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Skeptical Views On Noahs Ark Essay Research. Skeptical Views On Noahs Ark Essay, Research Paper. Skeptical view of the flood myth. As skeptics have long been aware, there was no global flood in the last 5000 years, a boatload of animals did not ground on so-called Mount Ararat or on any mountain, and the world’s animals are not descended from ny bar essay sample two or seven pairs of each species that lived during the control third millennium BC. Ny Bar Sample. Nor is there any archaeological proof that a man survived a flood by being on a boat loaded with animals, food, and drinking water.
The Noah’s Ark book summarized here does not claim historicity for Noah or the ark story, but the book does claim that some of the story elements in the Ancient Near East flood were based on an actual river flood. Is Characterized By. This archaeologically attested flood of the Euphrates River has been radiocarbon dated to about 2900 BC. This flood left a few feet of essay sample yellow mud in the Sumerian city Shuruppak, the ruins of which have been found at Tel Fara about 125 miles southeast of Baghdad. Some but not all Sumerian cities also show signs of this river flood at the beginning of the Early Dynastic I period. According to the Sumerian King List, a legendary king named Ziusudra lived in essays, Shuruppak at the time of the flood.
There was also a flood myth about king Ziusudra which includes several story elements very similar to the Genesis flood myth. Shuruppak was also the flood hero’s city according to the Epic of Gilgamesh. The flood myth in the Epic of essay sample Gilgamesh was adapted from an earlier myth, the mla format research paper Epic of Atrahasis which is also very similar to the Genesis flood myth. Six of these Ancient Near East flood myths contain numerous distinctive story elements that are very similar to the Genesis flood myth and ny bar sample, indicate a literary affinity or dependency on a common body of myths about the flood hero Ziusudra and based on the Euphrates River flood of 2900 BC. Parts of the original myths were physically possible, but other parts were not possible. The possible parts can be treated as an ancient legend to which mythical material was added later. However, without contemporary artifacts, it is not possible to prove how much of the original legend was true and how much was fiction based on a real flood. In the Noah’s Ark book, the original legend is reconstructed by research on, piecing together fragments from the various surviving editions of the flood myth, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
This reconstruction is governed by the requirement that each story element in the legend be physically possible, technologically practical, consistent with archaeological facts, and plausible for ny bar essay sample, 2900 BC. Some of the impossible story elements were mistranslations or misunderstandings, and these are corrected before including them in an informal is characterized, the reconstructed legend. The reconstructed legend is this: Ziusudra reigned for sample, ten years as king of Shuruppak, a Sumerian city then on the Euphrates River. Ziusudra’s reign was at paragraphs folse, the end of the Jemdet Nasr period that ended with the flood of 2900 BC. Then as now, river barges were used for transporting cargo on the Euphrates River. This cargo included livestock, beer, wine, textiles, lumber, stone, metals, dried fish, vegetable oil, and other cargo. In June about 2900 BC during the sample annual inundation of the Euphrates River, the river was at crest stage. A six-day thunderstorm caused the river to rise about essay is characterized by 15 cubits (22 feet) higher and to overflow the levees. By the essay time the river began to rise, it was already too late to evacuate to the foothills of the of divorce mountains 110 miles away. Ny Bar Sample. Ziusudra boarded one the the barges that was already loaded with cargo being transported to market. The runaway barge floated down the essay Euphrates River into the Persian Gulf and ny bar essay sample, grounded in an estuary at the mouth of the river.
After moving to dry land, Ziusudra offered a sacrifice to a Sumerian god on vs. narrative an alter at the top of a temple ziggurat, an artificial hill. Later, story tellers mistranslated the ny bar essay ambiguous word for hill as mountain. Mla Format Paper. The story tellers then erroneously assumed that the nearby barge must have grounded on top of a mountain. Additional details in the reconstructed legend about ny bar sample Ziusudra (Noah) can be found in the Noah’s Ark book. Tour of essay subjects. For Old Testament scholars. The Noah’s Ark book reviewed here does not claim historicity for Noah or the ark story, but the book does claim that some of the story elements in the Ancient Near East flood were based on an actual river flood.
This archaeologically attested flood of the Euphrates River has been radiocarbon dated to about 2900 BC. This flood left a few feet of yellow mud in the Sumerian city Shuruppak about 125 miles southeast of Baghdad. Some but not all Sumerian cities also show signs of this river flood at the beginning of the Early Dynastic I period. According to the Sumerian King List, a legendary king named Ziusudra lived in Shuruppak at essay sample, the time of the flood. Quality Control. Zuisudra was the Sumerian Noah. Ny Bar Sample. There was also a flood myth about king Ziusudra which includes several story elements very similar to the Genesis flood myth. Noah was a Sumerian king of Shuruppak and son of Lamech (SU.KUR.LAM in Sumerian) who preceded Noah as king of control essays Shuruppak. Shuruppak was the flood hero’s city according to the Epic of Gilgamesh.
The flood myth in sample, the Epic of Gilgamesh was adapted from an earlier myth, the Epic of Atrahasis which is also very similar to the Genesis flood myth. Six of these Ancient Near East flood myths contain numerous distinctive story elements that are very similar to the Genesis flood myth and indicate a literary affinity or dependency on a common body of legends about the flood hero Ziusudra (Noah) and based on the Euphrates River flood of 2900 BC. Parts of the original myths were physically possible, but other parts were not possible. The possible parts can be treated as an ancient legend to which mythical material was added later. In the Noah’s Ark book, the original legend is reconstructed by piecing together fragments from the various surviving editions of the flood story, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Essay. This reconstruction is governed by the requirement that each story element in ny bar essay, the legend be physically possible, technologically practical, consistent with archaeological facts, and plausible for 2900 BC. Some of the impossible story elements were mistranslations or misunderstandings, and these are corrected before including them in the reconstructed legend. These are some examples of mistakes: The ambiguous word for hill or country was mistranslated as mountain. The words that identified the flood as a river flood were changed to indicate an ocean deluge.
The archaic number signs in which the Genesis 5 numbers and great paragraphs great essays folse, Noah’s age were recorded, were mistranslated which made them about ten times their original value. The “flood” of Genesis 6-7 was confused with the “waters” of Genesis 8. A journey on foot to Mount Judi in the Mountains of Ararat was confused with a journey on the water of the Persian Gulf. The numbers in the Sumerian King List were also mistraslated by an ancient scribe. The reconstructed legend is ny bar essay sample, this: Ziusudra reigned for ten years as king of Shuruppak, a Sumerian city then on the Euphrates River. Ziusudra’s reign was at paragraphs keith, the end of the Jemdet Nasr period that ended with the flood of essay 2900 BC.
Then as now, river barges were used for transporting cargo on the Euphrates River. Vs. Narrative Essay. This cargo included livestock, beer, wine, textiles, lumber, stone, metals, dried fish, vegetable oil, and other cargo. Ny Bar Essay Sample. In June about 2900 BC during the paragraphs great essays annual inundation of the Euphrates River, the river was at crest stage. A six-day thunderstorm caused the river to rise about 15 cubits (22 feet) higher and ny bar essay, overflow the quality control levees. By the time the river began to rise, it was already too late to evacuate to the foothills of the mountains 110 miles away. Ziusudra boarded one the the barges that was already loaded with cargo being transported to market. Sample. The runaway barge floated down the Euphrates River into the Persian Gulf and on families, grounded in essay, an estuary at the mouth of the river. Paper On. After moving to dry land, Ziusudra offered a sacrifice to a Sumerian god on an alter at the top of a temple ziggurat, an artificial hill.
Later, story tellers mistranslated the essay sample ambiguous word for hill as mountain. The story tellers then erroneously assumed that the nearby barge must have grounded on china top of a mountain. Additional details in the reconstructed legend about Ziusudra (Noah) can be found in the Noah’s Ark book. Answers to Creationists arguments. Noah’s flood is the keystone in the belief system of the young-earth creationists who believe the ny bar flood was global and created massive geological changes in the earth’s crust.
But there was no global flood. Creationist arguments are printed here in boldface: According to Genesis 7:19-20 all the essay high mountains under the whole sky were covered with flood water. The waters prevailed above the mountains, covering them 15 cubits deep. The reference to 15 cubits (22 feet) refers to the draft of the ark. Mountains is ny bar essay sample, a mistranslation of the Hebrew word har m meaning hills in this context. The King James Version of Genesis 7:19 translates hills correctly. Of Divorce On Families Essay. There is no mention of draft or deep or depth in the Hebrew text of Genesis 7:20. A literal translation from essay Hebrew is “Five ten cubits upward rose the waters and they covered the hills.” Note that “hills” is not in the same clause as cubits or rose. The 15 cubits was how much the water rose, not how deep the water was.
The depths would be different at different places. The tops of the hills in the clause “and they covered the hills” were less than 15 cubits above the normal water level during the annual inundation and were therefore covered when the water rose 15 cubits higher. “Under the whole sky” means within Noah’s visible horizon. All of the hills within Noah’s visible horizon were covered by the water when the river rose 15 cubits. If the flood water had been more than ten thousand cubits deep, the authors of Genesis would have said so. An Informal. Fifteen cubits is consistent with a local flood. The flood continued for more than one year. Sample. This cannot be reconciled with a local-flood theory. If nothing could be seen but the tops of mountains after the waters had subsided for 74 days, we must conclude that the flood covered the essays whole earth. All commentators have assumed that the flood mentioned in Genesis 7:6-17 was the same as the deep “waters” that lasted more than a year. But nowhere in Genesis 8 is the word “flood” mentioned.
Noah’s encounters with deep water were in two phases: a river flood phase that lasted less than a week and a deep water phase that lasted a year. The river flood floated Noah’s barge down into the Persian Gulf and the barge floated about the deep water of the Gulf for a year. The deep water that Noah experienced for ny bar essay sample, a year was not a flood; it was the deep water of the Persian Gulf. The “tops of hills” above the water surface are commonly called islands. If only islands could be seen after the water became more shallow for mla format, 74 days, it means only that Noah’s barge was still several miles or more from the shore and dry land beyond the ny bar horizon. Deep water in the Persian Gulf for more than a year is consistent with a local river flood.
According to Genesis 7:11, all the paragraphs great essays fountains of the great deep were broken up. The great deep refers to oceanic depths and underground reservoirs. Presumably, the ocean basins were fractured and uplifted sufficiently to pour water over ny bar essay, the continents. This continued for five months. Such vast and prolonged geologic upheavals in the oceanic depths cannot be reconciled with a local flood theory. Instead this upheaval was global. The Hebrew word baqa translated as “broken up” in an informal is characterized by, the King James version is translated “burst forth” in the Revised Standard Version and sample, New International Version. The Hebrew word mayan for an informal essay, “fountain” can also mean a well or spring which share a common meaning: a source of water. References to ny bar, sources of sea water breaking or bursting may have meant only that water from the Persian Gulf was bursting onto paragraphs great, the shore during a storm. This frequently happens along a seashore during a storm. Noah and the others could not report on ny bar essay oceanic depths because they would have no way of knowing what was happening at oceanic depths.
Bursting of Gulf water onto the shore during a thunderstorm was a local condition. The Ark was unusually large. For Noah to great paragraphs essays keith folse, have built a vessel of such huge magnitude simply for the purpose of escaping a local flood is inconceivable. It is conceivable that Noah built a large river barge for hauling cargo. Sample. When a local river flood occurred, it is conceivable that Noah used the barge as a lifeboat. That may not have been what Noah had planned, but it certainly is conceivable that he used a large river barge to escape a local river flood. There would have been no need for an ark at all if Noah s intent was to escape a local flood. How much more sensible it would have been for Noah to move to an informal essay by, an area that would be unaffected by ny bar sample, the local flood.
The great numbers of animals could have moved out an informal essay is characterized, also. The entire story borders on the ridiculous if the flood was confined to some section of the Near East. The fact that he built the ark “to keep their kind alive upon essay sample, the face of all the earth” (Genesis 7:3) proves that the flood was global. The story would be ridiculous only if you accept the myth that Noah knew the flood was coming and built the barge solely as a lifeboat. Great Paragraphs Folse. Alternatively, if he built the barge to transport cattle and grain to sample, market and had no inkling that a flood was coming until the rain began to fall, then using the barge to escape a local flood makes sense. When the river overflowed the effects essay levees, it was too late to evacuate to the foothills of the ny bar essay Zagros mountains which were 110 miles away. The phrase “all the earth” did not mean the planet earth, it meant all the control ground, all the land in the flooded region known to Noah. He would have had no way of knowing what was happening to the land outside his local region.
The Apostle Peter in II Peter 3:6 refers to the “world that then existed was overflowed with water and ny bar sample, perished.” Peter’s reference to the flood would have no value if the flood were only a local inundation. Peter received his information on expository the flood from the sample same texts that we have and was therefore limited by the same ambiguities in the text that we can see for ourselves. Just because Peter referred in broad terms to a world that was overflowed with water, does not prove that the vs. narrative “world” in the original story was anything more than the local world known to Noah. Peter was using the flood story as a metaphor; he was not giving a discourse on ny bar geography. Genesis 7:21-23 teaches that all mankind perished in the flood. Mla Format Paper On. Only Noah and his family were left. Since the human race had spread around the planet by the time of the flood, it follows that the flood was global.
If Noah and his family were the only survivors, then they would be the essay sample only source of information on the flood. There would be nobody from other parts of the world to report on of divorce on families conditions there. Noah would have had no way of knowing what was happening on the earth beyond his local area. It would have been impossible for Noah to travel all over the earth or even to all the ny bar cities of the Ancient Near East checking on whether anyone else survived. Noah and the author of his story cannot be used as a source of mla format paper on information on facts about which they could have no knowledge. The other survivors of the flood near where Noah lived were ignored by the author of Noah’s story, because they were beyond the scope of the story. A modern news report about people who survived a local river flood does not mention the billions of people who were not in the flooded area.
There are many places in Genesis where the words “all” and “every” must be understood in essay, the literal sense. The constant repetition of universal terms throughout Genesis 6-9 shows conclusively that the magnitude and geographical extent of the ancient china flood was of primary importance in the mind of the writer. Unlike the limited scope of the ny bar essay word “all” in Genesis 41:57: “the people of all the earth came to Egypt to buy grain”, the word “all” in Genesis 1-11 deals with universal origins (the material universe, all plants, all animals, etc.) Genesis 1-11 contains many such superlatives which lose their meaning if limited to expository vs. narrative essay, a local area observed by the narrator. When a modern news reporter writes that everyone died in an airplane crash, readers are expected to understand that “everyone” does not apply to ny bar, the entire planet. Likewise when the narrator of the flood story wrote in mla format research paper on, Genesis 7:21 that “every man” died, the ny bar essay sample reader is expected to understand that the scope of essays keith folse “every” applies only to the flooded region.
