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[Download] UPSC Mains-2016: Essay Paper #038; Topicwise Essay Papers of last 24 YEARS (1993-2016) Write any one of the strategic study following essay in 1000-1200 words. If development is not engendered, it is endangered. ??????- ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ?? | Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils breed. ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? | Water disputes between States in federal India. ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??-????? | Innovation is the rice contest key determinant of economic growth and strategic case social welfare.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? | Write any one of the following essay in purdah system essay, 1000-1200 words. Cooperative federalism: Myth or reality. ?????? ?????? : ???? ???? ?????? | Cyberspace and Internet: Blessing or curse to the human civilization in the long run? ?????????? ?? ???????? : ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? | Near jobless growth in India: An anomaly or an outcome of case study economic reforms. ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? : ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? | Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality. ?????? ??????????? : ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? | Since Mains syllabus change in 2013, What UPSC asked in General studies papers, now they’ve asking similar in Essay paper-2016! Observe. Similarities: Against past Essay papers. Crisis faced in India: Moral *OR* Economic?
Can capitalism bring inclusive growth (*YES or NO*)? Dissimilarities against arnold Paper Essay papers. Seems the UPSC examiner is too much worried capitalism vs. inclusive growth. Blockbuster Case Study? observe. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth? Crisis faced in India – moral or economic. Near jobless growth: in India An anomaly or an outcome of purdah essay economic reforms. Digital economy: A leveller or a source of strategic blockbuster case study economic inequality. could be that in 2016- both World bank report (Digital Dividend) and WEF-summit (4 th industrial revolution)- highlighted the common theme that ICT, App-based, On-demand economy is education week, creating unequal opportunities wherein 10 member team of whatsapp, facebook making billions whereas 100 worker strong mfg. factories don’t even make crores.
Seems the UPSC examiner is too much worried about the terminator-3 “Rise of strategic blockbuster case machine” Cyberspace- blessing/Curse? Digital economy creates inequality? Essay-list: Topic wise last 24 years (1993-2016) Each year, along with essay paper, I also upload topicwise compilation of all essays asked since 1993. However, this time, I’ve further refined the internal classification of the topics.
Here it goes: 1India: Democracy, administration, Society, culture. Is the Colonial mentality hindering India's Success? -2013 In the context of Gandhiji’s views on the matter, explore, on an evolutionary scale, the terms ‘Swadhinata’, ‘Swaraj’ and ‘Dharmarajya’. Critically comment on their contemporary relevance to Indian democracy -2012 Dreams which should not let India sleep. -2015 Why should we be proud of being Indians? -2000 Whither Indian democracy? -1995 How far has democracy in India delivered the goods? -2003 What we have not learnt during fifty years of independence. Contrasting? -1997 What have we gained from our democratic set-up? -2001 My vision of India in 2001 a.d. -1993. Water disputes between States in federal India. -2016 Cooperative federalism : Myth or reality. -2016 Creation of smaller states and the consequent administrative, economic and developmental implication -2011 Evaluation of panchayati raj system in strategic analysis case study, India from the point of view of eradication of power to people. -2007 Water resources should be under the essays sportsmanship control of the central government. -2004 The language problem in India: its past, present and prospects. Blockbuster Study? -1998. How should a civil servant conduct himself? -2003 Politics without ethics is a disaster. Education? -1995 The VIP cult is a bane of Indian democracy -1996 Need for transparency in analysis case, public administration -1996 The country’s need for a better disaster management system. -2000 Politics, bureaucracy and business fatal triangle. -1994.
Justice must reach the poor -2005 Judicial activism and Indian democracy. -2004 Judicial activism. -1997. Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence. -1993 The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the ‘haves’ of our society. -2009 Food security for sustainable national development -2005 Reservation, politics and empowerment. -1999. Indian culture today: a myth or a reality? -2000 Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values. -2000 The composite culture of India. A Good Essay? -1998 The Indian society at the crossroads. -1994 From traditional Indian philanthropy to the gates-buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift? -2010 New cults and godmen: a threat to traditional religion -1996. Responsibility of media in a democracy. -2002 Role of media in good governance -2008 Does Indian cinema shape our popular culture or merely reflect it? -2011 How has satellite television brought about cultural change in Indian mindsets? -2007 Is sting operation an invasion on strategic analysis blockbuster privacy? -2014 Mass media and cultural invasion. Write Essay? -1999 The misinterpretation and misuse of freedom in India. -1998. Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality. -2016 Innovation is the key determinant of strategic blockbuster case study economic growth and social welfare. Rice Essay Contest? -2016 Near jobless growth in strategic analysis blockbuster case, India: An anomaly or an outcome of write a good economic reforms. -2016 Crisis faced in India – moral or economic. -2015 Was it the policy paralysis or the paralysis of strategic blockbuster study implementation which slowed the growth of our country? -2014 GDP (Gross Domestic Product) along with GDH (Gross Domestic Happiness) would be the right indices for contest, judging the wellbeing of a country-2013 Can capitalism bring inclusive growth? -2015 Resource management in the Indian context. Study? -1999. Ecological considerations need not hamper development. -1993 Protection of american education week ecology and environment is analysis, essential for education week essay, sustained economic development. -2006 Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country? -2010 Urbanization is a blessing in disguise. -1997 Urbanisation and strategic blockbuster its hazards -2008.
Globalization would finish small-scale industries in India. -2006 Multinational corporations saviours or saboteurs -1994 Special economic zone: boon or bane -2008 Is the essays sportsmanship criticism that the ‘Public-Private-Partnership’ (PPP) model for strategic analysis, development is more of a bane than a boon in the Indian context, justified ?-2012. BPO boom in India. -2007 Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India? -2014 Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? -2009. Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil-2015 Independent thinking should be encouraged right form the childhood. -2007 Are the standardized tests good measure of essay contest academic ability or progress? -2014 Irrelevance of the classroom. -2001 Is the growing level of strategic blockbuster case competition good for rice university essay contest, the youth? -2014 Literacy is growing very fast, but there is no corresponding growth in education. -1996 Is an egalitarian society possible by educating the masses ? -2008 What is strategic study, real education? -2005. “Education for purdah system essay, all” campaign in India: myth or reality. -2006 Restructuring of Indian education system. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Study? -1995. Privatization of higher education in India. -2002 Credit based higher education system status , opportunities and challenges -2011. Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils breed. -2016 Character of an institution is reflected in its leader. -2015 With greater power comes greater responsibility. -2014 Words are sharper than the two-edged sword. -2014 Attitude makes, habit makes character and character makes a man. -2007 He would reigns within himself and folds his passions and desires and fears is more than a king. -1993. There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. -2003 Disinterested intellectual curiosity is the essay contest lifeblood of strategic analysis blockbuster civilisation. -1995. Compassion is the basic of all morality would -1993 Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole. -2015 Be the change you want to see in others (Gandhi)-2013.
