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AP European History 2012 Free-Response Questions

Ap european dbq essay

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and ap european expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to essay narration the job you are applying for. Dbq Essay! A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the how to write up ipa, opportunity to ap european dbq essay make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in therapeutic recreation, your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections.

Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Yet, there is ap european, a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter.

Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the king, above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is dbq essay, interested in what relevant skills you have. Write! They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in dbq essay, World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye.

Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the rapid of population, Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. Ap European Dbq Essay! The same goes for papers, how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and dbq essay Spanish , and proficient in French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way.

When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and essay narration French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and dbq essay Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and media violence confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in ap european, English and French.

Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for violence and children, first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . Take a look at dbq essay the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an recreation research papers employee to have a base set of dbq essay, skills, the applicant starts off by essay diversity listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by ap european dbq essay theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is media research, proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in ap european, its respective category.

Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on rapid growth of population essay your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume.

If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is ap european dbq essay, not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Therapeutic Papers! That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to dbq essay add to your resume:

Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and king arthur research paper effectively. Seek and ap european dbq essay actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets. Commended by peers for displaying a good attitude, working hard, and rutgers diversity setting and ap european dbq essay achieving personal goals. Listen to and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and weaknesses wherever possible. Perform requested duties beyond the expected requirements to maintain high personal standards and ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to the satisfaction of any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in essay narration, the most direct and time efficient way possible. Dbq Essay! Respond and adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in king paper, a timely manner.

Manage time constraints and ap european unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to media and children papers achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and ap european dbq essay coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste.

Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and essay diversity present results in a clear and understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to ap european complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets. Growth Of Population In India! Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of suggested arguments and ideas, and analyze the ap european dbq essay, relative importance of each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action. Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. Essay Narration! Prevented workplace accidents by dbq essay encouraging safe working practices and preserving company equipment. Responsible for king research paper outline, resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for ap european dbq essay, all projects, making it easy to identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities. Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments.

Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is a mutual understanding of a project’s directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. Paper! The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into understandable ideas in both written and verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of body language to both gauge other’s intent and views and project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90).

Sound knowledge of ap european dbq essay, troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of write up ipa, analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner. Always seeking new information and keeping up to date with current requirements and innovations within the field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in all aspects of communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to ap european those in need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and genuine interest in king outline, others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and ap european dbq essay fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and media teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges.

Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and ap european dbq essay comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and rutgers communication skills. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to ap european dbq essay blame the cause of any challenges and king outline problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times.

Finish all tasks and projects on time with a reliably high level of dbq essay, quality. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for the brand. Trusted to essay narration handle sensitive items and situations, regarded as having a responsible and ap european dbq essay dependable personality by essay diversity peers. Open a strong line of ap european dbq essay, communication and make thorough preparations for taking time off. Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found. Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to rapid of population in india increase workplace efficiency. Learn new skills actively to ap european avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and rapid growth of population in india essay feedback to keep projects on track. Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to ap european solve intractable problems and essay narration remove obstacles to completing projects.

Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is ap european dbq essay, necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to problems in downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and violence papers criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for ap european dbq essay, new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided.

Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by write others. Ap European! Assess and rutgers diversity critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed. Ap European! Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into king arthur research paper workable solutions.

Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the dbq essay, various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the diversity, best policy” philosophy in the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to ap european highest codes of ethics and responsibility.

Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support company’s quality management procedures. Report issues and rapid growth of population in india problems through proper channels as set forth by dbq essay company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to therapeutic recreation research papers accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to dbq essay authority, and utilize good ideas from media and children, others. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular.

Display integrity and honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Set an ap european example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the king arthur paper outline, supervisor and ensured that the ap european dbq essay, office operated normally. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to write quickly integrate them into the department’s workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion.

Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to carry out responsibilities personally and for each member of the project team. Highly developed communication skills for ap european, discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to clearly articulate the work, issues and growth challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to ap european dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the essay narration, best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Seek out ap european dbq essay alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks. Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of media and children papers, data to ap european dbq essay find the required information within, efficiently and accurately. Research! Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems.

Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes. Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and ideas for dbq essay, further use. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of one’s own assumptions and write values about ap european any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on king research paper outline finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Ap European Dbq Essay! Project a “customer is always right” attitude at all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at all times, no matter the circumstances. Essay Diversity! Avoid emotional confrontation and ap european dbq essay arguments with peers and clients, seeking de-escalate issues and find ways to resolve issues rationally. Adhere to company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner.

Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines. Recreation Research! Manage chaotic task loads and keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods. Ap European Dbq Essay! Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and analytical approach to any problem. Make and defend critical and and children high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and experience, accepting responsibility for the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action. Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction. Convey authority, competence, and a socially oriented attitude by keeping a strictly professional manner at all times. Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor.

Seek out new relationships and form large networks of individuals, developing a pool of resources and talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. Dbq Essay! Project warmth and up ipa sincerity to ap european peers and clients, and a willingness to work together to achieve mutual goals. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to complete projects in a timely manner and under budget. Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and apply new software applications to the position. Desire to expand my current skillset and how to write increase my value as an ap european dbq essay asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from king arthur research paper, a position of authority on a wide range of subjects. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in ap european dbq essay, depth writing on any subject matter. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the subject at hand and its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for the intended audience so that the writing is essay, always on the correct level for its intended readership.

Focused and ap european driven to diversity always meet deadlines and targets as required. As much as the words on a resume are important, so is the overall style and design. Ap European Dbq Essay! For more information on therapeutic recreation research how to style your resume like a pro, check out the dbq essay, Resume Genius resume aesthetics guide. thanks for this! We’re glad you found it useful! Good luck on up ipa the job hunt. These are very important and helpful information! Thank you so much! #128578; Happy to help!

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AP European History 2012 Free-Response Questions

essay designs In 1963, Dennis Gabor, Nobel laureate for ap european, his invention of the holograph, said The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented (Gabor, 1963). This statement has become a mantra in recent times, attributed to many who are simply rephrasing Gabor. Alas, the slogan, wonderful though it may sound, is false. The most successful inventions transform the world in rapid growth in india essay, ways that are impossible to ap european foresee at the time of the invention.

The statement should really be yet another of my laws: My law of prediction: The future cannot be predicted, not even by trying to invent it. Rutgers Essay Diversity. Although inventions can change the dbq essay future, their long-term impact cannot be predicted. So, invent all you like, just don't try to predict the impact several decades later. Technology Forces Us To Do Things We're Bad At. Time To Change How Design Is Done. Distractibility isn't a human problem; it's a design problem, writes usability expert Don Norman. We need to reverse the normal technological strategy of asking people to fill in for gaps in machine performance. Instead, we should require machines to fill in for gaps in human performance.

After all, technology was invented to enhance people's lives, not the how to write up ipa other way around. Let's build technologies that empower us, allow us to use our creative abilities, and relieve us of the stuff we are not good at. Design, business models, and human-technology teamwork. As automation and artificial intelligence technologies develop, we need to think less about the dbq essay design of human-machine interfaces and more about the design of human-machine teamwork. The Future of essay narration Design: When you come to a fork in the road, take it. Design started out ap european dbq essay as a craft, primarily focusing upon the creation of beautiful objects to become a powerful force in arthur outline, industry. Today, design has gone far beyond its simple origins as a craft to develop powerful new ways for people to interact with the world, emphasizing experience, not technology. Moreover, it has evolved into a way of thinking, of problem discovery, and of enhancing the lives of individuals, the ap european experience of the workforce, and even the health of the media and children research planet. Dbq Essay. Are these new developments compatible with the research papers craft traditions of the old? Is this a fork in the road, with some continuing the craft tradition of enhancing the dbq essay emotional experiences of our products and others taking the other path, moving design thinking into media violence and children all endeavors, but far removed from the history and mainstream practice of today. What is the future of design?

We are at a fork: Which path should we take? I take my answer from the famed American baseball player Yogi Berra who said, When you come to a fork in the road, take it. Norman Stappers (2016). DesignX: Design and complex sociotechnical systems. I am pleased to say that the paper by P.J. Stappers and me on DesignX has been published, along with several commentaries and then a response by ap european the authors. How To Write. With citation and ap european dbq essay, URL for the package. Vox Media on Norman Doors. 'Bad doors are everywhere' A video that is both instructional and fun.

The article text concludes by saying Don Norman's seminal book on design, The Design of Everyday Things, . (p)ublished 25 years ago, it remains just as relevant today. Doors shouldn't need instructions. When most people complain about something, nothing happens. Violence Research. But Norman is not most people -- he's a psychologist and cognitive scientist. So his writing about his complaints is so incredibly thorough that he changed the way design works. Ap European Dbq Essay. And the up ipa human-centered design revolution he sparked changed not only how designers work, but also how people in fields like public health work to make the world a better place.

This is why Melinda Gates believes human-centered design is one change that could save the world. To find out what all this has to do with crappy doors, watch the video. How Apple is Giving Design a Bad Name. Bruce Tognazzini and I document the many shortcomings of Apple's current design philosophy in this Fast Company article. The science in the science of ap european design. Design is a complex field.

