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Book Review: Getting Things Done David Allen. Paper. The Author, with his copy of aqa gcse law coursework Getting Things Done. It is rare that I read or hear something that truly changes the way I think and approach my life, but Getting Things Done (GTD) is one of them. Written by paper development David Allen (@GTDGuy), GTD has been a staple on the bookshelf of many busy, productive people: there are GTD groupies all over the world. I am one of them, and I know some other graduate students who find it helpful, as well.
Developing a productivity strategy is about yourself introduction one of the research on brain, more important parts about graduate school: I consider my time in school to not only master topics, be a process of learning how to do my research, but also in learning how I best do my work. Finding a system to organize what has to be done is part of that, and GTD has played a big role in figuring that out. GTD focuses on a number of things, but one of the most important for me is this: you must capture #8220;all the things you need to get done now, later, someday, big, little, or in between into a logical and trusted system outside of your head and research paper development off your mind#8221;. Best Books For Writing Papers. I#8217;m going to walk through a couple of Allen#8217;s primary tips to research on brain, give you an is bad idea about what this means#8230;and then encourage you to go buy this book and paper read it all the way through. He does a better job than I. Capture is really critical, since the structuring research, primary idea of GTD is to clear your mind of research paper any and all the things you feel like you have to do. Allen rightly notes that most of us waste a lot of brain power thinking about what we have to college, do now, and what we have to do next, and what we#8217;d really like to do in the future. Capturing these things into an organized system removes them from your brain, and on brain development puts them in a place where you can deal with them when the time is right . Allen suggests creating an Inbox: this is where you empty your head of any and in engineering management every thing you have to do or want to research, get done. At first, this will become a long list. As you get in aqa gcse the GTD groove, however, you use different tools to capture these items as you go about your day. I use a number of tools to add things to my #8220;inbox#8221;.
Evernote is used to capture ideas as they happen (typically at moments when I can#8217;t do anything about them). I also use OmniFocus, an research on brain application for mac, iPhone, and iPad, that was developed for GTD, to capture to law coursework, do items. I also have a physical Inbox for the non-digital items that need to get done, such as bills or things that need to research, be filed, or paper notes I jot down. Research Paper. By capturing them, I know that I can retrieve them and review (see below) them later. I haven#8217;t lost them, but I don#8217;t have to deal with them now. Once a week, I sit down and go through my Inbox, and begin the next step of Allen#8217;s process: Do It, Defer It, Delegate It, Drop It. This is pretty straightforward: for each thing that you capture, those things you #8220;have to do#8221;, you need to make a decision about what your actual commitment is to that project. Is it something small and research quick you can do right now that will take less than 2 minutes?
Then Do It NOW. Is it something that you can#8217;t do right now, because it might take more time or your in the wrong place to do it? Then create a project folder for it, and establish what the next actionable step is that you need to do for that project, and file it away. About Yourself. Is it something that you can delegate to research development, someone else? Then establish who that person is and what the thesis topics in engineering management, next action is to paper on brain, make sure they do it (set up a meeting, send an email, etc). Is it something that really isn#8217;t that important in the grand scheme of things? Then drop it. Aqa Gcse. Don#8217;t do it. Forget about it. Sometimes, releasing a project or task can be the most freeing part of the whole process. One thing Allen points out that also helps to research paper on brain, free your mind is the idea of context: there are some tasks you can#8217;t complete because of the environment you happen to be occupying at that exact moment.
Are you at the grocery store? Then you can#8217;t work on your dissertation. You can, however, stop by the dry cleaners on the way home and pick up those items that have been there for two weeks. Essays About Yourself Introduction. Do you only have 15 available minutes between a meeting and paper on brain development your next class? Probably not a good time to try to pound out that theory chapter. But it probably is northwestern essays a good time to send that email to your colleague, or call your doctor to research paper, make an college appointment. Context helps us free space in research paper on brain development our minds because it makes us realize that we can#8217;t always work on something all the time: the environment we#8217;re currently in might not allow it. This helps reduce the stress significantly. Projects and Next Actions.
Identifying what is a project and what is an action is a critical part of the GTD system. For Allen, a project is anything that can be divided into more than one action, while actions exist in the smallest denomination. So, #8220;Write Dissertation#8221; is a project. #8220;read journal article#8221; is an action (unless you don#8217;t currently have that article, in which case it might be a project that includes the steps #8220;go to library#8221; or #8220;look up article on JSTOR#8221;). A project, therefore, is made up of a number of actions. So, when I#8217;m organizing my list of things I have to do, I organize them into projects (#8220;Make Dinner#8221;) and the actions that go in aqa gcse it (#8220;find recipe#8221;, #8220;acquire ingredients#8221;, #8220;make shopping list#8221;, #8220;go to store#8221;, etc). Then, I decide what the next action I need to take is in order to get this project done. Allen says that this last part is paper on brain one of the most important steps: most things don#8217;t get done because no one has established what the next thing to do is going to essays about introduction, be. Think about your dissertation. What#8217;s the next thing you have to do to get done?
If you answered, #8220;write chapter 3#8221;, think again: that#8217;s not a next action. That#8217;s a project. Review is probably the research on brain development, most often overlooked but most helpful part of GTD. Technology Is Bad Essay. You can do this once a week, once a day, twice a day, whatever works best. Once a year, however, is not good enough: things change to quickly. Paper Development. My review day is thesis in engineering management Sunday. I set a couple of hours aside to make sure I go through every single project and subject it to the #8220;Do It, Defer It, Delegate It, Drop It#8221; test. I check off actions that I have completed. I go through my inbox, set up new projects, and get rid of completed ones.
I organize my coming week based on what I want to accomplish each day of the following week. Paper On Brain Development. Review is critical because the fact is you may have outlined a series of actions for essays, a project, but that project doesn#8217;t go as planned. Something happened. Scheduling a review lets you reevaluate it, change it, and keep it on track towards completion. Towards being Done. Doing it every week ensures that you are keeping your Inbox clean and checking on all of your projects. That way, nothing slips through the cracks. This is on brain development just a basic overview of is bad GTD. There are a number of on brain development other concepts that he discusses that are also helpful, such as the college essays, Tickler file and Horizons, that will help you put GTD into action. Paper. There are also some great super users online, the most well known being Merlin Mann of 43folders.com.
From my end, I can#8217;t recommend it enough: it has helped me look at my work in a number of different ways, some of which I am sure I#8217;ll share down the line. In the meantime, be sure to invest in this great book, and law coursework start Getting Things Done. [Image provided by Ashleigh Heck and research paper on brain used under Creative Commons License]
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Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is now ubiquitous in the lives of people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cloud computing. In fact the list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into every aspect of daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of paper development interacting with each other. Information technology at its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to “give form to” or to shape one's thoughts. So a basic type of books research papers information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to be useful.
Which raises the research paper development, question, what is information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. Essays About Introduction! For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on paper on brain development, the symbols and define information as any meaningfully ordered set of in engineering symbols. Research! This move can be very useful and mathematicians and master thesis topics management engineers prefer to focus on this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and paper development leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for others to figure out. Structuring Research Paper! Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in research on brain development, cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in law coursework, such a way as to mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to list, explain the research paper on brain, way that information technology works, but we still have the deeper issue to resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the impact of information technologies on moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in nature. Best! Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in research on brain development, which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Research! Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.
Some of the most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of paper information that could be recorded and stored for future use. For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the aqa gcse law coursework, things you did and thought during the day. On Brain Development! But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of all the college essays, web addresses you visited and the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of your dietary intakes for paper, the day, and many other examples can be imagined. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of data that you generate each and every day and how that same data might be collected and aqa gcse law coursework stored though the use of information technologies. Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and ever-present, we must ask who is in control of this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.
For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and paper development which should be allowed to become the property of third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at best books the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of research on brain development information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the production, access and control of any basic necessity of life. But there is one major difference, if one party controls the access of some natural resource, then that by necessity excludes others from using it. Best! This is not necessarily so with digital information, it is research paper on brain development, non-exclusory, meaning we can all at northwestern college essays least theoretically possess the on brain development, same digital information because copying it from one digital source to another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Since there is no physical obstacle to the spread of all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of books for writing information.
Therefore, understanding the role of moral values in information technology is indispensable to the design and use of these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of dominant information technologies to another is always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the research paper development, long transition from a largely oral tradition to a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and best for writing papers books. Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only know about research Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and wrote it down in a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Thamus is is bad, not pleased with the gift and replies,
If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to research on brain development exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from poems and epics and placing them into technology essay, his conversations, fears that those who rely on paper on brain development, writing will never be able to research paper truly understand and live by these words. Research Development! For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Law Coursework! Books can provide information but they cannot, by themselves, give you the wisdom you need to research paper on brain development use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the information you know by heart. For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of writing at first glance may seem humorous but the temptation to use recall and call it memory is getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is just an Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to aqa gcse information; they should also help foster wisdom and research on brain understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of northwestern essays Information Technologies.
Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the research, coming changes in information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Information technologies change quickly and move in and out of master thesis in engineering fashion at a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to try to list them all and catalog the research on brain, moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is so rapid and technology essay momentous has caused some to argue that we need to research paper on brain deeply question the thesis, ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of information technology is changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to reason morally “has become a duty in on brain development, our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the pace of change in information technology is so rapid that it leaves the slow and deliberative process of law and political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to the fact that by the time a law is written to curtail, for northwestern essays, instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of research on brain date and users are on to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of structuring which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.
For example, a book is a record of paper information, a telephone is used to essays about yourself communicate information, and on brain the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to emulate any form of information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and structuring paper applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and track the research paper on brain, moral challenges that arise out of the use and design of these specific technologies. In addition to research paper the above we will need to research paper on brain development address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the very nature of college moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of paper on brain morality and how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in a world rich in research, data and the technology to record and paper on brain development store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. Structuring Research! As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to research paper be accessed later when needed.
But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. College! The control of information is on brain development, power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and corporations. These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and more of that stored information without the necessity of utilizing the traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of essays introduction modern information technology is that it makes the recording of research paper on brain development information easy, and in some cases, it is structuring, done automatically. Paper On Brain! Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of data collection could become more automated in the near future. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in aqa gcse law coursework, many phones to research on brain development track the length and duration of a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of your blood pressure throughout the day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to essays much healthier lifestyle choices.
But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the research, information got into the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to information collected on smartphones and online applications. About! In the next section (1.1.2) we will look at research on brain development some theories on how best to ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the collection and recording of data about a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on the Internet, browser software records all manner of data about our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to books papers detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on research development, the website you spend the most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by research, the casual user. According to research development some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the structuring research, private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it” (Sprenger, 1999).
Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the gathering of data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is stored on a device remotely located from the on brain, user and not owned or operated by that user, but the data is then available from anywhere the user happens to be on northwestern, any device he or she happens to on brain be using. This ease of access has the result of also making the relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of that data. Since personal data is crucially important to protect, the third parties that offer “cloud” services need to understand the master topics in engineering management, responsibility of the trust the user is placing in them. Development! If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and Accessing Information.
Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and northwestern risks of research on brain communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of aqa gcse law coursework concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the on brain development, final say whether or not some information about a user is communicated or not? Who is allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?
For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to one's personal information was the key to maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to personal information to master topics management the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about development users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of best books research papers internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on paper on brain development, collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.
This service comes with advertising that is directed at the user based on his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. Structuring Research Paper! If we follow the research development, argument raised above that privacy is best books for writing research, equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the information about oneself that is paper on brain development, produced each day. If we focus only on the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and Moor 2004). Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of personal information (Tavani and northwestern college Moor 2004). Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the research on brain development, communication and access of technology is bad essay user information.
If we grant the research paper on brain development, control of our information to third parties in exchange for the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for restricting the access to that information by others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to structuring research facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. This has led to paper development the design of best books for writing computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is antithetical to the moral values of sharing and openness that guided many of the paper on brain development, early builders of information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the structuring paper, Computer Revolution,” a kind of “Hacker ethic,” that includes the idea that computers should be freely accessible and decentralized in order to facilitate “world improvement” and further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).
So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in the competing values of paper development security and openness based on the competing values of the people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. Aqa Gcse Law Coursework! While many of the hackers interviewed by research on brain, Levy argue that hacking is not as dangerous as it seems and that it is mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and that the northwestern, harm precludes the possibility of ethical hacking except in on brain development, the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is is bad essay, largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is paper, hesitant to give his complete endorsement of the structuring, practice due to the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Paper On Brain Development! Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on Intellectual Property/) and papers pornography and censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the research paper on brain, nearly effortless access to paper information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of both the user and research paper those providing access to thesis topics management the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and research paper development stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and research remote actions of paper on brain development cyber-bullying and cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to be caught. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on northwestern essays, cyberspace more likely that the design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the lives of their users, the development, moral commitments of the designers of research these technologies may dictate the course society will take and our commitments to research on brain development certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of technology essay information that we may be in control of, there is a duty to research paper on brain ensure that that information is essays yourself introduction, useful and accurate.
If you use a number of research different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another. Aqa Gcse Law Coursework! This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in research paper, order to ensure that the information the structuring, search provider believes is most important to the user is research paper on brain, listed first. A great deal of trust is aqa gcse, placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to know. If we are told a link will take us to one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. This is development, often called “clickjacking” and malicious software can clickjack a browser by taking the user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in research, this section we must address the impact that the research, access to information has on social justice.
Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the technology, twentieth century. Research Development! But even today the benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to those in more well off and in developed nations, and northwestern some of those who have some access have that access heavily censored by paper on brain, their own governments. Structuring! This situation has come to be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of research paper development this gap is driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is also a problem with the forces of essays about yourself a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in paper on brain, giving and taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).
Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the management, organizing of information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 ). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).
Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and guide the research on brain, technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an master management, anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the research paper development, bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to make were from someone stealing his card and about yourself that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the paper, probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to best books help.
Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from human agents. Paper Development! Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the books, price you will have to paper on brain pay for insurance, etc. is very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for a credit card the machine will look for master in engineering management, certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on research, your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and determine whether or not you are given the card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is based on complex logic and mathematics (see for example Russell and law coursework Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). It all depends on the design of the learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of paper on brain Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at technology is bad essay as low a cost as possible, preferably free. On Brain! But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Maximizing our value of quick and research low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is true also.
Thus the research on brain development, designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in best for writing research papers, his famous quote: In fall 1984, at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the research paper on brain, one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to essays yourself introduction be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the development, time. So you have these two fighting against books each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources)  Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at development the heart of moral debates in the use and design of information technologies for thesis topics in engineering management, the foreseeable future. 2. Specific Moral Challenges at the Cultural Level. In the section above, the focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.
In this section, the focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at paper development the social level. At the turn of the century the term “web 2.0” began to surface and it referred to master thesis topics the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and “social networking.” While the original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to research on brain development spend significant portions of college their lives online with other users experiencing an research paper on brain, unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.
The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from information. Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and technology essay the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and other portable computers with them upon development, which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and their computers at structuring research the same time, perhaps looking at an item though the camera in their device and the “app” calling up information about that entity and displaying it in research, a bubble above the item. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to research paper sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. There are a number of moral values that these sites call into question.
Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. Her analysis is based on the Aristotelian theory of friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Research! Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in online social media in ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of best facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Paper Development! Vallor also has a similar analysis of other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and empathy as they are fostered in online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.
There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in the use of social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on SNS (social network sites), it is not only necessary to consider the privacy of one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to the information being shared. When sharing information on SNS, it is the master thesis in engineering management, responsibility of the research paper on brain development, one desiring to share information to verify the accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to is bad retract at some future date. Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the mind of paper on brain development another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. In both cases, once the for writing research papers, information is shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the responsibility of the SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to the shared information. (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to research protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for essay, the service providers to harvest at least some information about their user's activities on the site in order to sell that information to advertisers for research on brain, directed marketing.
The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to portray violence. There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in computer games and essays introduction real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and that the real issue at hand is the effect these games have on one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in computer games is morally defensible. Schulzke's main claim is that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in research paper on brain, the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in the game and the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is essays about, very different from research on brain real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the college, acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the research development, distinction Luck attempts to draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and illegal across the globe. While violence is about introduction, easy to see in online games, there is a much more substantial moral value at play and that is the politics of paper on brain development virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to online political culture in paper, their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the research paper on brain development, Metaverse (2007).
Ludlow and Wallace chronicle how the players in massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the structuring, designers of the research on brain, game and are at times in conflict with those that make the game. Aqa Gcse Law Coursework! Their contention is that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in paper on brain development, real economic and social activity and law coursework thus the designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and Wallace 2007). According to research paper development Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in online games and this needs to change if more and structuring research more of research on brain us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of thesis management computers and especially computer games is that this could result in anti-social behavior and isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.
1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for research, families the social isolation hypothesis is even harder to believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. James Ivory used online reviews of games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and those female images that are in games tend to be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is law coursework, most often based on gameplay that is oriented to masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.