People living outside the flooded region were not included in “every” and were not mentioned, because they were not affected by the flood and were beyond the sample scope of the paragraphs great folse story. Many ranchers in essay, the flooded region survived the river flood by climbing to hills or buildings that were higher than 15 cubits, but most of their livestock drowned. In contrast “every beast according to its kind, and all the cattle” that Noah owned or were in his custody were saved in his river barge. In other words, Noah did not leave any of his animals behind. The scope of Genesis 1-11 is not all global. Ancient China. Genesis 2:14 refers to the river “which flows east of Assyria and the fourth river is the Euphrates.” This limits the scope of the story to a local region, the Tigris-Euphrates valley.
Not all species of animal were in the ark. Ny Bar Essay Sample. There was need for no more than 35,000 individual animals on the ark. Many of the research paper on animals could have hibernated and therefore needed no food or drink. We do not really know how all this was accomplished. Genesis 7:2 does not say “all animals” or “all land animals.” It says “all clean animals.” We do not have to essay, guess at how many clean animals there were because Deuteronomy 14:4-5 lists them. Control Essays. Similarly with the unclean animals. About 270 animals would satisfy the totals implied by Genesis 7:2-3. Ny Bar Essay. There could have been enough food and drink for 270 animals on Noah’s modest size barge and therefore there is no reason to suppose that any of on families essay them hibernated. If we accept the Biblical testimony concerning an essay antediluvian canopy of waters (Gen. 1: 6-8, 7:11, 8:2), we have an adequate source for on families, the waters of a global flood. The “canopy theory” was thoroughly discredited by Soroka and Nelson who did the physics calculations to prove that the sample canopy theory is physically impossible.
Which is more likely, that an ancient scribe mistranslated an ambiguous word or that three quintillion tons of research on water mysteriously appeared and disappeared? The ocean basins were deepened after the flood (Gen. 8:3, Psalms 104:6-9) to provide adequate storage space for the additional waters. The writer of Genesis had no way of sample knowing whether the on families essay ocean basins were deepened or not. Genesis provides no direct evidence that the ocean basins were deepened. The deep waters of Noah’s experience did not drain into a deepened basin, the waters became shallow because Noah’s barge drifted into shallow water.
Psalms 104:6-9 refers to ny bar essay sample, a thunderstorm: “the waters [storm clouds] stood above the mountains; they fled at mla format paper on, the sound of your thunder.” This is mythic metaphor for essay sample, a thunderstorm: that the sound of thunder frightened away the water-filled clouds above the mountains. If the flood was global, then all air-breathing animals not in the ark perished and present-day animal distribution must be explained as migrations from the mountains of Ararat. The kangaroos in the ark migrated in all directions. Some of their descendants reached Australia and only those kangaroos survived. Great Paragraphs Great. They could have floated across the ocean on natural rafts of vegetation or on boats manned by Noah s descendents.
Genesis does not mention kangaroos. Genesis 7:2-3 specifies seven pairs of each kind of ny bar sample clean animal and one pair of each kind of unclean animal. Ancient China Art Essay. Deuteronomy 14:4-18 lists the ny bar essay species of clean animals and the species of unclean animals. Kangaroos were not listed and therefore were not in quality control, the ark. Likewise with giraffes, elephants, lions, etc. Genesis 7:2-3 is consistent with a local flood.
A global flood must have accomplished a vast amount of erosion and sedimentation on a gigantic scale. Volcanic activity, tsunamis, great whirlpools, mountain building, and other phenomena were associated with the flood. Ny Bar Essay. The vastness of this geological activity must have been in proportion to the huge depth of the flood. Such massive changes in great great keith, the surface of the earth would have destroyed all traces of landmarks in the Euphrates River valley where Noah’s ancestors lived (Genesis 2:14) and where Noah lived (according to the Sumerian king list). And after all of this destruction of landmarks, Noah supposedly was able to find his way back to the Euphrates River valley where his descendants lived (Genesis 11) and essay, find the exact spot where some writings were buried (according to mla format research, Berossus). For Noah to be in the southern Euphrates valley before and after the flood, indicates a local flood in essay, the Euphrates valley. Flood stories can be found in every part of the world and common to most of them is the recollection of a great flood which destroyed all but a tiny remnant of the human race. Many of these traditions tell of the building of a great boat which saved humans and animals and which finally landed on a mountain. This indicates that Noah’s flood was global. Flooding is china, experienced in sample, every region of the earth where there are rivers.
Myths about flooding can therefore arise independently around the world. Over time, story elements from one local flood story gets mixed with other flood stories in distant lands. Great Paragraphs Great Keith. If one story had an unusually memorable story element, such as a boat saving a family from a flood, eventually some other local flood legends would absorb that story element. Similar stories in different parts of the ny bar world were the result of travelers and missionaries taking the Noachian story to different parts of the world. No single worldwide flood is quality, needed to account for sample, these flood stories, many of of divorce on families essay which are unrelated to ny bar essay, Noah’s story.
Attempts to harmonize Genesis with modern geology by proposing local-flood theories have been discredited. There is no trace of research on such a local flood in the Euphrates River valley. The flood layer found by Leonard Woolley at Ur was not even in the same century with the ny bar essay sample flood layers found by Stephen Langdon at Kish. Just because the Ur flood and the Kish floods were different floods does not imply that neither of expository essay them was Noah s flood. One of the Kish floods occurred at about the same time as flooding at Shuruppak and Uruk and could have been Noah s flood, a local flood that occurred about 2900 BC. One hundred and essay sample, fifty days after the Flood began, the ancient waters started to subside and the Ark grounded on Mount Ararat, one of the ny bar highest mountain peaks. Another thirty-one weeks were required for the waters to subside. How such a yearlong, mountain-covering flood could have remained local in extent has never been satisfactorily explained. The Hebrew word for mountain in Genesis 8:4 can also mean hill and is translated as hill in the King James version of Genesis 7:19.
A local flood covering a few hills is consistent with Genesis 7:19. Genesis 8:4 says “mountains of essay is characterized Ararat” not “Mount Ararat.” If Noah’s sons visited one of the essay sample mountains of mla format paper on Ararat and sample, story tellers mistakenly assumed the essay barge had landed there, such a simple error could explain why the mountains of Ararat were mentioned as the landing place. Noah’s barge grounded at sea level in an estuary near some low hills of the Euphrates River delta. If Noah’s barge was floating about the deep water of the ny bar sample Persian Gulf for a year, then the prior hill-covering local flood need not have been more than a few days. Mountain peaks several miles high did not exist before the flood. The mountains covered by the flood were less than seven thousand feet high. After the flood began, the mountains rose to an informal essay, their present height and the ocean basins subsided to ny bar essay, their present depth. Essay. According to Psalms 104:8 “The mountains rose, the valleys sank down.” Where is the evidence of such recent mountain rising? How would the psalm writer know if they rose or not?
In the same poem he also wrote “You set the earth on its foundations, so that it should never shake” (Psalms 104:5-6). The poet believed that the earth was flat and rested on essay a shaky foundation. Is this poet, who believed in a flat earth, to be used as an authority on geology? Missing from his poem is evidence to support his statements, examples and identification of which mountains rose, and data on quality control how high they rose and how many years ago and over how many years the ny bar mountains rose. This poem is primitive nature myth to explain earthquakes and thunderstorms. Could Noah have been so ignorant of the great essays keith folse topography of southwestern Asia, where the highest mountains of the ny bar world are located, as to quality essays, actually think that the Flood covered “all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens” (Genesis 7:19), when it really covered only a few foothills? Noah may have known about the Zagros Mountains 110 miles east of Shuruppak. But since he could not see beyond the sample horizon, he would have no knowledge of whether the Zagros Mountains were flooded or not.
He reported only what he could see and he could see only sky and water, because he was several miles from shore. Ancient. From Noah’s point of view, the essay sample whole world was flooded and all the high hills (less than 15 cubits high) were covered. Note that the word “hills” is used in the King James Version of Genesis 7:19. “Mountains” is a mistranslation in other versions of Genesis 7:19. A flood in Armenia 17,000 feet deep while Egypt or India were not flooded would be a more incredible miracle than anything implied by the traditional understanding of a universal flood. The flood water rose 15 cubits (Genesis 7:20) and had no connection with a 17,000 foot mountain. Mountains is ancient, a mistranslation. The flood covered hills not mountains. Additional creationist arguments are answered in chapter 13 of the Noah’s Ark book. Frequently Asked Questions.
Questions are in bold face. Answers are in regular type. Was Noah’s flood story fiction or fact? Much of the flood story was fiction, but there was a real river flood on which the original flood legend was based. Essay. Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah was listed in the Sumerian King List and therefore may have been a real person, but there is no hard evidence that Noah/Ziusudra existed. Was there a global flood? No. The flood of Noah was a Euphrates River flood in southern Sumer similar to the flood of great paragraphs great essays keith 1985 in southern Iraq. The “earth” in Genesis 7:17-18 refers to the ground/land in the flooded region, not the entire planet.
Did the ark ground on essay Mount Ararat? No. An Informal Essay. Mount Ararat was not involved in the original flood legend. The ark grounded in an estuary at ny bar, the mouth of the Euphrates River. The mountains of expository Ararat got involved in the story because Noah’s son Shem traveled on foot to the mountains of Ararat after the barge grounded. Story tellers confused the mountain that Noah’s son visited with the hill on which Noah offered a sacrifice. The ark never came close to essay, a mountain. But doesn’t the Epic of Gilgamesh have the ark grounding on ancient art essay Mount Nisir? No.
The word KUR usually translated Mount can mean mound or country. The river barge grounded on a mound of mud or sand in an estuary at the mouth of the river. When did the essay flood occur? The Euphrates River flooded about 2900 BC at the end of the Jemdet Nasr period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic period. This river flood left a few feet of control yellow mud in Shuruppak and a few other Sumerian cities. Essay. Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period was found immediately below this flood lawyer. Hence Noah/Ziusudra reigned during the end of the Jemdet Nasr period. The flood layer has been radiocarbon dated to 2900 BC. How did Noah build such a large boat without help?
He had lots of help. Noah was a king and kings delegate responsibility to managers who hire workmen to great great essays keith folse, do the job. Noah did not build the essay ark with his own hands. How could a wooden ark 450 feet long withstand the stresses from a storm and not break up? The ark was not a mono-hull galleon, it was an array of effects essay small flat-bottom pontoons roped together.
Large modern river barges are also assembled from dozens of small barges chained together. What was gopher wood? “Gopher wood” was a transliteration of gish gipar (meadow wood) or kupar (cypress wood). How could all species of animals fit in essay, the ark? They didn’t. All of the kinds of animals that Noah had in his stockyard were put in the ark, but these were domesticated ranch animals and there were less than 280 of them.
How could the animals know when to essays, come to ny bar essay, the ark and where to find it? The owners of the quality animals had their herdsmen take the essay animals to control essays, the ark to be transported as cargo. Noah had his herdsmen load into the barge all of the sample livestock in paper, his stockyards. How did Noah prevent all the other people in his city from boarding the ark? He didn’t have to. The other people climbed high hills far from the river.These hills are not mentioned in Genesis 7:19-20 because they were too far from the sample river for art essay, Noah to see.
Did everybody drown in the flood except Noah and his family? Are all the people of of the world descended from Noah? No. Everybody did not drown. Hundreds, possibly thousands of Sumerians drowned in the flooded area, but there were many thousands of survivors of Noah’s river flood, even in his own city, and especially in distant lands not affected by the flood. Did people live to be more than 900 years before the flood? No.
That was an ancient mistranslation of archaic numbers. Noah lived to be 83. How could Noah know years in advance that a flood was coming to ny bar essay, provide enough time to build the ark? The ark was not built as a lifeboat. It was built long before the ancient art essay flood as a commercial river barge for transporting cattle, grain, and other cargo. Noah learned that the flood was coming only when he saw heavy rain falling. This was a few hours before the river overflowed the ny bar levees. Noah did not know the flood was coming when he commissioned building the river barge. How do you explain the conflict between the effects of divorce essay 1-year flood in essay sample, Genesis 8:13 and great essays, the 6-day flood in Gilgamesh XI,129-131?
There is no conflict. The river flood lasted 6 days. Essay. During the mla format on rest of the year the ark was drifting about the Persian Gulf. Ny Bar. Genesis 8 refers to the “waters” and does not use the word “flood” or “ocean” or “sea”. Legends about Noah’s flood can be found all over the world, such as the Hawaiian legend about the art essay god Kane sending a flood and only Nu’u escaped in a large boat that grounded on a mountain. Essay. Doesn’t this prove that Noah’s flood was global? No. Great Paragraphs Great Folse. Wherever there are rivers there are floods and essay, local storytellers tell stories about these local floods. Later when Europeans taught the expository Genesis stories to the Hawaiians, local storytellers incorporated the name Nu’u and the mountain into the older Hawaiian river flood story. How did the kangaroos get from Mount Ararat to Australia?
There were no kangaroos in Noah’s barge. Kangaroos are not mentioned in ny bar essay, Genesis nor in Deuteronomy 14:4-18 where the kinds of an informal essay clean and sample, unclean animals are listed. But Genesis 6:19 says “every living thing.” Noah loaded into the barge every living animal that he had. He did not load any animals he did not have. The 15 cubits in Genesis 7:20 must refer to the draft of the ark when it grounded on Mount Ararat and cannot refer to vs. narrative, how much the water rose. Otherwise how could only 15 cubits of water cover mountains? Mountains were not involved.
Sumer was very flat. All the hills that Noah could see were less than 15 cubits high and therefore were submerged when the water rose 15 cubits. If the ny bar sample flood was a local flood, why would Noah bother with a boat? Why not just move the animals and family overland to the foothills of the Zagros mountains? Your hidden assumption is that Noah knew long in advance that the flood was coming. Actually he knew the flood was coming only when heavy rain began to fall. By then it was too late to travel to the mountains that were more than a hundred miles away. How did Noah know the flood was coming?
During the annual inundation, the mla format research Euphrates River was at crest stage just below the ny bar essay top of the essays keith levees. Ny Bar. When Noah saw heavy rain falling in the distance, he knew the river would be rising in a few hours. He did not have to be a metorologist to understand that the river would soon overflow the levees. Why did Noah offer a sacrifice after the ark grounded? It was the duty of ship captains to offer sacrifices to the gods at a local temple when their boats arrived safely. More questions are answered in chapter 12 of the Noah’s Ark book. Noah was king of Shuruppak.
According to the Genesis version of the flood story, Noah was closely associated with animals. But he was not a mere shepherd or cattle rancher. In the Epic of Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah is repeatedly called a king or chief (lugal). By. According to the Weld-Blundell king list WB-62, Ziusudra (Noah) was king of the city-state Shuruppak. Lugal literally means great man and was “normally a young man of outstanding qualities from a rich landowning family.” The flood hero was a respected leader who spoke to “the city people and the elders” of Shuruppak according to Gilgamesh XI,35 and Atrahasis III,i,39-41. In the WB-62 king list, Ziusudra (Noah) succeeded his father as king of Shuruppak. The flood of 2900 B.C. Ny Bar Sample. deposited sediment in ancient china, Shuruppak directly above artifacts from the Jemdet Nasr period. Essay. Hence, the flood hero was probably chief executive of Shuruppak during the end of the Jemdet Nasr period and the flood story began to circulate during the paragraphs essays keith Early Dynastic I period that followed the flood.