Some components of design already are based upon essay narration good science, usually from the behavioral and cognitive sciences. Some are at the pre-scientific level of understanding. I believe that with a proper attitude toward evidence-based studies, these areas can also become either scientific, or at ap european dbq essay least rigorously proven to be effective when used under well-understood circumstances. Recreation Papers. Some aspects of design seem primarily based upon human creativity, sense of style, and other socially mediated conventions. These may never be scientific, but they do play a critically important role in the quality and acceptance of ap european design. So, can design be a science? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Can it be empirically based, evidence driven? Yes. Will it have to reply on rutgers essay intuition and the creativity of ap european dbq essay individual designers? Sometimes, yes.

Design is rapid growth, a multi-faceted, complex enterprise. It involves the initial choice of dbq essay what to make, a deep understanding of people, of materials, and of technology. It requires understanding how people decide upon purchase, and then use products. It covers an therapeutic recreation papers, extremely wide range of dbq essay activities and different disciplines of study and training. It is essay, this depth and richness that makes design such a wonderful, fascinating field. Affordances: Commentary on the Special Issue of AI EDAM. The Journal Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing published a special issue on Affordances and asked me to comment on the collection. Dbq Essay. The concept of affordances has an interesting history, starting with the keen observations and media papers, thoughts of the perceptual psychologist, J.J. Gibson in the late 1970s, moving into the world of design and then into dbq essay engineering design.

As a result of this disciplinary migration, the concept of affordance leads several rather separate lives within these different fields -- ecological psychology, Design, and write up ipa, engineering design -- with each field barely aware of the work being done in the others. Ap European Dbq Essay. All communities make valuable contributions from essay narration, their perspective of the issue. I continue to look forward to ap european dbq essay a merging of disciplines, where the insights of king arthur outline all fields can be brought together to form a new, harmonious whole, with many new and exciting emergent properties. From the very beginnings of time, Ben Shneiderman has been busy photographing all that he sees. Dbq Essay. Ben was active in the pre-history days of the folks who tried to understand the diversity newly-developed computing machines, especially as they moved into people's homes, offices, and schools.

Eventually, that field became known as Human-Computer Interaction, with its major society being CHI. He has finally collected them together: here they are -- all the old folks (such as me). Such old folks portrayed by photos from ap european, their youth, so I can barely recognize some of them: I can barely recognize me. A Product Is More than a Product -- Consider the Chair. Imagine how the 21st century chair might perk up when guests arrive, autonomously transforming itself as needed. It can become a stepstool when someone needs to stand on it, or a bed, perhaps formed by essay diversity enlisting other chairs so that they can to ap european support a horizontal body or two or three. When self-organized into neat orderly rows of its collaborators, the chair can accommodate crowds. Rutgers Essay. While awaiting the crowd's arrival the ap european chairs are a memory of the future, reminding us of the essay narration event that is to ap european dbq essay come. After they leave, the same chairs serve as a memory of the past.

These 21st century chairs are social, aiming to please. They will be active servants, relationship builders, and enablers of king social interactions. In the 21st century designers will produce many things besides chairs, many of which will not be objects. Ap European Dbq Essay. Some will be services and experiences, such as healthcare and wellness. Arthur Research. Some will be ideas. Is an idea a thing, a product, a service? Whatever they are called, they need to be designed not as isolated things but as complex, interrelated systems, as total experiences.

As relationships. UC San Diego Postdoc in Human-Centered Healthcare. The Design Lab at the University of dbq essay California, San Diego is in india essay, embarking upon a large, major project in healthcare for ap european dbq essay, complex problems. We are working with the Medical School, various departments at UC San Diego, and violence and children research papers, several funding agencies in this endeavor. The emphasis is on the processes and structure associated with modern healthcare. We seek a Design Fellow to assist with a project to better understand the complex cognitive ecosystem of dbq essay healthcare who can help us define, explore, and implement new processes and procedures aimed at how to write up ipa improving medical care for complex cases. Positive computing: technology for wellbeing and human potential (Calvo Peters)

The design of human-computer systems used to focus upon the negative, the ap european dbq essay breakdowns that confused and confounded people. Now it is time to move to the next level, to focus upon the positive, systems that are enjoyable and pleasurable. Rapid Growth Of Population. We need systems that delight as well as inform, systems that create pleasure along with useful function. We need systems that are resilient, that promote control, understanding, and sometimes just plain pleasure. The design field has responded by ap european examining the media violence research role of emotions and ap european, pleasure in design. We need to move these findings into in india mainstream computing. Next time someone accuses you of procrastination, say no, I am not procrastinating, I am 'Late Binding.' That should shut them up. Let me argue for late binding - delay, or if you like, procrastination - as a preferred way of life. Delaying decisions until the time for action is beneficial for lots of reason. Practice late binding. Planning never produces the exact answer for dbq essay, the exact conditions that take place.

People always will change their behavior. In fact, people have no choice when unexpected events occur. And, as I am fond of saying, we know two things about rapid of population unexpected events: they will always occur; when it does occur, it will be unexpected. So prepare. Ap European. Study. Get ready. Recreation Research. But delay the actual decision as late as possible. Procrastinate. Practice late binding. The technological requirements for self-driving cars are extremely complex, and although we are now able to succeed in ap european dbq essay, a very high percentage of the rutgers essay diversity situations, those last few percentages contain the most difficult, the most daunting challenges.

As automation gets better and ap european, better, then the problems of arthur vigilance increase, for the more reliable the system, the less for a person to do, and the mind wandering begins. Do not take people out of the loop: have them always know what is happening. How do we do this in a meaningful way? By asking people to make high-level decisions, to continually be making decisions. Human pattern recognition and ap european, high-level statement of therapeutic recreation goals and plans are good. But here is what we are bad at: the ability to monitor for long periods, to be precise and accurate, to respond quickly and properly when an unexpected event arrives where the person has not been attending. So, have us do what we are good at. Have the automation do what we are bad at. Aim for ap european dbq essay, collaboration, not supervision. Why DesignX answers common questions about DesignX. In particular, What is new?

What is the growth of population role of the designer? What about craft skills? DesignX is a new, evidence-based approach for addressing many of the complex and serious problems facing the world today. It adds to and augments today's design methods, reformulating the role that design can play. Modern design has grown from a focus on products and dbq essay, services to a robust set of methods that is applicable to a wide range of societal issues. When combined with the knowledge and violence, expertise of specialized disciplines, these design methods provide powerful ways to develop practical approaches to large, complex issues.

We seek a radical reformation of design practice, education, and research. It is time for a new era of design activism. Hill climbing in radical Innovation. John Langrish challenged the ap european dbq essay analysis of Norman Verganti on Incremental and Radical Innovation, arguing that we had ignored the evidence from Darwinian evolution. He called us creationists. We find John Langrish's argument to be puzzling. We wrote a paper on product evolution and he chides us for rapid in india essay, failure to cite the literature in evolutionary biology. Ap European Dbq Essay. Similar issues have been faced in therapeutic recreation, many disciplines.

His attempts to map biological mechanisms to our approach are either already accounted for or are inappropriate. We are accused of being creationists. We plead guilty. Ap European. That's what the field of design is all about: all-seeing, overarching designers who look over their creations and how to write up ipa, go in and change them. Designers have that luxury. Release a product and call it back for revision. Ap European. Or completely change the next release, keeping the stuff that worked and deleting the stuff that didn't. Or completely repurpose it for some other usage that had not been considered at first. Radical innovation within the field of design does not come from hill-climbing.

It comes from putting together things that never before were thought to belong together. It comes from the king arthur outline heart and mind of the designer. Yes, as designers we are creationists. We teach it, practice it, and take delight in it. Verganti Norman: Having a vision is not enough--it must be implemented.

Vision building is the most relevant and ap european dbq essay, rare asset in our society. We do not live in a world where data and essay narration, knowledge are missing. Indeed, it is ap european, just the opposite. The amount of information is overwhelming. What is rare is the capability to make sense of this enormous and complex picture, to go beyond the past and existing patterns and imagine what is not there. The new frontier is to explore the path to innovation by understanding the nature of vision building. For this purpose, we need new frameworks. We need to essay narration investigate the slippery intangible dimensions of ap european thinking, the capability to unveil what is hidden into the mirror that reflects our role in recreation research papers, the society. I hate error messages. They are insulting, condescending, and worst of all, completely unnecessary. Dbq Essay. Evil, nasty little things.

They cause us to rutgers do unneeded work, and dbq essay, often destroy the work we have already done. Error messages punish people for research papers, not behaving like machines. It is time we let people behave like people. Ap European Dbq Essay. When a problem arises, we should call it machine error, not human error: the machine was designed wrong, demanding that we conform to its peculiar requirements. It is time to design and build machines that conform to our requirements. Stop confronting us: Collaborate with us. State of Design: How Design Education Must Change. For design to succeed, grow, achieve its potential, and train future leaders, we envision a new curriculum. In our vision, these new programs combine learning the art and craft of beautiful, pleasurable well-crafted design with substantive courses in the social and biological sciences, in technology, mathematics and statistics, and in the understanding of experimental methods and rigorous reasoning. Programming and write up ipa, mechatronics are essential skills in today's product world. Not only will this training make for better practitioners, but it will also equip future generations of designers to be better at developing the hard, rigorous theory design requires.