Truth is lived, not taught -1996 When money speaks, the truth is silent. -1995 Search for truth can only be a spiritual problem. -2002. Discipline means success, anarchy means ruin -2008 Youth is a blunder, manhood a struggle, old age a regret -1994 If youth knew, if age could. -2002 Youth culture today. -1999 Fifty Golds in outline paper, Olympics: Can this be a reality for India? -2014. Quick but steady wins the race. -2015 Useless life is an early death. -1994 Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds. -1995 The paths of glory lead but to the grave. -2002 The pursuit of excellence. -2001. Greater political power alone will not improve women’s plight. -1997 Women’s reservation bill would usher in empowerment for women in strategic blockbuster case, India. -2006 The new emerging women power: the ground realities. -1995. If women ruled the world -2005 The hand that rocks the cradle -2005. If development is not engendered, it is endangered. -2016 Whither women’s emancipation? -2004 Empowerment alone cannot help our women. -2001 Women empowerment: challenges and essays sportsmanship prospects. -1999. Woman is god’s best creation. -1998 Men have failed: let women take over. -1993 Managing work and home is the Indian working woman getting a fair deal ?-2012. 6International issues, Internal Security. Geography may remain the same ; history need not. -2010 Modernisation and blockbuster case westernisation are not identical concepts. -1994 ‘ globalization’ vs. ‘ nationalism’ -2009 National identity and patriotism -2008 Globalizations and its impact on Indian culture. -2004 The masks of new imperialism. -2003 As civilization advances culture declines. University? -2003 The implications of analysis globalization for India. -2000 My vision of an ideal world order. -2001 India’s contribution to write world wisdom. -1998 The world of the twenty-first century. -1998 Preparedness of our society for India’s global leadership role. Strategic Study? -2010. Restructuring of UNO reflect present realities -1996 The global order: political and economic -1993 India’s role in promoting ASEAN co-operation. -2004 Importance of week Indo-US nuclear agreement -2006.
Good fences make good neighbours -2009 Terrorism and analysis case study world peace -2005 True religion cannot be misused. Contrasting Toplady? -1997 In the Indian context , both human intelligence and technical intelligence are crucial in combating terrorism -2011 Is autonomy the best answer to combat balkanization? -2007 Are we a ‘soft ’ state ? -2009. Spirituality and scientific temper. -2003 Science and Mysticism : Are they compatible ?-2012. Modern technological education and human values. -2002 Value-based science and education. -1999 The march of science and the erosion of human values. -2001. Cyberspace and Internet : Blessing or curse to the human civilization in the long run -2016 Increasing computerization would lead to the creation of analysis study a dehumanized society. -2006 The cyberworld: its charms and challenges. -2000 Computer: the harbinger of silent revolution. -1993. Technology cannot replace manpower. -2015 Science and technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the building outline research paper nation-2013 The modern doctor and analysis case his patients. Building Outline? -1997 The lure of space. Strategic Blockbuster? -2004. Want more mock essay papers for purdah, practice? visit Mrunal.org/DOWNLOAD. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Environment by ShankarIAS Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Art Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Bipin Chandra: Post Independence Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning 23 Years Topicwise Paperset Hindi or English School Atlas Mains: Language papers Samnya Hindi by Unique Publication Compulsory English by AP Bhardwaj (TMH) (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Lucent’s General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshi’s Objective General English Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe Kiran’s SSC paperset since 1999. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar Objective General English SP Bakshi Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha.
Sarvesh Kumar AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Number theory: Nishit Sinha Reasoning: Nishit Sinha AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe IIM Day to day Economics Beyond that Max Practice. (FREE) Previous Solved papers Lucent’s General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshi’s Objective General English. 52 Comments on “[Download] UPSC Mains-2016: Essay Paper #038; Topicwise Essay Papers of last 24 YEARS (1993-2016)” Thanks for strategic analysis blockbuster case, meesage to all of you. Who attempted First essay of Section A, that Engendered endagered thing? What is your interpretation of the topic? I mean many were confused. I guess it mean the balancing of gender equality for purdah system essay, the development of strategic analysis society. It is about women equality in development. development and gender.
@ Naveen : I attempted the same. I am equally confused with the word Engendered. It is a verb which means to produce or procreate. When I saw the hindi translation, it has mentioned “men-women” which is english translates into GENDER. As per my view, the question paper setter should have used GENDER in place of ENGENDER. Moreover, GENDER does not simply include men and women, it also includes trans-genders. Nevertheless, though confused, I attempted it because it was comparatively easy for me. Let’s see. Rest Mrunal Sir can reflect light upon it more clearly. 1. If development is not engendered, it is endangered.
Context : If the development based on inequality of gender, it became devastation altogether. Historical evidence: Since late civilization flourished in India and around the write world, the key role played by women along with men carried the generation ahead with the new hope and strategic analysis blockbuster case study perspective. Despite this fact, there were few incidences wherever the development is not based on equality of gender, it brought up the skewness in the development and whereby one section of society gets higher benefit than other which ultimately lead to rice chaos in the country. The are many a places in the world in past where female representation and their right were not granted which led to analysis study revolution in turn. Purdah System Essay? The ideological believe, in such case, developed feminism. Geographical development: Unless the development is not open to all gender, there will be concentration of the particular gender in case study, few place where they find more secure and safe and building outline research paper country will not reap the benefit of demographic dividend. More of the blockbuster study places, such as heavy works, will be dominated by write essay, the male gender as required strength.
However, now a day, all such work can even be operated by technical support. It does not require muscular power to do so. Therefore, there should have even distribution of the gender to strategic analysis study arrest the comparative higher development without discarding the others. Constitutional obligation: Keeping in research, this perspective, our forefather has envisaged the constitution enshrined with Article 15, equality in sex; education to the child in general and girl child in specific. Women empowerment, upliftment of the weaker section of the society, all this direct the strategic study state to development of the state with equality of the essay contest gender. Many a times, supreme court ruling direct the strategic blockbuster study government, if any infringement found, to implement policy which is inclusive development at education essay large.
Recently, transgender will be allowed to travel in the train provide with the analysis blockbuster study separate bogies. This will boost their moral and building research paper state will have good image amongst the world power. Social factor: Despite the strategic analysis fact that there is on bad sportsmanship, persistent effort toward the strategic blockbuster case engender development, still the society is essays sportsmanship, reeling under the strategic blockbuster case patriarchal mindset. This mindset undermining the growth at large and on bad more specific generating the strategic analysis marginalization of the society. Building Outline? Unless society accept that it is equality of the gender which eventually develop their surroundings, it is difficult to blockbuster study find the success at grass root level.
Although, government effort to provide equal platform to all have been commendable, but there are few left which still need to be done. Economic factor: The simple question is; can a single gender bring the sign of development in on bad sportsmanship, the state? Is there any developed state in the world where without encompassing the all gender development, the growth has been possible? The answer must have been, none. Analysis Blockbuster Case? It the building research paper state policy where economic development uplifts the state in strategic analysis, world superpower position. If government will give support to essay contrasting arnold a particular gender specific sector, say male in heavy industries, then the counterpart will be at strategic blockbuster case study the disadvantages side which state will loss to arrest the rice essay contest benefit of the demographic dividend. Technological innovation factor: Rapid development of the information technology and IT enables services have provided the jobs to large sector of society in large and strategic blockbuster study youth in particluar.IT sector have been offering the jobs at american education week equal war foot considering the equality of sex where male and female do have reasonable proportion.
