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Social Construction of Gender Essay

Gender social construction essay

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Social Construction of Gender Essay -- Gender…

autism essay Essay on Autism. Essay on Autism. Autism: Past, Present, Future, Speculative. Gender Essay! Autism is all over the news right now, a very different situation than 18 years ago when we were looking for russian revolution, the cause of our son's developmental delay. Much of the media coverage, however, focusses on the sound-bite and tear-jerking opportunities that any problems with young children can provide. This is fine for gender social construction essay, the television crews, but it really does not inform the public, or help parents who are wondering whether their child could be autistic, or what to do with a child who is autistic. Autism is spilling orwell, a neurological condition, a developmental disorder. Increasingly, as the ability to image brain structure and trace brain function improves, it's evident that autism results from physical differences in the structure and function of the brain. Although it used to be considered a psychiatric disorder with an emotional cause, it is instead a physical problem, in the same way that a missing limb or eye is a physical problem.

The autistic child's brain is not physically set up to process information the same way as an average baby's brain. One of the most frustrating things for parents is that there is gender social construction essay, no single, obvious test for autism itself--there are only screening tests which look at children's behavior and thesis template skills, and compare them to those of average children the same age. These screening tests have improved (when our son was a toddler, we were told he could not be autistic because he clung to, and showed affection for, family members--not true) but they are not good enough, or widely known enough, to be trusted by social construction non-specialist physicians and by school personnel. Tragically, many autistic children are refused services they need because a physician or a school counselor refuses to accept that the child is autistic. It is easier for a school, for instance, to label a child disruptive, difficult, oppositional, lazy, naughty, etc., than to admit that he is autistic and that they have been mistreating him for spilling the spanish essay, years. In our society, issues of causation and blame arise whenever there's a problem. Whose fault is it? is often the first question parents ask a doctor when a child has a developmental problem. Gender Construction Essay! Years ago, when autism was believed to be a psychiatric illness, an emotional illness, doctors told mothers that they were the cause--it was the mother's style of essay by george orwell, parenting which made children autistic. They were wrong. Social Essay! While abusive parenting can produce some autistic traits in normal children, autistic children nearly always arrive with their problem.

Today, the loudest voices claim that immunizations cause autism. Their main argument is that children exhibit symptoms shortly after a series of shots. What they miss is that infants too young to resume eit engineer have shots are also too young to look much different unless they have gross physical malformations or extremely low levels of behavior. An autistic infant and a non-autistic infant look the social construction same at birth, and for some months after. But then the non-autistic infant develops on the average timetable, and the autistic infant--who has looked normal up until then--falls behind. How can that be if something didn't happen right before the development slowed, ceased, or reversed?

We are now learning things about the developmental process that show how a slowdown or halt could be pre-programmed to appear only chatterjee later. Each stage in the complex development of gender construction essay, a human's nervous system requires completion of a previous stage--just as you have to have the economics proposal foundation complete before starting to put up the walls of a building. During the previous stage, both biochemical precursors and physical structures prepare the child to continue to essay and through the next stage of development. It's possible to have something go wrong--be missing, be chemically underfunded --at an early stage, which will not be needed until later. The problem shows up when there is kidss homework, a developmental need that can't be met. Imagine a builder working on a project who finds out, halfway through framing the second floor, that he can't get any more lumber, or someone putting together a puzzle who doesn't know there's a missing piece until the puzzle is well along toward completion. It is construction essay, clear from proposal, recent work on the structure and function of the human brain that autism results from specific problems in gender construction essay brain development which occur, in most cases, before birth, even though the results of those problems do not show up until the thesis template tu delft brain has reached the essay developmental stage where it needs the missing pieces. Resume! In many cases, there is evidence of subtle (and sometimes obvious) neurological difference in family members, especially when the extended family of both biological parents is considered.

This strongly suggests that most autism is genetic in origin. It also suggests that improved therapy for autistic children, which helps them become more sociable and thus increases their chance of marriage and parenthood, will result in more autistic children being born to autistic parents. What is gender social essay, it like to be an possible essay for the revolution, autistic individual? Only autistic individuals know for sure. Social Construction! Interviews with autistic people, their essays and books, all suggest that the autistic experience is possible essay questions for the revolution, just as varied as the non-autistic experience. Some people are happy.

Some people are not happy. Some people have close friends. Some do not. The similarities imposed by the condition do not impose an emotional tone or even a core personality in the Myers/Briggs sense. Some autistic individuals, for instance, are extroverts; our son is one of them. From my reading, and from correspondence with autistic individuals online, I've come to think that autistic people are much more like the construction essay rest of us than previously thought. Possible Essay For The Russian Revolution! Their emotional lives are very much like mine: they want to be with people they enjoy being around, people who accept them for who they are, people who understand them, people who like them . They want to eat the food that tastes good to them, wear clothes that are comfortable for them, be in temperatures they find comfortable, do the things they think are fun. They want their concerns to be understood and taken seriously.

They like people to social get their jokes. They want to dissertation proposal be respected. One of the things which impressed me about our son, even before he could communicate in signs, gestures, or words, was the healthy quality of gender essay, his emotional life. Yes, he screamed when he was upset, and I would have preferred a Mom, I don't want to do that. But the things he enjoyed were reasonable, healthy things to enjoy: food that tasted good, music he liked, running around on the grass on a spring day. There was nothing weird about what he liked. His dislikes were harder to understand, but made sense once I realized that his sensory input was different than mine, and sourabh chatterjee his responses were stronger. He felt hot when I barely felt warm. Tags in clothes (that I find only gender construction essay mildly irritating) bothered him a lot.

He liked some colors more than others. Certain textures and flavors in food bothered him more. He liked some people and didn't warm up to others. These are perfectly normal responses in chatterjee a small child--just on a different scale. His likes and dislikes tended to be more intense (typical of an earlier developmental stage: infants are usually very intense in their likes and dislikes.) What is the gender social central deficit in master template tu delft autism? This argument is construction, still going on among researchers. My background in resume computer programming led me to what is not one of the main contenders at present, but the most recent brain imaging is beginning to lean my way.

Although the human brain is not *just* a computer, some of the tools of information processing in social essay computers can be useful in looking at how the brain handles information. In my opinion, the so-called central deficit is kidss homework, not central at all--in computer terms, it's not a problem with the main processor chip, but with something in the input/output stream: perhaps a buffer, perhaps an internal bus, perhaps a switching mechanism. Gender Construction! Here's why I think this. All autistic individuals I know about--and the parents of autistic children--agree that autistic people perceive the world a little differently than the kidss homework average at the sensory level. That is, the primary raw sensory data is gender essay, not getting to the central processor in the same way that it gets to the average brain.

The odd patterns of extra sensitivity and insensitivity that autistic children display reflect this, as do the subtle (and sometimes obvious) differences in their patterns of attention and movement. From computers, we know that garbage in/garbage out determines the dissertation proposal computer's performance: the construction central processor will come up with wrong answers if the the spanish beans by george orwell information going into it is wrong. If the input device, a keyboard for instance, is miswired or has a piece of potato chip under one key, then it may send the gender construction essay wrong signal to the processor when the user tries to send information in. If the input buffer--where information is stored temporarily before being sent on to the central processor--isn't big enough, information can be lost or transmitted out of order. If the essay questions for the revolution internal communications channels are too slow, information backs up and may be lost, or the central processor may get ahead of itself and construction essay try to compute without having all the data. Some programs may require a pre-processor which performs computations on incoming data before it goes to the central processor; if the pre-processor doesn't work right, then the central processor is handed bad data to work with. These are just a few of the ways in which a computer can go wrong without having a problem in the central processor. The human nervous system has analogues for resume, all these and gender social essay more. The peripheral nervous system--the nerves in fingers and skin and eyes and ears and tongue and nasal cavity--collects the sensory information which becomes the data input to the brain.

When you have a cold, you lose the ability to smell most things--your brain then gets corrupted smell data. When you have a sunburn, your skin tells your brain that a light touch is like a slap. When an arm or leg goes to sleep and becomes numb, your brain may think it's not even there. Master Tu Delft! We have all experienced small, temporary glitches in our sensory input. But there's another kind of problem that can arise, with the social speed of transmission, not the accuracy of pickup. Imagine a computer keyboard. You press A and A appears on the screen; it has also reached the proposal central processor, so that if A is a command (A for add, A for another, A for gender, Aunt Alice's email address) the computer responds to that command. The speed of transmission of kidss homework, that electrical signal makes it possible to send commands, or type a message, as fast as you can type.

Now imagine that the construction keyboard has a very slow connection. Kidss Homework! You type A, and gender social essay nothing happens. Possible Russian Revolution! The seconds tick by. Finally an A pops up on the screen. It would take a long time to compose a message to Aunt Alice--or to give a series of commands for an accounting program--if you had such a slow connection. Or suppose the keyboard would not transmit an A at all unless you pressed on the A key for five seconds.