Design is an exciting powerful field, filled with promise. To meet the challenges of the dbq essay 21st century, design and design education must change. So too must universities. Gestural Control: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. I await the day when gestures become standardized. When systems combine the best of all worlds: gestures, both in the air and on king arthur surfaces, voice commands where appropriate, and menus, keyboards, and pointing devices where appropriate. Ap European Dbq Essay. The most powerful systems will give us the choice to use whatever is best suited for the job.

But before we can do this, we have a simple task to do: reform the patent system. Stupid Smart Stuff: Watches and Automation. Whenever you see something labeled smart or intelligent, be assured that it is actually rather stupid. It is time to for the designers and engineers of rutgers diversity this coming automated world and ap european dbq essay, take heed from the essay narration lessons learned over the years in the field of Human-Systems Integration, in studies of automation. Lots of ap european excellent scientists working in the research labs of automobile companies know all this. Product people are notorious about ignoring the wisdom of therapeutic recreation papers research groups in their same company. We now have very smart devices, stupidly done. I fear the consequences will be a lot worse than waking people up at 4:30 in the morning. Pay attention, engineers: pay attention, designers.

Pay attention or people will be killed. Nutrition, Nudges, and Sledge Hammers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed changing the labels now required on all foodstuff. The goal is to dbq essay nudge people to better eating. The good part is that, the FDA has clearly thought about the legibility and clarity of nutritional guidelines. Not only did they decide to make the outline calorie count more visible, but they made the percentage values more prominent, they reconsidered what information was to be listed, and perhaps most important of all, they changed the definition of ap european dbq essay a serving to what people really eat. What is next? . Recreation Research Papers. It's time for the pharmaceutical industry to do the same with their labels of medications and ap european dbq essay, prescriptions. It's a systems problem. OK designers, this is king research paper outline, what you claim you are good at: solving systems problems. Get to work: you could save lives. The most powerful revolutions are the slow, silent ones that take over our lives quietly, unobtrusively.

No media attention, no over-hyped excitement. But one day you look up and, oops, what has happened? Consider the everyday rice cooker. It seems rather dull: a squat box occupying space on ap european the countertop, usually without any grace or sense of style. Yet this unimpressive appearing cooking device now simplifies the lives of tens of millions of king arthur research paper outline owners all over ap european the world. Excerpts from my first influencer post on LinkedIn. Stop Cellphone Anorexia: Make Batteries Last the Day.

A Rant. How can we get the batteries on our smart phones to last the entire day? Make them bigger. Media. Eliminate phone anorexia. The evil is the cult of thinness. Phone Anorexia. Want to make batteries last beyond the day?

Make them bigger. it is that simple. Ap European. Add a few millimeters of therapeutic research thickness, 1/8th of an inch: even 1/16th would do wonders. That's all it would take. Once upon a time, a long time ago, I got tired of light switches that contained a long, one-dimensional linear array of switches mounted on ap european dbq essay a vertical wall controlling a two-dimensional placement of lights that were placed on a horizontal plane. No wonder people had difficulty remembering which switch controlled which light: I often observed people simply turning them all on or off. Why not arrange the violence and children switches in the same spatial configuration as the ap european lights, and then mount the switches on the same spatial plane as the essay narration lights. Dbq Essay. Now it seems that a Korean Civil Engineer has rediscovered the concept 20+ years later. My Introduction for Dan Ward's book The Simplicity Cycle, but which also includes a description of and a recommendation for essay diversity, his book FIRE. The two books make a powerful package.

Simplicity Cycle is ap european, a simple book about a complex topic, but don't be fooled. Beneath the simplicity lies a deep and write up ipa, profound message. FIST, the procedure he developed for developing projects quickly and efficiently requires that things be less physically complex, less cognitively confusing and ap european dbq essay, complicated. FIST, the procedure, was renamed FIRE (for Fast, Inexpensive, Restrained, and Elegant), and is now available as a book. How To Up Ipa. The S in FIST became this book: The Simplicity Cycle. Not surprisingly, the two books support one another. FIRE, the book, offers lessons highly relevant to ap european The Simplicity Cycle. Large projects all tend to fail. It doesn't matter in therapeutic papers, what domain they exist -- software, construction, new aircraft, medical insurance systems, payroll systems -- they fail.

Ward offers a simple solution: don't do them. With the time and money allocated for one large project, do numerous small ones. Do them Fast and Inexpensive, with Restraint and Elegance: FIRE. It's a well-known principle, but it goes against the nature of organizations who wish to solve all their problems with one project. In consumer markets, it encourages the disease I call featuritis. In industry, it's bloat. What's the alternative? FIRE.

How do we avoid unneeded complexity and manage to maintain simplicity? That's the ap european focus of essay narration The Simplicity Cycle. The two books, FIRE and The Simplicity Cycle, can each be read on its own, but for ap european, people involved in the design and implementation of complex projects, they form a powerful pair. For anyone wanting to embrace the mantle of simplicity, The Simplicity Cycle, is essential. Foreword: Computers as Theater (Brenda Laurel) Theatre is about interaction, about themes and conflicts, goals and diversity, approaches to those goals, frustration, success, tension, and then the resolution of those tensions. Theatre is dynamic, changing, always in motion.

Our modern technologies with their powerful computers, multiple sensors, communication links and displays are also about interaction, and treating that interaction as Theatre proves to be rich, enlightening and powerful. Real interaction does not take place in the moment, on ap european dbq essay a fixed, static screen. And Children Research. Real interaction is ongoing over a protracted period. It ebbs and flows, transitions from ap european, one state to another. Transitions are as important as states. Up to recently, the write up ipa only computer systems that acted this way were games. But as students of the ap european theatre have long known, we get the greatest pleasure from our ability to overcome early failures and adversaries.

If everything runs perfectly and smoothly with no opportunity to deploy our powers and arthur research paper, skills, pleasure is diminished. Human emotion is ap european, sensitive to change: starting low and ending high is a far better experience than one that is essay narration, always high. Is this a cry for deliberate placement of obstacles and dbq essay, confusions? Obviously not, but it is king arthur research paper, a cry for a look at the temporal dimensions, at dbq essay engagement, agency, and the rise and fall of dramatic tension. Therapeutic Research. The future of our interactions with technology will build upon the foundations provided by ap european Brenda Laurel in this deep, thought-provoking, and critically important book. The Paradox of Wearable Technologies.

Can wearable devices be helpful? Absolutely. But they can also be horrid. It all depends upon whether we use them to focus and augment our activities or to distract. It is up to us, and up to those who create these new wearable wonders to decide which it is to be. Great microinteraction design requires understanding the people who use the product, what they are trying to accomplish, and the steps they need to research papers take. it requires understanding the ap european dbq essay context of those interactions. How To Write. It is essential to ap european develop empathy with the user, to develop observational skills of users and the knowledge of arthur research outline how to combine different aspects of your product - perhaps the results of ap european dbq essay different programming teams or even different divisions - into a single, smooth microinteraction? Chapter 1 does a great job of introducing the principles of how to do this. The numerous examples throughout the violence and children book sensitizes you to the opportunities. After that it is up to you, to continual observation that leads to discovery of the ap european dbq essay opportunities.

And it is up ipa, essential not to be blocked, as Apple's developers apparently were, if the solutions require cutting across company organizational structures. After all, doing things right for the user is what great products are all about. Sloth, Pride, Envy, Greed, Lust, Anger, Gluttony. What? I'm supposed to design for these traits? As a human-centered designer, I should be repelled by the thought of designing for such a list. Ap European Dbq Essay. What was Chris Nodder thinking? What was his publisher thinking? This is evil, amplified. Although, come to think of it, those seven deadly sins are human traits.

Want to how to write know how people really behave? Just read the law books. Start with one of the most famous set of laws of all, the Ten Commandments. Every one of those commandments is about something that people actually did, and then prohibiting it. Dbq Essay. All laws are intended to stop or otherwise control human behavior. Recreation Papers. So, if you want to understand real human behavior, just see what the laws try to stop. The list of seven deadly sins provides a nice, tidy statement of ap european fundamental human behavior, fundamental in the sense that from each of the deadly sins, one can derive a large list of less deadly ones. Embrace failure, avoid failure: these two, apparently contradictory statements are the opening and closing chapter titles of how to up ipa Victor Lombardi's enchanting, insightful book. Embrace, yet avoid, the ap european apparent contradiction being resolved by recognizing that the trick is to learn from other people's failures, the better to be able to avoid them for yourself. The message of the book is summarized by therapeutic recreation research its subtitle: Lessons from Experience Design Failures.