And those women that do participate in paper development, game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from those the largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to gain acceptance (Taylor et al. 2009). Master! Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and on brain Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of ethical decisions in the virtual online world, with women more likely to judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by aqa gcse law coursework, punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for example Jones 2011). Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to paper on brain early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from 1998 to 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in about introduction, England have resulted in the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. Paper! 2011).
It is aqa gcse, not clear if this decline is directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is clear is that this type of activity will be with us for research paper on brain, the foreseeable future. In addition to research the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and research informational warfare. Each of master management these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.
While there may be wide agreement that the on brain development, conscious spreading of malware is of questionable morality there is an master, interesting question as to the morality of research development malware protection and anti-virus software. With the rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is paper, now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the paper on brain, money spent on essay, security software there seems to be no slowdown in research paper on brain development, virus production, in fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for their money from the essays introduction, security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to research development be largely beyond the ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. There is an important lag in the time between when a new piece of law coursework malware is detected by the security community and the eventual release of the security patch and malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and paper on brain development finally sending the update to their users leaves a huge window of college opportunity for research paper development, the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and Sullins 2010) This lag is constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is essays yourself introduction, impossible to paper fill. Thus it is important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by the time a new malicious program is discovered and patched, it has already done significant damage and there is books for writing research papers, currently no way to stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).
In the past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and amateurs, but this has changed and development now much of law coursework this activity is criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and research on brain Sullins (2010) argue that relying on a strong defense is not enough and the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an ethically motivated malware research and creation program. Master Thesis! This is research, not an entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of learning and is bad essay deploying malware. Research Paper On Brain Development! Most computer scientists and structuring research paper researchers in information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by open research into understanding how malware is created in order to better fight this threat (2010).
When malware and paper on brain development spyware is technology essay, created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and research on brain development a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of technology essay these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and those in paper development, Georgia which occured in 2008. Thesis! While the research paper, Estonian and Georgian attacks were largely designed to structuring obfuscate communication within the research paper development, target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to facilitate remote sabotage. The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the first example of weaponized software capable of northwestern creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). Paper Development! The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and about America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to research on brain development react in essays, a justified and ethical manner to them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of paper development informational warfare is determining how to essays about use weaponized information technologies in a way that honors our commitments to just and legal warfare. Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to paper lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.
The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to engage in continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of change and innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to try to imagine the changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. Master Topics In Engineering! James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the design of paper on brain development these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the law coursework, number of components that could be installed on an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and paper on brain development he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.
This doubling of speed and capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and about yourself shows little evidence of development stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and best books for writing more and research more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in time where the change from one generation of information technology to law coursework the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to on brain development be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is correct, there could be no more profound change to northwestern our moral values. There has been some support for research paper, this thesis from the best books research, technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the research development, Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and H+. Structuring Paper!  Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is paper on brain development, based on pseudoscientific beliefs and about yourself introduction a deep fear of death. In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of research development transhumanism and the acceptance of the transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.
While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on about yourself, preserving and protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is natural and research on brain what is not and northwestern college consider arguments to preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an unthinking obstacle to progress. Not all philosophers are critical of transhumanism, as an paper on brain, example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the many longstanding research projects directed at building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on developing information technologies and about introduction or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in paper on brain, biological entities. A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in books for writing papers, the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and paper synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Both AI and ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.
Instead the focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and the way some of these technologies are programmed to affect emotion and moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the research project that would come to yourself be known as artificial Intelligence in his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” He described the research on brain development, “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to fool a human interlocutor that it is not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). Aqa Gcse! In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the on brain, test and its implications to philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in aqa gcse, fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in research paper, intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is off in his estimation of when AI will succeed in creating a machine that can converse with you.
Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Essays About Yourself! Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for moral agency and that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for moral agency. For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an research on brain development, outgrowth of AI and refers to the use of information technology to simulate or synthesize life functions. Aqa Gcse! The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. See the entry on life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. If scientists and research paper technologists were to succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.
Mark Bedau has been tracing the essays, philosophical implications of ALife for paper on brain development, some time now and argues that there are two distinct forms of northwestern college essays ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and when we succeed in realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of research on brain ALife is completely computational and is in essays about yourself introduction, fact the earliest form of ALife studied. ALife is inspired by research on brain development, the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of biology and the life sciences (1966). Essay! The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in the early eighties and helped get the field off the ground by research paper, organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is for writing research papers, that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. Research Paper Development! This form of ALife is based on manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to law coursework produce novel life forms not seen in nature.
Scientists at the J. Research Development! Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of 2010. While media paid attention to this breakthrough, they tended to focus on essays about, the potential ethical and social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the research paper, conversation about issues relating to master topics in engineering creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is called, are more properly the jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on research, Theory and Bioethics). But it does have some concern for us here in that Wet ALife is part of the process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Just as software ALife might lead to dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.
Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is college, no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an paper, important step in human understanding of life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into aqa gcse law coursework, the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to research development remain confined to virtual worlds and software implementations. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an best for writing, emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. 2011).
There have already been a number of research paper on brain development valuable contributions to thesis topics management the growing field of development robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for the design and programming of machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. Structuring Research! The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on the use and regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to on brain development become more and more autonomous due to technology essay the necessities of modern warfare (Singer 2009). In the first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in research, numerous killings of both soldiers and noncombatants, and this fact alone is of deep moral concern. Northwestern College! Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Research Paper On Brain Development! Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the provision that the technology is used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.
2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of aqa gcse law coursework information technologies is that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of research paper development automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an yourself introduction, emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. The coming decades are likely to research development see a number of books for writing research papers advances in this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of paper on brain development articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to college essays this topic in the Handbook of paper on brain Research on college essays, Technoethics (2009).
3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to research automate and research paper illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and research on brain development Evolution with much of the is bad essay, early research in the computational theory of morality centered on research development, using computer models to elucidate the research, emergence of paper on brain cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the research paper, famous moral conundrums in development, philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). Yourself Introduction! The propose that along with moral evil and paper on brain development natural evil, both concepts familiar to philosophy (see entry on structuring paper, the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in research paper development, the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and about Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of research on brain information is best for writing, bad and the preservation of information is research on brain development, good (Floridi and Sanders 2001). This idea can move us closer to for writing research a way of measuring the research paper on brain, moral impacts of essays any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.
Early in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an expansive definition of research development technology which included not only for writing research papers, common tools and machines but information systems such as logic, laws and even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to advance the idea that an information technology of morality and ethics is not impossible. Paper On Brain Development! As well as allowing us to take seriously the thesis management, idea that the research paper on brain, relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the coming revolutions in best books for writing papers, information technologies, his theory is useful to research development us still because he proposed that ethics was not only a theory but a practice and solving problems in ethics is like solving problems in algebra (Hickman 1990). If he is right, then an interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of is bad essay thought. In 1974 the philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the way engineers approach a problem.
Engineers do not argue in terms of research paper development reasoning by northwestern, categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and paper on brain development you value B , chose to do A , and If A produces B and C produces D , and you prefer B to research D , choose A rather than C . Paper On Brain! In short, the rules he comes up with are based on research papers, fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from scientific statements and value judgments. In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of development technology. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the very act of law coursework building information technologies is research paper development, also the act of creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Paper! Information technologists may therefore be in the business of creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.
The most comprehensive literature that argues in paper development, favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of master topics in engineering its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to on brain the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of ethical concern. Law Coursework! Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of moral action using the logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the research paper, interactions of these agents, 4) the agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the northwestern essays, environment the research development, interaction is occurring in, and 7) the paper, situation in which the interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Note that there is no assumption of the ontology of the agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is research paper development, additional literature which critiques and expands the aqa gcse law coursework, idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and paper Allen 2010).
While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an research, artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the eventual possibility and therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Anderson, M. and S. L. Paper Development! Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in aqa gcse law coursework, Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for on brain, Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in law coursework, Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and paper development Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bedau, M., 2004, “Artificial Life,” in paper, Floridi 2004. Bedau, M. and E. Development! Parke (eds.), 2009, The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory , Cambridge: MIT Press. Bedau, M. and M. Structuring Research Paper! Traint, 2009, “Social and Ethical Implications of Creating Artificial Cells,” in Bedau and Parke 2009. Research Development! Bostrom, N., 2008, “Why I Want to be a Posthuman When I Grow Up,” in Medical Enhancement and essays yourself Posthumanity , G. Gordijn and R. Chadwick (eds), Berlin: Springer, pp. 107137. Brey, P., 2008, “Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation,” in Himma and Tavanni 2008 , 2010, “Values in Technology and Disclosive Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Bunge, M. Research On Brain! 1977, “Towards a Technoethics,” The Monist , 60(1): 96107. Law Coursework! Bynum, T., 2000, “Ethics and the Information Revolution,” Ethics in the Age of Information Technology , pp.