That would also slow down the transmission of information, even if the actual transmission time were the same. The human nervous system can have similar glitches. Research has shown that some people have slower nerves than others--it takes longer for an electrical impulse to gender social construction essay travel from the dissertation finger to gender social construction the brain than it does for others. And it's also shown that some people need sensory impulses to last longer before they're captured (slow capture rate.) This can have serious consequences. Essay Questions Russian! For instance, in normal speech, the gender social construction essay sounds of many consonants are very brief--on the order of 75 milliseconds. If an possible essay for the, infant cannot capture such brief sounds--needs the sound to last, say, 200 or 300 milliseconds before it's caught--then the infant will not even hear the sounds of most consonants. If the infant doesn't hear them, then they don't become part of the library of speech sounds which the infant uses to build a model of speech, and gender social essay understand which sounds are speech and economics which aren't. Some non-autistic children with severe language delay have exactly this problem. Social Essay! Some autistic adults who can now talk have described what speech sounded like to them when they were small--and they say it was like 'mooing' or 'groaning'--full of vowel sounds, not consonants. A problem with slow capture rate that affects more than one sensory channel would interfere in a number of sourabh chatterjee, ways with information processing and normal development.

Autistic individuals have problems with interpreting the rapid changes in facial expression which modify verbal communication--recognizing the brief twitch of an eyebrow or quirk of the lips that changes You stinker from an angry insult to a loving compliment, for instance. They often have difficulty interpreting similarly rapid changes in pitch, rate, prosody that interact with the words spoken. Construction Essay! They may be unable to see the picture on a TV screen, because of the rapidly scanning raster. They may not feel a brief painful stimulus, or may feel a painful stimulus delayed from its actual onset. Thesis! If the slow capture rate and gender essay a slow transmission rate are combined, it's clear that the data available for processing on the inside would always be out of phase with what's going on outside. Many parents report that autistic children are slow to master thesis template tu delft respond even when they can respond appropriately: here is one physical model that might explain why they're like that. Sensory integration--the ability to gender essay combine sound, sight, touch, and kidss homework other senses into one coherent sensory experience--is another area in which most autistic persons have problems. Some autistic adults describe being unable to understand speech unless they deliberately shut off the essay visual channel (shut their eyes, look down.) In the average infant, sensory integration develops over the first few years in a seamless way. But if the resume capture rate and/or transmission rate of the senses are not synchronous--if the visual channel and the sound channel are out of gender, synch, as you sometimes see on TV--the infant has no way to make them match. As an adult, you know how to adjust if the russian announcer's mouth and speech aren't in synch. But an infant has no prior experience to gender construction work from.

If your mouth is making the motion for one sound while the infant hears another, then looking at you will not help him copy that sound. There's another complication which few computers possess. Most computers will sit passively waiting for spilling the spanish beans, information to come to them. The silicon chip doesn't care if it's computing or not. The human brain, however, is social construction essay, not capable of sitting idle in the dark, so to possible essay for the russian revolution speak; it will make things up and gender essay amuse itself while waiting for data to eit engineer arrive. If the data from normal sensory channels doesn't arrive, something else will be going on--and when the sound or the sight or the touch signal does arrive, the brain will work it into the pattern it had already created. Our brains are pattern-makers. The rigid patterns of play typical of gender social construction essay, autistic kids--stacking blocks over sourabh chatterjee thesis and over, laying out objects in repetitive sequences--are quite possibly the result of the brain's pattern-making ability going to social essay work on whatever is available. You see similar behavior in average kids and adults when they're bored--they swing their legs, tap pencils, doodle rows of similar designs.

Adding to that complication is another. Sourabh Chatterjee! The human brain is not only social essay busy all the time, in childhood it is also always growing. and it grows in response to its experience, both in beans essay by george terms of structure (the neurons and their connections) and function (what it can do, what calculations it can make.) If its experience is limited, possibly because the data coming in gender social are limited in comparison to the data that average children can acquire, then its growth will also be limited and economics dissertation proposal aimed in the direction of the activity it *can* perform. What this means is that the brains of adult autistic individuals are not necessarily representative of the brains (and potentials) of essay, autistic infants and young children. It is not a good idea to beans by george reason backward from the social structure of an adult autistic's brain to dissertation proposal assume that the social essay same structures are missing in the infant's brain. It's important to sourabh thesis remember that the final structure and function of anyone's brain reflects both innate structure and developmental experience, just as the outward physical condition of a 60 year old reflects both inherited physical characteristics and gender social how that body was used throughout life. The 60 year old ballet dancer will have a different body than a twin who never danced.

Why am I so sure that the beans essay orwell central aspects of cognition are not the problem in autism? Observation, both of construction essay, autistic children and (through their writing) of adult autistic individuals, combined with a knowledge of how information processing works in complex systems like computers and kidss homework humans. Social Essay! Where autistic individuals are presented with correct data in a sensory format they can use (such as math), they reason clearly and well; they understand cause and economics proposal effect in physical (nonsocial) situations very well. Many if not most autistic children have no trouble learning letters, numbers, and they may pick up reading (simple decoding) even faster than the average child. But letters and numbers hold still on the page. Where they clearly fall behind is in situations where the necessary data require sensory processing in multiple channels--which all social interaction definitely does. Neurocognitive research on brain function is already helping to gender define the way that typical brains work--how we convert our sensory input into a model of the world, how we use that model to communicate with each other and manipulate things around us.

The next stage for research into autism will be to define how the brains of autistic people work. It will be important to go beyond defining different to sourabh thesis discovering what the difference is, and what its implications are for development. Gender Social Construction Essay! Interventions to help autistic children should be based on their reality--on the way their brains actually do function, rather than on guesses. Once we know--at the biochemical, molecular level--how typical brains grow, develop, and essay questions for the russian revolution function. and we know how the brain of an gender social construction, autistic child grows, develops, and functions. precisely targeted intervention will become possible.

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Gender: Social Construct Essay

panel essay The UN Panel on Peace Operations: Getting the Politics Right? All peace operations are political. Ian Martin wrote an essay with that title in CIC’s first Review of Political Missions in 2010. It is unsurprising, then, that the report of the social construction High-Level Panel on Peace Operations of which he has been a prominent member has the same starting point.

When the United Nations intervenes, it is not using diplomacy and the threat of armed force in a vacuum: the goal is to stop violence caused by a struggle over power. The use of internationally mandated armed force, if at all necessary, is only one means and not the sole end of any UN peace operation. But what are the politics of this latest attempt to spilling the spanish by george orwell reform the way the world body addresses conflict? How should we understand this detailed effort to analyze the challenges of gender social construction essay, making peace or keeping it? What change are the words on economics paper trying to effect on the ground or at UN headquarters?

And what are its chances of success? A brief survey of the world should make it clear these are urgent questions that need clear answers. The mission of the United Nations captured in gender social, the first line of its charter, reproduced on the front cover of the Panel’s report, remains as relevant today as it was when founded in 1945: the master template tu delft purpose of the gender social construction essay UN is to master thesis save succeeding generations from the scourge of war. This is as much a challenge for the organization in 2015 almost 70 years after its creation. As the UN celebrates its birth on 26 June, it has more than 128,000 uniformed and civilian personnel in 39 missions. Peace operations flying under the blue flag or those of other groupings are undergoing a surge. Africa is the numerical center of gender, gravity for peace operations, but they are also spread across the resume Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Displacement, mostly caused by social construction, conflict, is at an all time high. Since the year of the landmark Brahimi Report released in August 2000, the numbers of the spanish beans essay, those forced to flee their homes has more than doubled from 20 million to social 51 million at beans essay by george, the end of 2014.

At the center of this massive movement of people is the intractable Syrian civil war, directly impacting the region and social, infecting the master thesis template tu delft globe. Gender Essay? It acts as a beacon alerting the people of the world to the impotence of “their” organization. This report in its substance and between its lines is firstly a story about the limits of the United Nations. It is a humble effort in thesis, a complex strategic environment. “UN peace operations can and do make important, and at times decisive, contributions to conflict prevention and resolution, but they cannot and should not be asked to construction essay respond to all threats.” [Paragraph 17] Uniting Our Strengths for Peace – Politics, Partnership And People is the formal name of the report of the thesis template High-Level Independent Panel on United Nations Peace Operations set up by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in gender social construction, October 2014. It defines these strengths broadly as activities that span from peacekeeping to special political missions, good offices and mediation initiatives. It makes the case for what it calls four essential shifts. First, it calls on the UN system to recognize that politics must drive peace operations.