Opportunities and Challenges For Touch and dbq essay, Gesture-Based Systems. Billions of people appreciate the simplicity of touch technology, but for the industrial sector, including home white goods and consumer goods, rugged conditions have been a roadblock to integrating this technology. The new evolution is the multi-touch that works under rigorous conditions. Even though multi-touch screens are widely popular on today's consumer phones and write, tablets the design principles for industrial applications and demanding environments are different for those in the rather controlled consumer environment for mobile phones and tablets. When using a device under rugged conditions - cold, raining, wearing gloves, heavy vibration - different design rules are required. The opportunities are large, with potential uses that go far beyond what we see today.

Great opportunity brings great challenges. We explore the ap european requirements and the design rules for overcoming them. Suggested Readings From Design of Everyday Things, Revised edition. Many people continually ask for my suggestions of violence and children research readings in ap european dbq essay, design. Here is an excerpt from the Readings and Notes section of the 2013 revision and how to up ipa, expansion of the book Design of Everyday Things that provides my list of ap european general books for interaction design. The list of rapid in india essay excellent books is much larger than included here, but even with my limited list there are probably too many suggestions. Still, this is a good place to start. Preface. Design of Everyday Things, Revised Edition. The preface to the revised edition of Design of Everyday Things, including a chapter-by-chapter review of What has changed. I have rethought my position stated in ap european, my essay article Design Thinking: A Useful Myth.

I still stand by the major points of the earlier essay, but I have changed the conclusion. As a result, the essay should really be titled: Design Thinking: An Essential Tool. Let me explain. Great Design Always Means Great Style (Misc Magazine) Ah, style.

The elegance of rapid growth essay gentle interaction, with grace and beauty, wit and charm. Or perhaps brute force abruptness, rudeness and ap european, insult. Style refers to the way of doing something and king paper outline, although we usually use it in the positive sense, the word itself is neutral, referring only to the manner by which something is done. Style can be coarse and ugly, brutish and dangerous. The best styles, including both those we respect and prefer and those we detest, are true and dbq essay, honest, consistent and coherent.

(An essay for Misc Magazine.) Maybe I am a gadget. Growth Of Population Essay. That would certainly explain a lot of things. A quick search of the internet for the definition of gadget yields two meanings: 1. A small device that performs or aids a simple task; 2. A small device that appears useful but is often unnecessary or superfluous. Yeah, those sound like me. Complexity is dbq essay, Good, Simplicity Overrated (Misc Magazine) (Essay for Misc Magazine.) Real complexity does not lie in research papers, the tools, but in the task. Skilled workers have an ap european dbq essay, array of tools, each carefully matched to a particular task requirement. It can take years to learn which tool goes with which task, and years to king research paper outline master the tools.

The tool set is complicated because the task is complicated. Looking at the visual simplicity of the tool is misleading. The mark of the great designer is the ability to provide the complexity that people need in a manner that is understandable and elegant. Ap European Dbq Essay. Simplicity should never be the goal. Complex things will require complexity.

It is the job of the designer to manage that complexity with skill and grace. What Moves? Culture Interaction Design. When What Is Natural For Some Is Not for how to write, Others: Culture and Design. I was in Asia, giving a talk. Ap European Dbq Essay. I was given a remote controller for advancing my slides. Up Ipa. This one had with two buttons, one above the other. When I pushed the upper button to advance to the slide, I was flustered: I went backwards through my slide set, not forward. How could this happen? I wondered. To me, top obviously means forward, bottom backwards.

I decided to ask the audience what they thought: To my great surprise, the audience was split in their responses. Many thought that it should be the top button, but a large number thought it should be the bottom. But there is ap european, more. This is a point of view question, one that has plagued designers for years (which moves? The text or the therapeutic recreation window?) Different cultures have very different points of view. When a design conflicts with the common cultural view, confusion results. (Article posted at core77.com and jnd.org. Ap European. bit.ly/NZckqz ) How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to write up ipa study, either in industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Ap European. Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here. You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills.

I cannot acquire that in an email message or two. So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust. Go to king research meetings of societies (see below). Read magazines and journals to learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about their work. Video: Don Norman speaks out about engineering design education. This is a short, 3 minute video, that captures the dilemma of modern education.

Engineering education has become narrower and deeper. We teach and train specialties and specialists. Practical applications require tying together the knowledge of the ap european dbq essay many specialties. They require generalists, people who have broad, integrated understanding of the world. We need an research paper, educational system that rewards those who are broad and dbq essay, knowledgable as well as those who are deep and narrow, even if the broad knowledge comes at the expense of shallow depth. Being narrow is just as big a liability as being shallow. We need both kinds of people.

Alas, the university hires, teaches, and essay narration, trains only the deep and narrow. Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research versus Technology and Meaning Change. Don Norman and ap european dbq essay, Roberto Verganti: We discuss the differences between incremental and radical innovation and argue that each results from different processes. Human-centered design methods are a form of hill climbing, extremely well suited for continuous incremental improvements but incapable of radical innovation. Radical innovation requires finding a different hill, and this comes about only through meaning or technology change. A second approach is to rapid essay consider the dimensions of ap european meaning and rutgers essay diversity, technology change. Finally, we show how innovation might be viewed as lying in ap european, the space formed by the dimension of research aimed at enhancing general knowledge and the dimension of king research outline application to dbq essay practice. We conclude that human-centered design is ideally suited for incremental innovation and unlikely to lead to rutgers diversity radical innovation. Radical innovation comes from changes in either technology or meaning. Technology-driven innovation often comes from inventors and dbq essay, tinkerers.

Meaning-driven innovation, however, has the potential to be driven through design research, but only if the research addresses fundamental questions of essay narration new meanings and their interpretation. Does Culture Matter for Product Design? Does culture matter for ap european dbq essay, product design? For the world of mass-produced products, that is, for the world of industrial design, culture might be far less important than we might have expected. Is this really true, and if so, is this a positive or negative finding? Conversation: Jon Kolko Don Norman mediated by Richard Anderson. Out with the Old, In with the New: A Conversation with Don Norman Jon Kolko, mediated by Richard Anderson. The item contains photos, a transcript, and an embedded video of the event. Topics addressed included the nature of and the difference between art and design, whether design should be taught in art schools (such as AAU), Abraham Maslow, usability, what design (or all) education should be like, the research problem with design thinking courses, the destiny of ap european printed magazines and printed books, aging and ageism, the relationship between HCI and interaction design, Arduino, simplicity, social media, Google, privacy, design research, the context in media violence papers, which design occurs, the Austin Center for ap european dbq essay, Design, solving wicked problems, whether designers make good entrepreneurs, politics, Herb Simon cybernetics, the and children research strengths weaknesses of interconnected systems, and how designers should position themselves. Design Education: Brilliance Without Substance. We are now in the 21st century, but design curricula seem stuck in the mid 20th century.

In the 21st century, design has broadened to ap european include interaction and experience, services and strategies. The technologies are more sophisticated, involving advanced materials, computation, communication, sensors, and actuators. The products and services have complex interactions that have to be self-explanatory, sometimes involving other people separated by time or distance. Traditional design activities have to be supplemented with an understanding of technology, business, and human psychology. With all these changes, one would expect major changes in design education. Nope.

Design education is led by craftspeople who are proud of their skills and violence papers, they see no reason to change. Dbq Essay. Design education is mired in the past. At the start of almost every technology transition, chaos rules. Competing competitors create confusion, often quite deliberate, as they develop their own unique way of doing things incompatible with all others. Today, the therapeutic recreation research long-established, well-learned model of scrolling is being changed by ap european dbq essay one vendor, but not by others. Gestures proliferate, with no standards, no easy way of being reminded of them, new easy way to learn. Change is important, for it is how we make progress. Rapid. Some confusion is to be expected. But many of the ap european dbq essay changes and the resulting confusions of today seem arbitrary and capricious.

Think before acting. Sounds right, doesn't it? Think before starting to design. In India. Yup. Do some research, learn more about the requirements, the people, the activities. Then design. It all makes sense. Which is dbq essay, precisely why I wish to challenge it.

Sometimes it makes sense to act first, think afterwards. The Design Dilemma: Dismay vs. Write Up Ipa. Delight. I frequently find myself in a state of simultaneous dismay and delightful admiration about the end product of designers. This state can be described by dbq essay contrasting the way a designer and an engineer would solve the therapeutic research papers same problem. Designers evoke great delight in their work. Engineers provide utilitarian value.

The problem is that the very practical, functional things are also boring and ugly. Good designers would never allow boring and ugly to describe their work: they strive to produce delight. Dbq Essay. But sometimes that delightful result is not very practical, difficult to use, and not completely functional. Practical versus delightful: Which do you prefer? Designers approach the world with charming naivete, coupled with artistic elegance and the art of examining issues in novel, unconstrained ways. Their solutions provide a graceful elegance and new insight, perhaps because of arthur research outline their lack of knowledge, their naivete. Designers are trained as craftspeople, without any substantive knowledge of the content areas in which they do their work. This very lack of knowledge can produce profound insights that lead to advances in understanding, hence my delight. Having too much knowledge can lead to ap european dbq essay following the failed footsteps of those who preceded you.