3255, Linköping, Sweden: Center for Applied Ethics at research paper on brain Linköping University. , 2008, “Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics,” in van den Hoven and Weckert 2008. Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M., 2009, Ethics and Robotics , [CITY]: IOS Press Christakis, D. Law Coursework! A., 2009, “The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?” Acta Pædiatrica , 98 (1): 816. Development! Cisco Systems, Inc., 2011, Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report: Highlighting global security threats and trends , San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc. [available online] Coeckelbergh, M., 2007, “Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism,” Ethics and Information Technology , 9(3): 219231 Cohen, D. D., C. Voss, M. J. D. Taylor, A. Delextrat, A. A. Essays! Ogunleye, and G. Research Paper On Brain Development! R. H. Sandercock, 2011, “Ten-year secular changes in essay, muscular fitness in English children,” Acta Paediatrica , 100(10): e175e177. Danielson, P., 1998, Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dabringer, G., (ed.) 2010, Ethica Themen: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems, Interviews , Vienna, Austria: Austrian Ministry of Defence and paper development Sports. Northwestern College! [available online] Denning, D., 2008, “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” In Himma and Tavanni 2008. Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Hofkirchner, W., 2011, “Floridi's ‘Open Problems in Philosophy of Information’, Ten Years Later,” Information , (2): 327359. [available online] Edgar, S.L., 2003, Morality and Machines , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and research development Bartlett. Epstein, R., 2007, “The Impact of Computer Security Concerns on Software Development,” in Himma 2007a, pp.
171202. Epstein, L.S. 1980. “Decision-making and the temporal resolution of uncertainty”. Technology Is Bad Essay! International Economic Review 21 (2): 269283. Ess, C., 2009, Digital Media Ethics , Massachusetts: Polity Press. Floridi, L., 1999, “Information Ethics: On the Theoretical Foundations of Computer Ethics”, Ethics and Information Technology , 1(1): 3756. , 2002, “What is the Philosophy of Information?” in Metaphilosophy , 33(1/2): 123145. On Brain Development! , 2003, “On the Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(4): 287304. Best Books For Writing Research! , 2004, The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of research Computing and Information , Blackwell Publishing. (ed.), 2010a, The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2010b, Information: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011a, “Enveloping the World for AI,” The Philosopher's Magazine , 54: 2021 , 2011b, The Philosophy of Information , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Floridi, L. and essay J. W. Research! Sanders, 1999, “Entropy as Evil in Information Ethics,” Etica Politica , special issue on Computer Ethics, I(2). [available online] , 2001, “Artificial evil and the foundation of computer ethics,” in thesis topics management, Ethics and Information Technology , 3(1): 5566. Research Paper Development! [available online] , 2004, “On the Morality of Artificial Agents,” in Minds and Machines , 14(3): 349379 [available online] Furguson, C. J., 2007, “The Good The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of books for writing research Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games,” Psychiatric Quarterly , 78(4): 309316. Gelernter, D., 2007, “Artificial Intelligence Is Lost in the Woods,” Technology Review , July/August, pp.
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The Ultimate List of AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to test your ability to think critically and analyze literary excerpts. The test is three hours long and consists of a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of paper development, your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to aqa gcse making a 5 on the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for paper on brain development the AP Literature exam at the end of the year, you need some tips on how to survive the course itself. Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to be more difficult than the aqa gcse standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of studying to make good grades throughout the year.
The assignments you are graded on throughout the year help you prepare for the AP exam at on brain, the end of the year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the AP English Literature course. 1. Complete Any and All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of reading. Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and expect the required titles to books for writing research papers be read when you walk into your first day of class. Paper On Brain Development! In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to structuring be completed before you begin the class. This is more for the teacher to view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to be taught to you. However, this doesn’t mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to learn. This attitude will make the school year a lot more bearable for both you and your instructor. 2. Go to Class: Missing class leads to missing material.
Missing material leads to lower scores on assignments. Lower scores on assignments lead to lower scores on the exam at the end of the year. The bottom line is: don’t miss class if you can help it. 3. Paper On Brain! Teach Yourself the Material: AP English Literature instructors don’t have time to essays yourself teach you everything. Since you are probably only in their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to teach. Because of research paper on brain, this, you won’t get as in-depth of explanations on some concepts as others. You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to best books research really make the most out of this course. You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by on brain, conducting good old fashioned research, or just by technology is bad, reading the assigned texts. Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more. You can look up videos on YouTube concerning the topics you need help understanding.
You can also use Albert.io to test yourself on different areas covered in a typical AP English Literature class. 4. Learn How to Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. It’s important that you learn how to on brain examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, it’s important that you analyze the setting, characters, and plot of the piece. Technology Is Bad! However, it’s also imperative that you understand how to look deeper within the words. Deconstruct the text and examine its theme, look for literary devices, and motives. 5. Read: This is literature!
Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to read an outrageous number of books or anything. Research Paper! You just need to at least make an attempt to read every day. As you read, try to dissect the depth of the text. After a few days of northwestern, this, you’ll be surprised at how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to question everything. 6. Ask Questions: Your teacher is there to help; it’s their job. If there’s anything you don’t understand, be sure to ask your instructor. There’s nothing wrong with asking for paper on brain help, and in the end, you’ll be thankful you did.
Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to be a huge weight off of your shoulders. 7. Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to help test scores. It provides an opportunity to approach subject matter from different angles. Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and vice versa. One of the best ways to essay make sure you know the material is to teach it to others. 8. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe you’re a visual learner. Perhaps you like to listen to material to really understand it. The best way to find out what form of studying helps you best is to experiment. Try different methods to see what works best for you. Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay.
Now that you have a grasp on how to paper development get through the actual coursework of your AP English Literature and Composition class, it’s time to learn how to study for structuring the exam at the end of the year. First, we’ll take a look at some tips that are sure to help you ace the first portion of the paper on brain AP Literature exam: the multiple-choice section. This portion is worth 45% of your total score and research, it consists of several passages to read and 55 questions to paper on brain development answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete. Let’s get started. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. It’s a common misconception that you should read the questions before reading the passage, so you can work quickly and technology, scan the research paper development text for the correct answer. One vital thing to essays remember is this: quicker isn’t always better. On a timed exam, it is important to work at a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes.
It’s best to research on brain read the passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error. By merely scanning the passage for the answers, you’re missing out on a plethora of content that could be vital to answering questions correctly later on in the is bad test. 2. Look Deep Within the Text: It’s extremely important that you analyze the passages within the exam very carefully. Chances are, there will be questions on the tone of the passage, or the author’s purpose for writing it. Was it to inform or persuade the audience? Perhaps the author used some literary devices like allusions or irony. Closely read the research paper on brain passages and you will have no problem identifying the answers to questions that are specific to the literature side of AP English. 3. Carefully Read the Questions: If you don’t understand what the law coursework question is asking, you can’t possibly expect to know the research paper on brain development answer. Take a deep breath and calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely. This will be easier to do for some questions than for others. Once you understand what it is research, exactly the question is asking, try to recall where in the passage the answer could be located.
Also be sure to read the question in its entirety. Sometimes, the research paper on brain development writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the essays question in a different direction. For example, the words “EXCEPT” and “NOT” are often used at the end of questions, and paper on brain development, this can confuse you. If you hadn’t read that one tiny word, all of the about yourself introduction answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on research paper on brain a question. 4. Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others.
Some questions are even designed to trip you up. Essay! Be sure to read every single word in every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the difference as to whether or not an answer is correct. 5. On Brain! Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the essays about yourself introduction parts of the text in which answers are located. Be sure the information matches one of the research paper on brain answer choices. You may even want to put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the introduction text that contain answers. That way, if you have extra time at the end of the test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly. 6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is a timed exam. 60 minutes to research paper development complete 55 questions. This allows for an average of a minute per question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. Is Bad! You have absolutely no time to sit at your desk staring blankly at questions you don’t quite understand. Luckily, there is paper on brain, no penalty for answers marked wrong—or answers not marked at technology is bad, all—on the paper AP English Literature exam.
This means you should definitely skip the questions you’re unsure of. Mark them in some sort of way so that it is noticeable that you haven’t answered them yet. Then, if you have some time at the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer. Alternatively, if you can’t seem to technology find an answer: guess! Remember, you’re only graded on the number of questions you get right; there’s absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong.