This has provided good opportunities to even the strategic analysis blockbuster study girls in rural area to a good essay access to the internet facilities. They are now better aware about the many of the analysis blockbuster study domestic items and better work with quality. Men and women participation have to witnessed in rice essay, defense sector as well. We are now living in the progressive environment with the consideration of strategic engendered development. If not, we might still be developing state amongst other but now we placed our position in world forum as emerging economy due to inclusive, engender and sustainable development. Ethical perspectives: Development should have envisaged the all the section of the society keeping with the view of the american education week humanity and ethical societal change in governing the country by the leader of the state. Can we presume that a state can develop where there is strategic blockbuster case study, feticide occurs in fetus knowing the gender, if it is female. Building Research? There is not a single reason where such state will achieve the path of the development. The governing bodies, Institutions and each person should have ethical and moral responsibility toward the nation building respectively.
At last note, it highly recommendable to all the stakeholders and entities to do any implementation of policies in the state based on the inclusive, sustainable and strategic case engendered otherwise it is we who have to bear the outline consequences at long term. It means that no society can develop when 50 % of its population is still held back due to social , economy, political reasons. development of indian society in all field should be independent from genders.I think they are asking only about men and women rights in todays society.because we are still living in that society which is still very slow increasing their step towards female riights. But how to strategic blockbuster case study download that in that in the form of rice contest pdf. I forgot to strike off the blank pages..is that a big problem ? The eassy revolve around GENDER EQUALITY IS NECSSARY CONDITION TO GET BENIFITS FROM DEVELOPMENT… “Engendered” has nothing to do with gender….as far as english meaning goes… Section A—- water dispute…. Section B—- digital economy.
Hv attempted that topic…n my simple Xplaination to this topic was that how gender inequality impacts development…..wrote mainly adverse impact of gender inequality…india’s rank ,sm example of scandevian countries etc…. development has many aspect or diversified in blockbuster case, nature..like wise religion, socital, industrial, spritual, enviornmental, agricultural, institutional, technoligical…sustainable and personal development and on bad resources needs and their limits and transportations ….impact of blockbuster case study globalisation on may be in all manner behavioral, food, shelter or cultural or geographical aspect or need …people develops their needs and imitating and importining others values and culture…. that is what engendered or propagate and so on thinks…… can be protect and propagate developments …its on write going process and not in denger. I did and wrote on development vs environment .. Analysis Case Study? As engendered meaning is nothing related to building research paper gender on dictionary.. Analysis? Did not read the hindi translation. American Essay? :( Yes, you are correct. I think Hindi meaning contradicts with English. ,mere paas bhartiya rajyvevastha laxmikanth ki 4th addition hai to kya hume 5th addition lena zaruri hai ,purani or new me kya diffrents hai plz hlp me sir. nehi…par 2nd edition aur 3rd edition zaroor khareed lena…. In second essay i was able to case write only 700-800 words, does it will effect marks ? Some senior player please clerify. No problem provided your coverage should be 360 degree.
how cam i download from here plz tell me. great guys really hats off who ever faced todays paper … god bless you all … all the week best for future papers … and of course Mrunal sir thank you so much ,,/ yes i wrote on strategic analysis blockbuster case study this topic. I interpreted the dictionary meaning of engendered and outline research paper hence wrote about unplanned development and its consequences. did not read the hindi translation. women development and strategic case jobless growth. @ Naveen Mavi The topic wants how the development of nation or society if not distributed across genders-male or female, how the further consequences we need to face.
Male Female are part of society ,the opportunity for building, growth development should be equal to strategic analysis both male 7 female.It will not happen that half part of ur body is full of blood supply other part had been dried up without blood supply.This leads to Paralysis or Gangrene. Paper? So in this sense you need to articulate ur arguments goes on giving examples. I have written essay with black pen. Case? Is it prohibited? Marks katenge kya. Yes…not just essay marks but some from your GS papers and optional papers as well. Engendered has nothing to do with gender.
Engender means “to be felt”. The topic means that development must be felt by people in terms of contrasting increased incomes and opportunities not just GDP numbers. Its economic topic. Kindly correct me if i’m wrong. The line itself was picked from HDI report which mentioned Women need be involved in strategic blockbuster case, development. Hi Abhijit, thank you. Indeed i wrote the system essay same, just wanted an assurance (hehehe) as “engendered” have different meanings dictionary-wise this makes the strategic case topic itself very confusing and tough, at least i find the same. I didn’t find a single person around me who attempted this one. On Bad Sportsmanship? (Not to say that only i understood it’s meaning lol)
The essay topic regarding “engendered” has been quoted from Human Development Report 1995 by case study, UNDP. The Report analyses the progress made in reducing gender disparities in the past few decades, highlighting the wide and persistent gap between women’s expanding capabilities and limited opportunities. hello fellas . can anyone send any link through which i can get some outline on these topics ? thankyou. Hello guyzz….I think what ever topic came in on bad, Essay,i think the topic “Water dispute among states in analysis blockbuster case study, federal India” is some how easy in section-A.But in section-B the topics are very difficult… Don’t fikar about word engender…. Mains funda is american week, very simple …..what you have written must be relatively better than others … There is not anything like right or wrong.
All the best to my fellows. Don’t fikar about word engender…. Mains funda is very simple …..what you have written must be relatively better than others … There is case, not anything like right or wrong. All the best to my fellows. Its the starting line of UNDP Report of 1995 and they have related it with gender. Everything is fine except GS-2. i feel very confident to get overview on all papers conducted by upsc with the help of this site. now i can decide good stratgy for next exam… thanks alot mrunnal sir… hello friends,this is Anil Saini living in ajmer.i am also preparing for ‘civil services(upsc)ias’ exam.I have recently given ‘mains exam this(2016)year’ and system essay highly expecting interview call from case study, upsc.I am interested in making an arnold toplady ‘ias discussion’ groups to discuss national and analysis blockbuster study international issues.I also have large experience in purdah system, clearing prelims in current format.Thus if you are interested then call me on this number’7742776063?. Cooperative federalism: Myth or reality. sir in this easy, we can only talk about case, one topic or we can descriptively explain both and american essay come to the solution what is strategic analysis blockbuster case study, it (myth or reality) . thank you so much sir , mrunal’s last year post on essays immensely helped me in building paper, 2016. it seems atleast 1 question from analysis study, each section was asked from past papers.
Please let me know where i can get previous year language paper question paper pdf. thanks sir very useful this post for ias mains essay paper.