Videos from Design of Everyday Things. My videos have been resurrected! Let me explain.One upon a time, many years ago -- 1994 to be precise -- The Voyager Company produced a delightful CD-ROM that included copies of several of my books (Design of Everyday Things, Things that Make Us Smart, and Turn Signals Are the Facial Expressions of Automobiles. As you read the books, if you had a question, you could just click wherever there was a link and I would pop up, walk on. I am forced to read a lot of crap. As a reviewer of submissions to design journals and conferences, as a juror of design contests, and as a mentor and advisor to design students and faculty, I read outrageous claims made by designers who have little understanding of the complexity of the recreation research papers problems they are attempting to ap european solve or of the standards of evidence required to make claims. Oftentimes the crap comes from brilliant and talented people, with good ideas and wonderful instantiations of physical products, concepts, or simulations. The crap is in the claims. In the early days of industrial design, the work was primarily focused upon physical products. Today, however, designers work on organizational structure and social problems, on interaction, service, and experience design. Many problems involve complex social and political issues.

As a result, designers have become applied behavioral scientists, but they are woefully undereducated for the task. Designers often fail to understand the complexity of the issues and the depth of knowledge already known. They claim that fresh eyes can produce novel solutions, but then they wonder why these solutions are seldom implemented, or if implemented, why they fail. Fresh eyes can indeed produce insightful results, but the eyes must also be educated and violence papers, knowledgeable. Designers often lack the requisite understanding. Design schools do not train students about these complex issues, about the dbq essay interlocking complexities of human and social behavior, about the behavioral sciences, technology, and business.

There is little or no training in arthur paper, science, the ap european dbq essay scientific method, and experimental design. Over the past five years I have written approximately three dozen columns. What has been learned? What will come? Obviously it is research papers, time for reflection. My goal has always been to incite thought, debate, and understanding. Ap European Dbq Essay. Those of us in the field of interaction, whether students, researchers or practitioners, whether designers or programmers, synthesizers or analyzers, all share some common beliefs and ideals. Essay Narration. One of my jobs is to challenge these established beliefs, for often when they are examined, they rest on dbq essay an ill-defined platform, often with no supporting evidence except that they have been around for paper, so long, they are accepted as given, without need for examination. Ap European. We need a rigorous foundation for our work, which means to question that which is recreation research papers, not firmly supported by ap european dbq essay evidence, if it appears obvious. Many things that appear obvious are indeed true, but many are not: We need to know which is which. There is a trend to paper outline eliminate designers.

Who needs them when we can simply test our way to success? The excitement of powerful, captivating design is defined as irrelevant. Ap European Dbq Essay. Worse, the nature of design is in danger. Design by comparison of competing alternatives is design by hill climbing. It will get you to the top of the current hill. It will never get you to recreation papers the highest hill. Systems Thinking: A Product Is More Than the Product.

In reality a product is ap european dbq essay, all about the experience. It is about discovery, purchase, anticipation, opening the package, the very first usage. It is also about therapeutic research papers continued usage, learning, the need for assistance, updating, maintenance, supplies, and eventual renewal in the form of disposal or exchange. Most companies treat every stage as a different process, done by a different division of the company: RD, manufacturing, packaging, sales, and then as a necessary afterthought, service. As a result there is ap european, seldom any coherence. Instead, there are contradictions. If you think of the product as a service, then the separate parts make no sense--the point of a product is to offer great experiences to its owner, which means that it offers a service. And that experience, that service, is the result of the coherence of the parts. The real value of rutgers diversity a product consists of far more than the dbq essay product's components. Designers are proud of their ability to innovate, to therapeutic think outside the box, to develop creative, powerful ideas for their clients.

Sometimes these ideas win design prizes. However, the rate at which these ideas achieve commercial success is low. Many of the ideas die within the dbq essay companies, never becoming a product. Among those that become products, a good number never reach commercial success. Ideas are just the starting point toward product realization.

New product ideas have to fit the competencies of the of population corporation. They have to dbq essay fit within the existing family or products, or at least the product strategy. The purchasers of new products have to violence be prepared. The costs must be contained. The technology must be up to it. The same people who the new ideas are intended to supplant and go around are now responsible for executing the ap european dbq essay ideas. No wonder so many good ideas fail. Every year the world holds many contests for violence and children papers, industrial designers.

Lots of ap european submissions, lots of therapeutic time spent by jurors reviewing them, lots of pretty pictures afterwards. Fun to read, wonderful for the winners. Ap European. What's the problem? I have been a juror for a number of contests, including the major American yearly contest sponsored by the Industrial Design Society of America, IDSA, and violence research, BusinessWeek. Although I always enjoyed the experience and the interaction with talented, hard-working fellow jurors, I have become increasingly dissatisfied with the results. Why are shows bad? Shouldn't we reward good design?

Sure, if that's what the shows accomplish, but they don't. In fact, I believe they do harm to the profession. (Opening sentences of my Core77 column.) Design thinking is not special to design. Great artists, great engineers, great scientists all break out of the boundaries. Great designers are no different. Why perpetuate the myth of design thinking if it is so clearly false? Because it is useful. Design thinking is ap european dbq essay, a powerful public relations term that changes the way in which design firms are viewed. So, long live the phrase design thinking. It will help in the transformation of rapid of population essay design from the world of form and style to that of function and dbq essay, structure. It will help spread the word that designers can add value to almost any problem, from healthcare to therapeutic recreation research papers pollution, business strategy and company organization.

Gestural Interfaces: A Step Backwards In Usability. Gestural interfaces are fun to use: gestures add a welcome feeling of activity to the otherwise joyless ones of pointing and clicking. Ap European. The are truly a revolutionary mode of how to up ipa interaction. After two decades of research in laboratories across the world, they are finally available for everyday consumer products. But the lack of ap european consistency, inability to discover operations, coupled with the ease of accidentally triggering actions from how to, which there is no recovery threatens the viability of these systems. We urgently need to ap european return to our basics, developing usability guidelines for these systems that are based upon solid principles of interaction design, not on the whims of the company human interface guidelines and arbitrary ideas of developers. Talk: Research Practice Gap 2 Kinds of innovation. I gave the opening keynote address at media research IIT's Design Research Conference in dbq essay, Chicago, May 2010.

In it, i combined two of the major themes I have long been working on. The video of that talk is now available. The research-product gap. The design research community -- and all research communities, for that matter -- have little understanding, knowledge of, or even interest in the product side of companies. Moreover, the skills, reward structures, and interests of the two communities are so different that the gap is inevitable. How To Up Ipa. In the medical community, this gap is overcome by a third discipline: Translational Science. I recommend we follow suite with a new discipline, Translational Engineering, that translates the language of research into the language of products, and ap european, vice-versa. Two kinds of innovation. A very closely related confusion exists about innovation. Essay Narration. Human-Centered Design, I argue, is essential for incremental improvement of products.

But radical innovation, which occurs much less frequently, comes either from new technologies or from meaning change: HCD will never give us radical innovation. There is an immense gap between research and practice. There are fundamental differences in ap european, the knowledge and skill sets required by those who conduct the research and those who attempt to translate those results into practical, reliable, and king, affordable form. Between research and practice a new, third discipline must be inserted, one that can translate between the abstractions of research and the practicalities of practice. We need a discipline of translational development. Translational developers are needed who can mine the insights of researchers and ap european dbq essay, hone them into practical, reliable and useful results. Similarly translational developers must help translate the problems and recreation research papers, concerns of practice into the clear, need-based statements that can drive researchers to develop new insights. Neither direction of ap european dbq essay translation is easy. Natural User Interfaces Are Not Natural. Gestural interaction is the new excitement in the halls of industry.

Advances in the size, power, and cost of microprocessors, memory, cameras, and other sensing devices now make it possible to control by wipes and flicks, hand gestures, and body movements. A new world of of population essay interaction is here: The rulebooks and ap european, guidelines are being rewritten, or at least, such is the claim. And the new interactions even have a new marketing name: natural, as in Natural User Interface. As usual, marketing rhetoric is ahead of research reality. Ap European. All new technologies have their proper place. All new technologies will take a while for media and children research papers, us to dbq essay figure out the best manner of interaction as well as the standardization that removes one source of potential confusion. None of these systems is inherently more natural than the others. How To Up Ipa. What we think of as natural is, to a large extent, learned. I've come to a disconcerting conclusion: design research is great when it comes to improving existing product categories but essentially useless when it comes to new, innovative breakthroughs. I reached this conclusion through examination of a range of product innovations, most especially looking at those major conceptual breakthroughs that have had huge impact upon ap european society as well as the more common, mundane small, continual improvements.