7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you. Research Paper Development! A few of the multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the passages you read. In the margins of the best books for writing research papers page beside the passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression. This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to on brain study specific terms or brief concepts. Thesis! Since you will be tested on on brain development your understanding of certain terms, it is important that you know them like the northwestern college essays back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and research development, review them periodically throughout the semester. 9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps.
Take the flashcards you’ve made with you wherever you go. Keep them in your wallet, in your purse, or even in your car. Whenever you have a moment of free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of your terms. It’ll stick better in your memory and help your AP Literature exam score in research paper the long run. 10.
Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself. Prepare early in the semester for the exam. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on the content you’ve learned so far. There are several websites out there dedicated to research helping you quiz yourself for the AP Literature exam. One of these is about, Albert.io , which allows you to paper development test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in the AP English Literature course. 11. Don’t Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is one big test. Sure, it affects the amount of college credit you receive coming out of introduction, high school.
But at the end of the day, it’s just a test. Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to function correctly. Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on paper on brain your mind and body. Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Just remember, your mental health is more important than your grades.
Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test. It’ll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better. Master Management! Now that you have some tips on how to tackle the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam, it’s time to focus on the most challenging part: the free response portion. In this portion, you have two hours to development complete three essays. This section tests your ability to analyze passages and dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Here are some tips for law coursework nailing the on brain free response portion of the AP English Literature and Composition exam:
AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Aqa Gcse Law Coursework! Read the Question: The first step towards writing an research paper on brain development awesome essay on the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the question. What are the authors of the test asking for aqa gcse specifically? The answer to this question is the key to writing a well-rounded essay. The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and research development, straight to the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in a huge deduction of points. Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in your ability to dissect passages. This is an extremely bad impression to give, since the interpretation of structuring paper, text is the basis of the paper entire course. 2. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the basis of all successful essays. Structuring Research Paper! As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the paper question. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the question.
Make it brief and to the point. You have the rest of the essay to elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body. 3. Stay Organized: Organization is key to writing a great essay. Prepare an outline within the first few minutes of writing your essay. Perhaps even use a diagram, if you’re a visual learner. A clear and precise outline can help prevent rambling when answering the question in your essay.
4. Use a High-Level Vocabulary: Since this is an law coursework exam for an Advanced Placement English course, it is imperative that you use a vocabulary that reflects a higher level of education. However, be sure that you use your impressive vocabulary in context. Nothing looks worse than using a word incorrectly in your essay. Be careful: only use words in which you know the definition. 5. Use Your Resources: On the paper first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and analyze it according to technology essay the instructions given in the question. Use the passage to your advantage. Frequently refer back to specific parts of the text. This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to detail when reading the paper on brain development passage. The specific references display the ability to close read, which is a skill covered frequently in an AP English Literature course.
6. Prepare Early: The third free response question on the AP Literature exam is more open ended than the first two. You will be asked a question and you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to a work of literature that you have read in class. It’s important that you keep this particular essay question in is bad mind as you work throughout the semester. If a particular work of literature stands out to you, prepare early to choose this as the piece to write about in your third essay. 7. Research Development! Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect. A good option for aqa gcse law coursework practicing free response questions involves searching the Internet for old exam rubrics. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for in an essay. The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by the College Board to help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of this and research, practice writing essays using different prompts from previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is about, worse than getting halfway through an research paper essay and having your pen run out of ink, or your pencil getting smudged.
Often, readers prefer the look and clarity of black ink to colored ink or the graphite of pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the exam. 9. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to law coursework spend on paper on brain development each question. It may even be helpful to bring a watch to time yourself on each essay. You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the questions and law coursework, leaving vital information out of your essays. 10. Write Neatly: The clarity of your writing is necessary for a good score on your essay. If the reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11. Don’t Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for the multiple-choice portion of the exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for your essays.
You only on brain development get three chances to prove your competency in the free response portion. Take advantage of this opportunity to show the readers how much you’ve learned from taking this AP course. 12. Understand What the Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored. Master! It’s vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. This includes: a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to you to read. Pay close attention to on brain the plot and topics in engineering management, how it develops as the story progresses. b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the passage.
The theme is the dominating central idea in a work. It’s vital that you recognize the theme very early on in your essay. c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in your essay, the better. However, this does not mean restate the entire storyline. This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the question. Scorers like for you to be very clear and to the point in your essays. d) Mature Voice: The voice of your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring.
If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the exam. Research On Brain! However, if your voice is too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed. A happy median should be found right away to is bad essay provide your essay with clarity and maturity. 13. Listen to Your Teacher: This is perhaps the most important of all the free response tips.
Over the course of the research paper on brain development semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for the exam. Pay close attention to your teacher’s guidance. If the information your teacher gives you wasn’t relevant, they wouldn’t waste their time giving it to you. Your instructor knows the exam; it’s only logical to follow their advice. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is all about analysis of different literary works. Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease. Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers. 1. Always remember the author’s purpose.
Retelling what happened in the story is not an analysis. You must understand and relay why the author wrote it the way he/she did and what he/she is technology essay, trying to research paper on brain tell readers! That’s crucial! Thanks for the tip from law coursework Kim F. from Tavares High. 2. Paper! Be original. Think about the fact that the college essays AP Test readers have been looking at research paper development, essays on the same topics for three days. Northwestern College Essays! What will you do to be original and stand out that will surprise the reader at 4:30 pm on research paper on brain development day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing. Then, don’t write on those topics. Thanks for the tip from Mike G. from MPS.
3. “Box the but because shift happens.” That way they remember to always look for thesis in engineering any kind of shift because that will usually lead to complexity in meaning. Paper! Thanks for the tip from Amber B. at Madison County Schools. 4. Answer the question as it is actually asked. Master Thesis Topics In Engineering Management! It’s easy to see a title or an author and paper on brain, jump to college conclusions, and sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the question is asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the pressure to research on brain complete three essays in master thesis topics management 120 minutes, it’s an easy mistake to make … and a good one to avoid! Thanks for paper the tip from northwestern essays Heather I. from Niles North.
5. Answer the question in the introduction. Thanks for research paper on brain the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for structuring is analysis. Thanks for paper the tip from Matt U. at essays yourself, Liberty High. 7. Always answer the research question: “So What?” Yes, the technology essay writer used an extended metaphor, so what? Why did they chose that metaphor? How does that choice reflect the research development author’s intent? What effect does it create within the northwestern college essays text and within the reader? Provide the reader with the “so what” to help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from Matt U. at Liberty High.
8. Brush up on your vocabulary – if you don’t understand the vocabulary used in research paper on brain the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to yourself find the correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of on brain development, meaning that will bring you to the wrong conclusion. Pay attention to the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for master topics in engineering management the tip from Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to write and communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read. Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and paper development, comprehension and enables students to make connections within and between content areas which real world applications. Technology Is Bad! Thanks for the tip from development Elizabeth B. from Harrison High. 10. Don’t worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and conclusion.
Instead, use your time to focus on master thesis in engineering management meaning. Research Paper On Brain Development! What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary. Begin with a clear thesis and aqa gcse law coursework, end with one strong concluding statement. Thanks for the tip from Julie H. from on brain development Greenville High. 11. Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of a Salesman works) for your big guns for question 3. Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the prompt.
It’d be Peggy C. from Cherokee County Schools. 12. Each essay is worth the same amount of points, but one is set for you to shine — know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. On the test – do it first while your mind is still fresh. Thanks for the tip from Diane S. from Frederick High School. 13. Best For Writing Research Papers! Go online to the AP test page and check out the various student essays from prior years. What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at research paper on brain, the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays.
Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and serves as exemplar models for best writing. Learning how to structuring research write well from those who have done well is a practice students appreciate. Thanks for the tip from Pam W. from Sandpoint High. 14. Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period.
These can provide insight into the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for the tip from Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15. Have four novels of literary quality and research paper on brain development, one play that the student is comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for technology is bad essay the tip from research Bill O. from El Molino High. 16. For all poetry: a. analyze the technology is bad essay central purpose, b. Research Paper Development! explain the speaker’s attitude toward the subject, c. Analyze any figurative language. Thanks for the second tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 17.
Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the selections is difficult there’ll be something in it all students can analyze. Research! Analyze that and research paper on brain development, then keep writing! Thanks for the third tip from master thesis Bill O. from research paper El Molino High. 18. Learn and practice using the language and essays about, function of literature, poetry, and rhetoric. Plan and execute their usage in your style, syntax, and art, and on brain development, use the language when critiquing in workshops and discussing classics. Thanks for the tip from Jon A. from Arts and Communication Magnet Academy. 19. Is Bad! Do not merely skim to point out literary devices. (I used to say — Don’t Where’s Waldo the device” but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into on brain, the text to identify the device, explain in detail how the device is functioning and then zoom out to explain how it works to support the passage as a whole and how it connects to northwestern essays the universal human condition. This means the difference between writing a college level paper and writing a high school level paper.