Second, it argues that the template tu delft full spectrum of peace operations should be used more flexibly. Third, it makes the case for social construction essay partnerships to be a greater part of the future. Fourth, it urges those in the Secretariat charged with implementing them to become more field-focused and people-centered . The report argues that change is required across four of the most important areas of essay questions for the, UN peace operations: conflict prevention and mediation need to be remade a priority; the protection of civilians must be regarded as a core obligation of the UN; the use of social essay, force by UN peace operations and others must be clarified; and greater attention must also be given to sustain peace after an agreement has been signed or an election held. But more than “a call for change,” this report is a reminder of how many problems remain the same since the last big review. The ten-member Panel on United Nations Peace Operations chaired by Lakhdar Brahimi first addressed many of these issues in August 2000. It proved to be something of a blueprint for the former Algerian foreign minister. Economics? He had the opportunity to put his ideas into practice, especially the concept of the social construction essay “light footprint” mission, as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in master thesis template tu delft, Afghanistan. Re-reading the Brahimi report’s executive summary should be a pre-requisite before tackling the 321 numbered paragraphs of Uniting for Peace . The external and internal challenges for UN peace operations are uncannily similar. While not as revolutionary as Brahimi was in its time, this report does propose some new ideas for old problems.

To be ready to act, a UN standing capacity was first proposed in 1948, but Member States have never embraced this idea. Essay? For decades, it has been lamented that peacekeepers take too long to deploy to UN operations. Brahimi proposed targets for rapid deployment of 30 days for essay for the a “traditional mission” and gender construction essay, 90 days for thesis template tu delft a “complex one”. This has proved too demanding a standard for the system to gender meet. Uniting for Peace now advances the idea of a “small UN vanguard capability” to possible russian allow quick response to gender construction essay a new mission or provide reinforcements to master template tu delft an existing operation. Gender? These units could be deployed from a regional hub and equipped to be self-sustaining for three months. The cost of maintaining this strategic reserve could be shared by economics proposal, a group of missions, but once deployed their costs would be charged to the mission budget where they were sent. The Panel urges the Secretariat to come up with the plans to make this standby option a reality. The Panel resurrects recommendations from buried reports that it believes still make sense. Drawing from the December 2008 Prodi report on AU-UN peace operations, it proposes more concrete partnerships with regional organisations should become a more important part of UN peace operations. It refloats the idea that assessed contributions usually used for UN peacekeeping could be applied to missions led by regional organisations such as the African Union.

But then it moderates its own enthusiasm by saying such support should be made on a “case-by-case basis.” There is a real need to gender construction provide more support to African peace operations. Spilling Beans Essay By George Orwell? A UN force can take time to be mandated and deployed. Essay? Regional countries can react more quickly to crises, but they face challenges providing long-term support to the spanish beans their forces dispatched to deal with conflict in gender social construction essay, their own neighborhood. Data from the Global Peace Operations Review illustrates the scale of the problem and its possible cost if this idea is taken up. In 2014, more than 48,000 African troops served with UN missions on questions russian revolution their own continent.

Meanwhile, in excess of construction, 36,000 troops were sent to take part in non-UN missions. Such arrangements in resume eit engineer, financing missions could lead to conceptual shifts. In many deployments, including in the UN mission in gender construction, DRC and AU-led operation in sourabh thesis, Somalia, African contingents have been much better prepared to use force in robust operations than their South Asian comrades who are the social construction essay biggest UN troop contributors. But shifting the burden onto AU troops by sharing the cost of deployments does not equal UN disengagement. Monitoring interventions derived and kidss homework, funded under such mandates will still be a challenge for the UN system, which puts a premium on the protecting of gender construction, civilians, human rights, and preventing sexual abuse and violence. Uniting for Peace tries to draw a red line over the UN’s involvement in counter-terrorism operations: UN peacekeeping missions are not suited for such operations.

They lack the equipment, intelligence, logistics, and training required. Master Template? This is all true. But such a demarcation may be in vain. Whether they plan for it or not, UN peace operations know too well that they operate in places where terrorists are present. The organization once thought its impartiality would be its shield, but since the 2003 bombing of its Baghdad headquarters, the UN increasingly finds itself a target. The way this issue is gender construction framed in the report suggests that the UN Secretariat, its bodies and its Member States can choose whether to cross this line. But the resume challenge of countering violent extremism is not going away, particularly in large swathes of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. There is another dimension to the inability to ignore the problem: when it comes to gender construction peace operations, the organization’s real politik dictates that the sourabh chatterjee thesis Secretariat must go where the gender construction essay Security Council sends it. In another attempt to set limits, the Panel drives to make exceptions for offensive operations such as those in Somalia in 1993 and DRC in 2013.

The report’s position is more like a red smudge than a clear line, perhaps illustrating differences of opinion within the diverse group of experts. Extreme caution should guide the mandating of enforcement tasks to resume degrade, neutralize or defeat a designated enemy. Such operations should be exceptional, time-limited and social construction essay, undertaken with full awareness of the risks and responsibilities for the UN mission as a whole. [Paragraph. 118] A number of points in the report regarding mission needs and member state contributions, when taken together, should prompt a discussion about how to better match supply and demand. Kidss Homework? Should the UN Security Council scale back ambitious missions if troops cannot be found to staff them?

Or should Western countries contribute more forces to present and future operations? African troops are already the major peace enforcers in Somalia and DRC. A Nigerian-led coalition recently confronted Boko Haram. Is the UN being bypassed for the hardest jobs on the continent? While not strangers to the system, the members of the gender essay Brahami and Prodi panels were more outsiders looking in than the sixteen “eminent personalities” of this latest body, many who have decades or, in some cases, entire careers working inside the system. Chairman Jose Ramos Horta, a former president of Timor-Leste, is one of the relative “outsiders,” but even he has been a beneficiary of sourabh chatterjee, one of the gender essay most successful series of UN peace operations that brought his country to independence and made it the 192 nd member of the UN. After leaving national politics, Horta headed a UN political mission in Guinea Bissau. His deputy, Ameerah Haq, served in Afghanistan as a deputy SRSG before leading a later mission in Timor-Leste. Haq then served as Under-Secretary-General for possible essay revolution the Department of Field Service (DFS), the UN headquarters group supporting all peace operations.

This collective experience gives Uniting for Peace a level of bureaucratic detail not found in Brahimi . These insiders lived with the problems they are trying to resolve with this report. Construction? After a decade and half between reviews, the laundry list of spilling essay by george orwell, required fixes is social still lengthy. UN peace operations need improved analysis, planning and more realistic mandates. They need faster deployment, better administration and clearer communications with those communities they are sent to help. There are many changes that the Department of Political Affairs, Department of master thesis, Peacekeeping Operations and gender, DFS would like to do. Essay For The Russian Revolution? But they are blocked from doing them, or simply have not yet got around to them. The report’s contents will not surprise those within the house. Such closeness can also be a weakness. For those struggling with lack of coordination inside the system, the proposal to create an additional Deputy Secretary-General position responsible for peace and security is a reasonable option. It is explicitly drawn from the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change in 2004, another review stacked with eminent people. Social Construction Essay? The proposal is a peace offering, rather a declaration of internecine warfare that the revolutionary idea of a merger of DPKO and spilling the spanish essay orwell, DPA would provoke.

Rearranging the Secretariat’s organizational chart excites those who work in Turtle Bay, the New York neighborhood around the UN’s iconic headquarters. It means nothing to those who think it is a resort in social essay, Vanuatu. There are a number of such instances where the report does not seek to reinvent the spilling beans by george orwell wheel when it feels a good idea has been too long ignored. It calls on the General Assembly to adopt a 2011 report of the Advisory Committee on gender construction essay Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) to, among other things, establish a separate account for the funding of special political missions. Such frequent references to older reports reflect poorly on the glacial pace of change at the UN. They also raise red flags about sourabh chatterjee obstinate forces arraigned against systemic change. But Uniting for Peace has modest objectives. Social? It is beans incrementalist, not revolutionary; more a notable milestone than a Brahimi -like landmark. In coming months, a joint team from the Secretariat will produce an construction, implementation report providing some “low hanging fruit” for the Secretary-General in the twilight of his ten years in office. In September, the Obama-Biden peacekeeping summit will provide Ban Ki-moon with a ready-made platform to talk about the future of UN peace operations.

If this report is to endure, then his successor will need to see some merit in possible essay questions, its recommendations and adopt them as their own. There will be two other overlapping reports in coming months to digest: the Review of social essay, UN Peacebuilding Architecture, chaired by former Guatemalan Foreign Minister Gert Rosenthal, as well as the High-Level Review on Resolution 1325 on for the russian Women, Peace, and Security, headed by Panel member Radhika Coomaraswarmy. To assess whether Uniting for Peace might succeed will take time. It will also require a more comprehensive response from member states. As the permanent representatives in gender essay, New York are never shy of possible essay questions revolution, pointing out, it is their organization and they are the gender social essay ones running the kidss homework show at the United Nations.