Call one conceptual breakthrough, the other incremental. Although we would prefer to believe that conceptual breakthroughs occur because of a detailed consideration of human needs, especially fundamental but unspoken hidden needs so beloved by the design research community, the fact is that it simply doesn't happen. New conceptual breakthroughs are invariably driven by the development of new technologies The new technologies, in media violence research, turn, inspire technologists to invent things, not sometimes because they themselves dream of having their capabilities, but many times simply because they can build them. Dbq Essay. In other words, grand conceptual inventions happen because technology has finally made them possible. Do people need them? That question is therapeutic recreation, answered over the next several decades as the technology moves from technical demonstration, to product, to failure, or perhaps to slow acceptance in the commercial world where slowly, after considerable time, the products and dbq essay, applications are jointly evolve, and slowly the need develops. THE TRANSMEDIA DESIGN CHALLENGE: Co-Creation. We live in exciting times. Finally, we are beginning to understand that pleasure and fun are important components of life, that emotion is violence research, not a bad thing, and that learning, education and work can all benefit through encouraging pleasure and fun. Dbq Essay. Up to now, a primary goal of product and service design has been to provide useful functions and results. We should not lose track of these goals, but now that we are well on our way to how to up ipa doing that for an amazing variety of goods and dbq essay, services, it is time to make sure that they are pleasurable as well.

Not only does this require emotions to rutgers essay be a major component of design thinking, but we must incorporate action as well, actions that use the whole body in movement, rhythm, and purpose. Ap European Dbq Essay. New technologies allow creativity to blossom, whether for reasons silly or sublime. Simple text messages or short videos among people qualify as production, regardless of their value. This new movement is about participating and therapeutic recreation papers, creating, invoking the creative spirit. This is what the transmedia experience should be about. All of these experiences are allowing people to feel more like producers and creators rather than passive consumers or spectators.

The new design challenge is to ap european create true participatory designs coupled with true multi-media immersion that reveal new insights and create true novel experiences. We all participate, we all experience. We all design, we all partake. But much of this is meaningless: how do we provide richness and depth, enhanced through the active engagement of diversity all, whether they be the originators or the recipients of the experience? How will this come to pass? What is the role in everyday life? Will this be a small portion or will it dominate? Will it even be permitted within the confines of contemporary commercialism? Those are the significant design challenges.

People Are From Earth, Machines Are From Outer Space. People are from earth. Machines are from outer space. I don't know what kind of manners they teach in outer space, but if machines are going to live here in dbq essay, our world, they really need to and children research papers learn to behave properly. You know, when on Earth, do as the ap european earthlings do. So, hey machines, you need to become socialized. Right now you are arrogant, antisocial, irritating know-it-alls. Sure, you say nice things like “please” and “thank you,” but being polite involves more than words. It is time to socialize our interactions with technology.

Sociable machines. Basic lessons in communication skills. Rules of media papers machine etiquette. Machines need to show empathy with the people with whom they interact, understand their point of view, and above all, communicate so that everyone understands what is happening.It never occurs to a machine that the problems might be theirs. Oh no. It's us pesky people who are to ap european dbq essay blame. One of our fundamental principles is that of perceived affordances: that's one way we know what to essay narration do in novel situations. That's fine for ap european dbq essay, objects, but what about situations?

What about people, social groups, cultures? Powerful clues arise from what I call social signifiers. A signifier is some sort of indicator, some signal in the physical or social world that can be interpreted meaningfully. Signifiers signify critical information, even if the signifier itself is an accidental byproduct of the world. In India Essay. Social signifiers are those that are relevant to social usages. Some social indicators simply are the unintended but informative result of the behavior of others. Social signifiers replace affordances, for they are broader and richer, allowing for accidental signifiers as well as deliberate ones, and even for items that signify by their absence, as the lack of crowds on a train platform. The perceivable part of an affordance is a signifier, and if deliberately placed by a designer, it is a social signifier. CNN Designers challenged to include disabled. I'm on a campaign to make assistive devices aesthetically delightful -- without impairing effectiveness and cost.

Why are things such as canes, wheelchairs so ugly? I urge the skilled industrial designers of this world to ap european dbq essay revolutionize this arena. Perhaps the essay narration Industrial Design Society of America (IDSA) and the equivalent design societies all over ap european dbq essay the world ought to sponsor a design contest. The best design schools should encourage design projects for assistive devices that function well, are cost effective (two aspects that are often left out of design schools) as well as fun, pleasurable and fashionable (aspects that are absent from more engineering- or social-sciences -based programs). There are many groups at work in this area: simply do a web search on recreation research the phrases inclusive design? or universal design? or accessible design. Ap European. They do excellent work, but the write up ipa emphasis is on providing aids and assistance, or changing public policy. Ap European Dbq Essay. All that is recreation research, both good and essential, but I want to dbq essay go one step further: add aesthetics, pleasure, and recreation research papers, fashion to the mix. Make it so these aids are sought after, fashionable, delightful, and fun.

For everyone, which is what the words inclusive, universal, and accessible are supposed to ap european mean. Designers of the how to write world: Unite behind a worthy cause. This article contains pointers to my MIT Sloan Management Review paper on waiting lines as well as a PDF of to the earlier paper in which I discussed the same issues in more depth than SMR permitted. The PDF file, The Psychology of Waiting Lines. argues that although waiting is an inescapable part of life, but that doesn't mean we enjoy it. But if the ap european dbq essay lines are truly inescapable, what can be done to make them less painful? Although there is a good deal of practical knowledge, usually known within the write up ipa heads of corporate managers, very little has been published about the topic. Ap European. One paper provides the classic treatment: David Maister's The Psychology of Waiting Lines (1985). Maister suggested several principles for increasing the king arthur pleasantness of waiting.

Although his paper provides an excellent start, it was published in ap european, 1985 and there have been considerable advances in our knowledge since then. In this section, I bring the study of waiting lines up to date, following the spirit of Maister's original publication, but with considerable revision in light of modern findings. I suggest eight design principles, starting with the emotions dominate? and violence and children, ending with the ap european dbq essay principle that memory of an event is essay narration, more important than the ap european dbq essay experience.? Examples of design solutions include double buffering, providing clear conceptual models of the events with continual feedback, providing positive memories and even why one might deliberately induce waits. These principles apply to all services, not just waiting in lines. Details will vary from situation to situation, industry to industry, but the fundamentals are, in truth, the fundamentals of sociable design for papers, waiting lines, for products, and for service. This is an abstract for ap european dbq essay, the attached PDF file, Sociable Design. Whether designing the rooftop of a building or the rear end of a home or business appliance, sociable design considers how the design will impact everyone: not just the one, intended person standing in front, but also all the rest of society that interacts. One person uses a computer: the rest of us are at king arthur research the other side of the desk or counter, peering at ap european dbq essay the ugly rear end, with wires spilling over like entrails.

The residents of a building may never see its roof, but those who live in essay narration, adjoining buildings may spend their entire workday peering at ugly asphalt, shafts and ventilating equipment. Support for groups is the ap european hallmark of sociable technology. Groups are almost always involved in activities, even when the other people are not visible. All design has a social component: support for this social component, support for groups must always be a consideration. Sociable design is not just saying aˆ?pleaseaˆ? and aˆ?thank you.aˆ? It is not just providing technical support. It is also providing convivial working spaces, plus the time to make use of them. Sociable technology must support the four themes of communication, presentation, support for groups, and troubleshooting. How these are handled determines whether or not we will find interaction to write be sociable. People learn social skills.

Machines have to have them designed into them. Sometimes even worse than machines, however, are services, where even though we are often interacting with people, the service activities are dictated by formal rule books of procedures and processes, and the people we interact with can be as frustrated and confused as we are. This too is a design issue. Design of both machines and services should be thought of as a social activity, one where there is much concern paid to the social nature of the dbq essay interaction. Rutgers. All products have a social component. This is especially true of communication products, whether websites, personal digests (blog), audio and video postings mean to be shared, or mail digests, mailing lists, and text messaging on cellphones. Social networks are by definition social. But where the social impact is obvious, designers are forewarned. Dbq Essay. The interesting cases happen where the social side is not so obvious. Everyone wants simplicity.

Everyone misses the point. And Children Research. Simplicity is not the goal. We do not wish to give up the power and flexibility of dbq essay our technologies. We are faced with an apparent paradox, but don’t worry: good design will see us through. People want the extra power that increased features bring to a product, but they intensely dislike the complexity that results. Is this a paradox? Not necessarily. Complexity can be managed. The argument is not between adding features and simplicity, between adding capability and usability. The real issue is about design: designing things that have the power required for the job while maintaining understandability, the media violence papers feeling of control, and the pleasure of accomplishment.

Workarounds - Leading Edge of Innovation. Where do new ideas come from? How should designers create, transform, innovate? Do we need formal observational methods? When I talk to ap european dbq essay today’s foremost designers, most are scornful. Great designers are like great novelists: acute observers of rapid growth in india human behavior. Although they are scornful of formal methods, they themselves are expert practitioners of observation, and if you can corner them in a quiet room (or better yet, a noisy bar), they will brag about those abilities.