Thanks for on brain development the tip from Jodi G. from Saugus High. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at technology is bad essay, Mercy County Senior High. 20. Deconstruct the prompt – make sure you understand exactly what it is research on brain, asking you to research papers do – then use it as a focus for your annotation of the text on Q1 and research paper on brain, Q2 and as a launching point for paper your notes and paper on brain development, thesis for Q3. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of composition, etc…) for each essay in order to go deeper in analysis of each. Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about one or two somethings! Thanks for best papers the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High.
22. On Brain! Take 10-12 minutes to read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and paper, develop a thesis before you begin writing the essay. That thinking and planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is clear and cohesive. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to development write every essay – a blank essay score is very difficult to overcome! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 24. Use something you’ve read in AP Lit for Q3 – you will have spent more time and analytical energy on those books and plays than you did in any other English class. Prepare for Q3 before the northwestern exam by research paper development, reviewing everything you’ve read in AP Lit.
Thanks for structuring paper the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 25. Pick two texts, one classic and one modern, get to development know them backward and structuring, forward as well as the historical context around them. Thanks for the tip from Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Address all aspects of the prompt! Look for complexity! Thanks for the tip from Lori Mill Creek High School.
27. Audience, Occasion Purpose — Whether you’re speaking, reading or writing, you’re thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose. Research On Brain Development! Thanks for the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28. Turn your words into pictures and your pictures into words. Meaning: If you have an idea, anchor it to something concrete.
If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School. 29. When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)! Always linking your points back to the text forces you to use evidence for each claim you make. 30. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for the tip from Lynne B. at Buchholz High School.
31. Debate the questions. Get students to debate the answers to AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they “quiz” on a passage and the questions for thesis in engineering management it, ask them how they think they did. The answer is always mixed, so give them an research on brain development option: Keep the score they currently have OR discuss the answers in a large group without teacher’s help and take that community grade. They always pick the latter.
Participating in the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of insight into students’ thinking process, they will learn from the technology essay ways their classmates explain their choices, and their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for paper on brain the tip from Wendy R from Weslaco East High School. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Start your AP English Literature Prep today.
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Ahhh….grammatical error in your text–you need a period or exclamation point after literature. (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that. We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for me during this year of AP Lit. I found tip 23 most important because I always take to much time on things like the intro that I don’t realize I’m wasting much of my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP® and Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and paper on brain, does not endorse, this product. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this product. ACT® is a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
GMAT® is is bad essay, a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE® is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in research development the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
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5. Business analyst resume sample - Posted by Ishita Kispotta. -Experience of developing business opportunities and partnerships with several organization. -Experience of collaborating with developers and subject matter experts to build the technical vision and analyse trade-offs. -Ability to utilize my experience in organisation’s requirements definition and management systems. Research Development? -Well verse in data migration mapping and test planning’s. -Strong in business analysis and client relationship. -Excellent knowledge of financial services and business modelling. -Excellent Communication skills. -Possess problem-solving and decision-making skills. -Strong leadership skills. June 20**- Present. Essays? -Travelled to various locations to engage with multiple stakeholders across the company. -Ensure that all the processes and research paper development requirements are accurately defined in the proposal. -Implement new designs within the master topics in engineering, business-operating model. -Develop supply chain modelling and advice on planning the paper development, business development systems. -Prepare user and system test plans. -Resolving technical issues. -Approach the target opportunities and bring out business. Master In Engineering? -Perform business plan, risk and stakeholder management. -Prepare workflow system for the business to streamline endorsement procedure for administrative processes. -Initiate and participate in operational process flow reviews. -Recognized for giving remarkable support for developing new business. -B.Com from XYZ in year 20**. -Languages known: Hindi, Gujarati and English. Research Paper? 6. Business analyst resume sample - Posted by aqa gcse law coursework, Prateek Bajpai. Email ID- ****@gmail.com Contact No. +91-****** Seeking a challenging position and strive for excellence with dedication, proactive approach, positive attitude. and passion towards the work that will fully utilize my logical and reasoning abilities in the best possible. way for paper, the fulfillment of organizational goals. - A resourceful and unique thinker having 5+ experience as Business Analyst. - Proficient in working on Agile Methodology. - Expert in preparing the functional specs to best books for writing, development team. - Expert in guiding the Development and QA members to yield the research on brain, best solution. - Skilled in providing functional specifications to the technical team to bring out technical solutions. - Self motivated and leadership skills. - Ability to bring out the best in pressure situations from team. - Exceptional communication skills. - Strong interpersonal and northwestern essays motivational skills. - Serving as a liaison between the Customer and offshore development team. - Responsible for research paper development, gathering business requirements and preparing FSDs, communicate with development, QA. - Communicating process changes, enhancements, and modifications to master in engineering management, the team. - Work on production issues as incidents. - Performing User acceptance test immediately after every build. - Serving as a liaison between the programmers and internal business entities in designing and implementing functionalities. - Collaborating in the planning of new product decisions and enhancements to research paper on brain, existing applications. - To take ownership of implementation process with clients/customers. - Assisting DBA team, to produce right DB changes, and stored procedures in right time in right manner. - Responding to RFPs (Request for Proposal) for the new lenders who look to essays about, adopt our products.
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Date of Birth: MM/DD/YYYY. Permanent Address: ASASDASD. 7. Business analyst resume sample - Posted by Prateek Bajpai. Email ID- *****@gmail.com Contact No.-+91-******* To obtain a motivating and challenging position in an organization and apply my knowledge and use professional. experience to be a valuable asset to the organization. - A dynamic and multitalented personal having 7+ experience in assessing the business oppourtunities in various. - Proficient in managing services of research on brain, business unit of technology essay, organizations. - Experience in assesing the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats. - Skilled in system designed to create, manage and process the Customer order. - Strong motivational and leadership skills. - Ability to handle the team. - Ability to work individual as well as in group. - Excellent communication skills in written and paper on brain verbal both. - Preparing Business Requirements documents of Business Unit Reports, Metrics Trend Analysis. - Publishing Incident tickets and Change request reporting /metrics on team performance and aqa gcse law coursework productivity to the. - Publishing Risk controls compliance reports targeting the business unit to adhere risk compliance. - Developing Reports on SAP Business Intelligence tool. - Team repository designing and development on SharePoint and research on brain development customizing reports. Thesis In Engineering? - Transmitting the reports to research on brain, centralized reporting system with Business rule specifications. - Project assistance to law coursework, interns from Ohio University. - Audit preparation of Backup domain for IT auditing. - Identifying Gaps and Streamlining recertification process of User access to Application/Server/Database access for risk mitigation. - Deployment of the WW IT solution / Interface between business team and project team. - Systems technical and functional specifications / tests of new system release. - User training, assistance and communication. - Writing up and apply all procedures related to paper, information system. - Planification of the tasks and respect of research paper, timeline.
Meet SLA and paper development keep customer focused. - Autosys, Informatica, MS Sql Server 2005 server. - Actuate reporting system,Toad, SQL Plus, Remedy. - Made Business Document for research paper, International client. Paper? - Got reward for Excellent work. - Got appreciation from clients. - Business Operations Analyst in EMc Corporation from Nov 2010 – Present. - Worked as Data Analyst in POR Services from July 2008 – May 2010. - Worked as Software Engineer in MWE Technology from May 2005 – July 2008. - Masters in Business Administration. - Bachelor of Science ( Computer Science, Maths, Statistics) 8. Business analyst resume sample - Posted by Prateek Bajpai. Email ID- ***@gmail.com Contact No.+91-******* Be involved in resolving business challenges by assimilating analyzing the business scenario and resolve the. problem to research, achieve business success. With my demonstrated analytical skills, structured thinking, hands-on. Research On Brain Development? system design skills and my abilities to perform a deep-dive assessment of strategic impact on the overall. Is Bad? business requirement along with my leadership skills should help the organization holistically resolve the. - Having overall professional IT experience of paper on brain development, 5 years and 6 months. - Proficient in Time Cost Estimation Function Point estimation. - Proficient in requirement gathering and impact analysis activities. - Expert in developing an impact assessment model which identifies impact of a business requirement on various. functional areas of the application that helped in pre-planning work allocation of resources effectively. - Expert in data modeling (UML, Use Cases, Activity diagrams). - Took up team leading responsibility . - Mentoring peers within and essays introduction across teams, helping them to view the application from an architectural. perspective by understanding the database design. - Ability to research paper development, handle the pressure. - Involved in northwestern college essays, all requirement gathering and research paper development impact analysis activities. Reviewing the Client Requirements. and Business Specifications, analyzing the structuring research, impacts and feasibility. Research On Brain Development? - Design Process Diagram, Activity Diagram, Use Cases, end to end data flow and also preparing the screen mock. ups and design and develop the application architecture [Database tables and interface impacts]. - Review the application structure and is bad essay database design with development and testing teams. - Review the Statement of Understanding Document [SoU] and User Requirement Specification (URS) Document, System Requirement Specification (SRS) Document with PwC. - Provide the support to development by reviewing the Application Design document and testing team by. reviewing the Test Cases during development and testing phase. - Involved in all requirement gathering and impact analysis activities.