Most crucial will be the P3 – the U.S., Britain, and France – who pay the largest share for peace operations. Other potential spoilers include the G77, particularly if they see the report as being too Western. African Member States pushed for the proposal to pay for their operations from the UN peacekeeping budget, but can they marshal the support of wealthy nations to pay for it? The Panel is gender social attuned to the reluctance of Member States to pay more for peacekeeping. It makes a pitch that with the planned winding down of some peace operations through sequencing, its recommendations could be cost-neutral. But can the Security Council restrain itself, and will Member States buy this argument? In calling for change, the report urges others to master act and uses many synonyms for the UN’s Member States including the gender essay Security Council, regional organizations, troop contributing countries, host countries, and the ever-amorphous “international community.” A reader is left with a sense that the proposal report’s authors are disappointed with their relative inertia in gender social essay, the face of so many crises. “Member states have not sufficiently invested in addressing root causes of conflict,” the kidss homework report says. “The protection of civilians is essay a national responsibility,” it notes. “Member States should provide the necessary resources and lend their influence,” it urges.

The report treads a fine line between chiding and eit engineer, chastising. Gender Social Construction Essay? The panel is an advisory body and its recommendation can simply be ignored ? but how will member states react if they feel they are being lectured to? Brahimi had something of this tone, too. “The Secretariat must tell the Security Council what it needs to know, not what it wants to hear,” is one standout line. “When recommending force and possible russian, other resource levels for a new mission, … it must set those levels according to realistic scenarios that take into gender essay, account likely challenges to implementation.” These strident lines were written when the world was unipolar and led by the Unites States, a simpler time that a senior Secretariat official describe recently as “a golden age of peacekeeping.” But we now live in economics proposal, a time of multiple centers of power. This is gender social construction essay only a problem for those who got used to getting their own way. Those able to now veto or simply obstruct feel empowered.

With the U.S. and Russia once again using the organization as a proxy battlefield, the “challenges to implementation” are numerous. NATO’s perceived over-reach in UN-sanctioned operations in Libya, for example, created the mistrust that has led to inaction in Syria. Then again, as Jean-Marie Guehenno has written in The Fog of Peace , his memoir of peacekeeping in the 21 st century, we still have not overcome the “lingering damage to the idea of collective action” caused by the 2003 invasion of Iraq. As a young man, Jose Ramos Horta was known from the 1970s as a fearless and economics, blunt advocate for his country’s independence. He walked the corridors of the gender UN as an outsider for more than two decades. In releasing his panel’s report to the Member States, he sounded like one of those polite New York diplomats he once railed against, whose careers were made in meeting rooms. “We heard your call to reform not only the kidss homework system’s instruments but also the mindset required to deliver them,” Horta said. But neither now nor a decade and a half ago is there a consensus among Member States that a more assertive, effective, or efficient Secretariat is a desired outcome. As he noted in gender social essay, the same speech, Member States and regional organizations made almost 60 submissions. In other words, the majority did not contribute. While considerable outreach was required to produce it, the constituency for the end product is unclear. Eit Engineer? Is this document preaching to the converted, or is it a persuasive argument for some Member States to stop sitting on the fence?

Who will back it and who will abandon it on the floor of the General Assembly, or when the Security Council meets in camera? Does the Secretariat have the flexibility to manage a cost-neutral proposal? How will its demands for social more resources resonate back in the spanish beans essay orwell, the cash-strapped capitals? Fifteen years ago Brahimi identified the gender social essay challenge to reforming the master tu delft system in its first paragraph: Without renewed commitment on the part of Member States, significant institutional change and increased financial support, the United Nations will not be capable of executing the critical peacekeeping and peacebuilding tasks that the Member States assign to social construction essay it in coming months and years. Brahimi , too, was humble in its expectations and yet we are now revisiting some of the same topics. “The Panel believes that the above recommendations fall well within the bounds of what can be reasonably demanded of the Organization’s Member States,” Brahimi’s team wrote in August 2000. Has Jose Ramos Horta’s panel learnt lessons from the predecessors? The subsequent fifteen years of bloody history have demonstrated the limits of the power of the United Nations “to prevent all tensions and violence and end wars,” Horta wrote in his cover letter transmitting the report to the Secretary-General on 17 June . But they are also “aware of the fiscal environment and the constraints on Member States.”

In its modesty, Uniting for Peace may be laying the foundation for its own success. It is a practical technocratic document that has eschewed ideas that are too big or frightfully expensive. Kidss Homework? It is a sensible blueprint for what needs to construction essay change, and will be with us for resume eit engineer some years to come. It can be a primer for the next secretary-general. Gender Social Construction? But like Brahimi, the biggest challenge for Uniting for Peace comes with implementation. This Secretary-General and the next must be more leader rather than conference organizer.

They will need to kidss homework build a consensus among member states that these reforms are crucial for more efficient peace operations, and it is in their interests to support them. In this handover from one SG to the next, there is a window where change again seems possible at gender social construction, the United Nations. With the right leadership, the next report on peace operations can be less deja vu and more a progress report. 726 Broadway, #543, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (+1) 212 998-3680.

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Social Construction of Gender Essay

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confederation essay Professor Emeritus, Virginia Tech. Director, Virtual Jamestown. Over the past decade or more, “Atlantic World History” has provided a new framework to study the gender social essay past in a comparative, cross-disciplinary, and russian revolution, transnational context. The Atlantic-centric approach to history is mindful of the rise of American social history during the 1960s and 1970s. Social history freed the discipline from the clutches of elite- and politico-centric, discipline-bound, atheoretical, and nationalistic approaches to the past and moved the compass needle.

New coordinates arose on gender social essay, the historical map. “History from the bottom up” presented a rare opportunity to thesis, emphasize social origins and connections to the forces of gender social construction essay, change and continuity that surrounded them. Sub-fields emerged in the history of the family, labor, immigration, urbanization, childhood, and other fields. Borrowings from the fields of kidss homework, cultural anthropology, economic and social theory, psychology, sociology, and other disciplines informed historical inquiry like never before. As a young graduate student who had somehow escaped from these same social origins, it was inspirational to see scholars newly engaged in studies on indentured servants, slaves, factory workers, immigrants, white and black farm laborers, women, and others long ignored. Likewise, Atlantic history has been no less inspiring and it has greatly influenced current research and writing on colonial American history in general, and the Americans (used interchangeably with Indians and native people) in particular.

Atlantic World scholars have drawn attention to how the process of history washed over the “New World” landscape bringing with it its own compelling sources of change and gender social, continuity. The Atlantic World approach to kidss homework, colonial history brought with it a distinct set of assets and liabilities. On the one hand, it reinvigorated interest in the colonial world and opened new vistas of inquiry. On the other hand, ironically in some iterations it has inadvertently reinforced some of the Eurocentrism and nationalism, especially with regard to the history of native peoples, that its approach seemed well-positioned to correct. Students of indigenous populations face significant obstacles. Of the most formidable is the biased textual record the invaders left. Almost everything we know about sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Indians emanates from European chroniclers. Comparing multiple first-hand accounts in a comparative i.e., French, English, Spanish, and Dutch writings context can overcome some of the bias naturally built into social construction one-sided perspectives. Archaeological evidence can provide some correctives. Perhaps most promising of master thesis template, all is ethnographic analyses of Indian behavior. Studying Indians up close in discrete contexts, what social historians have called “thick description,” provides more certainty and sure-footedness in interpreting scant evidence and overcoming the attitudes and social, paying close attention to local circumstances and conditions from their unique historical perspective.

In other words, thick description means not just describing behavior, but analyzing behavior in its context in ways that can be understood today. It requires an ethnographic approach, the system of meanings encoded in material and master thesis template tu delft, spiritual culture. Historians like Karen Ordahl Kupperman provide a good example of gender essay, ethnogenetic analysis. In a chapter on “reading Indian bodies, Kupperman looked at hair styles, posture, dress, tattoos, and other signifiers of “self-presentation.” The author has also used this same approach to pursue the ethnogenesis of chatterjee thesis, American Indians broadly in sixteenth century North America. Critical Appraisal of Atlantic History. The most recent critical appraisal of gender, Atlantic history gives preference to essay orwell, John Elliott’s definition: the study of the creation, destruction, and re-creation of communities as a result of the movement, across and around the Atlantic basin, of people, commodities, cultural practices, and values. Gender Essay. The appraisal list five objections to Atlantic history: 1. lack of coherence or unity; 2. uncertain boundary or entity; 3. imperial history in thesis new clothes; 4. Ignores or deflects attention from indigenous populations; and 5. links areas of gender social essay, Atlantic or transnational relations in border zones at expense of developments in discrete areas. Let’s examine three ways Atlantic-centric approaches have shaped interpretations of early colonization with special attention to North American Indians. First, setting colonial settlements into a broader, transnational, Atlantic World context has raised new questions and challenges to previous interpretations. Alan Taylor, for example, has pointed out that the North American population from 1492 to 1776 actually declined.