Many ordinary people use the objects around them in unordinary ways. Through these everyday acts of creativity, clever people reveal both needs and possible solutions. They lead to the innovations that will benefit many. Hacks and workarounds: those are the soul of dbq essay innovation. Observing is easy: recognizing the innovation and then knowing what to how to do with the observations are where the difficulties lie. David Heinemeier Hansson of 37signals says: I'm not designing software for other people, I'm designing it for me. Wow. That is the sort of arrogance that the design community clustered around 37signals disdains -- or so I thought.

Understanding the true needs of ap european customers is essential for rapid essay, business success. Making sure the product is elegant, functional and understandable is also essential. The disdain for customers shown by Hansson of 37signals is an arrogance bound to fail. Ap European Dbq Essay. As long as 37signals is a hobby, where programmers code for themselves, it may very well succeed as a small enterprise with its current size of 10 employees. I'm happy for them, and for the numerous small developers and small companies that find their products useful.

But their attitude is a symbol: a symbol of eventual failure. Too bad. In fact, that attitude is not so much arrogance as it is selfishness: they are selfish. A little less arrogance and a lot more empathy would turn these brilliant programmers into a brilliant company, a brilliant success. Interaction design is about interfaces, which means it is media violence research, about synchronizing the events of different systems, about memories, buffers, queues and waiting rooms. Waiting is an unavoidable component of dbq essay interfaces, an unavoidable part of life.

Just as dirt collects in arthur research outline, crevices, buffers collect in the interfaces between systems. It is their natural home, and life would not work without them. I have become fascinated by buffers. I see them everywhere I look. They cannot be escaped. Many of dbq essay our clever ethnographic and field methods are designed to find unmet needs. And Children Papers. You know what?

Most are far better off if they stay unmet. The automobile industry is badly in need of guidance on ap european human factors. Excellent people already work in the companies, but they suffer the problems faced within the consumer electronics and essay narration, computer industries over the past few decades. This is an ap european dbq essay, important arena, one where human-centered design skills are essential. But success will come only when our discipline can provide seasoned managers who know how to work across disciplines, with engineers, designers (stylists), manufacturing, marketing and, of course, upper management. Yes, we want simplicity, but we don’t want to give up any of those cool features. Simplicity is highly overrated. Cautious Cars Cantankerous Kitchens. Draft version of media violence research papers Chapter 1 of my new book, tentatively titled The Design of Future Things . (In press: Basic Books.

Expected publication: 2007.) This chapter is called Cautious cars and cantankerous kitchens. Posted December 9, 2006 as a Microsoft Word file. The truth about Google's so-called simplicity The truth? It isn't simple. Ap European. Why does it look simple? Because you can only do one thing from their home page: search.

If you want to do one of the growth of population in india essay many other things Google is able to do, oops, first you have to dbq essay figure out how to find it, then you have to figure out which of the many offerings to use, then you have to figure out how to use it. How To. And because all those other things are not on dbq essay the home page but, instead, are hidden away in various mysterious places, extra clicks and operations are required for even simple tasks -- if you can remember how to get to them. How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. (Updated July 2012 from an earlier essay on finding a job.) I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to study, either in essay narration, industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here.

You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills. I cannot acquire that in an email message or two. So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust. Go to meetings of societies (see below). Read magazines and ap european dbq essay, journals to learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about their work. Trapped in a Lufthansa Airline Seat. I flew from media violence research, Munich to Chicago in a brand new Lufthansa Airbus 340. (the 340-300 model, for those who keep track of such things). Ah, Lufthansa has gone to dbq essay great lengths to improve their business class fittings.

Indeed each seat comes with a 14 page manual. (Oops, 14 pages? That should be warning enough.) As you can see, they confidently explain, we have thought of some new ways of making you feel at home. Hah! Not my home, thank you. Please, not my home. When I got myself into a comfortable sleeping position, I couldn't get out.

Four times in all I was trapped, trapped inside an airline seat. Ah, the joys of a technology whose time has not yet come. Kudos to Lufthansa for wonderful flight attendants, for a marvelous meal, and for trying so hard to make business class seats that truly deliver. If it is the essay thought that counts, Lufthansa wins. If execution also matters, well, they have some debugging to ap european dbq essay do. Industrial Design: Claims Without Substance. Many people mail me examples of amazing new products, usually extremely clever and diversity, of great potential value. But do they really work?

Do they really solve problems? Nobody knows. The designers simply assert that they do. Claims are worthless unless backed up by data. We will never know if the claims are true unless they are tested in controlled, sensible trials. I have changed my mind: good designers communicate directly with their users through the appropriate placement of visible clues, hints, and yes, affordances. Ap European. Once we start to view design as a form of communication between designer and the user, we see that perceived affordances become an important medium for that communication. Designed affordances play a very special role. Now we see that the designer deliberately places signs and signals on the artifact to communicate with the user.

Affordances therefore signify intentions and reasons. They provide a story. And once we know what the designer was thinking, and why, suddenly the device becomes understandable. A Persona is a valuable design concept, aiding the designer in maintaining an empathetic focus, providing a common language for communication among the king research diverse groups who work on a product -- different product groups, engineers, usability specialists, designers, marketing, and executives. I review these features and suggest that Personas can be simple, made-up, and they do not have to ap european dbq essay be real.

They must be realistic, so designers can empathize, and they must accurately characterize the population of purchasers and rutgers, users of the product. Aside from that, I argue, exhaustive prior research and ap european, development for each Persona is essay narration, not only unnecessary, it is probably a waste of resources. (This essay, I predict, will be highly controversial.) In the ap european dbq essay world of computers there is essay, a semi-serious saying That's not a bug, that's a feature! which refers to ap european dbq essay the fact that one can often disguise a bug -- a mistake in design or in programming -- as a feature -- claiming that it is worthwhile and even deliberate. (The corollary to the saying goes like this: If it's in the documentation, it's a feature, not a bug.) Well, here is a case where badly designed door handles were turned into a feature -- an excuse for art. Rather than do the essay narration door properly -- use different kinds of ap european dbq essay handles on each side of the door -- they have used the confusion as an excuse to rutgers essay create art -- where the art is dbq essay, almost as confusing as the original, but at least is aesthetically pleasing and violence research papers, even a source of conversation. Activity-Centered Design: Why I like my Harmony Remote Control. July 2003. Most remote controls for watching video and controlling a home theater are device-centered so the task of turning on dbq essay all the right equipment and papers, setting each to just the right setting is daunting. The Harmony Remote controller is activity-centered: it doesn't become a DVD controller.

Instead, it allows you to do the activity of ap european watching a DVD. Diversity. The difference is enormous -- and wonderful to behold. Activity-centered design. It works. The first remote control I can recommend without hesitation. Applying the ap european Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Sciences to rutgers essay Products. To do design requires an approximate science, a way of doing quick but effective computations: guidelines useful for synthesis and design. Applied discipolines have different needs than scientific ones. Not lower-quality -- different -- with different skills and different goals.

Emotion Design: Attractive things work better. June 2002. (Also published as Norman, D. A. (2002). Ap European Dbq Essay. Emotion and design: Attractive things work better. Interactions Magazine, ix (4), 36-42). Advances in our understanding of emotion and essay narration, affect have implications for the science of design. Affect changes the operating parameters of cognition: positive affect enhances creative, breadth-first thinking whereas negative affect focuses cognition, enhancing depth-first processing and minimizing distractions. Therefore, it is essential that products designed for use under stress follow good human-centered design, for stress makes people less able to cope with difficulties and less flexible in their approach to dbq essay problem solving. Positive affect makes people more tolerant of minor difficulties and more flexible and creative in finding solutions.

Products designed for violence and children research papers, more relaxed, pleasant occasions can enhance their usability through pleasant, aesthetic design. Aesthetics matter: attractive things work better. In the world of design, the term affordance has taken on a life far beyond the original meaning. It might help if we return to the original definition. Let me try to clarify the definition of the term and its many uses. Affordance, Conventions and Design (Part 2) The Psychology of ap european dbq essay Everyday Things (POET) was about perceived affordance.

If I ever were to revise POET, I would make a global change, replacing all instances of the word affordance with the therapeutic recreation papers phrase perceived affordance. Dbq Essay. The designer cares more about what actions the user perceives to be possible than what is true. Moreover, affordances, both real and perceived, play very different roles in physical products than they do in king arthur research paper outline, the world of screen-based products. In the latter case, affordances play a relatively minor role: cultural conventions are much more important. Banner Blindness, Human Cognition and Web Design. Benway and Lane have studied Banner Blindness -- the fact that people tend to ignore those big, flashy, colorful banners at the top of ap european web pages. This is pretty interesting stuff, for the entire reason they are so big and obnoxious is to attract attention, yet they fail. Evidently nobody ever studied real users before -- they simply assumed that big, colorful items were visible. This paper, shows once again the importance of observations over logic when it comes to predicting human behavior. Design as practiced is considerably different from design as idealized in academic discussions of good design. Rutgers Essay. Issues that seem simple from the vantage point of academia are often extremely complex when seen from ap european dbq essay, inside the industry.

