfl clay, he is argument essay not simply part of nature: he is bachelor thesis made in God's image.

Especially in its Western form, Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has seen. As early as the 2nd century both Tertullian and teaching argument essay Saint Irenaeus of write an essay about Lyons were insisting that when God shaped Adam he was foreshadowing the teaching, image of the incarnate Christ, the Second Adam. Man shares, in great measure, God's transcendence of nature. Christianity, in absolute contrast to therapy, ancient paganism and Asia's religions (except, perhaps, Zorastrianism), not only established a dualism of man and nature but also insisted that it is God's will that man exploit nature for his proper ends. At the level of the common people this worked out in an interesting way. In Antiquity every tree, every spring, every stream, every hill had its own genius loci, its guardian spirit. These spirits were accessible to men, but were very unlike men; centaurs, fauns, and mermaids show their ambivalence. Before one cut a tree, mined a mountain, or dammed a brook, it was important to teaching essay, placate the spirit in charge of music therapy that particular situation, and to keep it placated. By destroying pagan animism, Christianity made it possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects. It is often said that for animism the Church substituted the essay, cult of saints. Thesis Epfl! True; but the cult of saints is functionally quite different from animism.

The saint is not in essay, natural objects; he may have special shrines, but his citizenship is in heaven. Moreover, a saint is entirely a man; he can be approached in human terms. Bachelor Epfl! In addition to saints, Christianity of course also had angels and teaching argument essay demons inherited from Judaism and perhaps, at one remove, from Zorastrianism. But these were all as mobile as the saints themselves. The spirits in natural objects, which formerly had protected nature from problems, man, evaporated. Man's effective monopoly on spirit in this world was confirmed, and the old inhibitions to the exploitation of nature crumbled. When one speaks in such sweeping terms, a note of caution is in order. Christianity is a complex faith, and teaching essay its consequences differ in differing contexts. What I have said may well apply to the medieval West, where in fact technology made spectacular advances. But the Greek East, a highly civilized realm of equal Christian devotion, seems to essay, have produced no marked technological innovation after the late 7th century, when Greek fire was invented. Argument Essay! The key to the contrast may perhaps be found in a difference in the tonality of piety and thought which students of comparative theology find between the Greek and the Latin Churches.

The Greeks believed that sin was intellectual blindness, and that salvation was found in illumination, orthodoxy--that is, clear thinking. The Latins, on the other hand, felt that sin was moral evil, and that salvation was to be found in right conduct. Eastern theology has been intellectualist. Western theology has been voluntarist. The Greek saint contemplates; the Western saint acts. The implications of Christianity for the conquest of nature would emerge more easily in the Western atmosphere. The Christian dogma of creation, which is essays in radical empiricism found in the first clause of all the Creeds, has another meaning for our comprehension of argument essay today's ecologic crisis. By revelation, God had given man the Bible, the Book of Scripture. But since God had made nature, nature also must reveal the divine mentality.

The religious study of nature for the better understanding of God was known as natural theology. In the early Church, and always in the Greek East, nature was conceived primarily as a symbolic system through which God speaks to men: the dissertation sur volkswagen, ant is a sermon to teaching argument, sluggards; rising flames are the algebra problems, symbol of the soul's aspiration. The view of nature was essentially artistic rather than scientific. While Byzantium preserved and copied great numbers of ancient Greek scientific texts, science as we conceive it could scarcely flourish in such an ambience. However, in the Latin West by argument, the early 13th century natural theology was following a very different bent. It was ceasing to be the decoding of the physical symbols of God's communication with man and was becoming the empiricism text, effort to understand God's mind by discovering how his creation operates. Teaching! The rainbow was no longer simply a symbol of hope first sent to an essay london, Noah after the Deluge: Robert Grosseteste, Friar Roger Bacon, and teaching Theodoric of Freiberg produced startlingly sophisticated work on the optics of the text, rainbow, but they did it as a venture in religious understanding. Argument! From the 13th century onward, up to and including Leitnitz and Newton, every major scientist, in effect, explained his motivations in religious terms. Indeed, if Galileo had not been so expert an amateur theologian he would have got into far less trouble: the professionals resented his intrusion.

And Newton seems to essays in radical, have regarded himself more as a theologian than as a scientist. It was not until the late 18th century that the hypothesis of God became unnecessary to many scientists. It is often hard for the historian to judge, when men explain why they are doing what they want to teaching essay, do, whether they are offering real reasons or merely culturally acceptable reasons. The consistency with which scientists during the long formative centuries of write london Western science said that the task and the reward of the scientist was to think God's thoughts after him leads one to believe that this was their real motivation. If so, then modern Western science was cast in a matrix of teaching argument essay Christian theology. The dynamism of religious devotion shaped by dissertation sur volkswagen, the Judeo-Christian dogma of creation, gave it impetus. An Alternative Christian View. We would seem to be headed toward conclusions unpalatable to many Christians. Since both science and technology are blessed words in essay, our contemporary vocabulary, some may be happy at the notions, first, that viewed historically, modern science is an extrapolation of natural theology and, second, that modern technology is at least partly to be explained as an Occidental, voluntarist realization of the Christian dogma of man's transcendence of, and rightful master over, nature.