Shuruppak was then a capital city and a commercial center located on the Euphrates River. As head of the Shuruppak city-state government, Noah was probably a wealthy land owner. Wealthy people then invested in cattle and other domesticated animals and so apparently did Noah. A clue to essay sample, what he did with these animals is found in Gilgamesh XI, 81-82: “All I had of silver I loaded, all I had of gold I loaded … into the boat.” Gold and silver were not a common medium of exchange prior to minting of on families standard-weight coins in ny bar, the seventh century BC. In earlier times, gold and silver were used largely by professional merchants and those involved in ancient art essay, caravan trade. Possessing gold and silver, Noah was probably a merchant or government trade official before becoming chief executive of Shuruppak. Perhaps he owned a private merchanting business or managed foreign trade for his father, king of essay Shuruppak. Early in his career, Noah probably controlled large numbers of workers who transported livestock and other commodities in overland caravans and on mla format paper small river barges to nearby cities. His workers may also have grown grain, hay and other crops near Shuruppak to feed the animals and to have surplus fodder and food to sell. Ny Bar Essay. Noah also had a vineyard (Genesis 9:20) which suggests he had a winery business.
As a wealthy leader of the city-state Shuruppak, Noah would have access to the labor and materials needed to build a large commercial barge. Although popular versions of the story have Noah being ridiculed by the townspeople, actually the elders of Shuruppak probably encouraged and supported building of the effects of divorce on families essay barge under control of their own leader Noah, because they may have envisioned that the barge would substantially increase their own personal wealth and the wealth of Shuruppak. Essay. Noah promoted this vision and told the elders that the gods would “shower plenty on you, an abundance of birds, a profusion of fish” when the new barge became operational. Ancient. For several weeks each year, Noah’s barge probably hauled cargo to cities on the Euphrates River including the sample port city Ur then near the mouth of the river. Although surviving versions of the essays flood story suggest that the flood hero rode on the barge only once, and essay, that the barge made only one voyage, it is not likely that the storm and flood happened at exactly the right moment to interrupt the barge’s maiden voyage.
It is more likely that the barge was used many times to transport cargo, but without Noah on board. Kings have better things to by, do with their time than to ride on ny bar sample cattle barges. Only the final voyage was mentioned in the story, because that may have been one of the few times or the effects on families essay only time that Noah rode on the barge.
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The Crafted Word Rubrics Resources. Explicating Themes in ny bar Literature. The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the essays folse theme in essay sample a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. Mla Format Research! It contains the text reference and text support that “proves” your theme is evident in the actual text.
The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in ny bar essay sample many ways, should be the most interesting and thoughtful part of quality control, your paragraph. It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and text reference in ny bar essay the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to allow you to logically tie back in to your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Feel free (and they are free!) to expository essay download and use any Crafted Word Rubrics. When publishing, simply include a link to sample TheCrafted Word.org and help us spread the quality news of our site. Thanks.
Literary Paragraph Rubric This is a word doc that you can open in Microsoft Word, Google Docs or in Mac Pages. How To Write Great Opening Paragraphs. Common Literary Analysis. I have compiled a short list of the ny bar most common mistakes writers make when using the essay literary analysis paragraph rubric. It is worth another look at your own paragraphs to see if you have made any of these mistakes. That “first look” at ny bar sample, a student’s essay is incredibly important to most teachers. It is ancient, our first clue that a student “cares” about the assignment—or doesn’t.
It shows us whether or not a student has read and incorporated the ny bar sample details of the ancient assignment into a writing piece. In the case of the ny bar Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric there are specific directions for where to put the essay by assignment details: name, date, etc; there are guidelines for including a one-word or one phrase theme, and there is essay sample, a place to put a guiding quote. Follow any teacher’s guidelines for formatting, and he or she will be on essay, your side after that quick and critical first look ! GUIDING THEME MISTAKES. This comprises the essay first third of your paragraph and guides the reader in the direction your paragraph. The three parts act together to clearly state the reason your paragraph exists. Broad Theme: The most common mistake is to make this a long and effects of divorce, complicated sentence. The only essay, purpose of the broad theme is to “engage” the readers interest by introducing an enduring theme and an informal by, tying it into your narrow theme. Narrow Theme: The most common mistake is to omit the one word theme and ny bar sample, a specific reference to the literary piece in effects of divorce the sentence. This sentence shows how the broad theme is used in ny bar essay sample the literary piece. One/Two Punch: Don’t go back to your broad theme here; this is the effects of divorce place to narrow down your narrow theme even further to a specific character, event or observation.
TEXT REFERENCE SUPPORT MISTAKES. This should fill up the center third of your paragraph. It is the physical proof of your theme working within the text of ny bar essay sample, your literary piece. Setup: Oftentimes a writer does not provide enough specific detail for the reader to quality control fully understand the context of the coming quote (the smoking gun). Be sure to fully create the ny bar “image” a reader needs to “see” by including a meaty and specific who, what, when, where, why leading into the actual text support, AKA: The Smoking Gun . Smoking Gun: This can only be the mla format paper actual text from the literary piece. Essay! The most common mistake is to forget to cite the expository essay source of the quote, or to essay forget to italicize the quote–or to forget to block quote the selection if it is longer than two lines on the page. EXPLICATION EXPLANATION MISTAKES. Head and Heart: This is the foundation of your paragraph.
Without it, your paragraph will be as empty as it is shallow. It shows and an informal by, tells the reader how your theme is ny bar, relevant to control essays your text reference. It makes reading your paragraph a worthwhile (edifying) experience. Head and Heart: By far the most common mistake here is to write about the theme itself instead of how the theme is specifically used in the piece of literature you are analyzing—and even more specifically how the theme is used in your text reference. Check this section and make sure that “every” sentence refers back to the literary piece (and your narrow theme) in some way shape or form. TRANSITION OR CONCLUSION. This part of your paragraph should signal your readers that they have either reached their destination or you are talking the next exit off the highway. There is no reason to essay be wordy here. Too many words is like trying to clear a muddy puddle with your hand. The most common mistake here is referencing your broad theme without referencing the quality essays piece of literature you just finished analyzing. Get On: The biggest mistake when transitioning to a new paragraph is when there is ny bar essay, no logical flow between paragraphs.
My rule of thumb is that you “should” be able to put a conjunctive adverb (moreover, finally, however, etc) or a conjunction (so, yet, and,or, nor, for, but) between the great essays folse last line of one paragraph and the first line of the next. If you can’t do that, there might be something more you need to do…. Get Out: It is critical to end a final or single paragraph with a sense of finality, so my advice is to sample finish it clean. Quality Control! The most common mistake here is to introduce a new thought that you haven’t already discussed in your paragraph–or you forget to refer back to your one-word theme AND the literary piece. Never refer back only to the broad theme. This final sentence needs to capture your narrow theme PLUS the essay added insight of your explanation and explication. PROOFREADING, EDITING REVISING. Few things in a student’s life can be as aggravating as receiving a paper back that is full of swirls of red ink and research on, hastily scrolled admonitions to spell correctly, include proper punctuation and grammar, avoid homophones and first person musings. More infuriating might be the fact that your teacher is ignoring your amazing and insightful analysis just because of a few small writing mistakes. In the end, a mistake is a mistake.
All of essay, these “must” be found and corrected by you. Proofread, edit and revise when your mind is mla format paper, fresh and concentration is not a Herculean and Sisyphus-like task. Ny Bar Essay Sample! Use a good grammar and spell checker. Of Divorce Essay! Let a friend who is particularly good at ny bar sample, stuff like this take a look at your work. Give a damn here and you will be amply rewarded! The Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric. “A mighty book requires a mighty theme.” The Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric. L iterary analysis is a type of writing where a writer literally breaks a story down to its most basic elements and then analyzes how and why those elements work in that particular story.
These elements include identifying important themes, comparing and contrasting stories and authors, defining writing techniques and devices—and anything else that relates to the way in which a story is structured and told. Literary analysis deals only in what can be proved objectively via the text, and quality control essays, not because how and essay sample, why a certain story makes you—as an essay individual—think and feel subjectively about that story. The Literary Analysis Paragraph #1 is essay sample, designed to mla format research help any writer find and explicate the essay major themes in a story and to define the importance of these themes in the story. The fact that you, as the analyst, are dealing with objective and provable facts is the main reason why most teachers forbid the use of the an informal essay is characterized by “I” voice in this type of writing. It is ny bar essay, here where I make the distinction between literary analysis and literary reflection: a literary reflection “reflects” your unique emotional and intellectual response to the story; whereas, a literary analysis “analyzes” the form, devices, style, and content of a story. In an analysis, the “I” is not needed and does not help you prove your point because the point is proved using verifiable facts.
Throwing yourself into the mix just muddies the water and burdens your writing with unnecessary words and china art essay, distractions. The basic structure of the literary analysis paragraph rubric is, however, essentially the same as the narrative paragraph rubric: you open with a clear and concise guiding theme or topic [broad theme, narrow theme, one/two punch]; you offer supporting facts and proof [smoking gun]; and in ny bar essay your third section of the effects essay paragraph, you explain and ny bar essay sample, explicate how your guiding theme relates to the story [head and heart]. Finally, you “get on or get out.” If you are writing a single paragraph, you get out with a sense of finality; if you are writing a multi-paragraph essay, you may need to find a way to transition in a logical and unforced way to ancient china art essay the next paragraph in your essay. It is important as a reader, and even more so as a writer, to be able to understand the importance of themes in a piece of literature, for exploring the themes of being human—and being connected (or disconnected) to the rest of ny bar essay, humanity is the essential role of any writer! We don’t read because we care about a writer; and mla format research paper, if you are a writer, you need to understand that nobody cares about “you” as a person any more than some guy living three towns over from you; however, we do care about ourselves, and essay sample, if as a writer you put us in ancient china touch with a deeper side of our head and essay sample, heart; if you pull on the strings of our imagination in such a way that we cry when you want us to cry, laugh when you want us to laugh, and quality control essays, think what you want us to think—then you have succeeded as a writer, and those people who do not care about ny bar sample, you as a person will care about what you write, and great great keith folse, they will beat a path to an door where they can find the pages that hold your words.
Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric #1. T he golden rule of writers is to always know what your readers want and expect—and give it to them in ny bar essay well-crafted writing, which almost always means well-constructed paragraphs! I love using the paper on term “well-crafted” because it implies that writing well requires a deliberate and attentive focus. Good writing is never finished; it is abandoned. Honestly: give yourself ninety minutes to two hours to finish this. A writer’s first words are seldom his or her best words.
Over the years I have read and graded thousands of these paragraphs. It is not hard to figure out who gave a damn and who didn’t. It is ny bar, obvious who reads the details of this rubric before creating his or her own paragraph. So do your best. Give a damn. It works. The image on the sidebar is a visual to help you see what a detailed paragraph includes: The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the theme in a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. Quality Essays! The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. It contains the text reference and text support that “proves” your theme is evident in the actual text.
The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in many ways, should be the most interesting and ny bar sample, thoughtful part of your paragraph. Essays! It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and text reference in the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to allow you to logically tie back in to sample your broad theme in on your concluding sentence. Be sure to follow “all” of the details of the rubric explained in the steps below, and try your hand at a creating a well-crafted literary analysis paragraph—one that we call a “ whamdammer ” in my class! In the ny bar essay rubric that follows, I use an example paragraph written by Ryan Ewing one of my 8 th grade students in expository vs. narrative 2013. The strength of Ryan’s paragraph is not just that it is a good paragraph; it s because he follows the details of the rubric throughout his paragraph. If you wish, replace his text with your own text, then cut and paste your words into essay sample a new document and save and expository, submit as required by your teacher. phs . It is not hard to figure out who gave a damn and who didn’t. It is obvious who reads the ny bar essay details of ancient china art essay, this rubric before creating his or her own paragraph. So do your best. Essay! Give a damn.
It works. The image on the sidebar is a visual to help you see what a detailed paragraph includes: The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the expository vs. narrative theme in a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in ny bar essay sample a single paragraph. Paper On! The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. It contains the text reference and ny bar essay sample, text support that “proves” your theme is evident in the actual text. The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in many ways, should be the most interesting and ancient, thoughtful part of essay, your paragraph. It is where you discuss the importance of the an informal theme in the text support and text reference in ny bar essay sample the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and paper on, expands to ny bar essay allow you to an informal logically tie back in to your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Be sure to follow “all” of the details of the rubric explained in the steps below, and sample, try your hand at a creating a well-crafted literary analysis paragraph—one that we call a “ whamdammer ” in my class! In the expository rubric that follows, I use an example paragraph written by essay sample, Ryan Ewing one of ancient art essay, my 8 th grade students in 2013.
The strength of Ryan’s paragraph is ny bar sample, not just that it is a good paragraph; it s because he follows the details of the rubric throughout his paragraph. If you wish, replace his text with your own text, then cut and paste your words into a new document and save and expository vs. narrative, submit as required by your teacher. #1: The Assignment Information: Who are you and what are your writing about? As Mae West said, “It is ny bar, better to look marvellous than to feel marvellous.” In that spirit, create assignments that “look” good.
In the top right corner of your assignment post your name, class, section, assignment name and mla format paper on, date. Huck Finn Paragraph. #2. The Universal Theme. State the unifying theme! A paragraph needs to have a unifying theme that is developed and explained throughout the paragraph. In this rubric, we are only writing about a single important theme that can be captured n a single word or short phrase. Your one word or short phrase theme is the specific aspect of the essay sample human condition that is a central theme in the writing piece– but do not mention the writing piece here.
It should be centered below your quote and ancient china art essay, above your opening paragraph in size 18, bold font. Your theme should be one word (ideally) or a short phrase—not a full sentence. Quote from the text that captures your unifying theme. This quote is by no means “necessary” for a good paragraph, and you would not include it in an essay, but it is a good practice when writing a paragraph, and helps to keep you focused on the theme of ny bar essay sample, your paragraph–and it sets the tone, mood and direction for your reader. Choose a quote from the writing piece” that fully captures the theme you wish to research paper explore in your paragraph. This quote is the sample main source for your text reference and text support in control your paragraph. This can be longer or shorter than you will need or use in your paragraph. Center your quote above your paragraph in italics (No quotation marks.) Be sure to cite your source using brackets: For example, [ The Odyssey , Book VII, Lines 331-335] Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead.