Many readers will be surprised to proposal, hear this statement, given the large numbers of gender social, immigrants in the period, especially after the 1700s. Despite this influx of kidss homework, immigrants and the thousands of Africans forcibly transported the losses of North America’s native people, decimated by disease, warfare, and a massive uprooting of Indian communities, more than made up for social construction, these additions. Consequently, colonial American history, cannot be appropriately cast as the “peopling” of America. Resume. Such an interpretation is a good example of the persistence of Eurocentric perspectives still present in early generation Atlantic World studies. Indeed, rather than the settling of America, it was really the unsettling that was roiling the seventeenth century continent. Second, the gender social essay Atlantic World approach shifted the emphasis upon possible for the small colonial settlements to sweep over entire continents: Europe, Africa, South America, and North America. Characteristically, early Atlantic World scholarship underscored the theme of victimization. The most influential work in this vein has been Alfred Crosby’s Columbian Exchange, emphasizing “the biological and gender essay, cultural consequences of 1492.” Crosby charted the extraordinary impact of sourabh chatterjee thesis, Columbus’ voyages on the ecosystem. Pestilential diseases like smallpox, measles, and influenza devastated native populations. The most stunning and controversial part of the Columbian Exchange concerns the death rate of Indians of uncertain dimensions.

Pick a number between one and 25 million in Mexico and Peru and gender, another one to 12 million in North America, the exact figures are still unclear, but numbers so large it is impossible to comprehend losses on such an unparalleled scale. Essay For The. The speed and essay, scale of the projected losses “boggle the mind,” according to historian Colin G. Calloway, one reason researchers may have been reluctant to accept them for so long, he observes. Crosby’s work deserves the recognition it has received for bringing such a catastrophe to kidss homework, the world’s attention. Crosby considered both sides of the equation, but the social essay Columbian Exchange is essentially a narrative of victimization. For the most part, only plants, animals, and diseases were exchanged.

A third more recent direction in Atlantic World History is providing a corrective to the agentless perspective that victimization underscored. For The Russian Revolution. Scholars have begun to approach the essay study of Indians, not simply as victims or objects but, as one Indian chief put it when 2007 planners asked why Virginia Indians objected to the use of the term “celebration” for kidss homework, the 400th anniversary at Jamestown: “because we helped the English survive and build a nation.” Recently, it is this direction that has been taken in gender social construction the study of resume eit engineer, North America’s native people during the gender construction essay sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In Daniel Richter’s eloquent phrase, when we “face east from Indian country,” we open the kidss homework door on gender, what James Merrell has called the chance to observe and illuminate a “new world” for Indian people. This approach turns away from economics, using the telescope to view Europeans up close and Indians from gender construction essay, afar and instead reverses the proposal lens to examine Indians up close with Europeans in the distance. Part of my research focuses upon a group where agency might least be expected: the liminal Algonquians. Liminals and the Algonquian Exchange. The Algonquians constituted a large and gender construction essay, diverse array of speakers who occupied the Atlantic seaboard from Labrador to North Carolina and along the northern and western margins of Iroquoia to Lake Superior. From New England to North Carolina they practiced a mixed economy in beans essay orwell which hunting and gathering supplemented horticulture or fishing and essay, sustained many large and permanent villages. When the French, Spanish, Dutch, and English invaders came, they immediately became dependent upon economics dissertation local natives for knowledge of the area and good relations with the local population. Often their very survival depended upon the native people.

In order to ensure success, the Europeans typically brought with them, or found them shortly after arrival, figures they had previously abducted or new captures to use as guides, interpreters, trade negotiators, and cultural translators. Algonquian figures occupied the social, economic, and diplomatic space between Europeans and Algonquian nations. Often forced to serve two masters, despite being victims at times of colonial imperialism, ironically Algonquian liminals found agency despite their predicament and construction essay, became vital instruments in the course of colonial American history. This perspectival turn in possible questions for the revolution examining Algonquian history presents an opportunity to privilege agency as the genesis of what may be called here the social Algonquian Exchange. For interpretive and analytical purposes, the Algonquian Exchange might be seen as the possible russian contrapuntal force to the Columbian Exchange. In this usage of the term, we move beyond, although do not dispute, the abundant evidence of victims and their “contributions” to history, towards a deeper search for the evidence of the many ways that Indians, in this case Algonquians, became part of the gender DNA of America, influenced its development, and carried forward their genetic cultural markers in the core culture.

Algonquian Creoles: Pocahontas, Tisquantum, and Pacquiquineo. The most intriguing, elusive, and underappreciated figures in the history of Atlantic World colonization are those individuals we might designate as Algonquian creoles. Possible Questions For The Russian Revolution. These were men and women who served as the interface between two worlds. Gender Social Construction. At times suspected by both and usually trusted by neither, they served in a variety of kidss homework, capacities. Creoles could speak English (or Spanish or French), were familiar with the ways of the invaders, understood how to deal with fellow Algonquians, and were thoroughly familiar with local geography.

Algonquian creoles were usually forced into the brokerage role. In 1609, Smith’s men captured Kemps and Tassore, two “Chickamanians,” and they “daily wrought and taught us how to order our fields.” Sometimes brokers were arranged exchanges. Examples of this type are Namontack who traveled with Christopher Newport back to England in 1608. Thomas Savage, an English boy, was left with Powhatan in exchange for Namontack. Uttamatommakin (also known as Tomocomo or Tomakin) went with Pocahontas to social construction essay, England in 1616 and 1617 as Powhatan’s envoy and “reporter.” The most famous Algonquian creole at Jamestown, Pocahontas was abducted, sent to the English fort near Richmond where Rev. Alexander Whitaker instructed her in Christianity. Spilling Beans By George. Later, she was baptized in gender social construction a public ceremony at Jamestown’s church and grew into the brokerage role, as she moved from playing innocent games with English boys as a child and spilling the spanish essay by george, morphed as an adult into the most effective and influential broker in the Virginia colony. New England had creole figures just as valuable as Pocahontas. Tisquantum (“Squanto”), a native Patuxet lived at present-day Plymouth. The Patuxet belonged to the Wampanoag confederation of tribes. His early life is obscure.

In 1614, his story begins with the arrival of Captain John Smith and construction essay, men on several ships who came to map Cape Cod and vicinity. After Smith completed his work, he left for kidss homework, England, leaving in charge, Captain Thomas Hunt with instructions to engage the Indians in construction essay trade. But Hunt had other ideas. Economics Dissertation. He lured 24 Nauset and Patuxet Algonquians onto his ship with an offer to social essay, trade beaver and took them captive. He stowed them in the hole of the ship and sailed to the Straits of Gibraltar and on to Malaga, Spain, where he sold as many as he could into slavery. Luckily for a few, friars in Malaga discovered what had happened, took custody of the rest and instructed them in Christianity. Back in America, the Nauset and Patuxet tribes were furious. English and kidss homework, French ships were no longer welcomed in Cape Cod and Plymouth and the beaver trade came to a halt. Gender Social. In 1617, an template, unwitting French captain wrecked his ship on the north shore of Cape Cod. The Indians burned the crippled ship, killed all of the crew except three or four who were kept as slaves. One of the French mariners who had learned enough of the Algonquian language to communicate with them felt moved to tell the survivors that “God was angry with them for their wickedness, and would destroy them and give their country to another people.” A sachem spurned the prediction, assembled his tribe on a nearby hill, and challenged the French to prove that his God had such power over so many people.

The Frenchman assured them that he “surely would.” Within three years, everything the mariner predicted had come true: a disease epidemic, variously attributed in historical sources to tuberculosis or smallpox or both devastated the tribe. Tisquantum, one of the Indians Hunt had abducted, survived the plague and made his way from Spain to England where he learned English and signed on with the treasurer of the Newfoundland Company colony as an interpreter and expert on North American natural resources. There he met Thomas Dermer, a ship’s captain who had worked with John Smith when he mapped Cape Cod. The New England Company, headed by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, wanted to reestablish the beaver trade with the gender construction Massachusetts Algonquians and realized that Tisquantum could be a valuable asset to thesis, smooth the way as a peacemaker; they could use his strong English skills as interpreter with the still angry Patuxets. Like the Atlantic creoles of West Africa who served in the slave trade, Gorges saw that Algonquian creoles like Tisquantum could act to essay, broker trade exchanges between Indians, fur dealers, and the Newfoundland Company. After bringing Dermer and Tisquantum back to England briefly to make plans, he sent them in 1619 to reestablish trade and map out the natural resources that the New England Company hoped to kidss homework, exploit. But when they arrived at Tisquantum’s town, they found everyone dead from the plague. Tisquantum located Massasoit and his brother Quadequina, the heads of the Wampanoag Confederation and construction, took up with them. Soon after Tisquantum’s return home, the Mayflower pilgrims arrived at Provincetown Harbor in November 1620.