But, as we now recognize, somewhat over dissertation, a century ago science and technology--hitherto quite separate activities--joined to give mankind powers which, to judge by many of the ecologic effects, are out of control. If so, Christianity bears a huge burden of guilt. I personally doubt that disastrous ecologic backlash can be avoided simply by applying to our problems more science and more technology. Our science and technology have grown out of Christian attitudes toward man's relation to essay, nature which are almost universally held not only by sur volkswagen blues, Christians and neo-Christians but also by essay, those who fondly regard themselves as post-Christians. Despite Copernicus, all the cosmos rotates around our little globe. Despite Darwin, we are not, in our hearts, part of the natural process. We are superior to nature, contemptuous of it, willing to use it for our slightest whim. The newly elected Governor of California, like myself a churchman but less troubled than I, spoke for the Christian tradition when he said (as is alleged), when you've seen one redwood tree, you've seen them all. To a Christian a tree can be no more than a physical fact. The whole concept of the sacred grove is alien to Christianity and to the ethos of the West.

For nearly 2 millennia Christian missionaries have been chopping down sacred groves, which are idolatrous because they assume spirit in write an essay, nature. What we do about ecology depends on our ideas of the essay, man-nature relationship. More science and more technology are not going to employee retention dissertation, get us out of the present ecologic crisis until we find a new religion, or rethink our old one. The beatniks, who are the basic revolutionaries of our time, show a sound instinct in their affinity for Zen Buddhism, which conceives of the man-nature relationship as very nearly the mirror image of the Christian view. Teaching Essay! Zen, however, is as deeply conditioned by Asian history as Christianity is by essay music, the experience of the West, and I am dubious of argument essay its viability among us. Possibly we should ponder the greatest radical in Christian history since Christ: Saint Francis of an essay london Assisi. The prime miracle of Saint Francis is the argument, fact that he did not end at the stake, as many of his left-wing followers did. He was so clearly heretical that a General of the Franciscan Order, Saint Bonavlentura, a great and perceptive Christian, tried to suppress the early accounts of Franciscanism. The key to an understanding of Francis is his belief in the virtue of essay humility--not merely for argument essay the individual but for man as a species.

Francis tried to depose man from his monarchy over creation and set up a democracy of all God's creatures. With him the ant is no longer simply a homily for the lazy, flames a sign of the thrust of the soul toward union with God; now they are Brother Ant and Sister Fire, praising the thesis epfl, Creator in their own ways as Brother Man does in his. Later commentators have said that Francis preached to the birds as a rebuke to men who would not listen. The records do not read so: he urged the little birds to praise God, and in spiritual ecstasy they flapped their wings and teaching essay chirped rejoicing. Legends of saints, especially the Irish saints, had long told of their dealings with animals but always, I believe, to show their human dominance over creatures. With Francis it is different. The land around Gubbio in the Apennines was ravaged by a fierce wolf. Saint Francis, says the legend, talked to about, the wolf and persuaded him of the error of his ways. The wolf repented, died in the odor of sanctity, and was buried in consecrated ground. What Sir Steven Ruciman calls the essay, Franciscan doctrine of the animal soul was quickly stamped out.

Quite possibly it was in part inspired, consciously or unconsciously, by essay music therapy, the belief in reincarnation held by the Cathar heretics who at teaching essay, that time teemed in Italy and southern France, and who presumably had got it originally from India. It is write an essay about london significant that at just the teaching, same moment, about 1200, traces of metempsychosis are found also in western Judaism, in the Provencal Cabbala. But Francis held neither to transmigration of souls nor to pantheism. His view of nature and of man rested on a unique sort of pan-psychism of all things animate and inaminate, designed for the glorification of their transcendent Creator, who, in the ultimate gesture of cosmic humility, assumed flesh, lay helpless in bachelor thesis, a manger, and hung dying on a scaffold. I am not suggesting that many contemporary Americans who are concerned about teaching essay, our ecologic crisis will be either able or willing to counsel with wolves or exhort birds. However, the present increasing disruption of the global environment is the product of a dynamic technology and science which were originating in the Western medieval world against which Saint Francis was rebelling in so original a way. Their growth cannot be understood historically apart from distinctive attitudes toward nature which are deeply grounded in Christian dogma. The fact that most people do not think of these attitudes as Christian is irrelevant. No new set of basic values has been accepted in our society to displace those of employee dissertation Christianity. Hence we shall continue to have a worsening ecologic crisis until we reject the argument, Christian axiom that nature has no reason for existence save to serve man. The greatest spiritual revolutionary in Western history, Saint Francis, proposed what he thought was an alternative Christian view of nature and man's relation to it; he tried to substitute the idea of the equality of all creatures, including man, for the idea of man's limitless rule of creation.

He failed. Both our present science and our present technology are so tinctured with orthodox Christian arrogance toward nature that no solution for our ecologic crisis can be expected from them alone. Since the roots of our trouble are so largely religious, the remedy must also be essentially religious, whether we call it that or not. We must rethink and refeel our nature and destiny. The profoundly religious, but heretical, sense of the primitive Franciscans for essay music the spiritual autonomy of all parts of nature may point a direction.

I propose Francis as a patron saint for ecologists.

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Teaching Argument Writing: An …

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Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Therapy? Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to essay, describe your work history and dissertation achievements. Cover letter templates and essay builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of bachelor, formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out teaching essay if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. Dissertation Sur Volkswagen? The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.”

Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to argument, list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to therapy, your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to argument, find an online resume builder. Starting off on epfl the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to essay, do more than introduce you and retention dissertation highlight some of teaching argument essay, your skills.

It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to essay therapy, tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to essay, explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and thesis epfl maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines.

Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. Essay? And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from practice problems your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is argument some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine.

Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job.

Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is in radical empiricism text far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the teaching essay, company and its executives on thesis epfl Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Essay? Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and essays text writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips.

Learn how to format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and teaching argument essay page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in empiricism text other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. Teaching Essay? If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to practice problems, use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. Argument Essay? While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country.

For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to algebra problems, “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. Argument? If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.

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