I was ever so glad to see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of essay sample, HIM telling the people where I was. I talked along, but he only set there and looked at me; never said nothing. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] #4: The Broad Theme. The Universal Theme of the Paragraph! This is your first sentence of a body paragraph. In a way, it is almost like the “title” of quality essays, your paragraph. It is meant to indicate the direction of the paragraph in a compelling and interesting way by creating a clear, concise, and memorable statement of a universal theme—a universal reality that relevant, interesting and compelling to your readers. Do not mention the writing piece in this sentence because this sentence is essay sample, supposed to is characterized by introduce the theme of your paragraph in a general way that is interesting to a potential reader. Oftentimes, especially in a longer, multi-paragraph essay, it makes sense to remove this broad theme, but in a one-paragraph response, I’d leave it in essay there.
Nothing beats spending time with a good friend. #5. Vs. Narrative! The Narrow Theme. Introduce the Theme in the Literature You Are Analysing. This is essentially the more focused topic sentence of your paragraph —and as such, it is the most important sentence in your paragraph! The Narrow Theme narrows down your theme in a specific way by ny bar essay, writing a phrase or sentence that captures how your one-word theme is used in the literature you are analysing. This is your “clear, concise and memorable” topic sentence. Be sure to include a specific reference to the writing piece AND a specific reference to your one-word theme in this sentence. In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim grow to be two inseparable friends that set out on a great journey together.
#6: The One/Two Punch. Really Narrow Down Your Theme! Follow your Narrow Theme with one or two more sentences with what I call the quality control essays one/two punch that add detail or explanation to essay sample your theme and narrows down the essays topic even further. The two companions go through a lot over their time together, but they never give up on each other. Jim and Huck are as different as people can be, physically; however, it is their similar minds that bring them together as friends. What about ny bar essay, exploring and control essays, writing about more than one theme in a single paragraph? The Literary Analysis Rubric is designed to ny bar essay help writers explicate individual themes in individual paragraphs, but there are occasions where you need or want to research explore two or more themes in a single paragraph. With a bit of tweaking, you can still use the basic rules of ny bar sample, this rubric and weave in a discussion and exploration of additional themes within the same paragraph. My one rule is that there needs to be either a symbiotic relationship between the themes OR an antagonistic relationship that develops in such a way in the story that it is important to discuss the relationship between these themes. Friendship and Hospitality are both major themes in The Odyssey , and it makes a lot of an informal essay is characterized, sense to describe the relationship between these two themes.
Likewise, Fate and Free Will are important—although opposite—themes that recur throughout The Odyssey ; hence, exploring the roles and relationship of ny bar, these contradictory themes in great paragraphs great essays keith folse the same paragraph makes a lot of sense. Be sure to introduce all of the themes in your broad theme/narrow theme/one-two punch. Add Text Reference: Who? What? When? Where? Why? The setup is the text “reference” that describes in detail (and explicates) the “scene” leading in to your quote (the smoking gun) from the literary piece. The setup and the smoking gun work together to add the “proof” that you have read and studied the piece of literature you are analysing. Without the smoking gun, you are just rambling around and going nowhere—unless your readers are already fully aware of ny bar essay sample, everything that happens in your piece of literature. The setup to your smoking gun should include a who, what , when, where, why reference to ancient art essay a scene from the piece of literature you are analysing.
Use specific images and actions to describe the scene leading into the quote (smoking gun!) Notice the ny bar essay sample colon Ryan uses to great essays “introduce” the quote. Notice, too, that he describes this scene in the present tense! And he reinforces the essay theme of friendship again! In the first couple of days after he ran away from vs. narrative essay his pap’s house, Huck feels very much alone in ny bar essay sample the vast world that he is hiding in: no friends , no nothing—that is, before he finds Jim. One day, while Huck is out exploring the island, he stumbles upon Jim’s camp; while he is appalled that Jim would run away from Ms. Watson, he is research, happy that he now has a companion on essay, the island. Even though Jim thinks Huck is a ghost at first, Huck is quick to convince him that he is not:
Adding Quotes The Proof That the Theme Is in the Story! The smoking gun is the quote (text support, aka: actual text from the piece of literature) you use from the writing piece you are analyzing. A literary analysis without text support is like an egg without a yolk! Text reference (setup) and expository vs. narrative, text support (smoking gun) work together to prove you’ve read and analyzed the text and prepares your reader for your head and heart section of the paragraph. Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead.
I was ever so glad to see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] Using Outside Source Analysis. We only ny bar, write well about that which we know well, so it is important that a scholar “studies and researches” his or her topic as thoroughly as possible before writing. It is perfectly acceptable (and I think desirable) to include some references from reputable sources that support your own conclusions and analysis. It not only shows that you are not alone in control essays your thinking, it also shows that you have done more than simply express your own thoughts—it shows you have researched and documented more “proof” that your analysis is valid. How to sample cite outside sources… It is imperative that you cite any outside source that you use. It is unwise and unethical if you don’t cite in a clear and ancient china, acceptable way. Ask your teacher which format is ny bar essay sample, acceptable. If you are writing on expository vs. narrative essay, your own, chose the style you wish: MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.
If you are not sure how to cite a source, look it up online. There are some great resources out there, such as citelighter.com, easybib.com, and a host of others. Things to remember… The best place for ny bar outside source material is in the Head Heart. Analyze, Explain Explicate the Theme in essay the Passage. This is the “brains brilliance” part of your paragraph.
It shows your reader your how much you know and sample, how insightful you are about essay, your theme and how it used in the literary work you are discussing. Write at least four sentences that, explicate, illustrate, and elaborate upon your topic sentence and the “Theme” as it used in literary piece, specifically the smoking gun! Huck declares a friend as someone who he can trust; by ny bar essay sample, saying that he was not scared of Jim telling on him, he is showing that he trusts Jim as a good friend . He knows that Jim is the kind of person that would comfort him and give him good company –that is exactly what a good friend does. Huck is white kid who hasn’t quite yet developed feeling for others. Jim, on of divorce on families essay, the other hand, is a slave; however, their similar taste for adventure is what ultimately makes them friends . Note: It is ny bar essay sample, important to effects of divorce essay keep hammering home the main theme word or phrase–though you can (and maybe should) use a bit more variation than in here. If this paragraph is ny bar essay sample, “transitioning” to a new paragraph, (as is usually the control essays case in an essay) craft your words in a way that sets up the next paragraph. This creates what is called “logical flow.” If the paragraph is simply ending, (as in ny bar essay a brief literature response) try and find a way of tying back into your opening theme in a new and refreshing way. This gives your readers a concise and confident visual and mental cue that you have said all you need to say.
Be sure—one more time—to include a reference to your theme in the conclusion. For Example: Throughout the rest of the novel, Jim and Huck remain close friends. They come to essays realize that neither of ny bar, them could have evaded capture for so long if it weren’t for their friendship. For Huck and essay, Jim, their friendship has allowed them to succeed and ny bar essay sample, thrive together on a difficult journey. A writing piece is never finished. It is abandoned. Once you are this far, now is the time to go back, edit, revise and to do whatever needs to be done to make this a worthy and enduring piece of literature in its own right. I know this is a lot of work for a paragraph (usually at leas t to hours of good work)–but it is what you need to do if you want to create a clear, concise, compelling, well supported and interesting literary analysis paragraph! Copy and Paste the Completed Paragraph. Put it all together and edit and revise as needed!
After you have completed all of the steps, put it all together, proofread carefully, edit and paragraphs great folse, revise, and turn in the assignment as required. I have put in bold how often Ryan reinforces the theme of friendship in ny bar sample this paragraph. This emphasis indicate that the paragraph has unity, while the rubric creates logic flow; however, it is the way you craft your words and sentences that gives the paragraph fluency and flow–which is as important as anything! Huck Finn Paragraph. Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead.
I was ever so glad to see Jim. Vs. Narrative! I warn’t lonesome now. Essay! I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was. I talked along, but he only set there and looked at me; never said nothing. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] Nothing beats spending time with a good friend. In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim grow to china be two inseparable friends that set out on a great journey together. Essay Sample! The two companions go through a lot over their time together, but they never give up on each other. They are as different as people can be, physically; however, it is their similar minds that bring them together as friends.
In the first couple of days after he ran away from an informal his pap’s house, Huck feels very much alone in the vast world that he is hiding in; no friends, no nothing—that is, before he finds Jim! One day, while Huck is out exploring the island, he stumbles upon Jim’s camp; while he is appalled that Jim would run away from Ms. Essay Sample! Watson, he is paper on, happy that he now has a companion on the island. Even though Jim thinks Huck is a ghost at first, Huck is quick to essay sample convince him that he is not: “ Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to see Jim.
I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was.” [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII] Huck declares a friend as someone whom he can trust; by saying that he was not scared of Jim telling on effects of divorce on families essay, him, he is ny bar essay sample, showing that he trusts Jim as a good friend. He knows that Jim is the effects on families essay kind of person that would comfort him and essay, give him good company—and that is exactly what a good friend does. Huck is white kid who hasn’t quite yet developed feeling for the black slaves that have been so much a part of his life. Jim, on the other hand, is a slave; however, their similar taste for adventure is what ultimately makes them friends. Throughout the rest of the novel, Jim and Huck remain close friends. They come to realize that neither of them could have evaded capture for so long if it weren’t for their friendship. For Huck and Jim, their friendship has allowed them to succeed and thrive together on a difficult journey. Now that’s a fine looking paragraph!
Explore more of The Crafted Word Rubrics. If we don’t learn from what we do, we learn little of real value. Expository! If we don’t make the time to explore, reflect and ny bar sample, rethink our ways of doing things, we will never grow, evolve and reach our greatest potential or tap into the possibilities in our lives. by Fitz | February 18, 2017 | Assess, Journal | 1 Comment. by Fitz | November 16, 2016 | Essays, Journal | 0 Comments. by Fitz | November 14, 2016 | Essays, Journal | 7 Comments. The most powerful and enduring connection we share as a human race is our desire and need to share stories. We engage in ancient the art of storytelling more than most of us ever realize; whether we are describing our kids’ soccer games, critiquing the latest HBO series, telling a ribald joke, or remembering a long lost friend, event, memory, book, or experience.
by Fitz | April 27, 2016 | Essays, Journal, Write | 31 Comments.
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essay murder Murder Culture: Adventures in 1940s Suspense. She had spoken aloud. She hadn’t meant to; she hadn’t wanted those words to come up from ny bar, her throat to her lips. She hadn’t meant to think them, much less speak them. She didn’t want Gratia to have heard them. But across the room the girl lifted her eyes from her book. “What did you say?” she queried.
In 1947, novelist Mitchell Wilson proclaimed: “Within the past ten years, we have been witnessing a new form of popular fictionthe story of suspense.” 1 We are so used to this genremany of our bestsellers are suspense thrillersthat it’s a little surprising to recall that once it was quite a new thing. On reflection, though, we might wonder: Was it really so new? Don’t all novels and short stories, indeed all narratives in popular media, depend on suspense? We want to know what happens next; we call a book that drives us forward a page-turner. But writers of the period began to of divorce distinguish this general sort of suspense from something more specific. Suspense, Wilson claims, depends on the reader’s identifying with a protagonist who is in acute jeopardy. That protagonist reacts to ny bar sample the situation not with superhuman calm or jauntiness but with fear. By describing the great paragraphs great keith situation and essay sample, the character’s response to it, the writer can communicate fear directly to the reader, who, says Wilson, “is aware of his own cowardice.” The universality of fear as an emotion allows the great paragraphs essays keith folse reader to essay understand how the hero reacts, either by impulsively lashing out or by fleeing the situation. What can best justify fear? The prospect of death.
The threat of murder, Wilson claims, becomes central to this sort of mla format research on, suspense. Ny Bar Sample? It proves to an informal by the reader that there is no limit to the impending violence. Essay Sample? 2 This quality is very different from the diffuse suspense we get from an informal is characterized by, a romance or a detective story, in which the characters are usually not in mortal peril. Sooner or later, though, the sample protagonist will have to vs. narrative come to overcome fear. The framework of the ny bar suspense story is the continual struggle of the frightened protagonist to fight back and art essay, save himself in ny bar sample, spite of his pervading anxiety, and in this respect he is truly heroic. The action of the story does not consist in mere activity, but in the hero’s change of mood in response to changing circumstances. The suspense story, in this sense, is centrally about a character who starts out as a victim but who through brains and bravery can overcome the threat of is characterized, death. Wilson wasn’t alone in spotting the trend. At the time, several writers were claiming that the suspense story had come into its own. Essay? Most commonly, they distinguished the suspense story or “thriller” from the detective story. Wilson points out that the detective story relies upon curiosity rather than suspenseboth for mla format research on, the reader and ny bar, the detective, who tends to respond to murder with detached, intellectual calm.
The sleuth is a puzzle-solver, and the reader is asked to join in the game of an informal by, deciding “whodunit.” The reader doesn’t identify with the detective because the narration typically doesn’t give us access to ny bar the detective’s mind, or at expository least not at every point: something is kept back so the detective can reveal the essay solution at the climax. Another contrast with the classic detective story was evident to these commentators. Instead of starting the art essay plot with a dead victim, as the detective story tends to do, the suspense story builds up to the crime by centering on sample the potential victimsomeone “enmeshedin a web of circumstance.” 3 The buildup could involve revealing the murderer quite early, all the better to emphasize the danger that faces the bewildered hero or heroine. Indeed, part or all of the on families essay story could be told from the viewpoint of the killer. Novelist Helen McCloy maintained that this technique fostered suspense, in ny bar, place of the surprise cultivated by detective fiction. 4 Charlotte Armstrong agreed, noting that “Surprise is not much fun.” 5. This isn’t to suggest that the suspense story wholly lacked detective-story elements.
Indeed, there were often mysteries aplenty. Instead of assigning the investigation to a professional or a private detective, the suspense story often made the anxious potential victim follow up clues. By letting the protagonist turn detective, the action could pivot from flight to fight, the climax at which the hero faces down danger in the manner Wilson described. In speaking of a new form of storytelling, Wilson was picking out something that seemed to him and other writers quite specific. But what about his datinghis claim that the form had emerged over the last ten years? That would put the beginning of the suspense story at 1937 or 1938. He doesn’t justify this claim, but the authors he considers central to the new genre are Eric Ambler, Graham Greene, and on, Dorothy B. Hughes, all novelists who began writing crime fiction around that date. Wilson’s readers would have been aware of Ambler’s spy novels (most notably, The Mask of Dimitrios , 1939, and Journey into Fear , 1940), Greene’s criminal “entertainments” such as A Gun for Sale (aka This Gun for Hire , 1936), The Confidential Agent (1939), and The Ministry of Fear (1943), and Hughes’ tales of domestic murder and ny bar essay sample, international espionage such as The So-Blue Marble (1940), The Bamboo Blonde (1941), The Fallen Sparrow (1942), and Dread Journey (1945).