Reviewing the Client Requirements and. Business Specifications, analyzing the impacts and feasibility, complete the TC0 and TC 1 [Time and Cost]. - Design end to research, end data flow with the help of BPM and also preparing the screen mock ups and design and. develop the application architecture [Database tables and interface impacts]. - Review the application structure and essays about database design with development and testing teams. - Review the High Level Design Document [HLD] and Application Design Document [AID] with ATT. Research Development? - Completing all the QPR work [Defect sheets, HLD, AID, WBS, E2E data mapping, baseline approvals, Release. notes, Req. Pro, RMT etc.]. - Provide the northwestern college essays, support to development by reviewing the Application Design document and testing team by. reviewing the Test Cases during development and testing phase. - Provide the support to ATT users during UAT and also providing the Root Cause of a particular issue. - Completing the FP count activities and also dealing with all type of production issues. - Database Technologies - Oracle, SQLPLUS. - Tools – Estimation, Business Process Modeler (BPM), Rational Requisite Pro, Rational Portfolio Manager, Requirements Management tool (RMT), Rational Clear Quest (CQ), DRTT, Mercury Quality Centre (MQC), Web-based. GUI Testing, Sablime (For Configuration Management). - Transaction Processes – Design of Java Transaction API’s, XML, WSDL, Corba transactions, expertise in. Research? IPV4/IPV6 implementation, Ethernet and Native IP Protocols. - Testing skills – Web based GUI testing, Interface testing, Database testing. - Won “Gerstner Award for Client Excellence” in the year 2007 for management, the contribution in client satisfaction. - Completed AIX Certification with 100% marks. - Completed OCP (Oracle Certified Programmer) Certification with 98%. - Won ‘Best of research paper on brain, Employee Award’ for February 2010 release project work. - Won ‘Outstanding Performer’ Award for October 2010 release deliverables. - Presently working as a Business Analyst in DFG Pvt. ltd. from Jan- 2010- Present. - Worked as a System Engineer [Business Analyst]in WER Services from aqa gcse law coursework July-2007- Dec.
2009. - Master of Computer Applications (MCA) - B.Sc. from GHJ University. Research Paper On Brain? - Intermediate from C.B.S.E. - Marital Status - Married. 9. Business analyst resume sample - Posted by Prateek Bajpai. Email ID- ****@gmail.com Contact No. +91-****** class company. Seek to diversify my skills in another industry and as part of a larger. - Combines 6 years of experience in IT CONSULTING. Essays? - Proficient in business development and research on brain development requirement management. - Expert in Business Analysis and Business Analytics. - Expert in Enterprise Performance Management ( EPM ) - Skilled in is bad, Churn Modeling and client relationship management. - Acted as a business analyst. - Functional Documentation for research development, reporting dash boarding requirements using Process Flows Business. - Functional documentation of the Planning Budgeting Forecasting work flows. - P L ,Balance sheets and cash flow statements for Planning. - Top down and bottom up planning. - Allocation rules Out-looking. - Manage change requirements, Requirement Traceability matrix. Master Topics In Engineering? - Presales Business Development for the PB Product suite. - Presales for EAM ( Enterprise Asset Management ) - Acted as Business Intelligence data warehousing Consultant for Project delivery. - Acted as Account Manager responsible generating more businesses. - HR-Analytics Cash flow statement from the account heads. - Manage Quality audit of the projects handled. - Applaude de Accomplice - May 2011. - Nominated to The Cognizant Hall of Fame for Innovation Awards 2011 - Bagged “The Prestigious Cognizant Innovation Award 2011” in the Cognizant Innovation Summit (CIS) 2011 sponsored by NASSCOM. - Runners Up Award in Best Process Innovation Category 2011.
- Was the best Performer and performed beyond expectation. - Working as Senior Business Analyst in DFG Solutions from Nov 2010 – Till Date. - Worked as Senior Business Analyst in FGH Technology from Mar 2010 – Nov 2010. - Worked as Business Analyst in RTY Pvt. Research On Brain? ltd. from April 2008 – Mar 2010.
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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is on brain how to obtain accurate information for a query in an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to northwestern college implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the research on brain development, second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and structuring paper stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to restore all the research paper on brain, information for the efficiency of the search engine. And then the research, search engine could search the information for users in the inverted index. For the convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to development satisfy users' needs more quickly. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'.
When it comes to the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on for writing research papers the traditional famous evaluation method, and the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors. And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of PAGERANK is less while the paper, HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. So the user would decide the technology, algorithm based on their queries. Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the on brain, ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS.
With the rapidly development of the books research, Internet technology, more and research on brain more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. Is Bad? What is more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. With the features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. On Brain? However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011).
According to the research by aqa gcse law coursework China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in research paper on brain, 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in thesis topics in engineering, 2013, the research paper on brain development, number of Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg. Thesis? As a result, people could only use the search engines to access the paper development, information they want among such a large amount of essays about yourself information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the research paper on brain, use rate of the search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and valuable information from such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and nowadays, the search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011).
The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of documents. It supplies an northwestern essays effective measure for research paper on brain users to search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of most people. If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the information they want in the Internet. It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want.
The basic function of essays about a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of research on brain websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the technology is bad essay, key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and on brain matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3). According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. In Engineering Management? First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the HTML markup of the webpages.
And then the search engine would analyze the contents of webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in the index database for the later queries. Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of paper on brain development text according to its criteria. However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of crawling, indexing, and searching to update the information in the index. The data from the report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for northwestern college essays China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent).
The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm. In the early age of the search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of information. With the research, development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. Essays? The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in research paper development, the webpages. Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the technology is bad essay, relevance between the development, webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the keyword is more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the northwestern college essays, rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher.
Then, the ranking algorithms based on development the hyperlinks analysis appear. Is Bad Essay? The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the research paper, hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and if the times of a webpage is cited more, the topics in engineering, authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by research development an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by aqa gcse adding the computation of the topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the ranking. Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and information of the research paper on brain, webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for users to input a query and return the result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the thesis topics management, search results. The second purpose of the project is to development compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and best for writing HITS to find their advantages and disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.
Build and maintain an research on brain development index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by any user of the thesis in engineering management, tool for statistical analysis.
Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of research Search Engine. According to the criterion of ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011). The first generation search engine ranks the results according to books research the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the paper on brain, relevance is computed by weighing and thesis topics management scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the results based on the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods.
The first one classifies the webpages in the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the paper, indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines. The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and the queries. It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is technology AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to be the basic algorithm of the search technology.
However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to research development use the structuring research paper, search engine. Research Development? While the second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to spend in the webpage or the number of the college essays, in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to research on brain use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to is bad analyze the citation relationship among the paper, literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is cited by more important paper, the about, paper itself would be more important. In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is paper called hyperlinks among the webpages.
The signification of the hyperlink method is not only college, just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is paper on brain development automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the big scale of the webpages, at the same time, the algorithm also considers the relevance of the results and the speed of searching. What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is introduction not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the research on brain development, results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the specific needs of the users. In fact, the second generation has been improved in structuring research, the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in development, the Internet. However, the algorithms in introduction, the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the results would not satisfy the research paper, users. The situation requires the aqa gcse, users to have the search skill to get better results. As a result, the search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to research development help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.
Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. Best? The kind of search engines is generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in paper on brain development, the same topic if a query and key words in the index are topical relevant. For example, weather and snow are topical relevant.
When it comes to law coursework the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the development, query relevant results. However, most of books research ranking algorithms are based on the static feature of the research on brain development, text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the number of words appearing than whether the word is technology a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the second factor of ranking the webpages while the paper on brain, most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem.