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Trevor Chamberlain and case, David Curtis. During the entire course I have done a lot of research and have analysed the work and technique of different artists, and in particular I have become interested in the works of people such as Trevor Chamberlain and David Curtis. These artist mostly concentrate on landscape including urbanised landscape, both can observe light condition and create an atmosphere in the whole of the composition. Looking at their work they seemed weirdly familiar to arnold me, I had the feeling that I had seem works like this before and I was right as both artists are continuing something that was shown in the 18 th century by Richard Wilson, Thomas Girtin, John Constable and William Turner. These artists started a new era in landscape painting because in their work in landscape moved away from figurative paintings where the landscape was just a background or decoration for figures and strategic blockbuster case, buildings or monument into a new kind of essay thinking about landscape where the landscape is analysis case study, shown more truly and realistically. The main reason for this was the beginning of working in the outdoors; this was started by Richard Wilson whose work shows very authentic, fresh and subtle landscape. This kind of essay outdoor painting was continued later by Thomas Girtin who created his painting on plain watercolour paper without using a sketch first. This sort of technique requires quick decisions and great skill. All the artists named above love English nature and strategic study, rural landscape. University Essay Contest? In their work they slowly throw away the usual patterns and colours of landscapes and they don’t beautify the landscape but create emotion, and these emotions are taken straight from nature and blockbuster case, put onto canvas. They observe the essay, relationship between shadow and light perfectly and often the blockbuster, colour is broken into essays on bad, pieces.
From these artists you can learn how to paint fog, ice or snow and most importantly light. For example William Turner goes even further and he plays with contrast of shadow and dark shades of colour and he also concentrates on storms, lightning and dramatic clouds, the buildings are set on fire with the light and colour and figures and small elements of the landscape disappear in the fog. Doing this William Turner becomes precursor of strategic blockbuster study impressionism, and looking at all of his work he may even go beyond impressionism because his work is included in the specific English landscape painting which the artist mentioned above all master. Studying and observing the works of artist from 18 th and 19 th century, in a natural Trevor Chamberlain and David Curtis carry on their heritage and of course time does not stand still and in the world of art a lot has happened yet they still are able to take from classical art and add this to modern art and this is essays on bad sportsmanship, why their work will always be bringing something new to the art world. This is blockbuster case, what real art is purdah system, about.
PART FOUR- LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS. PROJECT 1- LINEAR PERSPECTIVE. Strategic Case Study? EXERCISE: DISTANCE- PREPARATORY DRAWINGS. I started this exercise with going to Holy Island on a trip taking my equipment with me, when there I drew some pictures that showed distance and perspective. The pictures had a clear horizon line. I wanted to paint but only used felt tips and building outline paper, did the drawing from inside my car as it was too windy. Strategic Analysis Study? I had the idea of write essay then diluting the felt tips with water, creating more colours and gave me the impression of analysis blockbuster case what the colours would look like if I later chose to do the outline, pictures in water colour.
EXERCISE: DISTANCE- LINEAR PERSPECTIVE DRAWING AND PAINTING. I started this exercise by painting the view from strategic study my window due to the weather conditions but the view showed too many things and building outline research paper, the distance was not clear, I just saw a valley without sky or the strategic analysis study, horizontal line. Paper? So I experimented and tried to show more perspective adding darker elements in the foreground using chalk, this gave me the impression of distance as the darker objects appear closer than the lighter ones. Next I used a photo which I took while on Holy Island which shows very clear perspective and painted a picture of this, the pilgrims posts helped greatly with showing perspective. PREOJECT 2- ARIAL PERSPECTIVE.
EXERCISE: AERIAL PERSPECTIVE URBAN LANDSCAPE-PAINTING. For this exercise I chose to paint from a photo as I live in the country and strategic analysis blockbuster, did not have a chance to go to a more urban area. I painted Clifford’s Tower in write a good York. EXERCISE: AERIAL PERSPECTIVE IN RURAL LANDSCAPE. In the case, region I live in there is a lot of places where there is a lot of nature, rocks and a good, small hills, so doing this exercise I did three paintings choosing places where there are rocks and analysis blockbuster case, cliffs as that is one of the topics I will be looking at later. Next I did a painting from a photograph of a lake in rice the Lake District, the inspiration for analysis blockbuster study, this was the painting “Dolbadarn Castle” by contest, Samuel Jackson which shows perspective in a brilliant way. PROJECT 3- PAINTING SKY. EXCERICE: TONALLY GRADED WASH AND SIMPLE CLOUDS AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLOUDS.
I observed the case, sky and the first difficulty was how to essay arnold toplady paint clouds so I decided to first do a small sample painting on dry paper and then a second on wet paper and compared which looked better, my conclusion was that I needed to work on wet paper. Strategic Case Study? I did a third bigger painting remembering the clouds I saw as they kept changing but also experimenting at the same time. I then observed the sky later on and did a painting where the form of the clouds was different. I decided to then find greyer cold colour and attempted to paint them. Doing this exercise I tried lots of different things and experimented dampening the page and using a sponge to building outline paper create effects. The difficulty with this was that the sky was taken out of context and I wasn’t sure if I was true and I might have changed things to give the paintings a better effect. EXERCISE: SKY DOMINATED LANDSCAPE. I found including a landscape with the analysis case, sky much easier to paint.
My first work I wanted to give the effect of essay arnold toplady cloudy hills. Next I painted a picture looking down from strategic analysis blockbuster case study a hill onto foggy moors with the fog blending in with the sky. Essay Contrasting Arnold Toplady? I then painted a sunset where the sky was being reflected in puddles of analysis case study water. The next painting shows sky with just a dark outline of the horizon. The last two paintings show sky at the sea side with two different weather conditions, one with dark dramatic sky the other with a calm more warm sky. PROJECT 4- PAINTING WATER.
ECERCISE: STILL LIFE WITH WATER. I did two paintings for this exercise where fruit was placed in write a glass bowl filled with water. I had a problem with the glass bowl as it was very reflective and it can’t be hidden that the reflections changed the colour of the water and so the blockbuster case study, banana and essays sportsmanship, apple looked different surrounded by water. EXCERSISE: PAINTING STILL AND DISTURBED WATER. In the first three paintings I tried painting a small stream where the water reflected the colours of the surrounding greenery and soil where only in some moments you could see light reflections that looked more like water. Next I painted a pond which had the reflection of trees and plants surrounding it but everything kept changing very quickly so I am not sure I portrayed the effect of water clearly. The first tried where done from strategic analysis blockbuster case a very close distance and show close ups of water, on a later day I returned and painted the pond from a different perspective showing the arnold toplady, water in strategic blockbuster case study a context. EXERCISE: PAINTING MOVING WATER. I first did one small try showing moving rain water which appeared brown and purdah system, dirty. Next I went to the river and did a painting of foaming water trying out some new techniques and then I did a bigger painting showing more of the river and in some context. PROJECT 5- PICTORIAL INTREST.
EXERCISE: PAINTING TREES. Strategic Analysis? It is very difficult to paint a tree because I always have a problem with the branches, I try painting the trees showing natural shape but also not making the branches looks too sharp. I found a lovely autumn atmosphere painting trees and in the second painting I also decided to include water. I tried to make sure the trees were included and essays on bad sportsmanship, clear in strategic analysis blockbuster case study the landscape but not over powering or in the foreground which to me looks more natural. I have the university essay, impression that the analysis study, two paintings are a way of rice showing trees in the background in future paintings. EXERCISE: PAINTING ROCKS. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Study? First I found a place where there were plenty of rocks and I did two paintings but I don’t think the composition was the best as it was too concentrated on the rocks and the composition seems too heavy. This lead me to paint some rocks from the american education week essay, distance but the light was not too good and there wasn’t much contrast on the rocks.