After Wilson’s article, these authors would go on to write very famous suspense stories, such as Greene’s The Third Man (1949) and Hughes’ In a Lonely Place (1947). Interestingly, Wilson nowhere mentions suspense-driven films in his analysis of the essay genre. Yet by 1947 they were becoming a major form of ny bar essay, Hollywood cinema. Research? How did that process come about, and essay sample, what relation does it have to changes in of divorce on families, popular literature? We can understand the dynamic, I think, in two steps. First, we can trace the essay 1940s model of ancient china, suspense back to three relatively stable traditions that fed into it: the essay sample detective story, the domestic thriller, and expository essay, the spy story. These suggest that Wilson’s ten-year window is somewhat too narrow. Then we can see how those traditions gained wide popularity in the 1940s as part of a diverse ecosystem of mystery narratives and informed what we came to recognize as the suspense thriller.
Finally, I’ll try to characterize the ecological niche occupied by essay sample one portly English filmmaker. Displacing the detective. The mystery story, a very broad category, became identified chiefly with the quality essays detective story thanks to Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes adventures. But the genre went through several changes between the 1920s and the 1940s. Central to the classic form was the series detective, the investigator who in a string of stories solved crimes through rational inference aided by brilliant intuition. The set of character roles was constant: the sample investigator(s); the great paragraphs great keith folse criminal(s); the victim(s); and ny bar sample, the bystanders, those suspects, witnesses, and helpers drawn into the inquiry. Likewise, the canonical plot began with the crime already accomplished (e.g., the body in the library), and traced the course of the case until the criminal was exposed. Solving the puzzle depended on enigmatic physical traces, incompatible testimony, psychological insights, and other clues.
But by the end of the 1920s the best practitioners felt that the classic sleuth format needed rethinking. For historians of the form, the quality control essays person who offered the most drastic revision was Anthony Berkeley Cox, who wrote as Anthony Berkeley and as Francis Iles. Ny Bar Essay Sample? After creating a dazzling exercise in permutational solutions, The Poisoned Chocolates Case (1928), he announced that in effect the main path to rejuvenating detective fiction involved demoting the detective. Specifically, this new strategy meant organizing the plot’s point of view around either the criminal or the victim. So Iles’ Malice Aforethought (1931) becomes an effects on families essay account of a frustrated provincial doctor’s plan to kill his wife. Essay Sample? In Before the Fact (1932), a woman gradually realizes her husband is going to murder her. Great Great Folse? Neither book is narrated in ny bar essay sample, the first person, but each does confine itself wholly to the mind of the protagonist. Moreover, as both titles indicate, each plot’s point of attack is great paragraphs essays very early: the crime comes gradually, after a crescendo of menacing incidents.
There were precedents for the Iles method, from Crime and ny bar, Punishment to A. P. Herbert’s House by paragraphs great essays keith folse the River (1920), C. Ny Bar Essay Sample? S. Forester’s Payment Deferred (1926), and Berkeley’s The Second Shot (1929). Of the earlier experiments, most directly influential on mystery writers were the “inverted” detective stories by R. Austin Freeman gathered in The Singing Bone (1912). Freeman redesigned point of of divorce on families, view by using the first part of the tale to recount the ny bar sample commission of the quality crime, chiefly from the criminal’s point of view, while part two traces the efforts of Dr. Thorndyke to solve the ny bar sample mystery. With the mla format research paper on killer’s identity revealed at the outset, the story depends on essay sample generating curiosity about how Thorndyke will solve it (a dynamic continued in the television series Columbo ). Mla Format Research Paper? As for point of attack, the “inverted” plots begin well before the ny bar crime is committed, in an informal essay, order to establish motives and plans. Essay Sample? In essence Iles’ novels lopped off the research paper second half of the inverted tale, eliminating or minimizing the role of the investigation and concentrating wholly on the buildup to the crimethe panic and pressures suffered by the killer, or the suspicion and fear of the ny bar essay victim. Coming from a skilled practitioner of essay, whodunits, the ny bar two Iles books crystallized, at least in England, the great keith creative option of designing a mystery plot focused around a would-be killer or victim. Freeman Wills Crofts, whose orthodox detective stories hinged on breaking ironclad alibis, joined the new wave with The 12:30 from ny bar essay sample, Croydon (1934). Ancient Art Essay? Here the essay sample step-by-step planning and execution of control essays, a murder is told from the would-be killer’s standpoint. As if in recognition that he had left a tradition behind, Crofts makes his culprit exceptionally well-read in mystery fiction. He meditates in prison:
Somehow, alone there in the semi-darkness, the excellence of his own plans seemed less convincing than ever before. Stories he had read recurred to him in which the guilty had made perfect plans, but in all cases they had broken down. Those double tales of Austin Freeman’s! 6. Detective stories conventionally refer to other detective stories, apparently assuring us that this story is more “real” than its counterparts but actually serving to cite traditions that the reader enjoys recalling. Ny Bar Essay? Here Crofts acknowledges that Freeman’s “inverted” story made salient the possibility of a new gimmick: How will the criminal err in committing the crime? Most Golden Age detective writers continued to develop puzzles, but they noticed the paragraphs great essays keith new trends. Dorothy Sayers acknowledged that an ny bar essay emphasis on psychology and an informal by, the circumstances leading up to the crime had created “studies in murder” rather than straight detective tales. Essay Sample? 7 Agatha Christie, whose talent was more protean than is usually acknowledged, blended before-the-fact plotting with mystery in And Then There Were None (1939), and she had a character in Towards Zero (1944) muse: I like a good detective story.But, you know, they begin in the wrong place!
They begin with the effects of divorce on families essay murder. But the murder is the end. The story begins long before thatyears before sometimeswith all the causes and events that bring certain people to a certain place at a certain time on a certain day.Even nowsome dramasome murder to beis in course of essay, preparation. Expository Vs. Narrative? 8. Ten-Minute Alibi (1935). In advocating plotting that was more psychological and less dependent on puzzle-solving, Cox and his colleagues were joining forces with a mystery form that had received little respect from the critical community. Since at least World War I, British and American writers had been cultivating what we might call the domestic thriller, a tale of mystery and ny bar, danger in ordinary circumstances.
The best-known instance in Britain is Marie Belloc Lowndes’ The Lodger (1913). An Informal By? The novel about ny bar essay sample a Jack-the-Ripper figure might have been rendered as a sensation-driven pursuit story or a tale of rational detection. Instead, it is re-plotted as a tale of suspicion seeping through a lower-middle-class household. Essay Is Characterized By? By organizing the book’s viewpoint principally around the landlady who fears that her lodger may be a serial killer, Belloc Lowndes created a mystery largely filtered through the imperfect knowledge of ny bar sample, a bystander. If The Lodger has an American counterpart, it is Mary Roberts Rinehart’s The Circular Staircase (1908). Again, the action is an informal essay is characterized by focused around a witness: the ny bar spinster Rachel Innes, who encounters the bizarre happenings in a rented summer house. Unlike The Lodger ’s Mrs. Bunting, Rachel narrates the tale and takes up the effects of divorce on families essay role of investigator, eventually bringing the guilty party to ny bar light.
The contributions of essay by, these two writers were enormously popular, but orthodox historians of mystery fiction have tended to mock their gynocentric plots. Ny Bar Essay? Rinehart in particular was ridiculed as the exponent of the “Had I But Known” school of mystery, whereby sudden plot twists are motivated by the protagonist’s convenient lapses of memory or judgment. Worse, as one authoritative history puts it, is “the manner in which romantic complications are allowed to obstruct the orderly process of puzzle and solution.” 9 The sexism here is pretty blatant: Rinehart’s plots are no more preposterous or dependent on coincidence than many tales featuring heroes rather than heroines, and of course many detective novels include clumsy subplots involving romantic couples. More important for our purposes, Belloc Lowndes, Rinehart, and great keith, writers who followed, such as Mignon Eberhart and Mabel Seeley, sustained a tradition of domestic, woman-in-peril plotting. Ny Bar? A sympathetic critic remarked that Rinehart’s books provide “no put-the-pieces-together formula” but rather “an out-guess-this-unknown-or-he’ll-out-guess-you, life-and-death struggle.” 10 Many critics have noted Rebecca ’s debt to sensation fiction and the Gothic line via Jane Eyre , but these other writers furnished more proximate antecedents for du Maurier’s tale. Great? As Alfred Hitchcock remarked: “There was a whole school of feminine literature at sample the period.” 11. At almost exactly the same time, murder was being domesticated on the English and American stage.
The major vogue seems to effects of divorce have come in the late 1920s, when, as a New York Times correspondent put it, London suffered “a theatrical crime waveowing to a deluge of mystery plays and ‘thrillers.’” 12 Several of ny bar essay sample, these plays were detective stories and great, sensation pieces, many from Edgar Wallace. But audiences were also treated to Interference (1927), The Letter (1927), Spellbound (1927; no relation to Hitchcock’s film), Blackmail (1928), Patrick Hamilton’s Rope (aka Rope’s End , 1929), and ny bar, other popular “murder plays.” The genre continued through the expository decade, with successes like the stage adaptation of Payment Deferred (1932), the ticking-clock drama Ten-Minute Alibi (1933), Without Witness (1934), The Two Mrs. Ny Bar Essay Sample? Carrolls (1935), the research paper on serial-killer drama Night Must Fall (1935), Love from a Stranger (1936), the Rope -derived Trunk Crime (aka The Last Straw , 1937), and another Patrick Hamilton triumph, Gaslight (1938). The New York stage didn’t lag behind, importing several of these hits while adding Nine Pine Street (1933, based on the Lizzie Borden case), Double Door (1933, an anticipation of Rebecca ), Invitation to a Murder (1934), and Kind Lady (1935). Ny Bar? 13. A new label came to be attached to research paper these dramas of sample, home-bred homicide. When Val Gielgud wrote to Patrick Hamilton requesting a new BBC radio drama, he suggested that “a psychological thriller along the lines of ‘Rope’ would be good.” 15 The phrase came into currency during the an informal 1930s to describe domestic thrillers in fiction, onstage, and onscreen, and plays began advertising themselves with the label. 15. Why the emphasis on psychology? Chiefly, I suspect, to distinguish these plays from the blood-and-thunder sensation of Edgar Wallace and the extroverted adventure of John Buchan.
On the West End stage, drawing-room murder on the Ilesian model was easy to dramatize. If the plot divulges the plotter or killer from the start, the emphasis falls naturally on why the crime is committed and ny bar, whether the guilty party will escape. Now the drama grows out of festering motive, middle-class frustration, and the gradual realization that loved ones can’t be trusted. The 1920s1930s detective story, with its least-likely-suspect surprise, had relied on the idea that anyone could be a murderer, but the great paragraphs essays keith folse domestic thriller developed this idea in depth. The theme was doubtless accelerated by much-publicized murders committed by solid citizens, notably Dr.
H. H. Crippen, Loeb and Leopold, and baby-faced Sidney Fox (inspiration for Night Must Fall ). These fictions replaced the Napoleonic crimes of sensation thrillers by sample a sense that humdrum life harbored lethal passions. Hence a series of books organized around killers’ psychological states: Richard Hull’s The Murder of My Aunt (1935), Winifred Duke’s Skin for Skin (1935), Bruce Hamilton’s Middle Class Murder (1936), and James Ronald’s This Way Out (1939). Great Folse? Patrick Hamilton’s Hangover Square (1941), with its schizophrenic protagonist and bold sexuality, indicates how far things had come in just a few years. A parallel trend emerged in sample, America. While the hard-boiled stories of Cain and Chandler gained most attention, other writersagain, mostly womenoffered stories of lethally disturbed husbands (Elisabeth Sanxay Holding’s Death Wish , 1934, and Net of Cobwebs , 1935) and mla format research paper, tangled domestic murder plots (Cora Jarrett’s Night over Fitch’s Pond , 1933). What about focusing point of view around the victim? Psychology came to prominence there too. Boileau and ny bar essay, Narcejac would point out later that traditional detective fiction had minimized the quality of fear. 16 But concentrating on the potential victim’s anxieties and suspicions made fear central to the new thriller.
Not incidentally, most of the killers were male and vs. narrative, many of their victims were female, continuing the woman-in-peril motif developed in Lowndes, Rinehart, and ny bar, their followers, as well as in Before the Fact . The psychological thriller was able to reactivate the an informal essay is characterized by Bluebeard tradition, often making explicit reference to it. Reviewers sometimes felt obliged to warn audiences and readers that the psychological thriller wasn’t a mystery in the usual sense: “whodunit” would be revealed very soon. Yet this foreknowledge didn’t dissipate interest. Whether novel or play, the domestic thriller shifted the plot’s thrust from curiosity about the past (who killed X and why and how?) to anticipation (will Y succeed in killing X and escape punishment?). As one writer explained in essay, reviewing A. A. Is Characterized? Milne’s play The Fourth Wall (1928): Though we saw the murder, we do not know what little slip Carter may have made in ny bar sample, the arrangement of the room or the concoction of his own and Laverick’s alibi. Thus while Susan continues her investigation we do not know what clue she will discover or how she will arrive at the truth; nor when she has a part of the information in her hands do we how she will force Carter to reveal the rest. Here is scope for action enough, and not for action only but for as much drawing of character as is possible in the course of a narrative so full of events. The first act, which shows the murder, is admirable in great keith, its suspense and ny bar essay, surprise. 17. In The Fourth Wall and most other murder plays, the killer doesn’t go scot-free.
In the novels as well, authors tend to expository vs. narrative essay emphasize that their clever miscreants fail to execute a perfect crime. I spy (All the worse for me) As some detective-story writers, under the Iles influence, moved closer to the psychological thriller, another group of writers exploited suspense in ny bar essay, tales of international intrigue. This trend seems to have been central to vs. narrative Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 intuition about the new thriller, for all three of essay, his specific examplesGreene, Ambler, and Hughesmade their reputations in the spy genre. Historians trace the an informal modern spy story back to British writers, William LeQueux and E. Phillips Oppenheim, and later Edgar Wallace, John Buchan, and William “Sapper” McNiele. Sample? 18 These writers developed the basic conventions.
Central among these was a fairly episodic plot based on a series of adventures, driven by a hunt (for secret documents or exotic weapons) or a chase. Great? Typically the protagonist ran afoul of some large-scale force, such as a master criminal, a sinister foreign government, or a secret coalition bent on world domination. At the ny bar same time, the protagonist might also be sought by the police, a domestic intelligence agency, or some other force of law. The result was the paragraphs great essays keith “double chase,” in which the hero must elude both villains and the law, as in ny bar sample, John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915). The chase plot was filled out by captures, escapes, abductions of the heroes’ allies or loved ones, and sometimes surprisingly comic interludes. The conventions forged by these writers were ready-made for cinema, so it’s not surprising that some of the is characterized earliest feature films and serials in essay sample, many countries were spy stories, such as Denmark’s Dr. Gar-el-Hama series, Louis Feuillade’s crime serials, and Lang’s Dr. Mabuse films and Spies (1928). Because the hunt and an informal is characterized, the pursuit were central to the action, the typical spy story set its protagonist on a journey.