As they sent out their own expedition parties, on the third foray they were attacked by the Nauset. All escaped unharmed but the Pilgrims continued their expeditions around Cape Cod, eventually ending up in Patuxet territory in the area named Plymouth on thesis template tu delft, Smith’s map. The Pilgrims worked out of the Mayflower for months, rarely seeing an social construction, Indian, before they moved onto land in March. On 16 March an Algonquian named Samoset surprised them when he walked right into the colony. Samoset knew a little English picked up from the fishermen around the harbors, enough to tell the Pilgrims about Tisquantum and his superior language skills. On 22 March, Tisquantum came with Massasoit and Quadequina to thesis, the English colony. Together the Pilgrims and the three Indians negotiated a peace treaty to establish trading relations. Tisquantum soon became a key figure in gender social the trade alliance and an integral member of the Plymouth Colony, translating and negotiating between Plymouth’s governors, including William Bradford, and tribal leaders like Massasoit. He made peace with the Nauset and economics, with a number of other Indian leaders in the Wampanoag Confederation. He also taught the Pilgrims how to manage local resources, catch eels, plant corn, and use fish fertilizer to improve production.

Without Tisquantum, the social construction essay Plymouth Colony may not have survived. The same might be said of Pacquiquineo, an kidss homework, Algonquian creole who figured most prominently in the English settlement of Jamestown. In 1561, winds blew a Spanish caravel off course on the South Carolina coast and drove the vessel several hundred miles north. The Spaniards anchored “in a large river, possibly the gender Chickahominy.” There they encountered a group of Algonquians and dissertation proposal, two of them “(‘a principal and his servant’) were forced or “agreed to accompany them on their voyage.” The principal was named Paquiquineo, a boy of about 12 years of age. Construction. Since he was reported to have a servant, he was obviously of high status. He was of the Paspahegh tribe. Paspahegh was the name of the entire area on the Powhatan (James) River extending southeastward from the mouth of the Chickahominy to well beyond the peninsula that later became Jamestown. In 1570, Spanish Jesuits returned to Chesapeake Bay, with Paquiquineo as an interpreter and thesis tu delft, guide to establish the Ajacán mission in Virginia to convert the Indians to Christianity. The Jesuit priest Father Juan Rogel headed the Virginia mission and another priest, Father Juan Baptista de Segura, reported to him from the field.

Both had worked to establish missions at St. Augustine and Santa Elena. The group also included Father Luis de Quiros, and six lay brothers (Gabriel Gomes, Sancho Cevallos, Juan Baptista Mendez, Pedro de Linares, Gabriel de Solis, and Christobal Redondo). They took with them Paquiquineo and Alonzo de Olmos, son of a Florida colonist and an altar boy who did not want to be separated from the priests he had served. The location of the Ajacán mission was near the Indian town of Kiskiack on the Pamunkey (York) River. Segura and his fellow Jesuits labored under difficult conditions.

A severe six-year drought plagued Virginia. Famine among Algonquian populations often accompanied these periods of sparse rain and high temperatures. The Virginia Algonquians had come to depend upon crops of corn, beans, and gender, squash to supplement their hunter-gatherer diet and compensate for the periodic scarcities of resume eit engineer, game and fish. Unfortunately, low rainfalls also meant poor agricultural yields so that drought brought intense competition for all available food sources. Social Construction Essay. Roving bands of Indians, some from the sourabh chatterjee thesis North, attacked town populations to rob their fields and storage bins for their own needs.

The arrival of gender social essay, missionaries and the spanish beans by george orwell, soldiers during these times, as was the case at Jamestown, exacerbated already attenuated environmental conditions and made Indians far less charitable that might otherwise have been the case. Social Construction Essay. Upon arrival, Pacquiquineo learned of hardships the Paspahegh were undergoing, suffering greatly from the effects of drought and famine. During these times of thesis, distress, Indian religious leaders rose in essay importance in their communities to give spiritual explanations to unusual phenomena like famine, disease, and the sudden appearance of strangers in their midst. Epiphenomenal conditions among native populations translated readily into spiritually signifying explanations. Paquiquineo’s reappearance surprised local Algonquians. The combination of famine, strange visitors, and kidss homework, the sudden visitation of an Algonquian figure long since vanished suggested supernatural forces at work. The Paspahegh reasoned encouraged by interpretations of social, their shamans -- that he had returned from the dead. His arrival at such a time likely signaled some kind of spiritual sign, something equivalent to essay for the revolution, the Ghost Dance phenomenon that Plains Indians of the social construction late nineteenth century experienced. He may have been seen as a prophet, for example, who would lead them and show the way out of their misery of kidss homework, famine, warfare, and gender social essay, invasion. Chatterjee. Of course, the Jesuits had no appreciation for how local environmental and social conditions and Algonquian spirituality might intersect. For them behavioral manifestations of distress in the forms of religious dances, prophecies, and spiritual awakenings would likely be seen as signs of paganism.

Moreover, they clearly did not see in Paquiquineo any signs of gender essay, doubt and alienation. For several years, Paquiquineo had cleverly practiced the art of tu delft, dissimulation, kept his real feelings to himself, while openly he expressed his eagerness to convert his people. Within five days of the gender construction essay group’s arrival, to questions, the utter surprise of the Jesuit priests, Paquiquineo turned quickly away from essay, his captors, and crossed back into the world of the Paspahegh. He simply disappeared, and sourabh chatterjee, when he did not return in gender social construction essay a few months, the three priests, now in need of supplies, went to find him. It was a tragic mistake; the Paspahegh followed the priests and master thesis tu delft, killed them. Five days later, they arrived at the Spanish Virginia mission and exterminated everyone in the camp, except for Olmos, the boy who lived to gender, tell the story. Thereafter Paquiquineo disappears from all historical records. But did he really disappear or did he reappear as a different person? Catholic legend paints a not unexpectedly dark image of Paquiquineo.

An account of thesis, lay brother Juan de la Carrera years later referred to construction essay, him as “a wretched native” and a “second Judas.” Carrera reported that he went off and lived a pagan life with his uncle “a chief in a country far distant from resume eit engineer, ours,” where he engaged in gender social essay “marrying many women in a pagan way.” The Powhatan practice of chiefs taking multiple wives was just another sign of paganism to Catholics. Looking at it from Paquiquineo’s perspective, he might have responded that if the Jesuits had been more like their namesake, he would have been far less likely to have acted like Judas. After all, he was aware of thesis template tu delft, Indians in Florida being labeled as devil worshipers and the commonly reported abuse of soldiers. Gender Social Essay. He had witnessed the contradiction between the thesis template tu delft message of kindness and humanity and the practice of cruelty, slavery, and violence, especially against those who opposed the invaders. Time does not permit a fulsome explication of the Algonquian exchange.

Yet, based upon a few examples, it is social construction essay clear that Algonquian creoles provide a promising window on agency, indigeneity, and some of the features of the Algonquian exchange. Essay By George Orwell. Pocahontas saved the Jamestown colony from devastating attacks at critical moments. Her marriage to John Rolfe ensured years of peace. Thomas, her son, became a Virginia landowner, fought in an alliance against essay Indian attackers, and possible essay for the russian, accumulated a substantial estate. Without question, the Algonquians helped the coastal invaders survive and build a nation. At vulnerable moments in Virginia and New England, when the social Algonquians might have snuffed out the resume eit engineer fledging colonies, they acted instead to gender social essay, provide what was needed for the invaders to survive: corn and seed, peace and possible essay, trade negotiations, and interpreters and guides to construction, the terrain, language, and cultural practices of the Algonquians. They taught the invaders fishing and hunting skills, how to cultivate “new world” crops, avoid contaminated water, and live under conditions of master thesis, drought.

Without Tisquantum, the Pilgrims at Plymouth would have been unable to gender social, establish peace with local Indians, engage in the fur trade, or even survive. Possible. Without the intervention of Pacquiquineo, the Spanish might have made Virginia a Spanish colony and consolidated their control of the North American coast from Virginia to Florida. Instead, he assured the social essay success of English competition with rival European powers that allowed the Chesapeake colony to sourabh chatterjee thesis, become the first permanent English settlement in North America. Social. Recent research has discovered evidence of how Algonquians influenced Euro-American family and child-rearing practices and political organization, and master thesis template, made additional contributions to the Algonquian exchange in folk medicine, astronomical observations, map making, and other areas yet to be explored. Clearly, we stand to gender, learn much more about the Algonquian exchange when we face east from Indian country. The author wishes to thank the British Association for American Studies, British Association for Canadian Studies, and the Eccles Centre at the British Library for the award as Eccles Centre Visiting Professor in North American Studies 2008-2009, which made possible the research, reflection, and writing of parts of this essay.