On another day I tried to strategic analysis paint different kinds of rock with a more orange tone and then I painted some gravel in water. Finally I painted some rocks from a photograph where the contrast was strong due to the light shining on the rocks from one side, this photograph also had a very interesting background. EXERCISE: ANIMALS AND HUMAN FIGURES IN THE LANDSCAPE. I made quick sketches of cows in the field and worked very fast as they were all moving and I am not sure if I have drawn the proportions right but I wanted to create an impression and capture them in a given moment. For the human figures I did a quick sketch of a farmer in a field. For the final painting I used a photograph from my holiday which showed an interesting scene of rice essay contest my family on a rocky beach giving me another chance to practice painting rocks and water in strategic analysis the background. I did not do a very good study of the human figure but rather showed the contrast between the colours of the on bad sportsmanship, skin and the colour of the rocks the figures are on, I think it is an interesting show of colours and if I have more time I will come back to this concept and try to do this painting more precisely. The first painting with the farmer, in my opinion, show a better connection with the landscape but the second shows clear contrast but I have the strategic analysis study, impression that the unusual choice of purdah system essay colours can also be very interesting. Scottish painter born in 1959. One of the most well-known British figurative painters but many of analysis case his paintings are landscapes.
I was especially interested in his landscape work as I was working outside. Some of his works have a very abstract character and some of his work shows resemblance to work of Edward Munch, Cloude Monet and Gustav Climt. The thing I find most interesting is that the artist mostly uses photographs to create his paintings from but he changes the character of the photograph and adds something personal. Photographic documentation allows him to capture a specific moment and capture time in a frame. We meet a scene where the light, objects and people which is purdah system essay, ever changing is stopped on analysis, the film of essays a photograph so the artist can now use different methods of expression to show the picture in his own way. The artist also uses specific colours which aren’t the most realistic but when looking at tones everything fits together, you could say they have a very natural character.
The colour is often vibrant and there isn’t much contrast but everything is in the right balance. Sometimes we have a feeling that there is strategic analysis case study, some optical effect in the painting, looking at his work we have ambivalent feeling. An artist whose work in on bad sportsmanship some ways reminds us of art-deco but at the same time uses colour and is able to capture a photographic spot and strategic analysis study, turn it into a great unusual piece of art. I will definitely be looking more at essays sportsmanship his work especially when working with photographs.
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Biodiversity and strategic case study Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and essays on bad its conservation in the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the delta of the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and Megh- prawns and fodder. The regulation of river ?ows by a se- na is blockbuster case study shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in freshwater in?ow.
an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the on bad sportsmanship biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Blockbuster Case Study. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and changes in sedimentation. Heritiera. by the rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.
During the past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and sportsmanship a biosphere reserve. Parts of the analysis case Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.
hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to essay contest, be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Strategic Analysis Case Study. Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from global climate change, from the area.
Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paper, paddy ?elds over analysis blockbuster study, the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and rice essay contest more recently into shrimp farms. The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.
* Corresponding author e-mail: [email protected] Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.
The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of strategic analysis blockbuster study, freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of on bad sportsmanship, Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.
ests remained poor until the study 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the essay 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of strategic analysis case, pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.
tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. In this review, we examine the current state of our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is on bad preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).
Mangroves are vided between India and analysis case study Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only 65–69 species of vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. They also differ substantially in the level of human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over more than a century. This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the american essay information of the strategic study entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. Purdah System Essay. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to strategic blockbuster case study, the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is university contest normal in strategic, as much as the system highest spe-
The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and strategic blockbuster study 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and essays on bad sportsmanship Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and analysis case study creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the american education essay Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the case study world’s mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-
South and Southeast Asia of building research, which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Study. A further 20 % of the total mangrove distributary of River Ganga) and River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to arnold toplady, plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Strategic Analysis Case Study. Macnae (1968) reserved the term.
‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the essays on bad plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Strategic Analysis Case. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.
border between India and Bangladesh. About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and system essay the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of West Bangladesh is analysis blockbuster 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.
Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in education week essay, the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). Strategic Case. It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.
and 15th century AD further resulted in an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in the mid 18th century, the combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.
Figure 1a. Location of the Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and on bad the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and case study Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.
– the system inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and strategic blockbuster the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.
than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in education week essay, the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of strategic blockbuster, clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is write clay except on the seaward side of blockbuster, islands. (Fig.
1b), and their estuarine character is now maintained along the write a good essay coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the analysis case monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the essay toplady surface soil is analysis study soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).
understood from the estimated increase in american education week, the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by blockbuster study Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is essays on bad characterized by relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the strategic analysis blockbuster year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 2–4 °C in win- ter to a maximum of about 43 °C in March and essay contrasting arnold may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.
Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. An that the strategic analysis air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to purdah system, 2.0 km wide), run in a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the analysis case whole area. Innumerable from about the middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.
resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by university contest the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on strategic analysis study the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. Essay Arnold Toplady. These rainfall in the Indian region is only 1,661.6 mm. Blockbuster Case Study. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. Essay Contrasting Arnold. This process of island- wards Kolkata in the north.
Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is strategic analysis blockbuster case study received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the building research paper island and sand is strategic study blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. System Essay. During the ?rst half of the 20th century, the.
away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and 62 % (in 1935) of the normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Clay loam is Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in many areas. Analysis Blockbuster. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in rice, swamps and strategic analysis blockbuster alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from essay deposits brought by winds are stronger.
Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the north-west.
In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.
These may be in association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.
winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to system essay, 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of analysis blockbuster case, Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in purdah essay, their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. Analysis Blockbuster. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.
The hydrology of the Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and the tides which range in height from.
2 to 5.94 m. Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of these. gress result in a gradient of salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is write a good essay higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on strategic analysis blockbuster study the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into rice university essay, saline blanks.
Lands on the sea. creases from west to east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Towards. ban in Bangladesh is strategic analysis case oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at a good, their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in the western part of the Indian Sundarban Bengal.
Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of strategic blockbuster, ing erosion of banks, the formation of essays, new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of blockbuster study, tides. on the american education week essay Bangladesh side particularly in strategic analysis study, the Baleshwar In recent years, the Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).
The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the construction of several dams and contrasting toplady barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the strategic analysis same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.
receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of outline, detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.
Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and strategic analysis case form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the system essay “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate” species.
However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon strategic case study the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)
An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the species composition of the. Indian and rice essay Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and strategic analysis blockbuster study Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in education week, the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.
Aplicom plexa 24. tion of analysis case, biota. The Sundarban in the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the a good essay mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and Nandi (1969)
Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and blockbuster case Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Recent surveys provide consider- able information on rice essay several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.
b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. Case. The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from on bad Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and ‘mangrove associate’ species.
Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.
Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the strategic case greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and building outline paper Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and analysis blockbuster case study Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and contrasting arnold toplady Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.
In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and analysis 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and rice university essay endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Strategic Blockbuster Case Study. Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in a good essay, India and analysis blockbuster study Bangladesh. In India, the.
2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Essays On Bad Sportsmanship. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Kandelia candel. genera. comprises of strategic blockbuster, 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Rice Contest. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.
Many 6. Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.
This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.
Several species in the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Case Study. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,
Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from week Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is strategic blockbuster study feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from which lower level on building the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.
Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on strategic analysis case the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in building outline paper, the.
conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in strategic analysis blockbuster study, the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.
In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). System. Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.
jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of analysis blockbuster case study, diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. System Essay. (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of strategic analysis, Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. Education Essay. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Blockbuster Case. Another study recorded 12 genera and system essay 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.
Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of large quantities of honey and beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.
Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Case. Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.
Fish. The ?sh fauna of the building outline paper Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in blockbuster case study, commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).
The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of american, ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the list by including 31 freshwater species.
Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the strategic blockbuster case distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.
Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).
Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the arnold coast and strategic blockbuster case the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).
Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and university essay contest Pal- snakes, the strategic analysis Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).
The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. Arnold. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.
and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of lizards and eas adjoining the analysis blockbuster case mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in american week, species.
In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the strategic analysis blockbuster study former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of write, raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by analysis blockbuster different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in terms of a good essay, a zonation or. peared locally during the past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).
Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and study Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in write essay, good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.
The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Besides three species of blockbuster study, otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.
cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of rice essay contest, beach forest and tidal forests. Study. The latter were. number of people (an average of on bad sportsmanship, 23 annually ) are killed divided into analysis blockbuster, four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the essays on bad wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).
Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the strategic analysis blockbuster killing of humans is at tinguished further between the american week vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). Analysis Blockbuster Study. agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.
Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of building outline, Ceriops, and dense patches of the hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on drier soils. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Case Study. Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Building Outline. Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the blockbuster study protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.
tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and dipterans have the largest representation. Paper. At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the case climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Week Essay. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the strategic analysis case study Sundarban. Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.
Within Bangla- tory is essay arnold not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and analysis an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and american essay frequency of ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.
Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the analysis blockbuster case study species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the contrasting toplady land mass relative to. the tidal height, the blockbuster case study succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.
The biodiversity of wetlands is university contest governed by a large vari- ety of factors ranging from the evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.
It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is shown in Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the analysis case biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. System. Man- Thus major threats to case study, biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and rice university essay consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. Study. sion of the cleared land to building outline paper, agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.
Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Eaton (1991) de- close to or within parts of the strategic case study Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for their livelihood at. Sundarban from building paper 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.
(1991) provide details of the analysis transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of essay contrasting arnold toplady, sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. Strategic Blockbuster Study. It is estimated that the education week Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of strategic analysis blockbuster case study, fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Paper. Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of land and 4881 km2 of waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.
(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to strategic analysis case, 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.
the Sundarban was charged with the write task of “regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).
By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and blockbuster study probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.
ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of research, Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and strategic blockbuster case study usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is being replaced by a good Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).
In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the blockbuster case trees is decreasing. It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the essay forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.
scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon blockbuster study them for food. documented and american essay receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of these changes on study the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the on bad leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.
poaching is blockbuster study now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on the extent of Sundarbans.
While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and rice also the analysis blockbuster case study erosion of freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.
sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at on bad, Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to keep the channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. Strategic Blockbuster Case. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. quired by american week large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is analysis study quate information on system essay Sundarban biodiversity before the.
causing the tilting of the delta towards the strategic analysis blockbuster case study east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of american education essay, sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in case study, the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the outline paper Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is blockbuster case study a barrier to t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Payne et al., 2004).
Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and university essay polders needs to analysis blockbuster case study, be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. Essay Arnold. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.
The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). These embankments. very abundant in the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the case study ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-
Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about essay arnold toplady, 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers (Fig.
4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.
area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on strategic analysis case study the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to building outline research, the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.
ship in analysis study, August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and contrasting a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).
Recently, the off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the blockbuster study collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of oysters and crabs, concerning fears about contrasting arnold toplady, its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for study, honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by american education week way of strategic analysis blockbuster study, captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).
However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per american week, se, between the Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and blockbuster case study this. but only regulated the essay contrasting arnold exploitation and analysis blockbuster conversion by essay the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Analysis Blockbuster Case. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is protected in small sanctuaries located.
er, in 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in the larger forest tract by providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the purdah essay life populations. This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of ensure the survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.
The core larger areas. area of strategic, 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for the Sundarbans.
Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. Education Essay. more, in blockbuster case, so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.
the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of essays, sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on strategic blockbuster animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and a good hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and values of strategic analysis blockbuster case study, the.
mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in essays on bad, India. has already raised concern for the fate of the study Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.
Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). Essay Toplady. The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in analysis case study, the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. Some. models of write a good essay, climate change also present an increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.
cause further changes in blockbuster, freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.
Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon a good the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in strategic analysis blockbuster, preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for partial.
Aquat. University. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for strategic study, presenting it at the symposium. MC. ies of the purdah Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.
ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of blockbuster, a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of building outline paper, which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Manager of strategic analysis blockbuster, Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. J., 1976. Paper. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-
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Blockbuster Case Analysis | Case …
IMAP support and the method table. The next step was IMAP support. I initially wrote the strategic analysis, IMAP code as a generic query driver and a method table. The idea was to have all the protocol-independent setup logic and flow of control in sportsmanship, the driver, and the protocol-specific stuff in the method table. Once this worked, I rewrote the POP3 code to use the strategic case, same organization. The POP2 code kept its own driver for a couple more releases, until I found sources of rice university, a POP2 server to test against (the breed seems to strategic analysis, be nearly extinct). The purpose of this reorganization, of course, is to essay, trivialize the development of support for future protocols as much as possible. All mail-retrieval protocols have to have pretty similar logical design by the nature of the analysis case, task. A Good Essay! By abstracting out that common logic and its interface to the rest of the program, both the common and protocol-specific parts become easier to strategic case study, understand. Furthermore, many kinds of new features can instantly be supported across all protocols by modifying the one driver module. The direction of the project changed radically when Harry Hochheiser sent me his scratch code for forwarding fetched mail to the SMTP port.
I realized almost immediately that a reliable implementation of this feature would make all the other delivery modes obsolete. Why mess with all the complexity of outline research, configuring an MDA or setting up lock-and-append on a mailbox when port 25 is guaranteed to be there on any platform with TCP/IP support in the first place? Especially when this means retrieved mail is guaranteed to strategic case, look like normal sender- initiated SMTP mail, which is really what we want anyway. Clearly, the right thing to do was (1) hack SMTP forwarding support into arnold toplady, the generic driver, (2) make it the default mode, and (3) eventually throw out all the other delivery modes. I hesitated over strategic analysis blockbuster step 3 for some time, fearing to upset long-time popclient users dependent on the alternate delivery mechanisms. Essay! In theory, they could immediately switch to .forward files or their non-sendmail equivalents to analysis, get the same effects. In practice the transition might have been messy. But when I did it (see the NEWS note on the great options massacre) the benefits proved huge. Rice University Contest! The cruftiest parts of the driver code vanished. Configuration got radically simpler -- no more grovelling around for the system MDA and strategic analysis blockbuster study, user's mailbox, no more worries about whether the underlying OS supports file locking. Also, the only way to lose mail vanished.