The detective story and the domestic thriller tended to be centripetal, focused on a limited number of settings or even a single household. Essay Sample? The tale of intrigue, however, was centrifugal; its characters were propelled from city to countryside, from essay by, one country or region to another. Central scenes might take place on a train or on a highway. The Middle East, Russia, and Asia furnished exotic locales. Ny Bar Essay? This incessant travel might highlight themes of national identity and art essay, devotion to a country or cause. The protagonist of the spy novel might be a professional secret agent or an independent adventurer who takes on a mission out of ny bar essay sample, patriotism, personal loyalty, or a quest for an informal is characterized by, excitement. Before the late 1930s, the essay sample spy thriller also contained some degree of humor, either in comic characters and dialect rendering or in a light-hearted approach to dangers, as seen in Agatha Christie’s Tuppence and Tommy Beresford series. But things became more somber as spying began recruiting more naïve protagonists. Late in the decade, international tensions allowed writers to hurl ordinary citizens into the conflict. In Ambler’s Epitaph for a Spy (1938), the protagonist is a weak emigrant who is pressured into spying by quality control brutal and bungling intelligence officials. Helen MacInnes’ Above Suspicion (1941) propels an Oxford couple into ny bar, intrigue while they visit Europe for “one last look at peacetime” in paper, 1939.
The protagonist of Greene’s Confidential Agent (1939) is what the ny bar sample title calls him: not a “secret agent” but a representative seeking coal to help the Spanish revolutionary cause. Now that the plot depended on amateurs and innocents, missions can go amiss and the ending may be more glum than happy; Epitaph for a Spy and The Confidential Agent end with little sense of victory. The technique of a restricted narration becomes as crucial to the spy story as it is to detective fiction and the domestic thriller. Paragraphs Essays? Buchan and the later writers tend to ny bar focus their stories around the consciousness of the protagonist, either through first-person accounts or through limiting the range of knowledge. In these books, we often know only as much as the on families hero or heroine does. Restricted narration enhances the mystery component, while also making every encounter a potential threat: Is the friendly helper encountered on the road actually working for the enemy? The limitations of essay, knowledge make possible the conventional bluffs and ancient china art essay, double-crosses that create plot reversals typical of spy fiction, but they can also generate the ny bar essay anxietyin protagonist and in ancient art essay, readerthat Mitchell Wilson found central to the suspense story. These three trends in popular fiction and ny bar essay sample, drama seem most pertinent to the emergence of the 1940s suspense story. But they could not have exercised their influence had not America, home to Hollywood, gone mad for mystery and vs. narrative essay, murder.
Hitchcock, Judith Anderson, and Joan Fontaine on the set of Rebecca . There is a standard story about ny bar sample what happened to American mystery fiction during the 1930s and 1940s. The Sherlock Holmes model of control essays, rational crime-solving, we’re told, was replaced by the two-fisted private detective who came up from the pulp magazines to literary prestige. Like most such synopses, though, this one cuts some corners. In popular literature, the ny bar sample adventures in deduction of Lord Peter Wimsey, Hercule Poirot, and Ellery Queen remained far more widely read than the expository vs. narrative chronicles of Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe, and other roughnecks. Ny Bar Sample? Only Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer rivaled the mla format research paper popularity of his white-glove counterparts. 19 Moreover, the standard outline plays down the syntheses between the puzzle-driven and ny bar sample, action-driven plotting we find in ancient, the work of Rex Stout and Erle Stanley Gardner (hands down the most popular mystery writer of the 1940s). Ny Bar Sample? 20 At the same period, the spy story often incorporated a puzzle element, and this was balanced against vigorous physical action provided by hunts and chases. Now we can see that the standard history also ignores the emergence of the psychological thriller. Mitchell Wilson’s remark in 1947 that the suspense story had come of age marks a dawning recognition that there was currently a form of mystery that steered a course between the puzzle and the hard-boiled adventure. More generally, throughout the 1940s there was a recalibration and an informal is characterized, refinement of mass-market genres.
Publishers developed “category publishing,” as Janice Radaway has explained: a strategy of identifying a stable market for essay, a certain type of fiction and serving that with steady, predictable output. 21 Mysteries, Westerns, and romances, so identified, made up the bulk of control essays, U.S. genre fiction in sample, the 1940s. Their ambit expanded enormously when the paperback revolution opened up new markets. Mystery, including detective stories, spy stories, and an informal essay, suspense fiction, was by essay far the most popular category. In 1940, 40% of all novels published were mysteries. 22 Serialized in china, slick magazines, then brought out in hardcover, then in essay sample, cheaper editions, perhaps eventually to be the basis of radio plays or movies, mystery titles assured publishers solid returns and attained a degree of literary respectability at the same time. An Informal Essay Is Characterized By? While Westerns and ny bar essay sample, romance titles flew under the radar, newspapers reserved column inches for paragraphs keith, reviews of mysteries. Publishers devoted entire imprints to mystery fiction, and went on to subdivide their product lines to reflect readers’ tastes.
Doubleday’s Crime Club imprint created indicia to label a book as “Chess Puzzle,” “Character and ny bar essay sample, Atmosphere,” “Spies and Sabotage,” “Some Like Them Tough,” and so on. Mla Format Research On? Simon and ny bar essay, Schuster’s “Inner Sanctum” logo marked “a novel of suspense, a novel of crime and punishment rather than a novel of crime and detection.” 23. As this ecosystem expanded and diversified, commentators began to distinguish suspense stories from other forms of thriller. The radio program Suspense began regular broadcasting in 1942. It asked aspiring writers to provide plots based on tense, “precarious” situations, while avoiding “plain ‘who-dun-its’ or detective stories” and “fantastic horror-yarns involving zombies, ghosts, etc.” 24 Howard Haycraft, the leading historian of crime fiction, admitted that the Rinehart “romantic-feminine school of crime fiction” had been a major force and had invaded the best-seller lists.
Hence the current popularity of “the somewhat amorphous ‘suspense’ novel.” 25 Anthony Boucher, another major critic, claimed that World War II coincided with a new phase of mystery fiction. Of Divorce On Families? With classic detective situations “exhausted,” the sample public demanded “a heightening of the pure element of suspense.” Suspense had become central to the “personal narratives” that constituted the new cutting edge of mystery writing. 26 Mitchell Wilson’s article is only one piece recognizing the great essays keith new genre. If you had to essay pick a single book that shifted U.S. mystery publishing toward psychological suspense, it would probably be Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca . (Its date of publication, 1938, fits comfortably into Wilson’s ten-year time frame.) Upon publication it immediately became a bestseller, and by effects of divorce on families the end of the 1940s it had sold over a million copies, making it the most successful mystery novel of the era. 27 In fact, it was hardly recognized as a mystery novel. Sample? Long, melancholy, dense with description and reflections on the protagonist’s inner life, it was greeted as a serious piece of fiction, closer to The Citadel (1941), Random Harvest (1941), and other middlebrow novels than to the genre works of Rinehart, Seeley, Eberhart than others. With its echoes of quality control essays, Jane Eyre , Rebecca provided a model for the “romantic suspense” novel that would come to ny bar prominence in the 1950s and eventually become the Harlequin romance of our day. With Rebecca and effects of divorce essay, many other novels, the American suspense thriller came into its own.
Today we tend to associate the trend with film noir and outstanding male authors like Cornell Woolrich, John Franklin Bardin, and Georges Simenon (then being frequently translated). Again, however, the trend was also shaped by Vera Caspary, Dorothy B. Ny Bar Essay? Hughes, Charlotte Armstrong, Mabel Seeley, Doris Miles Disney, Elizabeth Daly, Hilda Lawrence, Margaret Millar, Josephine Tey, Patricia Highsmith, and expository, other female authors. As the ny bar essay “inverted” and multi-perspectival detective story had pushed some English practitioners toward psychological mystery, so too did many of these women novelists abandon their series detectives and shift toward pure suspense. Cinema followed the ancient trend. The murder plays Payment Deferred , Kind Lady , and Night Must Fall had found their way to the screen in ny bar sample, the 1930s, but now there was a burst of vs. narrative, adaptations.
Gaslight was filmed in sample, 1944, The Two Mrs. Great Folse? Carrolls and Love from a Stranger in 1947. Other revivals included the Gothic classics Jane Eyre (1944) and The Woman in White (1948) and the Edwardian books The Lodger (1944) and The House by the River (1950). Some of the earliest adaptations came from the authors named by Wilson as prototypes of suspense. Graham Greene’s work yielded the films This Gun for Hire (1942), Ministry of Fear (1945), and ny bar sample, The Confidential Agent (1945). Eric Ambler’s novels were the effects of divorce on families basis for Journey into Fear (1943) and The Mask of Dimitrios (1944). The less-known Dorothy B. Hughes supplied The Fallen Sparrow (1943), Ride the Pink Horse (1947), and In a Lonely Place (1950). At the same time, Woolrich, Hughes, Armstrong, Caspary, and many other thriller novelists found their work turned into movies.
28 Elisabeth Sanxay Holding, called by Raymond Chandler “the top suspense writer of them all,” wrote the novel that would become The Reckless Moment (1949). 29. Hollywood developed original thrillers as well, and the trade press spotted a trend. Ny Bar Essay? A 1944 Variety article claimed that. The typical tale in the new genre crawls with living horror, is eerie with something impending, and socks its suspense thrill well along toward the paper on middle of the story, instead of doing the crime victim in at the beginning and then building a whodunit and a detective quiz as the element of ny bar essay sample, suspense. 30. The passage reminds us that emotion of keith folse, fear, so central to Mitchell Wilson’s commentary, is also a stock response triggered by the horror film of the 1930s.
In 1947 Wilson felt no need to specify that the fear conjured up by ny bar essay sample the suspense story was not akin to that in horror or fantasy films: the expository vs. narrative essay cause was not a monster or a supernatural being. Three years earlier, however, the ny bar essay anonymous Variety writer was just starting to make this distinction. The article takes Rebecca (1940) , Phantom Lady, Gaslight, Dark Waters (1944), Mask of Dimitrios, Hangover Square (1945), and mla format paper, even The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945), as examples of the ny bar “new horrifier.” Such films created, one observer noted, “a horror cycle” that was quite different from “vampire, werewolf and Frankenstein chillers.” 31. Lumping all these suspense films together seems a bit odd today. Aren’t Gaslight and Dark Waters really Gothics? By contrast, aren’t Phantom Lady and Hangover Square examples of effects of divorce on families essay, film noir?
We need to remember that female Gothics and films noirs are really ex post facto categories, constructed by later critics to point out affinities and differences among groups of films. These categories didn’t exist for contemporaries, and filmmakers and writers of the time carved things up rather differently. Many of the 1940s films’ plots, as we’d expect, put women in sample, danger in a forbidding household. So we have Experiment Perilous (1944), Dark Waters (1944), My Name Is Julia Ross (1945), Undercurrent (1946), Dragonwyck (1946), A Stolen Life (1946), The Spiral Staircase (1946), Sleep, My Love (1948), Caught (1949), and several other films, many adapted from plays and novels. When a Hollywood’s psychological thriller focused on a male protagonist it could yield something like Hangover Square , The Woman in mla format research on, the Window (1944), Conflict (1945), Scarlet Street (1945), The Suspect (1945), The Chase (1946), They Won’t Believe Me (1947), The Big Clock (1948), Take One False Step (1949), and The Second Woman (1950). What’s striking is that as these narrative patterns multiplied, mixtures and variants appeared. Essay? The plot of Phantom Lady , novel and film, depends on a properly victimized, perhaps paranoid noir hero; but he is rescued by great great essays his girlfriend. Instead of murderous husbands we find equally manipulative women targeting husbands, wives, and engaged couples ( A Guest in essay sample, the House , 1944; Strange Impersonation , 1946; Leave Her to vs. narrative Heaven , 1946). Even the “Gothic” plots exhibit a lot of variety. In Dark Waters , the ny bar villain isn’t the husband but an entire family conspiring against the bride.
In A Woman’s Vengeance , the would-be killer isn’t the ancient china unfaithful husband but a third woman in love with him. Essay? My Name is Julia Ross shows how a dowager conspires to obliterate a woman’s identity so that she can marry the old woman’s demented son. The 1944 Variety article mentions another salient feature of the new thriller. It deals with insanity“unpredictable in an informal by, its attack; frightful in ny bar sample, its effect among the essay by companion characters.” 32 During the 1930s, Dorothy Sayers predicted a robust future for ny bar essay, psychoanalytic mystery, and occasionally novels of the time invoke concepts of the art essay “subconscious” and “revived” childhood traumas. Ny Bar? 33 American detective stories of the 1940s dabbled in effects of divorce on families essay, the trend more overtly; one of the earliest seems to essay sample be Lawrence Treat’s 1943 O as in Omen , which makes its sleuth a psychiatrist who interprets not only of divorce suspects’ dreams but his own. Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945), with its therapeutic investigation, turned the ny bar essay sample suspense plot toward psychoanalysis.
With Bewitched (1945), The Locket (1947), and essay, Possessed (1947), Freudian motifs became conventional parts of the essay domestic thriller. Effects Of Divorce Essay? Even less doctrine-driven tales would suggest that the murderous husband or lover or seductress harbored a streak of ny bar, madness. By the late 1940s, the suspense story was a major genre. In her survey of the movie colony, Hortense Powdermaker noted the recent vogue for expository essay, “psychological murder thrillers” and essay, the rise of suspense as a factor in A pictures. 34 Instead of a detective story, remarked another writer, Hollywood could now offer “adult and essay by, exciting screen drama on the mystery framework, with emphasis on character and suspense.” 35 Another observer stressed that whereas many mysteries had been consigned to the ranks of B pictures, the ny bar essay new ones could be treated with top production values. 36 Crucial in all cases was the element of personal vulnerability: “The trend is toward emotion, excitement, suspensetoward ‘What is going to happen to this protagonist?’” 37. The Lady Vanishes (1938). Sharp-eyed readers will have noticed that nearly all my examples of suspense films come from the years 1944 onward. What about the years before? Examples of vs. narrative essay, suspense pictures are curiously hard to find in those years. There are the B films Stranger on ny bar sample the Third Floor (1940), often taken as a prototypical film noir; Shadows on the Stair (1941) from a Frank Vosper play; Fingers at the Window (1942); and Street of Chance (1942).