A version of the essay was presented at Professor Dennis Hidalgo’s Atlantic World Colloquium, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, 26 March 2012. On the theory of thick description and his own method of ethnography, see Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures; Selected Essays (New York: Basic Books, 1973); on the ethnography of Virginia Indians, see Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Ch. Kidss Homework. 2., “Reading Indian Bodies,” in Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2000), 41-76; see also Crandall Shifflett, : “Clothing and Self Presentation,” in American Centuries: The Ideas, Issues, and Trends that Made U.S. History , ed. Karen Ordahl Kupperman (New York: Facts on File, 2011), 31-37.

John Elliott, Afterword, Atlantic History: A Circumnavigation, in David Armitage and Michael J. Braddick, eds., The Atlantic World, 1500-1800 (New York: Palgrave, 2002), pp. Gender Construction. 233-249, esp. 239. See James C. Kelly and thesis, Barbara Clark Smith, “Introduction,” in Kelly and gender construction, Smith, Jamestown.Quebec.Santa Fe: Three North American Beginnings (Washington and the spanish beans by george, New York: Smithsonian Books, 2007), 10-15, on these perspectives that are summarized and elaborated here. Gender Essay. On the present state of the field, see Jack P. Master Thesis. Greene and Philip D. Morgan, Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal (New York : Oxford University Press, 2009), esp. “Introduction: the Present State of Atlantic History,” 3-33. Alan Taylor, American Colonies . The Penguin History of the United States, Eric Foner, ed. (New York: Viking Penguin, 2001), xi. Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of gender social construction, British North America: an Introduction (New York: Knopf, 1986) and kidss homework, Bailyn with the assistance of Barbara DeWolfe, Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1986). On Virginia as an Atlantic colony, see April Lee Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004). For an overview and assessment of the various estimates of disease-related population loss, see Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 107-112. On “boggle,” see C. Gender Social Construction Essay. G. Calloway, One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West before Lewis and Clark (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003), 415. James H. Economics. Merrell, “The Indians New World: The Catawba Experience,” WMQ , 3d ser., 41(1984), 537-65.

Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from social essay, Indian Country: A Native History of economics proposal, Early America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001). Taylor, American Colonies , 93. Quotation: Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War (New York: Viking Penguin, 2006), 52; http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/History/BiographyTisquantum.php, retrieved 9 March 2012. For descriptions of the Spanish visits and the documents in the Spanish archives, see Conway Robinson, An account of discoveries in essay the West until 1519, and of voyages to and along the Atlantic Coast of North America, from 1520-1573 . (Prepared for master thesis tu delft, “The Virginia historical and philosophical society.” Published by the society. Richmond: Shepherd and Colin, 1848), quotation, 486n. Bruce Trigger’s studies have linked spiritual explanations and epiphenomenal behavior in premodern Indian populations.

See Bruce G. Trigger, “Early Native American Responses to European Contact: Romantic versus Rationalistic Interpretations,” Journal of American History 77:4 (March 1991), 1195-1215. For quotations: “wretched life,” “second Judas,” “chief in a country”, and “marrying” see Horn, A Land as God Hath Made It , 7, and social essay, “rising fortunes,” 3. For quotation “missions to resume, discover,” see Robinson, An account of discoveries , 486. Lewis and Loomie, Spanish Jesuit Mission in Virginia , 109, 119, and 134, refer to the Jesuit mission as a “day and gender social essay, a half away” and “10 leagues” (30 miles). This may or may not be reliable.

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Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments Essay Sample. Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, and water fern) is a genus of construction essay seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like conventional ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses. Azolla is kidss homework a free floating aquatic fern, which nowadays can be found in freshwater environments in gender social, temperate and tropical regions all over the world. Kidss Homework? It ranks among the gender social construction fastest growing plants on Earth and spilling essay orwell due to its association with the nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae, it is independent of extern organic nitrogen. In that way Azolla is not only known to fix huge amounts of carbon, but as well to produce vast amounts of organic nitrogen.

The nutrient, which mainly limits the growth of Azolla, is phosphorous. Azolla is rich in protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. It is the only plant used as biofertilizer in agriculture or as a green manure for wetland rice in Northern Vietnam, and Central and Southern China because of its high nitrogen content. In early 1980’s the use of Azolla in South Cotabato, Philippines was widely published. Azolla plants have been described by social construction essay the Chinese and Vietnamese as being miniature nitrogen fertilizer factories. Azolla is traditionally used throughout Asia and parts of Africa as feed for livestock, poultry and fish such as tilapia, red pacu, carps and chatterjee other herbivorous and omnivorous species.

As animal feed, Azolla contains high level of protein (about 20 30% of dry weight. Gender Essay? Some literatures suggest higher protein level of 50 60%) and fat. At times Azolla is economics proposal also used as human food. Azolla is construction important to reproduce for it contributes more useful benefits. REPRODUCTION RATE OF COLOR GREEN AND BROWN AZOLLA AS EXPOSED IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS OUTPUT. 1.) Reproduction rate of master template tu delft green and gender brown azolla under the sun and on kidss homework a covered or dim environment PROCESS. Exposition under the sun and on gender construction a covered or dim environment INPUT. Statement of the eit engineer problem. 1) What color or type of gender construction essay Azolla (the green or brown) has the fastest reproduction rate in light and dim environments? 2.) What is the suitable environment for the growth and reproduction rate of a normal azolla?

Is it under the sun (bright) or a covered dim environment? Hypothesis. Azolla is spilling the spanish beans by george orwell a plant fern which lives in paddy water and other freshwater environments. Gender Social? As a plant, it needs primary factors and requirements to grow and chatterjee thesis reproduce, it needs sunlight, water, and a good environment. So therefore, Azolla cultured outside with sunlight will reproduce and grow faster rather than Azolla cultured in gender essay, dim without light. Scope and Delimitation of the study. This study was limited and focused to the reproduction rate of the 2 colors (green and resume eit engineer brown) of social construction Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) when cultured under indoor and outdoor environment conditions. This research was conducted at GIFTED Learning Centre, Inc.

Among the aspects considered were: 1.) Determination of what color of Azolla multiplies faster from indoor environmental condition and outdoor environmental condition. 2.) Determination of what kind of Azolla multiplies the fastest from the economics proposal over-all samples and considering of what environmental condition ( bright – under the sun and gender dim – covered environment) it’s being exposed. Importance of the study. The result of this study will provide relevant information which may help the following: 1. Department of essay questions for the russian revolution Health (DOH). Since azolla is gender social essay proven to be a mosquito repellant, so by spilling beans essay orwell knowing on how and where to reproduce it, this agency can conduct a study in the prevention of dengue here in the Philippines.

2. Gender Construction? Agricultural and sourabh fish industry owners. Due to its high protein, amino acid, vitamin and nitrogen content, azolla was proven to be substitute food of social construction essay some herbivore, and possible essay questions russian omnivore species. It may also be used as biofertilizer in gender construction, agriculture for possible questions for the russian revolution, some plants. So by reproducing azolla, we can associate larger possibilities for some of its benefits. 3. Squatters area settlers. Azolla culturing especially in squatters area is a great help for the community in reducing dengue cases having azolla been proved as the alternative mosquito repellant plant. 4. Students. Azolla is essay ensured with significant benefits that will contribute for the betterment of living. Therefore, students should continue or explore deeper investigation in azolla culturing.

Definition of terms. 1.) Salviniaceae – these are heterosporous floating aquatic plants. The genus Azolla is commonly included within the economics proposal family. 2.) Duckweed – is the common name for a family of small aquatic herbs known as Lemnaceae that grows in fresh water. They have the unique distinction of being the smallest flowering plants on earth. These plants are also unique in gender, that they do not have any stem or leaf structures. The plant is simply a fleshy ovoid or flattened structure that may or may not bear simple roots. These highly successful plants represent the ultimate in reduction for a vascular plant.

Duckweed is ubiquitous to most temperate and tropical regions of the proposal world, making it readily available to most farmers. They are typically found floating in thick mats of homogeneous populations in quiet streams or ponds containing high levels of gender social essay organic matter. 3.) Cyanobacteria – are prokaryotes (single-celled organisms) often referred to as “blue-green algae.” While most algae is eukaryotic (multi-celled), cyanobacteria is the only exception. Cyanobacteria obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are not strictly unicellular, but can be found in thesis, colonial and filamentous forms, some of which differentiate into varying roles. For example, cyanobacteria specialized for nitrogen fixation is called heterocysts. 4.) Paddy water- is a structural form of water like a rice field. 5.) Salinity- the saltiness of the water and can be measured by a refractometer. 6.) Intracrop – is a product similar to fertilizers, specially formulated to condition water for farming and agriculture. 7.) Carbofuran – is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides.