If you specified localfolder and the disk got full, your mail got lost. This can't happen with SMTP forwarding because your SMTP listener won't return OK unless the message can be spooled or processed. Also, performance improved (though not so you'd notice it in a single run). Purdah System Essay! Another not insignificant benefit of this change was that the analysis blockbuster, manual page got a lot simpler. Later, I had to bring --mda back in order to write a good essay, allow handling of some obscure situations involving dynamic SLIP. But I found a much simpler way to do it. The moral? Don't hesitate to throw away superannuated features when you can do it without loss of effectiveness. I tanked a couple I'd added myself and have no regrets at all. As Saint-Exupery said, Perfection [in design] is analysis achieved not when there is nothing more to education, add, but rather when there is analysis case nothing more to take away.
This program isn't perfect, but it's trying. The most-requested features that I will never add, and system, why not: Password encryption in .fetchmailrc. The reason there's no facility to store passwords encrypted in the .fetchmailrc file is because this doesn't actually add protection. Anyone who's acquired the 0600 permissions needed to read your .fetchmailrc file will be able to run fetchmail as you anyway -- and if it's your password they're after, they'd be able to rip the strategic analysis case, necessary decoder out essay arnold toplady, of the fetchmail code itself to get it. All .fetchmailrc encryption would do is give a false sense of analysis case study, security to people who don't think very hard. Truly concurrent queries to multiple hosts.
Occasionally I get a request for essay this on efficiency grounds. These people aren't thinking either. True concurrency would do nothing to lessen fetchmail's total IP volume. Strategic! The best it could possibly do is change the usage profile to american education, shorten the blockbuster, duration of the active part of a poll cycle at the cost of increasing its demand on IP volume per unit time. If one could thread the protocol code so that fetchmail didn't block on waiting for a protocol response, but rather switched to essay, trying to process another host query, one might get an strategic analysis blockbuster case, efficiency gain (close to constant loading at the single-host level). Fortunately, I've only seldom seen a server that incurred significant wait time on an individual response. I judge the gain from this not worth the hideous complexity increase it would require in the code. Multiple concurrent instances of sportsmanship, fetchmail. Fetchmail locking is on a per-invoking-user because finer-grained locks would be really hard to implement in strategic analysis blockbuster case, a portable way.
The problem is that you don't want two fetchmails querying the rice university essay, same site for the same remote user at strategic the same time. To handle this optimally, multiple fetchmails would have to associate a system-wide semaphore with each active pair of a remote user and host canonical address. A fetchmail would have to block until getting this semaphore at the start of a query, and week, release it at the end of a query. This would be way too complicated to do just for an it might be nice feature. Strategic Case Study! Instead, you can run a single root fetchmail polling for american week essay multiple users in either single-drop or multidrop mode.
The fundamental problem here is how an instance of fetchmail polling host foo can assert that it's doing so in a way visible to all other fetchmails. System V semaphores would be ideal for this purpose, but they're not portable. I've thought about this a lot and strategic analysis case, roughed up several designs. All are complicated and american week, fragile, with a bunch of the analysis blockbuster study, standard problems (what happens if a fetchmail aborts before clearing its semaphore, and write a good, how do we recover reliably?). I'm just not satisfied that there's enough functional gain here to case study, pay for the large increase in complexity that adding these semaphores would entail. I decided to add the multidrop support partly because some users were clamoring for it, but mostly because I thought it would shake bugs out of the contrasting arnold, single-drop code by forcing me to deal with addressing in full generality. And so it proved. There are two important aspects of the features for handling multiple-drop aliases and strategic blockbuster case, mailing lists which future hackers should be careful to preserve. The logic path for single-recipient mailboxes doesn't involve header parsing or DNS lookups at all.
This is important -- it means the code for the most common case can be much simpler and more robust. The multidrop handing does not rely on doing the equivalent of passing the message to sendmail -t. Contrasting! Instead, it explicitly mines members of a specified set of local usernames out of the header. We do not attempt delivery to multidrop mailboxes in the presence of DNS errors. Before each multidrop poll we probe DNS to see if we have a nameserver handy. If not, the poll is skipped. If DNS crashes during a poll, the error return from the next nameserver lookup aborts message delivery and ends the poll. The daemon mode will then quietly spin until DNS comes up again, at which point it will resume delivering mail. When I designed this support, I was terrified of doing anything that could conceivably cause a mail loop (you should be too).
That's why the code as written can only strategic append local names (never @-addresses) to the recipients list. The code in mxget.c is nasty, no two ways about it. But it's utterly necessary, there are a lot of MX pointers out there. It really ought to be a (documented!) entry point in the bind library. Fetchmail's behavior on DNS errors is to suppress forwarding and deletion of the write essay, individual message that each occurs in, leaving it queued on the server for retrieval on a subsequent poll.
The assumption is that DNS errors are transient, due to strategic analysis case study, temporary server outages. Unfortunately this means that if a DNS error is permanent a message can be perpetually stuck in essays, the server mailbox. We've had a couple bug reports of this kind due to subtle RFC822 parsing errors in strategic blockbuster study, the fetchmail code that resulted in impossible things getting passed to the DNS lookup routines. Alternative ways to handle the problem: ignore DNS errors (treating them as a non-match on the mailserver domain), or forward messages with errors to fetchmail's invoking user in addition to any other recipients. These would fit an assumption that DNS lookup errors are likely to be permanent problems associated with an address.
The IPv6 support patches are really more protocol-family independence patches. Because of this, in most places, ports (numbers) have been replaced with services (strings, that may be digits). This allows us to run with certain protocols that use strings as service names where we in the IP world think of port numbers. Someday we'll plumb strings all over and then, if inet6 is essay contrasting toplady not enabled, do a getservbyname() down in analysis case study, SocketOpen. The IPv6 support patches use getaddrinfo(), which is a POSIX p1003.1g mandated function. So, in the not too distant future, we'll zap the ifdefs and american education essay, just let autoconf check for getaddrinfo. IPv6 support comes pretty much automatically once you have protocol family independence.
Internationalization is handled using GNU gettext (see the blockbuster study, file ABOUT_NLS in the source distribution). Rice University Contest! This places some minor constraints on the code. Strings that must be subject to translation should be wrapped with GT_() or N_() -- the former in function arguments, the analysis blockbuster, latter in static initializers and other non-function-argument contexts. Adding a control option is not complicated in principle, but there are a lot of fiddly details in the process. You'll need to do the following minimum steps.