The rare A pictures we might consider include Ladies in Retirement (1941), but featuring minor players; I Wake Up Screaming (1941), a somber detective film narrated largely from the on families essay standpoints of witnesses and suspects; and essay sample, two upper-tier spy films of 1943, Journey into Fear and Above Suspicion . Quality? There are probably other candidates I don’t know of, but I don’t believe that pre-1944 releases boast very many top-rank suspense-driven films. Except of essay, course, for the films directed by Alfred Hitchcock. So far my story must seem a case of Hamlet without the Prince. It’s been a challenging exercise to quality control sketch the context of 1940s Hollywood and barely mention Hitchcock, but eventually I have to ny bar sample confront reality. The “missing” suspense films of the early 1940s are by Hitchcock: Rebecca (1940), Foreign Correspondent (1940), Suspicion (1941), Saboteur (1942), and Shadow of a Doubt (1943). And it seems likely that they strongly influenced what would follow. Hitchcock came to America acknowledged as the essays magisterial exponent of high tension. In a 1936 article in the Times of London, a reviewer writes, “Mr. Hitchcock’s long and strong suit is suspense.” 38 British cinema of the 1930s exploited detective plots, domestic thrillers, and spy stories, but Hitchcock managed to essay sample give them unusually sharp form and force. 39 Murder! (1930) respects the detective-story premises of the mla format on source novel.
The Lodger (1926) is an adaptation of Belloc Lowndes’ classic domestic thriller. Blackmail (1929) also relies on conventions of that genre: the killer’s identity is known at the start, and her task is to ny bar sample escape punishment. Essay? Above all there were the five spy films in the second half of the 1930s. Although The Secret Agent (1936) centers on a professional spy, the sample others show ordinary people caught up in international intrigue: the family in The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) and a couple on a train in The Lady Vanishes (1938). Even the Richard Hannay of The 39 Steps (1935) seems more an ordinary person than the adventure-loving gentleman of the Buchan books. Hitchcock and his screenwriters proved adroit at blending one format with another. Young and Innocent (1937) is derived from essay is characterized, a detective novel, but the film divulges the murderer’s identity in the first scene in order to set up a double-barreled pursuit. In Sabotage (1936), the spy story becomes a domestic thriller when a wife learns that her husband is a ruthless bomber. In both England and the U.S., Hitchcock aligned himself closely with major trends in mystery fiction and drama.
His reading tastes ran to ny bar sample Belloc Lowndes and John Buchan. Paper? 40 He considered adapting Buchan’s Greenmantle and Iles’ Malice Aforethought . The Man Who Knew Too Much began as a tale of Bulldog Drummond, the hero created by Sapper. Having filmed one Du Maurier novel, Jamaica Inn (1939), Hitchcock contemplated buying the rights to Rebecca before Selznick acquired it. 41 Two of his films featured the actor Frank Vosper, co-author of the significant murder play Love from ny bar essay, a Stranger . Once in America, he returned to similar sources, hoping to remake The Lodger , filming Iles’s Before the Fact as Suspicion , and eventually turning Patrick Hamilton’s Rope into a 1948 film. There were personal affinities as well. His assistant Joan Harrison was married to Eric Ambler, and he wrote a glowing introduction to a 1943 collection of Ambler novels. 42. With the exception of the an informal essay by comedy Mr. and Mrs.
Smith (1941), Hitchcock’s earliest American films maintained his prominence in essay, the subgenres. The hugely successful Rebecca (1940) was followed by two more domestic thrillers, Suspicion (1941) and Shadow of a Doubt (1943). Sandwiched among these were two spy chases, Foreign Correspondent (1940) and Saboteur (1942). Very quickly his work set the benchmark. Throughout the 1940s, he was called the “master of suspense” in both critics’ columns and film advertising.
The term reappeared in trade advertisements for Shadow of a Doubt, Lifeboat , and Spellbound . 43 A 1941 review of an informal essay by, Ladies in Retirement praised it for providing Hitchcockian suspense. 44 “The novel story line” of Crossroads (1942), noted a Variety critic in ny bar sample, June 1942, “would do credit to an Alfred Hitchcock thriller.” 45 Richard Wallace’s direction of The Fallen Sparrow (1943, from a Dorothy B. Hughes novel) was said to be “reminiscent of the Hitchcock touch.” 46 His name was invoked in discussions of films by Val Lewton and even Walt Disney. 47 After a decade in quality control, Hollywood he had been around long enough to be called “the old master.” 48. Hitchcock worked to promote his brand. 49 In interviews and public talks he differentiated the detective story from his sort of thriller, often stressing that distinction between suspense and surprise that was picked up by Charlotte Armstrong, Helen McCloy, and other commentators on the emerging suspense genre. Ny Bar Essay Sample? 50 He composed an introduction to a 1947 collection of suspense stories in which he laid down his ideas on technique. In that anthology he returned to expository vs. narrative essay a favorite topic, the narrational options that create suspense.
Much of ny bar sample, suspense comes down to range of knowledge. “The author may let both reader and ancient china art essay, character share the knowledge of the nature of the essay dangers which threaten.Sometimes, however, the reader alone may realize that peril is in the offing, and watch the characters moving to meet it in blissful ignorance and disquieting unconcern.” 51 Hitchcock continued to pronounce on principles of suspense throughout the 1940s, applying them to whatever project he had in an informal is characterized by, hand. (In Rope , the fact that the essay sample audience knows the killers from the great start “makes for real suspense.” 52) He became the foremost practitioner and essay sample, theorist of the new genre. From this perspective, Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 piece was part of a new discourse on an informal essay suspense that Hitchcok had helped shape. His influence extended beyond cinema. To write for ny bar, the radio show Suspense, a writer declared, demanded two kinds of suspense. An Informal Is Characterized? “Interest” or “mystification” suspense compels the ny bar essay audience to wonder what will happen next, while “emotional” suspense requires knowledge of all the factors in play, along with identification with the threatened person. The author’s example of emotional suspense is the scene in great keith folse, Rope when the maid slowly clears the books off the ny bar essay sample chest containing the expository essay body. Indeed, the program was explicitly designed to ny bar essay sample bring to radio “the particular kind of suspense developed in pictures by by Alfred Hitchcock.” 53.
The Master’s problems, and some solutions. Above Suspicion (1943). It’s very likely, then, that Hitchcock’s films of 19401943 gave an impetus to the emergence of full-blown suspense pictures in ny bar sample, the years that followed. Great Great Essays Keith Folse? We can’t attribute everything to them; after all, if Hitchcock hadn’t directed Rebecca , someone else would have, and it would probably have had a large impact in any case. More broadly, the films fitted smoothly into ny bar essay, the murder culture of great essays keith, American popular media. Still, the films provided high standards of ny bar essay sample, quality and meticulous models of plot and style that other filmmakers could learn from. In following Hitchcock’s models and other efforts of the early forties, the studios couldn’t turn on a dime. With writers recruited for paper on, the war effort, original screenplays were in shorter supply.
Studios increased the ny bar essay number of literary adaptations, often drawing from short stories and serialized novels. Once a property was found, it typically took at china art essay least a year to develop into essay sample, a finished film, and very often a story went through several years of development. 54 Such factors help explain why it took a while before the paragraphs great essays folse psychological thriller could emerge as a production trend. When it did, in calendar 1944, Hitchcock’s example remained inescapable. Yet counter-forces developed. Once the suspense story developed, was he to be its only ny bar essay sample master? In the literary realm there was of course Simenon, whose Maigret detective novels and his proto-noir romans durs were being translated at the time. Fritz Lang, dubbed by Variety “a master at maintaining high suspense,” 55 had like Hitchcock made his reputation with crime thrillers before arriving in America, and is characterized, his Hollywood work of the 1940s soon paralleled the Englishman’s: espionage thrillers ( Man Hunt, Hangmen Also Die!, Ministry of Fear, Cloak and Dagger ) alongside domestic ones. Indeed, The Woman in the Window, Scarlet Street, Secret Beyond the ny bar essay Door , and House by the River might well have been Hitchcock projects. There was also Robert Siodmak.
His Spiral Staircase started as a Selznick project planned for Bergman and Hitchcock, and his Phantom Lady was produced by Hitchcock colleague Joan Harrison. Billy Wilder told a reporter that Double Indemnity (1944) was an attempt to “out-Hitch Hitch.” 56 Soon the an informal essay by same reporter, who had been an ardent Hitchcock admirer, could write that Fred Zinneman’s Seventh Cross (1944) “filmed suspense in a new way” by ny bar avoiding all “tricks”“unlike Alfred Hitchcock, master of surprise” (!). 57. Filmmakers of the mla format research paper on period learned a great deal from Hitchcock’s technique, such as his gliding camera movements inward to build tension, or his abrupt cuts to close-ups. Ny Bar Essay? There was even open copying. Quality Control? Lifting from the Albert Hall climax of ny bar essay sample, The Man Who Knew Too Much , Richard Whorf’s Above Suspicion (1943) presents an essay assassination during an essay sample orchestra performance, with the gunshot masked by a blast of quality, music. 58 At the essay sample same time, I think, Hitchcock’s early thrillers displayed some problems that other filmmakers could learn to avoid. Take Rebecca and Suspicion , the two tales of uxorial mistrust. Compared to the trim thrillers of Eberhart, Rebecca is hardly a perfect template for suspense. Its plot evokes mystery but in a rather leisurely way, gradually crystallizing questions about how Rebecca died and why widower Maxim de Winter behaves brusquely.
The emphasis falls on expository essay the nameless heroine’s pangs of naivete and inferiority when thrust into a wealthy milieu. Her investigations of Rebecca’s life and ny bar sample, death are mostly inadvertent results of control essays, her social gaffes. Not until quite late in the plot does she become seriously threatened, when the sadistic housekeeper Mrs. Ny Bar Essay Sample? Danvers urges the distraught girl to fling herself out a window. And not until a storm leads locals to discover Rebecca’s remains in a sunken sailboat does Maxim confess that he shot his wife and buried her body at sea. Now that the mystery is dispelled, a more traditional suspense can kick in.
Maxim must bluff the coroner’s inquest and effects essay, evade the blackmailing scheme of Rebecca’s lover Favell. Maxim and the heroine are saved, again more or less accidentally, but with the Manderley estate destroyed, they end their lives in ny bar, a seedy French hotel and brood on essay their lost Manderley and their hollow marriage. Burdened with a murderous hero and an unhappy ending, Rebecca faced problems of transposition to the screen. To placate the Hays Office, Selznick and Hitchcock modified the plot to essay sample make Rebecca’s death an mla format research paper accident, covered up by Maxim. Ny Bar Essay Sample? On the whole, other changes made for the film streamlined the action, excising the musings that fill the book and building up the suspense, chiefly through the pressures the on sinister Mrs. Danvers brings to bear on ny bar sample the new wife. From the start, Hitchcock doses du Maurier’s plot with local tension, as when it seems that the heroine will leave Monte Carlo with her employer before she can bid farewell to paragraphs keith folse Max. The cinematography turns Manderley into an oversized mausoleum with doorknobs set at the level of the ny bar sample heroine’s shoulders. Hitchcock seized the opportunity to hint at ominous secrets harbored in the vast rooms and effects on families essay, corridors.
Rebecca sets Hitchcock on the way toward one of his central situations of his career: the woman trapped in a threatening household. Rebecca poses the questions: Whom have I married? What is his past? What am I to ny bar essay him? The novel’s plot answers by exposing Maxim as a man who murdered his first wife but found some happiness with his second. Suspicion (1941) poses the same questions, but Iles’ novel suggests frightful answers: I have married a liar, a cheat, and paragraphs great folse, a killer; and he intends to murder me. Again, the essay film’s ending had to of divorce be fudged. Suspicion ’s heroine has misinterpreted Johnny, and he has intended to kill himself, not her. The reconciliation is even more of a letdown than in the Rebecca instance.
Variety responded sourly: In switching tragic ending of Francis Iles’ novel in favor of essay sample, a happy finale, Hitchcock and his scripters devised a most inept and inconclusive windup that fails to measure up to on families essay the dramatic intensity of ny bar essay sample, preceding footage, and this doesn’t reach the research climax expected. In this respect, picture structure is deficient, and it is obvious that the writers endeavored to toss in the happy ending in a few hundred feet and let it go at that. 59. Later filmmakers solved the sample problem of the enigmatic husband in a simpler fashion: Let the husband be a murderer, and let the wife escape. This more stable option was already laid out in a 1937 English film, Love from a Stranger , which was surely known to Hitchcock. Essay? Adapted from Frank Vosper’s play 60, it presents Carol, who throws aside her loyal suitor Ronald for the charming Gerald Lovell.
She marries Gerald and at first enjoys their life in an isolated cottage. But his sudden rages and his secretiveness about his photographic “experiments” make her worry. Ny Bar Sample? Breaking with Carol’s range of quality, knowledge about halfway through the film, the essay sample narration shows Gerald in expository vs. narrative essay, the cellar burning a photograph of ny bar, her. Soon we learn that his interest in historical murders is one expression of a battlefront trauma that will drive him to kill her. Gradually Carol’s suspicions crystallize.
In a drunken fit Gerald tells her how he trapped her, but before he can kill her she manages to poison his coffee. Mla Format Paper? He collapses and Ronald arrives in time to console a sobbing Carol. Ronald plays a secondary role in Love from a Stranger . He doesn’t rescue Carol but merely offers her an alternative partner at the end. Hollywood’s later versions of the ny bar essay sample plot turned the paper other man into what Diane Waldman has called a “helper male”a figure who can save the heroine and supply a romantic alliance once the murderous husband has been eliminated. 61 But Hitchcock presumably could not radically revise Rebecca or Suspicion to provide a helper male, so the resolutions had to end in impasse. Essay Sample? Interestingly, when Hamilton’s play Gaslight made it to effects of divorce on families essay film in ny bar essay sample, the U.S. (1944), the plot was recast to essay make the inspector an appropriate suitor for the rescued wife. Apart from lacking helper males, Rebecca and essay sample, Suspicion posed problems of narration. Love from great paragraphs essays folse, a Stranger provided a wide frame of essay, knowledge. By cutting between scenes displaying Gerald’s madness and scenes of the great keith folse unsuspecting Carol, Vorhaus’s film generates classic suspense. In contrast, both Rebecca and Suspicion confine us so tightly to the heroine’s viewpoint that the ultimate revelations seem evasive or forced. Essay Sample? The problems with these two films point up a more general tension within Hitchcock’s aesthetic.
Restriction to what a character knows enhances mystery (and can engender surprise), but suspense, he maintained, comes when we know more than the character. 62 The best compromise is when our knowledge exceeds the character’s by a little, but not so much that we know everything. Hence the moments that fall outside Jeff’s range of knowledge in control, Rear Window , the judicious inserted scene of the agency meeting in North by Northwest , and other instances in which Hitchcock slightly widens our range of knowledge, often in a teasing way. 63 An anonymous reviewer for the London Times caught this strategy in Sabotage : Hitchcock will usually “lay most of his cards on ny bar sample the table.” 64. With Shadow of a Doubt , Hitchcock and Thornton Wilder solved the difficulties of the two earlier women-in-peril films. A freer range of narration allows suspense to build: the opening man-on-the-run episode, confined largely to Uncle Charlie, segues into a section that centers on what Young Charlie suspects and eventually discovers.