It is marketed under the trade names Furadan, by FMC Corporation and Curater, among several others. It is gender social construction used to control insects in a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans. It is a systemic insecticide, which means that the plant absorbs it through the roots, and from here the master thesis tu delft plant distributes it throughout its organs where insecticidal concentrations are attained. Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. SOURCE: Azolla Utilization Proceedings on gender the workshops of Azolla use SPONSORED BY: The Fujan Academy of essay russian revolution Agricultural Sciences (Fuzhou, Fujian, China) and The International Rice Institute (Los Banos, Laguna ,Philippines) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS. Climate. Especially the climate variables that affect Azolla growth, is difficult to manipulate.

To determine the climatic variables and interactions that most influence Azolla growth, climatic variables were regressed on the RGR of Azolla species that had been grown in a year-round pot experiment. The correlation analysis of construction data recorded during hot humid weather indicated that temperature and humidity had a negative effect on growth rate and solar radiation had a positive influence. Although it may be possible to orwell, develop management practices that give some degree of control over social construction, these variables, the environment which Azolla lives encompasses many other interacting factors. For example Azolla’s susceptibility to fungal pathogens probably interacts with high temperature and sourabh thesis humidity. Algal blooms not only compete with azolla for nutrients but also cause change of pH in the paddy water which can result nutrients from the solution. They also restrict water movement which can result in high water temperatures lethal to gender social construction essay, azolla. A true picture of Azolla’s environmental requirements cannot be given by describing individual requirements in isolation. Often the interactions or indirect effects of factors are more important than the direct effect. Unfortunately very little research has been conducted on the interactions of environmental factors. ENVIRONMNTAL FACTORS. Water.

The lack of good control and availability of kidss homework water in rice growing areas is the primary constraint to the spread of Azolla use. As a delicate aquatic plant, Azolla can survive only for a few minutes on a dry surface under the tropical sun, and for essay, a few days on paddy sol that dries during intermittent rains. Some varieties can survive indefinitely on moist, shaded mud, but will not multiply to any useful extent without a water surface on which to spread. Thus, without good water control and availability, Azolla multiplication will not succeed. The need for water extends beyond the growing season and remains important to a limited extent throughout the year. A small amount of water must be available to maintain nursery stocks of Azolla plants during the off- seasons. A larger amount of water will be needed for kidss homework, the multiplication of is nursery before wide-scale field multiplication begins as the rice season approaches. Unfortunately, a large quantity of water is construction essay usually not available for growing Azolla just before rice crop is planted. The source of water is also important. Like rice, Azolla grows better during dry seasons when irrigation water is available.

If water comes from precipitation, additional problems may occur. For The Russian? A rice farmer on the east coast of India, Vietnam, and China, or anywhere in the Philippines can have his entire Azolla crop washed away by typhoon. Farmers in a monsoon area can suffer the same fate from excessive rainfall, which causes flooding. With the exception of a few areas such as South Cotabato in the Philippines, most farmers will need to gender construction essay, invest considerably effort to produce an Azolla crop. This investment can be completely lost due to flooding or a mild drought. Light. The growth rate of Azolla has been reported to chatterjee, saturate at 25-50% of gender construction essay full sunlight, and is not inhibited by full sunlight as long as other factors are not limiting. As an intercrop under rice, the growth rate of Azolla will begin to decline as the developing rice canopy reduces light quantity and quality below that necessary to saturate growth rate. The rice canopy will start influencing growth about 2-3 wk after transplanting and economics will stop growth in most Azolla species at 45 day after transplanting, depending on such factors as rice maturation period, leaf area index, weather, paddy water fertility, etc. An aspect of gender construction essay shading which is of possible interest but has not been studied is the intracrop shading of Azolla as it becomes crowded.

As in other crops, crowding probably results in competition for light, nutrients, etc. It is the spanish beans essay by george orwell difficult to take measurements within the construction Azolla canopy because of the smallness of essay questions revolution Azolla, but it is not impossible. Competition can be measured indirectly through RGR (Relative Growth Rate). Further research could help optimize productivity of biomass and accumulated Nitrogen if more information was available about intracrop competition. Day length is another aspect of light. Growth rate has been shown to positively correlate today length and continuous to increase up to continuous illumination .higher latitudes , such as Central China, will have a longer day length during the late spring and early summer Azolla growing season than the tropics which have an almost uniform day length all year round. Social Construction? Azolla growth rate is higher and higher latitudes than in the tropics. Temperature. Temperature is probably the the spanish essay most important limiting environmental factor in Azolla cultivation.

It is also very difficult to manipulate. Its direct effects are not as serious s it indirect influences. For example, certain Azolla varieties can grow at temperatures of gender essay 40 ° C or higher and some management practices can prevent paddy weather temperatures from exceeding 40° C in most cases if water is available. The most serious problem with temperature is its stimulating effect on azolla pests, e.g. insects, pathogenic fungi, and free living algae. The optimum temperature for most azolla species is within the range of 20-35 ° C. at higher temperatures in this range and above, the generation time for insects and the growth rate of fungi greatly increase. Chatterjee? Insects particularly Lepidoptera and dipteral, can destroy azolla crops if pesticides such as carbofuran or BHC are not used.

Often insects will sample a small part of plant highly susceptible to various fungi which attack azolla and can greatly magnify the insect damage under hot-humid conditions. Construction Essay? Because high temperatures are not a direct limitation, azolla has an essay russian excellent potential for successful cultivation in irrigated deserts where humidity is relatively low and alternate host plants for insects are limited. azolla does very well on gender essay the northern border of Senegal in west Africa (Van Hove, pers. Possible Essay For The Russian? Comm.) and can probably do well in the traditional rice areas of Mali with good water control. Mineral Nutrition. Because Azolla is an aquatic plant, essential elements must be available in the water for Azolla to survive. Azolla requires all essential plant elements plus Mo or Co for N Fixation.

However, most paddy water does not contain an adequate balance of social construction essay essential elements for successful Azolla cultivation. Phosphorus has been the most common limiting element for Azolla growth. The threshold concentration of P in Azolla Tissue is probably about 0.2-0.3% on a dry wt. basis. Resume? P stressed plants are usually smaller, pink to red less vigorous, and have a low concentration of total N. Under severe stress, the social construction essay plants become highly compact and dark red, and often develop very long curled roots. P deficiency can be overcome by spilling beans orwell applying P fertilizer. In some situations, deficient plants may be able to extract sufficient P from paddy soil if the water level can be reduced to the point the azolla roots can touch the soil. Water quality. Several other aspects of water quality have been studied. Pollution from sewage and gender construction herbicides is of little concern to developing countries, but may be important as azolla cultivation is attempted. Other factors are known to limit azolla use. pH is perhaps the most important in sourabh, developing countries.

Optimum growth of azolla in culture solution is in pH range of 4.5-7, but azolla can survive in pH 3.5-10 if all essential elements are available. The most important concern about pH is the availability of essential elements in the paddy water. The pH of most acids and alkaline soils changes toward the range of 6-7 a few weeks after flooding. However, some acid sols – acid sulfate and histosols— which are low in gender construction essay, organic matter of active Fe or high in sulfate, may not reach a pH of 6.0 even after months of submergence. These acid soils can create toxic levels of A1 and Fe, and the spanish essay by george orwell P deficiencies in the paddy water. Gender Construction? Saline soils often have a pH greater than seven and questions russian revolution may be deficient in P, Zn, and construction essay Cu. Chinese researchers recommended that water for azolla cultivation should contain no more than 0.3% salt. Higher salt concentrations decreased plant N, and more salt increased plat N. Haller et al found that A. caroliniana growth ceased when the concentration reached .3%.

Salinity or alkalinity may be a problem to essay questions russian, rice fields located along the coast and in poorly drained irrigated desserts, such as in areas of Pakistan. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY. This chapter presents the methodology used in the research. It describes the method and social materials used in gathering, presenting, analyzing and template interpreting the gender construction data. 1. Kidss Homework? First, the researchers collected 12 empty gallons. Then they removed the upper part of the gallons. 2. The researchers put the soil (600g) on every gallon using the electric. 3. Gender Essay? The researchers put 800 ml of freshwater on every gallon. 4. After putting the exact amount of resume soil and water, the researchers put the green azolla on gender social 6 gallons and brown azolla for the remaining gallons. Each gallon contains 10 azolla. 5. The researchers investigated and observed them for three (3) weeks by putting three gallons containing green azolla and three (3) gallons containing brown azolla outside under the sun, and by putting the remaining three (3) gallons containing green azolla and three (3) gallons containing brown azolla in our classroom which is free from dust and dirt which was instructed by kidss homework Ms.

Mary Joy Gonzales. Gender Social Essay? The researchers also brought the azolla home every weekend to investigate continuously and master template consistently and to monitor them. 6. Every week the researchers record the growth of azolla by counting them manually. They also took pictures of them. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and construction essay order Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Color Green and Brown Azolla as Exposed in Different Environments. I went for proposal, a field trip to Sekinchan on the 25th July for 3 days.

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