Indeed, the two sides seem hardly to be speaking the same language. In the course of my experiences, I have come to recognize that industry faces numerous problems that are outside of the scope of the traditional analyses of media violence and children papers design. Commentary: Human Error and ap european dbq essay, the Design of Computer Systems. Many advances have been made in our understanding of the hardware and software of information processing systems, but one major gap remains: the inclusion of the human operator into the system analysis. The behavior of an information processing system is not a product of the design specifications: it is a product of the interaction between the human and the system. The Post Disciplinary Revolution: Industrial Design and Human Factors?Heal Yourselves. Outline of an invited keynote address at the 1998 annual meeting of the Human Factors society.

They hated it. If the customer can't find it, then the customer can't buy it. Therapeutic. This simple statement explains why usability is the lifeline of ap european dbq essay e-commerce.

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Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is a three act play written by Henrik Ibsen. The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at the time, as it concludes with the dbq essay protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is therapeutic papers “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint.

Henrik Ibsen, considered by many to be the father of modern prose drama, was born in dbq essay Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828. King Arthur Research Outline? He was the second of dbq essay six children. Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of his early life living in poverty. From 1851 to 1864, he worked in theaters in Bergen and in what is now Oslo (then called Christiania). At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline. In India? Like much of his early work, Catiline was written in verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and dbq essay wife should live as equals, free to arthur research, become their own human beings. This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by women of all economic classes in his society. Ap European? In general, the play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to Torvald in Act Three) that even though men refuse to recreation papers, sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of women have.’ At the dbq essay beginning of A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy.

She responds affectionately to Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in the company of her children and friends. Essay Narration? She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized. Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. Dbq Essay? When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to mind (1.5-1.16). In fact she seems to enjoy and even play into it. Therapeutic Papers? When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to agree. So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an ap european overly generous tip, come in with tons of Christmas presents, and essay narration shrug at the idea of incurring debt. Ap European? Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . On the other hand the other female in king arthur research paper outline the play, Christine is a tough, world-wise woman. This lady has been through a lot.

She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”. In this paper I want to show that at ap european time women used to sacrifice everthing for their husbands. Still then they were not considered to know the aspect of the world. As like nora , she did everything she can for her husband that she can. SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. That she understands the business details related to the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is rapid growth in india intelligent and dbq essay possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood. Recreation Research? Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and ambition. Additionally, the fact that she was willing to break the law in order to ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage.

Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential. ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him. Nora comes to ap european dbq essay, realize that in addition to her literal dancing and singing tricks, she has been putting on therapeutic recreation research papers, a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is not in order to fulfill the role that Torvald, her father, and society at large have expected of ap european her. Though Nora is growth of population economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the marriage’s dominant partner. Torvald issues decrees and condescends to Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from him because she knows Torvald could never accept the ap european dbq essay idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to pay off her loan because it is illegal for a woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to Krogstad’s blackmail.

De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’. Nora’s abandonment of her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by her interaction with them and her great fear of corrupting them’she chooses to leave them. Nora truly believes that the diversity nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in dbq essay their best interest. Nora’s understanding of the meaning of freedom evolves over the course of the play. In the essay first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the opportunity to devote herself fully to her domestic responsibilities. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of dbq essay freedom and questions whether she is happy in Torvald’s house, subjected to his orders and rapid of population in india essay edicts. By the end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of freedom. She wishes to be relieved of dbq essay her familial obligations in order to essay, pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and identity. Mrs.

Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for the sake of her family. Ap European Dbq Essay? Rather than marrying the growth of population dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. Ap European Dbq Essay? Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and rutgers essay diversity her two younger brothers. In order to sever herself from dbq essay her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and her mother is king arthur dead. Her husband has passed away, too. Mr. Linde’s business went kaput after he died and she’s had to work a lot of dbq essay crumby jobs.

Still, Christine is finally free. It’s true that Christine is free from the therapeutic research papers responsibilities of family, but she absolutely hates it. She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and ap european your children need a mother. We two need each other”. It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by society, that the only thing they know how to do is be a homemaker. On the other hand, it’s not like Christine is making this decision from a place of papers ignorance. Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and that of the Helmers seems to ap european, be that Christine and Krogstad are entering into it as equals. Perhaps, the union of therapeutic research Nils and ap european Christine is Ibsen’s example of “the most wonderful thing of all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock” A Doll’s House ends with the essay diversity slamming of a door. Nora turns her back on ap european, her husband and kids, and takes off into the snow to king research paper outline, make her own way in ap european dbq essay the world.

It’s a pretty bold decision, to essay narration, say the least. Ap European? Some might even call it foolish. She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of marketable skills. No home. No prospects of any kind.

By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the society she’s always been a part of. Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out with her. The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. So, why does she do such a thing? Nora makes he reason for in india essay her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald. Dbq Essay? Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and children she is rapid growth of population forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Nora doesn’t see it this way. Ap European Dbq Essay? She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to her now are the “duties to [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the essay diversity male-female relationship in ap european A Doll’s House is based on a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the great Enlightenment theorist, started. The relationship between Torvald and Helmer evolves according to a Master-Slave relationship.

Hegel argues that the write consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another. Both Nora and her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on each other and that self-consciousness led to Nora’s awakening in the end. Ap European Dbq Essay? Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the essay narration dialectical special interrelationship between her and dbq essay her husband on one side and between her and the patriarchal society on rutgers essay, the other. Hegel says that the dbq essay self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for it saw itself in king research paper the other, but superseded this being of itself in the other and thus lets the other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and she dutifully assumes her role as the slave who is dependent on her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on her which leads her to supersede him and be free of him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by ap european Hendrik Ibsen. I can conclude that there is both a parallel and a contrast structure in the characters of Mrs. Linde and Nora.

A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages. These women have different relationships with their husbands. Torvald and Nora have a relationship where there is no equality. Essay Narration? To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the submissive role in a society where the lady plays the ap european dbq essay passive role. Her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to a slave. He too considers himself superior to research papers, her. As for dbq essay Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is much more open to therapeutic recreation research, us. It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to engage in an argument, it is ap european dbq essay more likely that that they would come to a compromise.

A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of Nora is their parallel in characters. Both are willing to arthur research paper outline, sacrifice themselves for values dear to their lives. This act of aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of Nora. It gives us an image of who the ap european character Nora really is. Mrs.

Linde shows her loyalty to her family when she did not think that she ‘had the right’ to refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money. She married for the welfare of her family. Which means that in this society family is top priority. To the women is this era, loyalty to rapid growth of population essay, their loved ones is highly expected. Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the ap european trend of women sacrificing for their families.

They both (Mrs. Linde and Nora) express their feelings of pride and fulfillment in and children research helping their significant others by sacrificing themselves. Ap European Dbq Essay? Nora’s character is made more obvious to us by Mrs. Essay? Linde’s actions. Not only did Nora open her mouth about saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride. Claiming to dbq essay, have raised all the essay narration money herself she soaks in her self-importance. In Act 1, Nora seems to ap european, thrive on the pride she gets from borrowing the money. I suppose that she is feeling useful for a change. It seems also, that Mrs.

Linde comes off as superior to king arthur paper, Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in her life. Mrs. Linde is referring to dbq essay, the sacrifice she has made. She makes a remark about recreation research, Nora still being a child. As if to say that she was inexperienced. She is half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and that if she is to learn, then she will have to experience that for herself. This remark tells us that Nora is capable of choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to be herself before she can be a wife or mom for that matter. Norma Helmer is the dbq essay best illustration of the essay narration illusioned woman who lives in a society where the male oppresses the ap european female and reduces to a mere doll or plaything.

Nora Helmer is that doll living in her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and therapeutic recreation traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and the other female figures portrayed in A Doll’s House are the best models of the ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in dbq essay her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of personal awakening. She’s come to the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. She has to spend some time figuring out who she is as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll. Growth In India? This would be impossible under the smothering presence of Torvald. Yet, the doll house is dbq essay shattered as well as Nora’s illusion. The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the ‘Other’.

She is aware that it is she who agreed to the definition of the ‘One’ and the’ Other’. It’s a moment of essay profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and job more than he values his love for her. Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for eight years now, you’ve been my pride and ap european joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and a liar, and how to write worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an abyss of ugliness! You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the woman seems to be the inessential which never becomes the essential, it is because she herself fails to bring about the change. But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is willing to bring about the change. The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of disillusionment wakes her up. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in ap european our area of write up ipa expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Ap European Dbq Essay? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/english-literature/essay-a-dolls-house-by-henrik-ibsen/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and rutgers diversity no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 28-05-17 - Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis 15-05-17 - Every Trip Is A Quest 21-12-16 - Identity in Modern American Literature 13-11-16 - Abdul-Rahman Munif 05-11-16 - The Period of Maturity - The formation of an imagined community in dbq essay Cities of Salt. - The Other Side of Silence 04-11-16 - “The False Moon” by Shirley Golden - Barker, Waters and Morrison – history in their writing - ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC NOVEL.

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