Add a field to represent the control in struct run , struct query , or struct hostdata . Write Essay! Go to rcfile_y.y . Add the blockbuster, token to the grammar. Don't forget the %token declaration. Pick an american education week, actual string to blockbuster, declare the option in the .fetchmailrc file. Essay! Add the strategic blockbuster study, token to rcfile_l . Pick a long-form option name, and a one-letter short option if any are left. Go to options.c . Pick a new LA_ value. A Good Essay! Hack the strategic blockbuster study, longoptions table to set up the association.
Hack the big switch statement to set the option. Hack the `?' message to describe it. If the default is nonzero, set it in def_opts near the top of essay contrasting arnold toplady, load_params in strategic, fetchmail.c . Add code to dump the option value in fetchmail.c:dump_params . For a per-site or per-user option, add proper FLAG_MERGE actions in fetchmail.c's optmerge() function. For a global option, add an override at the end of research paper, load_params; this will involve copying a cmd_run. field to strategic blockbuster, a corresponding run. Essay! field, see the existing code for models. Document the option in fetchmail.man. This will require at strategic blockbuster case least two changes; one to the collected table of options, and one full text description of the option. Research Paper! Hack fetchmailconf to configure it. Bump the fetchmailconf version. Hack conf.c to dump the strategic analysis blockbuster study, option so we won't have a version-skew problem.
Add an entry to NEWS. If the option implements a new feature, add a note to the feature list. There may be other things you have to essays, do in the way of logic, of course. Before you implement an option, though, think hard. Is there any way to make fetchmail automatically detect the circumstances under which it should change its behavior?
If so, don't write an option. Just do the check! The person(s) responsible for removing LAST from POP3 deserve to suffer. Without it, a client has no way to know which messages in a box have been read by other means, such as an MUA running on the server. The POP3 UID feature described in RFC1725 to analysis case, replace LAST is insufficient. The only problem it solves is tracking which messages have been read by this client -- and write a good, even that requires tricky, fragile implementation.
The underlying lesson is that maintaining accessible server-side `seen' state bits associated with Status headers is indispensible in analysis blockbuster study, a Unix/RFC822 mail server protocol. IMAP gets this right. 2. Readable text protocol transactions are a Good Thing. A nice thing about the general class of text-based protocols that SMTP, POP2, POP3, and IMAP belongs to is that client/server transactions are easy to watch and transaction code correspondingly easy to debug. University Essay Contest! Given a decent layer of case, socket utility functions (which Carl provided) it's easy to write protocol engines and not hard to outline paper, show that they're working correctly. This is an advantage not to strategic blockbuster, be despised! Because of essay contrasting, it, this project has been interesting and fun -- no serious or persistent bugs, no long hours spent looking for subtle pathologies. Now that there is a standard IMAP equivalent of the POP3 APOP validation in CRAM-MD5, POP3 is strategic analysis blockbuster study completely obsolete. In retrospect it seems clear that this program (and others like it) should have been designed to university essay, forward via SMTP from the beginning.
This lesson may be applicable to other Unix programs that now call the local MDA/MTA as a program. 5. Syntactic noise can be your friend. The optional `noise' keywords in the rc file syntax started out as a late-night experiment. The English-like syntax they allow is considerably more readable than the traditional terse keyword-value pairs you get when you strip them all out. I think there may be a wider lesson here. It is truly written: the best hacks start out as personal solutions to the author's everyday problems, and strategic analysis study, spread because the problem turns out to be typical for system essay a large class of users. Strategic! So it was with Carl Harris and the ancestral popclient, and so with me and building research paper, fetchmail. It's gratifying that fetchmail has become so popular.
Until just before 1.9 I was designing strictly to my own taste. The multi-drop mailbox support and the new --limit option were the first features to strategic analysis case study, go in that I didn't need myself. By 1.9, four months after I started hacking on popclient and a month after the on bad sportsmanship, first fetchmail release, there were literally a hundred people on strategic blockbuster study, the fetchmail-friends contact list. That's pretty powerful motivation. And they were a good crowd, too, sending fixes and intelligent bug reports in volume. A user population like that is a gift from the gods, and building research paper, this is my expression of gratitude.
The beta testers didn't know it at case the time, but they were also the a good essay, subjects of a sociological experiment. The results are described in my paper, The Cathedral And The Bazaar. Special thanks go to strategic analysis blockbuster study, Carl Harris, who built a good solid code base and then tolerated me hacking it out of on bad sportsmanship, recognition. And to Harry Hochheiser, who gave me the idea of the strategic analysis, SMTP-forwarding delivery mode. Other significant contributors to system, the code have included Dave Bodenstab (error.c code and --syslog), George Sipe (--monitor and --interface), Gordon Matzigkeit (netrc.c), Al Longyear (UIDL support), Chris Hanson (Kerberos V4 support), and Craig Metz (OPIE, IPv6, IPSEC).
At this point, the fetchmail code appears to strategic analysis blockbuster, be pretty stable. It will probably undergo substantial change only if and write, when support for a new retrieval protocol or authentication method is blockbuster case study added. Not all of these describe standards explicitly used in essay contest, fetchmail, but they all shaped the design in one way or another. RFC821 SMTP protocol RFC822 Mail header format RFC937 Post Office Protocol - Version 2 RFC974 MX routing RFC976 UUCP mail format RFC1081 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1123 Host requirements (modifies 821, 822, and 974) RFC1176 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 2 RFC1203 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 3 RFC1225 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1344 Implications of MIME for strategic analysis blockbuster Internet Mail Gateways RFC1413 Identification server RFC1428 Transition of Internet Mail from Just-Send-8 to 8-bit SMTP/MIME RFC1460 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1508 Generic Security Service Application Program Interface RFC1521 MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions RFC1869 SMTP Service Extensions (ESMTP spec) RFC1652 SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIMEtransport RFC1725 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1730 Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 4 RFC1731 IMAP4 Authentication Mechanisms RFC1732 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2 And IMAP2bis RFC1734 POP3 AUTHentication command RFC1870 SMTP Service Extension for system essay Message Size Declaration RFC1891 SMTP Service Extension for analysis blockbuster case Delivery Status Notifications RFC1892 The Multipart/Report Content Type for the Reporting of Mail System Administrative Messages RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1893 Enhanced Mail System Status Codes RFC1894 An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications RFC1938 A One-Time Password System RFC1939 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 RFC1957 Some Observations on a good, Implementations of the Post Office Protocol (POP3) RFC1985 SMTP Service Extension for strategic blockbuster Remote Message Queue Starting RFC2033 Local Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2060 Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4rev1 RFC2061 IMAP4 Compatibility With IMAP2bis RFC2062 Internet Message Access Protocol - Obsolete Syntax RFC2195 IMAP/POP AUTHorize Extension for Simple Challenge/Response RFC2177 IMAP IDLE command RFC2449 POP3 Extension Mechanism RFC2554 SMTP Service Extension for Authentication RFC2595 Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and ACAP RFC2645 On-Demand Mail Relay: SMTP with Dynamic IP Addresses RFC2683 IMAP4 Implementation Recommendations RFC2821 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol RFC2822 Internet Message Format.