In accordance with Mitchell Wilson’s anatomy of the china art essay suspense plot, she takes the initiative and ny bar sample, turns on her tormentor, forcing him to leave town. Although much of this portion is focused around Young Charlie, though, we get glimpses of Uncle Charlie on his own. In addition, Shadow of a Doubt supplies a helper male, the quality essays police investigator Jack Graham. Although Hitchcock dismissed the essay sample character as a concession to romance, 65 and although Jack doesn’t rescue Young Charlie during the climactic sequence on the train, he provides a stable resolution, mitigating a little the devastation that Young Charlie feels. Hitchcock, then, offered other filmmakers both models of what to do and what to avoid.
But it seems to me that the burst of psychological suspense films at all budget levels left him less room to paper on innovate. Many variations were emerging; the space was getting crowded. Essay? Women-in-peril plots featuring murderous husbands had become commonplace, and they often displayed skilful use of restricted point of view, as in Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). Ancient China? There were even “Hitchcockian” movies avant la lettre : The crime inadvertently witnessed, the premise of Rear Window , was tried out in Lady on a Train (1945), in Shock (1946), and perhaps most vividly in Ted Tetzlaff’s The Window (1949), in essay, which a tenement boy sees a stabbing but can’t convince anyone of it. In short, with so many films mimicking Hitchcock’s, and so many variants of basic suspense situations proliferating, how was he to maintain his cinematic identity? In Spellbound (1945) he led the art essay way to a burst of talking-cure films. He and Ben Hecht blended his favored woman-in-peril situation with spy intrigue in Notorious (1946), making the helper male into a rival suitor from the start and ny bar, organizing part of the control essays plot around his range of ny bar, knowledge. For other projects Hitchcock seemed to paper strain to find something highly distinctive, either dramatically or technically. A contract-fulfilling job, the courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1948) posed appetizing technical challenges, but Selznick’s interference dominated the results. It seems to me that the proliferation of suspense films was one cause of Hitchcock’s shift to more outré angles for ny bar essay sample, his projects: increased sexual explicitness ( The Paradine Case, Rope ), provocative drama of ideas ( Lifeboat, Rope ), confinement to a single setting ( Lifeboat, Rope ), long-take shooting ( Paradine Case, Rope, Under Capricorn ), and duplicitous flashback ( Stage Fright ). Significantly, in his interviews with Truffaut, Hitchcock found fault with nearly all these experiments, suggesting that Under Capricorn left the realm of the thriller altogetherdespite the fact that it presents a familiar woman-in-a-threatening-household situation. Having helped set the terms for thriller storytelling in the 1940s, he was obliged to recalibrate what he could offer in the face of competition.
66. At the end of the decade, I think, Hitchcock had managed to re-synchronize with his contemporaries. Most of his 1940s projects, finished and unfinished, have their sources in literary works of the 1920s and 1930s. Stage Fright came from a recent novel, but one very much in the 1930s English detective-story tradition. 67 Strangers on a Train (1950), however, was based on a male-oriented psychological thriller written by one of the women participating in great paragraphs great essays, the 1940s burst of suspense fiction. Despite making some compromises in essay, adapting Patricia Highsmith’s original, 68 the master of mla format research paper on, suspense had allied himself with a writer who typified the new phase of the suspense thrillera phase that he had done much to foster. Ny Bar? 69.
I’m indebted to great keith folse Sidney Gottlieb, Richard Allen, and Thomas Leitch, who provided helpful criticisms of an earlier version of this essay. Thanks also to essay David Meeker, who provided access to a hard-to-find film. 1 : Mitchell Wilson, “The Suspense Story,” The Writer 60, 1 (January 1947), 15. 3 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 4 : Helen McCloy, “The Writing and Selling of Mysteries,” The Writer 60, 4 (April 1947), 137. 5 : Charlotte Armstrong, “Razzle-Dazzle,” The Writer 66, 1 (January 1953), 34.
6 : Freeman Wills Crofts, The 12:30 from Croydon (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), 187. 7 : Dorothy L. Sayers, “Introduction,” The Third Omnibus of quality control, Crime (New York: Blue Ribbon, 1935), 7. 8 : Agatha Christie, Towards Zero (New York: Pocket Books, 1972; orig. 1944), 1213. 9 : Howard Haycraft, Murder for Pleasure: The Life and Times of the Detective Story (New York: Appleton-Century, 1941), 89. 10 : Quoted in Haycraft, 90. 11 : François Truffaut, Hitchcock (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 127. 12 : “Chaplin in ‘Circus’ a London Sensation,” New York Times (16 March 1928), 30.
13 : Some of these plays can still be read in acting editions. For a generous overview of them and many others see Amnon Kabatchnik, Blood on the Stage 19251950: Milestone Plays of Crime, Mystery, and Detection (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010). 14 : Quoted in ny bar essay, Sean French, Patrick Hamilton: A Life (London: Faber and Faber, 1993), 139. 15 : For example, The State v. Elinor Norton , reviewed in effects, John Chamberlain, “Books of the Times,” New York Times (29 January 1934), 13; Poison Pen , reviewed in ny bar, Richmond Theatre, The Times (London) (10 Aug. Expository Vs. Narrative? 1937): 8; “Detective Stories: Death Has a Past ,” The Times (London) (6 June 1939), 19. 16 : Boileau-Narcejac, Le roman policier (Paris: Payot, 1964), 150154. 17 : Charles Morgan, “Mr. Milne Tries a New Trick with a Mystery Play,” New York Times (25 March 1928), 119.
18 : For much of ny bar essay sample, what follows, I’m indebted to LeRoy L. Panek’s acute, entertaining study The Special Branch: The British Spy Novel, 1890-1980 (Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981), especially chapters 112. 19 : Alice Payne Hackett, Sixty Years of Bestsellers 18951955 (New York: Bowker, 1956), 1233. 20 : I review this history from a slightly different angle in quality control essays, “I Love a Mystery: Extra-credit reading,” a blog entry. For stimulating and nonconformist accounts of the ny bar essay development of detective fiction, see LeRoy Lad Panek’s books Watteau’s Shepherds: The Detective Novel in Britain 19141940 (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1979) and great paragraphs keith folse, An Introduction to ny bar the Detective Story (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1987). 21 : Janice Radaway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 3031. 22 : Lee Wright, “Mysteries Are Books,” Publishers Weekly 139 (25 January 1941), 385. In 1946 James Sandoe estimated that mysteries constituted one-quarter of all book-length fiction published in the United States. See “Dagger of the Mind” in The Art of the Mystery Story , ed.
Howard Haycraft (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946), 254. China? For more figures, see Frank Gruber, “Some Notes on Mystery Novels and Their Authors,” in ny bar essay, The Notebooks of Raymond Chandler , ed. Great Folse? Frank Gruber (New York: Ecco Press, 1976), 3334. 23 : Flyleaf blurb for Mitchell Wilson’s The Panic-Stricken (New York: Simon and ny bar, Schuster, 1946). 24 : “RadioGeneral Markets,” The Writer 64, 1 (January 1951), 58.
25 : Howard Haycraft, “The Burgeoning Whodunit,” The New York Times (6 October 1946), BR3BR4. 26 : Anthony Boucher, “Trojan Horse Opera,” in Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 249. 27 : Alice Payne Hackett, Fifty Years of ancient, Bestsellers (New York: Bowker, 1945), 7778. 28 : Richard Mealand suggested that novelists working in the psychological thriller gained a wider readership because of the film trend. See “Hollywoodunit,” in Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 301303. 29 : Raymond Chandler, letter to Hamish Hamilton (13 Otober 1950), in Raymond Chandler Speaking , ed. Dorothy Gardiner and Kathrine Sorley Walker (Plainview, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971; orig. 1962), 60.
30 : Anonymous, “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” Variety (16 October 1944), 143. 31 : Fred Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” New York Times (28 May 1944), X3. 32 “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” 143. 33 : See Sayers, “Introduction,” Third Omnibus of Crime , 6; Bruce Hamilton, Middle Class Murder (Leipzig: Tanschnitz, 1938; orig. 1936). 34 : Hollywood, The Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at the Movie-Makers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1950), 119, 140.
See also Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” X3. 35 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the ny bar Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 36 : Anonymous, “Movie Companies Look to Detective Story Writers for the New Psychological Film,” Publishers Weekly 149 (9 March 1946), 15151516. 37 : Anthony Boucher, “As Crime Goes By (24 February 1946),” The Anthony Boucher Chronicles: Reviews and of divorce on families, Commentary 19421947 , ed. Francis M. Ny Bar Sample? Nevins (Lexington, KY: Ramble House, 2001), 102.
38 : “New Films in London,” The Times (London), 25 May 1936, 12. 39 : See Tom Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema (London: Croom Helm, 1986) and Robert Murphy, “Dark Shadows around Pinewood and ancient china art essay, Ealing,” Film International no. Sample? 7 (2004), 2835. 40 : On his fondness for essay, Buchan and Belloc Lowndes, see Charles Barr, English Hitchcock (London: Movie, 1999), 1014. 41 : Patrick McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), 212. 42 : Alfred Hitchcock, Introduction, Intrigue: Four Great Spy Novels of Eric Ambler (New York: Knopf, 1943), viiviii. 43 : “ Foreign Correspondent ,” Variety (28 August 1940), 16; Philip K. Essay Sample? Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (7 April 1940), C3; advertisement for mla format research paper on, Rebecca , Variety (24 April 1940), 21; advertisement for ny bar essay sample, Shadow of is characterized by, a Doubt , Variety (19 January 1943), 4; advertisement for Lifeboat and ny bar, Spellbound , Variety (23 February1945), 12. Supposedly the “master of suspense” label was coined by a New York advertising agent promoting the Suspense radio pilot (McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 276). 46 : New York Herald Tribune review quoted in advertisement for The Fallen Sparrow , Variety (19 October 1943), 5. 47 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Trio Gives Horror Picture New Dress,” Los Angeles Times (28 March 1943), C3; and Radie Harris, “Hollywood Runaround,” Variety (11 September 1945), 4. The Disney film Harris mentions is mla format Make Mine Music , in which the Johnny Fedora and Alice Blue Bonnet episode is said to contain suspense “as breathless as a Hitchcock thriller.”
48 : Philip K. Ny Bar Sample? Scheuer, “Killer Stalks Ida Lupino in High-Tension Thriller,” Los Angeles Times (30 January 1950), A7. 49 : Sidney Gottlieb surveys Hitchcock’s branding strategies, some quite amusing, in research on, “Step Seventeen: Brand Hitchcock,” in 39 Steps to the Genius of Hitchcock: A BFI Compendium (London: British Film Institute, 2012), 7277. 50 : Alfred Hitchcock, “Let ‘Em Play God,” Hollywood Reporter 100, no. Ny Bar Essay Sample? 47 (11 October 1948), reprinted in Hitchcock on Hitchcock , ed. Sidney Gottlieb (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 113. 51 : Hitchcock, “Introduction: The Quality of Suspense,” Alfred Hitchcock’s Fireside Book of Suspense (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1947), viii.
This edited collection originally appeared as Suspense Stories Selected by Alfred Hitchcock (New York: Dell, 1945), but the introduction to that edition lacks the passages I’ve cited here. 53 : William Fifield, “To the Golden Corn,” The Writer 62, 8 (August 1949), 259. 54 : William Dozier, “Trends and great, Perspectives,” Writers’ Congress; The Proceedings of the essay sample Conference Held in October 1943 under the Sponsorship of the Hollywood Writers; Mobilization and the University of California (Berkeley: University of California Press), 3641. 55 : “ Man Hunt ,” Variety (10 June 1941), 13. See also the New York Times review in which Lang is called “a master of essays, concentrated suspense” (T. S., “ Hangmen Also Die ,” New York Times [16 April 1943], 24). 56 : Quoted in Philip K. Ny Bar Essay Sample? Scheuer, “Film History Made by ‘Double Indemnity,’” Los Angeles Times (6 August 1944), C1. 57 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Suspense Filmed in a New Way: Stride Made in paragraphs keith, Technique,” Los Angeles Times (3 September 1944), C1.
58 : I discuss this sequence, and link to the scene, in essay, a blog entry. 60 : The play’s source is an Agatha Christie short story, “Philomel Cottage.” It does include a rival suitor, although he isn’t much help to the heroine. Interestingly, Christie’s story turns on the revelation that the husband isn’t the only practitioner of hearthside murder. 61 : Diane Waldman, “Horror and Domesticity: The Modern Gothic Romance Film of the 1940s,” Ph. D. Expository Vs. Narrative? thesis, University of WisconsinMadison, 1981, 556. 62 : On restriction to a single character, Hitchcock notes that he avoids the ny bar essay sample omniscient range of knowledge provided by Griffith-style crosscutting: “Griffith showed the man on the scaffold, then the messenger with the an informal by pardon riding to the rescue. Ny Bar Essay Sample? We show the man on the scaffold, but the audience doesn’t know whether our rider has started or not. That’s the secret of suspense today.” Quoted in Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (19 April 1939), C3. The more famous formulation of the alternative is found in his dialogue with Truffaut: “In the usual form of suspense it is indispensable that the public be made perfectly aware of all the facts involved” (Truffaut, Hitchcock , 51).
63 : I discuss these fluctuations in knowledge in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 2961. Expository Vs. Narrative Essay? On North by essay sample Northwest , see David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012), 406410. 64 : “New Films in quality, London,” The Times (London) (7 December 1936), 12. 65 : McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 310. 66 : I propose that competition played a more specific role in Hitchcock’s experiments with long-take filming at a period when many directors were trying out this technique. See my essay “Poetics of Cinema,” in Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 3242.
67 : On Hitchcock’s literary sources, see the essays in Hitchcock at the Source: The Auteur as Adapter , ed. Ny Bar Essay Sample? R. Barton Palmer and David Boyd (Albany: SUNY Press, 2011). 68 : In her essay “Suspense in Fiction” ( The Writer 67, 12 [December 1954], 404), Patricia Highsmith recalls that when her novel was filmed, “the director” (Hitchcock is never named) told her that he had to alter the plot so that Guy did not commit the murder that he owed Bruno. “He told me that he had been unable to find a script writer who could make the story convincing, or who could put the story into form for the screen.” Yet for ancient china, Highsmith the key to ny bar essay the story was that second, coerced murder: “Only therein lay the drama and the suspense for me.” The result, Highsmith judged, was a weaker story. 69 : For more on the development of suspense films and an informal essay is characterized, thrillers, see Martin Rubin, Thrillers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Ralph Harper, The World of the Thriller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969); Jerry Palmer, Thrillers: Genesis and Structure of a Popular Genre (London: Edward Arnold, 1978); Charles Derry, The Suspense Thriller: Films in the Shadow of Alfred Hitchcock (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988); Thomas Leitch, Crime Films (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). A more recent, if sketchy and erratic, study is Patrick Anderson, The Triumph of the Thriller: How Cops, Crooks, and Cannibals Captured Popular Fiction (New York, 2007). An encyclopedic guide to mystery fiction and film is Mike Grost’s website.
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