In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and is bad recall which are even popular now. Precision is a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of relevant document of research on brain development all the aqa gcse, searched documents. Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. Research Paper? And there is northwestern college essays a hypothesis when recall is used: Given the query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for a large database.
However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the on brain development, clicked documents during the process of aqa gcse law coursework search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. Research On Brain? But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the law coursework, search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is research how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is paper user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not. However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song.
Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and paper improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Software Requirements. The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in aqa gcse, platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to paper be my development technology. Papers? And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software. And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of research Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).
It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of college webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information. The software or system which collects the research, webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is master thesis topics a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the research, hyperlink in the webpage. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12). Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to search other webpages. While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by initial URL the structuring paper, user chooses to research on brain development a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project.
Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the aqa gcse law coursework, Internet which is paper on brain called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. And then the topics management, method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the paper, most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. Now, the problem is how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of thesis management a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the research on brain, importance of the master topics in engineering management, hyperlink, average depth of hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of research paper on brain development hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL. And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'.
And we call it as IL(P). Master Thesis? Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of paper development IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content.
Generally, the webpages or the documents which are crawled by aqa gcse law coursework the web crawler would be analyzed at research paper the first place for building the index later. The analysis should filter the format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the technology is bad essay, webpages and filter the spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the paper on brain development, duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the same results appearing at the same time.
It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the items written above by checking the webpages character by character. In the paper, project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis. The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from research on brain, webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the management, words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users.
As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of research paper users. If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the college, natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information.
The common of these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the tense of the verbs and research development the plural of the nouns. Books Research? It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the paper on brain, words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the match between the queries and the key words in best, the index. Foundation of webpage index.
The webpages have to be indexed for the later use. Research Development? And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to structuring research analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of paper development documents. There are many index models in the field of technology search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and so on. Paper On Brain? And it is research paper very important because the structure and effectiveness are the keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to research be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is proper to response the key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. Law Coursework? And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords. To get the performance of the search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory.
And to reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is represented by a unique document code while all the documents and research paper development their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and the documents in the inverted index are actually the paper, code of documents. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an research development index item with relevant information generated by the key words. The advantage of inverted index is that it changes the aqa gcse, organization of information to research be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the aqa gcse law coursework, key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the paper, keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs.
To avoid the spams filling in thesis management, the list of research on brain results and let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the results. During the paper, sorting process, the importance of the webpage itself would take effect. Research Paper On Brain? And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80). A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of webpage by the link structure.
For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is that if a page is linked many times, the aqa gcse law coursework, webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the webpage with the research paper, hyperlinks, and thesis topics in engineering management never go back to browse the previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is more important than the previous one. However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to paper on brain a page and paper never uses out-links.
To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to research paper many other pages. The basic idea is similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet. And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. Introduction? The authority is relevant with the quality of research on brain development content information so as to books papers attract many webpages to link while the hug is relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage.
The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the research paper development, higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). Northwestern College? And the input of the HITS algorithm is known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm. It means that the number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. The first of all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the research development, query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface.
In the section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for books papers users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the search engine could only search the webpage and paper on brain text. The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the number of results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to books for writing research use the search engine more easily. Paper Development? The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results.
And at introduction the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the paper development, webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the database of the whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Users could also click the button to select the first page, the previous page, the best for writing, next page and the last page. On Brain? What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to structuring research search the on brain, 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per page. About Introduction? They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in the right, and then press the paper on brain development, button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5: We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is books for writing research highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the research, 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the bottom of the page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. The pattern of next page is almost the same as the one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown.
What is worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the northwestern essays, first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of research paper on brain development webpage content' and 'natural language process'. About Yourself Introduction? And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem. The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the development, user has done. When the new query is input, the search engine would find the similar information of the old queries, and the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in the database. And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to technology essay compare the new query to find the similar information.
The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and the last time when the key word is research on brain development searched. What is more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the about yourself, test case would be the research on brain development, webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the structuring research paper, experiments would be shown. Finally, the solutions to the problems in research development, the part of technology essay 'problem domain' and the benefits and research paper on brain deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of aqa gcse Evaluating the research paper on brain development, Search Engine. In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the books, search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and the target is the traditional online information retrieval system.
However, in terms of the essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Research Paper? Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to evaluate the college, search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). With the development of the research, the user experience is paid more and more attention. Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model. Bell considers the complexity of the web based on the former research, and focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the following criterion is reasonable to evaluate the search engine in research paper development, general. Capability of the Search Engine.
The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the technology is bad, database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched. Research Paper On Brain? Usually, the index database is technology is bad composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the research development, combination would affect the technology is bad essay, precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the research paper, webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index.
For example, some search engines only index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only index the name or the title of the law coursework, HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Paper? Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the northwestern college, better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied. The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in a second and is unpredictable. Paper? As a result, the northwestern essays, search engine has to promise the ''' of the information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to my search engine, the test case is the research, webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited.
However, the content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the structuring research, contents of each webpage. But, the research development, database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. The aim of the test is to evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). Structuring? In fact, the search engine has the research paper on brain, same problem with the on-line library. And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the books for writing research papers, same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the users more choices to paper development get more and better results.
And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. The number and effects of aqa gcse law coursework indexing functions provided by research on brain the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the best books research papers, important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and limited index. Research On Brain Development? In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and advanced index interface according to the needs of the users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words and consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface. As a result, there is no toolbar and dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words.
Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the aqa gcse, search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the information. There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the search engines.
And it is not fair to compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the paper on brain, database is not comparative. As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of is bad response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of research paper development webpages is 998 and technology essay the number of the on brain development, keywords is technology 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of searching would take too much time for the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.
The first one is that the graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly. Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the research development, information is limited.
However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the information they want appear in aqa gcse law coursework, the first several pages. Paper Development? The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows: In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of aqa gcse these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is research no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and content of output. The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in all the search engines, what is more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines.
What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is aqa gcse law coursework not useful for searching while the paper development, number is small demonstrates that the essays about, keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of research paper results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in best books for writing, the former results. During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to paper return different results to is bad essay different users according to the users' history records.
In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in research paper, the result', preview, and information filtering. However, the reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments.
The first one is that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the authority of the HITS is the weight of the indexing theme. However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is independent with the indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on thesis in engineering management the 'reference analysis', addition with the research development, quality of the Internet. It not only considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the best books for writing research papers, in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to research paper development the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. Research? While the PAGERANK algorithm is based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the research, HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. Technology Essay? While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less.
This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the paper, solutions selected and for writing research papers the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the resulting systems. Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the project is to paper build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in the introduction part. The following part is to evaluate each part in for writing papers, the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. Research On Brain? However, there are some problems in the crawler part.
The biggest problem is that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the books papers, firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is research paper on brain that the crawler part takes too much time because it has to run on line. Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. However, not all the books for writing research papers, hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the development, HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the essays introduction, scale of research paper on brain development array is large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the northwestern college, second problem. The second in the minimum objectives is to build and maintain an index. Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in research on brain development, many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index.
And the paper, benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and research on brain development the second in the intermediate objectives is to structuring design a graphic user interface. Research On Brain? The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for users to choose the ranking algorithm they like. If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the function of 'search in structuring, the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the on brain, users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the about yourself introduction, third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages. The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other.
The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the research paper on brain development, most original one, which could compare and paper analyze the results more easily. However, the effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in the intermediate objectives and paper on brain the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is not a former work of providing the research, users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. Paper? However, there are still some problems need to be solved. First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the test case.
As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the returned results is high. However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of technology is bad essay which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. Research Paper On Brain Development? If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly. And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in master in engineering, the 'Related Work' says. The format and content in my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of paper on brain evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the structuring research paper, project.
In a word, the experiments could prove that the research paper on brain development, search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and technology HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the on brain development, basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the essay, PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. Research? During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to best for writing research papers be solved. The crawler takes the research on brain development, preferential traversal to access the whole Internet. The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the northwestern essays, most important webpages to be crawled at first. Research Paper On Brain? And then the documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and advertisements. As a result, the keywords in the content have to be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words.
What is more, the dictionary of stop words is aqa gcse built to extract the useful key words from the content and the stems of the words are used to paper development neglect the tense of the law coursework, verbs and the plural of the nouns. In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly. And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for research paper on brain the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to research define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and natural language processing are used to solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of paper development 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is research not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. Research Paper? The last issue is how to satisfy the users.
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X. Fang and paper G. Salvendy(2000). 'Keyword comparison: a user-centered feature for improving web search tools', Int.J.Human-Computer Studies, Vol.52:915-931. C.J. van RIJSBERGEN(2010). Information Retrieval. Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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